Title: Effect of Chitosan Coating Enriched with Cinnamon Oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on Storage Stability of Refrigerated Chicken Meat Nuggets Abstract :
The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the shelf-life of chitosan and cinnamon oil coated chicken meat nuggets under refrigeration conditions. Three types of coated nuggets were developed viz., Meat coated with Chitosan (1%) and Cinnamon oil (0.05%) (T1), direct addition of Chitosan and Cinnamon oil in emulsion (T2) and nuggets dipped in Chitosan and Cinnamon oil (T3) and were aerobically packaged in low-density polyethylene pouches and assessed for various storage quality parameters under refrigerated (4±1°C) conditions during 28 days of storage. T2 had slightly higher emulsion stability and yield although no significant difference (P>0.05) in between samples. T1 exhibited better storage stability as indicated by lower lipid oxidation than other treatments and the control. Texture profile studies indicated that T2 sample had higher hardness value than other samples. SPC significantly (P<0.05) increased in all the samples with control having the highest value followed by T1, T3 and T2 throughout the storage period. T2 sample exhibited lowest sensory scores and were not accepted by sensory panellist while T1 and T3 samples had better acceptability. It was concluded that chitosan in combination with cinnamon oil had synergistic effect to extend the shelf-life of products (T1 and T3)
Title: Influence of Condensed tannins Supplementation through Ficus infectoria and Psidium guajava Leaf Meal Mixture on Nutrient Intake and Clinical Chemistry in
Lambs Abstract :
This study examined the effect of condensed tannins (CT) through Ficus infectoria and Psidium guajava leaf meal mixture (LMM) on nutrient intake, calcium and phosphorus retention and clinical chemistry in lambs. Twenty four non-descript lambs 6 months of age with average body weight 10.07±0.59 kg were randomly divided into 4 dietary treatments (CT-0, CT-1, CT-1.5 and CT-2) consisting of six lambs in each in a completely randomized block design. Blood-biochemical profile was monitored at 45 days intervals. The intake (g kg-1 W0.75) of dry matter and organic matter were significantly (P<0.05) lower in control (CT-0) as compared to CT supplemented groups. LMM was given to lambs to supply CT @ 1, 1.5 and 2% in CT-1, CT-1.5 and CT-2, respectively. The Hb and PCV levels were highest (P<0.05) in CT-1.5 followed by CT-1, CT-2 and CT-0, respectively. CT Supplementation significantly (P<0.01) reduced serum urea level in CT-1, CT-1.5 and CT-2 groups as compared to CT-0. Serum proteins differed significantly (P<0.05) among various dietary treatments. Serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine levels were comparable among all treatment groups. Similarly, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase did not differ significantly among dietary treatments. Alkaline phosphates was significantly (P<0.05) higher in CT-1.5 as compared to CT-2, however, CT-1 and CT-2 have intermediate values between CT-1.5
and CT-0. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT at moderate level (1-2 %) did not exert any adverse effect on
blood chemistry; however, some blood parameters and nutrient intake was improved considerably.
Title: Evaluation of Biochemical Profile Alterations and Oxidative Stress in Mice Model on Oral Exposure to Deltamethrin Abstract :
Present study was conducted to observe the biochemical alterations as well as oxidative stress in swiss albino male mice on exposure to low dose of deltamethrin through oral route for 15, 30 and 60 days. Three doses of deltamethrin viz., 0.5 mg/kg wt/ day, 1 mg/kg bwt/day and 1.5 mg/kg bwt/day dissolved in groundnut oil were administered orally. Control group was administered groundnut oil alone. Results indicate that the serum concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine increased significantly (P < 0.05) on exposure to all the doses of deltamethrin as compared to control groups whereas TP and albumin decreased significantly indicating hepatic and kidney dysfunction. It was observed that deltamethrin causes severe oxidative stress to mice as observed by measuring the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker for analyzing peroxidation of the lipid in the cells. The levels of MDA as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) were found to be significantly high in the treatment group at all doses and exposure periods as
compared to the control group indicating the oxidative stress. Therefore, the present study indicates significant alterations in
biochemical profile as well as oxidative stress in mice exposed to the pesticide.
