Theriogenology Insight: 5(1): 1-23, April, 2015
DOI Number: 10.5958/2277-3371.2015.00001.7
Postpartum endometritis in dairy cows:
current status of diagnosis,
therapy and prevention
G N Purohit 1* , Swati Ruhil 2 and Vikas Khichar 3
1 Department of Veterinary Gynecology and Obstetrics, College of Veterinary and
Animal Sciences, Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner,
Rajasthan-334001, India.
2 Department of Veterinary Gynecology and Obstetrics, Veterinary College, Jhunjhunu,
Rajasthan, India.
3 Government Veterinary Hospital, Dhab Dhani, Haryana, India.
*Corresponding author:
Clinical (CE) and subclinical endometritis (SCE) occur a few or several weeks
postpartum in dairy cows. Immunosuppression, microbial proliferation and
disruption of endometrial lining of the uterus are risk for the development of
metritis which can be associated with increased likelihood of development of
endometritis.Diagnosticapproaches forCEhaveutilizedthevaginoscopicpresence
of pus in the vaginal lumen as the common diagnostic criterion although currently
Metricheck and ultrasonography are preferred procedures. The identification
of pathologic numbers of microbes in the uterus appears difficult unless the
samples are collected using specialized instruments. Inflammatory changes in
the endometrium (of CE affected cows) can be identified with high accuracy in
histologic sections of the endometrial biopsy specimens or hysteroscopy however,
such approaches are limited to specialized cases only. Cows with SCE evidence
a cervico-vaginal discharge without pathogenomic properties (pus and or altered
consistency) and thus the diagnosis of SCE continues to be presumptive in cows
with lowered fertility. Ultrasonography and uterine cytology on swabs or fluids
collected from uterus have been considered accurate for the diagnosis of SCE.
The diagnostic criterion in uterine cytology is the presence of higher (5-18%)
polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) during 22-45 days postpartum. However