Journal of Animal Research: v.5 n.2, p. 329-332. June 2015
DOI Number: 10.5958/2277-940X.2015.00057.1
Effect of Epidural Administration of Promethazine With and Without Bupivacaine
on Biochemical Attiributes of Canines
Babita Verma * and S.K. Pandey
Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry,
Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, INDIA
*Corresponding author: B Verma; E-mail:
Received: 25 January, 2015
Accepted: 15 April, 2015
Six apparently healthy nondescript adult dogs weighing 15 to 20 kg were used for investigation on effects of Bupivacaine
Hydrochloride and Promethazine as epidural anesthetic on Biochemical attributes. Nine serum samples from each dog were
collected at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and at 96 h post treatment for the estimation of Blood Glucose, Serum Glutamic Pyruvic
Transaminase (SGPT), Serum Alkaline Phosphatase (SAP), Total Bilirubin and serum creatinine. It was observed that the
Blood Glucose levels rise after administration of Promethazine alone and with Bupivacaine and achieved peak on 72 h post
administration and then declined. Serum Total Protein levels remain unaffected after administration of Promethazine alone
while along with Bupivacaine increase in total serum protein during different time interval with peak value recorded at 24 h post
administration. SGPT levels increased and reached peak at 12 h post administration after administration of Promethazine alone
and with combination with Bupivacaine. SAP values followed trends of SGPT and reached peak at 12 h post administration
and then declining gradually in both treatments. The Blood creatinine values increased gradually post administration in both
treatments and achieved peak at 48 h post administration and then declining gradually.
Keywords: Canines, Promethazine, Bupivacaine, Serum biochemistry
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride is 2-Piperidinecarboxamide,
obtain local analgesic effect was several orders higher than
that required to antagonize histamine. Therefore, sedative
monohydrate and is indicated for local anesthesia,
and analgesic effects of promethazine can be utilized to
including infiltration, nerve block, epidural, and intrathecal
obtain conduction block along with systemic sedative
anesthesia. Vickers et al. (1984) stated that bupivacaine
effect. The minimum systemic effects on cardiovascular
hydrochloride has longer duration of action of about
and pulmonary functions with the use of promethazine can
3.5 hours. Bupivacaine is having potency greater than
be the one fact which prompted for its epidural use.
mepivacaine and approximately 4 times more than that of
Various efforts, concentrating on epidural use of non-
traditional drugs with traditional analgesics viz. Grubb
et al. (1992) with Xylazine and Singh et al. , (2001)
with Ketamine have been tried with advantages and
hypnotic has well documented local analgesic properties
disadvantages. It has been hypothesized that these drugs
via blockade of sodium channels. It has been suggested by
were able to reduce the central nervous system responses
Gilman et al., (1981) that H 1 antagonist like promethazine
evoked by painful external stimulus.
possessed local analgesic activity and was more potent
Current study was aimed towards investigation on effects
than procaine. However, the concentration required to