Title: Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Performance, Nutrient Balance, Plasma Enzyme and Hormone Profiles of Growing Sahiwal Calves Abstract :
The present study was carried out to observe the effect on performance, nutrient utilization, plasma enzymes and hormones in growing Sahiwal calves fed with three levels of proteins in the form of total mixed rations (TMRs). Fifteen male Sahiwal calves (12-18 month age) were distributed into three equal groups (147.35 ± 5.46 kg) and were fed on isocaloric diets containing different protein levels of 15% (T1), 13.5% (T2) and 16.5% (T3) for 90 days. Nutrient intake and their digestibility except CP digestibility did not differ significantly irrespective of treatment groups. CP digestibility was higher in T3 as compared to T2, though T3 did not differ from T1. DCP (g/100 kg BW/day) intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T3 than T2 but comparable to T1. TDN (kg/100 kg BW/day) intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T2 than T1 and T3, but was comparable between T1 and T3. The intake and retention of nitrogen were similar between the treatments. The average daily gain was highest in T2 followed by T3 and T1. The plasma enzymes alanine amiontransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) along with hormones (insulin and growth hormone) were comparable among all groups and were within normal physiological range. From the results, it was concluded that the performances of Sahiwal calves in terms of growth rate and feed conversion ratio was satisfactory even with low dietary protein level of 13.5%. Variation in dietary protein levels also
did not affect the blood enzyme and hormone profiles of Sahiwal calves.
Title: Intramammary Propolis Formulation for Prevention and Treatment of Mastitis in Dairy Ruminants (RC.2.2.08-0003) Abstract :
Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, is the most widespread health problem of dairy cows, goats and sheep (Bačić et al. 2015., Mačešić et al. 2012). Its prevention and treatment contribute to significant financial loss to the milk producers. New research shows
that the total loss due to clinical mastitis in dairy cows is estimated between 110 and 550 litres of milk per lactation, depending on the individual cow. The costs of clinical mastitis include unusable milk, medications and veterinary care costs, extra labour and premature culling (Sharma et al. 2012). Depending on the form of mastitis the treatments cost between 50 and 150 $US per animal
Title: Immune Response of Yak (Poephagus grunniens) Following Trivalent Oil Adjuvant FMD Vaccination Along With Immunomodulator Abstract :
The present investigation was carried out to determine the immunomodulatory effcet of Levamisole on antibody response in
yaks using liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LPBE) following trivalent oil adjuvant FMD vaccine (O, A, Asia-1). Twenty numbers of apparently healthy and young yaks were divided into two groups viz. groups I and II comprising of 10 animals in each group. All the animals of groups I and II were treated with a single dose of broad spectrum anthelmintic, fenbendazole orally prior to vaccination. The animals of group II were injected with Levamisol, six days prior and after FMD vaccination. On 30 days of post vaccination (dpv), there was a sharp rise to the antibody titres against all the 3 serotypes in animals of both the groups and the protective antibody level (log 10 ≥ 1.8) was maintained up to 90 dpv. A drastic fall of antibody titres against all the 3 serotypes was observed at 120 dpv in animals of both the groups. However, the protective antibody titre against the three serotypes at 180 dpv was maintained in few of the animals of the experimental group II but in Group I the protective titre was found up to 150 dpv only.
Title: Efficacy of Indirect Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay and Passive Haemagglutination Test for the Diagnosis of Bovine Herpes Virus -1 (BHV-1) Infection Abstract :
A total of 255 sera were collected from unvaccinated crossbred (174) and indigenous (81) cattle and buffalo having history of respiratory and reproductive disorders. All the sera sample were subjected to indirect ELISA and passive haemagglutination (PHA) test for the detection of BHV-1 antibodies. Indirect ELISA and PHA test detected significantly (P<0.01) varied prevalence of BHV-1 antibody i.e. 60.39 % and 35.69%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of PHA test in comparison with indirect ELISA was 55.19% and 94.06%, respectively. Moderate agreement (kappa = 0.442) was noticed between ELISA and PHA for the diagnosis of BHV-1 antibodies. Significantly (p< 0.01) higher prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies was observed in crossbred (70.11%) as compared to indigenous cattle and buffalo (46.91%). Hence, it is be concluded from present investigation that the indirect ELISA could be reliable and sensitive test than PHA test to screen BHV-1 antibody.
Title: Identification of Immunoreactive Polypeptides in Haemonchus contortus by Immunoprecipitation during Prepatent Infection in Sh Abstract :
In the current study immunoreactive polypeptides in Adult Somatic Extract (ASE), Excretory Secretory Product (ESP) and Larval Somatic Extract (LSE) of L3 stage were identified by employing immunoprecipitation, a lesser utilized technique on helminth parasites. Prepatent polyclonal sera were used to capture polypeptides in immunoprecipitation. Polypeptides eluted from the immune complex in ASE in SDS-PAGE were 26, 60, 120 & 170 kDa whereas in ESP these were 26, 32, 60 and 120 kDa showing absence of 170 kDa and presence of 32 kDa in ESP. In LSE the polypeptides captured were 26, 32, 60 & 120 kDa. Possible functional significance of the peptides in different antigens has been discussed and development of an immunoprophylactic agent has been speculated.
