An Overview on the Biological Production of Vinegar
differsȱ dependingȱ onȱ theȱ rawȱ materialȱ used.ȱ Inȱ general,ȱ fruitsȱ requireȱ
less preparation than seeds; however, seeds are more easily stored and
preserved after harvest. Fruits are highly perishable, rich in water, and
need to be processed very quickly. Therefore, basic safe food handling
practices, storage, and processing are essential to prevent the growth of
pathogenic microorganisms. These microorganisms could alter the quality
Processing has expanded the market of both fruit and vegetable products
(Singh and Verma 1995). The seasonal gluts are avoided by the utilization
of fruits/vegetables in processing industries for the preparation of various
value added products. In advanced countries, 70-75% of perishables are
processed before reaching the consumer’s table, whereas in India only
1-2% of the total produce is processed utilizing only 40% of the installed
processing capacity.
Microorganisms involved in the vinegar production
processes play a key role in vinegar production. Depending on the
environmental factors (temperature, pH, water activity) or the nutrients
(carbon sources) and the microbial diversity present in the raw material,
in fermentations may range from yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB)
to molds and AAB. The microorganisms involved in the elaboration of
vinegars are mainly yeasts and AAB. The former being responsible for the
et al. 2001; Haruta et al. 2006; Wu et al. 2010).
Yeasts are the most important microorganisms during alcoholic
other wine qualities (Pretorius et al. ȱ2006).ȱYeastsȱareȱdefinedȱasȱ‘unicellularȱ
ascomycetous or basidiomycetous fungi, whose vegetative growth result
In 2009, Rainieri and Zambonelli optimized alcoholic fermentation as
a process where the sugar as a substrate was converted into ethanol in
presence of a yeast belonging to the Class Saccharomycetes; Phylum