An Overview on the Biological Production of Vinegar
Production of vinegar
Vinegar sales grew at 15% from 2000 to 2002 and have been stronger
than most other comparative categories including meat marinades,
oriental sauces, cooking wine and sherry. Vinegar sales are somewhat
seasonal, with a peak in the summer months and a secondary peak in
April. There are some reports that suggest consumers are changing their
vinegar purchasing habits. According to IRI (Information Resources, Inc)
information from 1998 - 2004, of the 48% of households that purchased
vinegar, 30% purchased white distilled vinegar, 14% purchased cider
vinegar, 9% purchased red wine vinegar, 5% purchased balsamic vinegar
and 3% purchased rice vinegar from Crisco Company 2005. While vineger
distilled remains the strongest in sales, although white and ciders are
giving way slowly to increases in red wine, rice and balsamic vinegar
(Crisco 2005).In 2005, balsamic vinegar, made of grapes, had the largest
world market share with about one third, while the cider vinegar share
a value for wine vinegar is a minimum of 6% acetic acid (w/v), obtained by
acetous fermentation of wine. In vinegars produced from other alcoholic
bases than wine, the acetic acid concentration threshold minimum is 5%
(w/v) (Solieri and Giudici, 2009).
In North America, the vinegar must have an acetic acid content of at
least 4% (w/v). The maximum ethanol content in vinegars has been set
to a maximum 0.5 and 1% (v/v) for wine vinegar and other vinegars,
respectively, by the Codex Alimentarius commission (FAO/WHO, 2000).
Uses of vinegar in food industry
Theȱ useȱ ofȱ vinegarȱ toȱ flavourȱ foodȱ isȱ centuriesȱ old.ȱ Whetherȱ naturallyȱ
produced during fermentation or intentionally added, vinegar retards
microbial growth and contributes sensory properties to a number of foods.
It has been used as a medicine, corrosive agent, pickling agent and can be
directly consumed in diluted form as a beverage. In the food industry,
vinegar is used mainly as an acidulant, but it has also many other food
processingȱ applications.ȱ Itȱ isȱ foundȱ inȱ hundredsȱ ofȱ differentȱ processedȱ
foods, including salad dressings, mayonnaise, mustard, ketchup, bread
and bakery products, canned foods, marinades and the current falling
wine consumption have favoured an increase in vinegar production (De
Ory et al., 2002).