An Overview on the Biological Production of Vinegar
Figure 1. Conversion of alcohol to acetic acid reaction ( Source : Kehrar 1921)
Production methods of vinegar
Vinegar production methods could range from traditional methods
employing wooden casks (Orleans Process) and surface culture (Generator
Process) to submerged fermentation (Morales et al., 2001). Vinegar is an
important ingredient in many food products. The need for large amounts
of the vinegar demands industrial fermentation systems that are capable of
producing volumes that could reliably be controlled (De Ory et al., 1999).
Many technical devices have been developed to improve the industrial
production of vinegar. Generally, these improvements increase the speed
of the transformation of ethanol into acetic acid in the presence of AAB
(Tesfaye et al., 2002).
The Orleans Process
The slow method of acetifying wine which had been used in France since
1670 is known as the French or Orleans process. The Orleans process was
the only method to make pure wine vinegar and was reported to be the best