International Journal of Fermented Foods: v.3.n.2 p-139-155 Dec. 2014
© 2014 New Delhi Publishers. All rights reserved
DOI No. 10.5958/2321-712X.2014.01315.5
An Overview on the Biological
Production of Vinegar
SumanVikasBhat 1 ,RehanaAkhtar 1 andTawheedAmin 2
1 Department of Food Technology, Islamic University of Science and Technology,
Awantipora, J&K, India 1921 22
2 Divison of Post-Harvest Technology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences
and Technology-Kashmir, Shalimar Campus, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir,
India 191 121
Corresponding author:
acids,ȱ colouringȱ matter,ȱ saltsȱ andȱ aȱ fewȱ otherȱ fermentationȱ productsȱ whichȱ
impartȱ characteristicȱ flavourȱ andȱ aromaȱ toȱ theȱ product.ȱ Vinegarȱ traditionallyȱ
has been used as a food preservative. Vinegar production methods could range
from traditional methods employing wooden casks (Orleans Process) and
surface culture (Generator Process) to submerged fermentation. Vinegar is the
product made from the conversion of ethyl alcohol to acetic acid by a genus of
bacteria Acetobacter . Many technical devices have been developed to improve
the industrial production of vinegar. Generally, these improvements increase
the speed of the transformation of ethanol into acetic acid in the presence of
acetic acid bacteria. In this review a detailed description on vinegar production,
methodsȱ ofȱ production,ȱ differentȱ substratesȱ andȱ microorganismsȱ usedȱ forȱ itsȱ
production, and the chemistry of vinegar is presented.
Keywords: Vinegar, alcohol. Saccharomyces, Acetobacter ,fermentation
The word Vinegar is derived from the French Vin (wine) and Aigre (sour).
a suitable raw material of agricultural origin, containing starch, sugars, or