International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology
Citation: IJAEB: 8(1): 29-36 March 2015
DOI Number: 10.5958/2230-732X.2015.00004.2
©2015 New Delhi Publishers. All rights reserved
Geomorphometric analysis of a hilly watershed in
north east India
T.D. Lama* 1 , R.K. Singh 2 , U.S. Saikia 3 and K.K. Satapathy 4
1 Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, P.O. Jakhini, Varanasi – 221305, Uttar Pradesh, India.
2,3 ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam – 793103, Meghalaya, India.
4 National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology, Kolkata – 700 040, West Bengal.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Paper No. 288
Received: 16 September 2014
Accepted: 10 February 2014
Published:25 March 2015
Morphometric analysis of a hilly watershed was carried out using GIS. The drainage map generated
from the Survey of India toposheets was used for morphometric analysis of the watershed in terms of
stream order, stream length, bifurcation ratio, relief ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, drainage
texture, form factor, circulatory ratio, elongation ratio, infiltration number and ruggedness number. The
Um Shipra watershed is a fifth order watershed having dendritic drainage pattern with high drainage
density (6.22 km.km -2 ). The logarithmic plot of the stream length versus stream order showed a linear
relationship indicating the watershed has developed over a homogeneous rock material. The mean
bifurcation ratio of 1.71 indicated absence of strong structural control on the drainage pattern and that
the watershed was structurally less disturbed. The number of streams belonging to the order I, II, III,
IV and V were found to be 327, 147, 78, 45 and 46 respectively. Lower values of form factor (0.19),
circularity ratio (0.29) and elongation ratio (0.49) suggested that the watershed has elongated shape
with lower peak flows for longer duration. The ruggedness number having relatively higher value
implied that the area has rugged topography which is prone to soil erosion. Higher values of stream
frequency and drainage density indicated that the watershed has high runoff potential despite having
lower peak flow creating a good scope for surface water resource development. The results obtained
can serve as a useful input for developing soil and water resources conservation and management plan
on a watershed basis.
Geomorphometric analysis of a hilly watershed was carried out in a GIS environment.
Analysis of the morphometric parameters indicated that the watershed has undulated terrain, is
prone to erosion and has high runoff potential with lower peak flow offering a good scope for
development of surface water resources.
Keywords: Geomorphometric analysis, GIS, hilly watershed, drainage density, stream frequency
A watershed is an ideal unit for management of
natural resources such as land and water without
geomorphology, soil, land use/land cover, water
causing their further degradation for achieving
resources is a pre-requisite. Morphometric analysis
sustainable development. For effective planning
provides quantitative description of a basin or
and development of a watershed, quantitative
watershed which is essential for watershed planning