Title: Effect of FecB Gene on Body Weight in Black Bengal Goat Abstract :
FecB gene is first described gene which has been found to increase ovulation rate and litter size in sheep. But, work related to genetic mechanism and genetic markers for caprine proliferation has not been done so much. The present study was aimed to screen Black Bengal goat population for polymorphism of FecB gene and to study its effect on body weight at different growth stages. DNA samples from 96 animals were isolated and subjected to PCR. Amplified fragments obtained were allowed for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for the detection of single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) variants. Among all samples, three different SSCP variants were found which were marked as AA, AB and BB. The highest genotype frequency was observed for AB (0.38), which was followed by BB (0.33) and AA (0.29). Least-square analysis of variance showed significant (P<0.01) effect of genotype on body weight at birth only. The least square mean of body weights at birth for genotype BB (01.17±00.03 kg) was significantly lower than that of genotype AA (01.43±00.03 kg) and genotype AB (01.36±00.02 kg). It was also observed that genotype had non-significant effect on body weight at 4-week, 8-week, 12-week, 24-week, 36-week and
48-week of age. These results indicate that effect of FecB on body weight was limited at birth only. No significant effects were found on growth rate at later stage of life. FecB gene was hitherto linked to prolificacy. So, the effect of FecB gene on other traits has important bearing if the research is continued further with more number of species specific primers at other loci.
Title: Effect of Micronutrients Supplement on Nutrient Utilization and Growth Performance in Pre-ruminant Calves Abstract :
The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of micronutrients supplement (MS) on the nutrient utilization and growth performance in pre-ruminant calves. The sixteen day old crossbred calves (body weight 24.50 ± 0.56 kg) were randomly allocated into two dietary treatments; control (C) and treatment (T) groups. Diets were same for both groups and in addition to diet micronutrients supplement was given to individual calf of treatment group. The supplementation of MS in the diet of crossbred calves did not affect the intake and digestibility coefficients of CP, EE, NDF and ADF. Over all body weight changes and feed conversion efficiency did not differ significantly between groups but average daily gain (g) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T group as compare to control (C) group. Thus it was concluded that supplementation of micro-nutrients in preruminant calves showed significant improvement in average daily gain while the intake, feed efficiency and digestibility of nutrients were comparable between the groups.
Title: Optimization of Economic Traits of Sahiwal Cattle Abstract :
A study was conducted for estimation of optimum range of age at first calving (AFC), service period (SP) and preceding dry period (DP) on Sahiwal cattle (n=462) data, spread over a period of 15 years (1997-2011), maintained at Livestock Research Center, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. In order to determine the optimum range of these economic traits class interval method was used. A class was considered as optimum, if it accommodated maximum number of observations along with better productive performance on the basis of four production parameters i.e., 305 days or less days milk yield (305DMY), total milk yield (TMY), milk yield per day of lactation length (MY/LL) and milk yield per day of calving interval (MY/CI). In thi study, optimum level of AFC, SP and preceding DP were found to be 32-37 months, 55-88 days and 49-88 days, respectively. Because of high rearing costs of heifers, managing heifers to first calving at 32 to 37 months of age could be very advantageous. The present obtained ranges of optimum SP and preceding DP can help in obtaining one calf per year in indigenous cattle that in turn, will help in improving overall productivity of indigenous cattle.
Title: Histology and Histochemistry of Interstitial Tissue of Testes in Mountain (Gaddi) Goats- A Postnatal Developmental Study Abstract :
Testicular tissues obtained from 30 mountain (Gaddi) goats ranging from newborn to > 60 months age divided into 3 age groups viz; prepubertal (neonatal to < 18 month), pubertal (>18 months to <60 months) and postpubertal (>60 months) with at least 10 animals in each group were studied for histological and histochemical changes in their interstitium at various stage of development. The loose connective tissue comprised of various mesenchymal cells, fibroblasts, undifferentiated and differentiated Leydig cells-in various stages of development with capillaries and lymphatics filled up the interstices between the sex cords/ seminiferous tubules being more juvenile in neonates (with mesenchymal and young fibroblast cells) and mature (fibroblasts, fibrocytes and Leydig cells) in older animals. The latter also showed mononuclear cell infiltration as an autoimmune reaction of the ageing testicles. It contributed 65% of testicular tissues in neonates but 13-15% in pubertal and slightly less in postpubertal animals. Among the various cell types, Leydig cells were mostly PAS reactive. The Alcian Blue reaction was inconclusive, colloidal iron stained them mildly to moderately in neonates and prepubertal, moderately to strongly in pubertal and postpubertal groups. BPB reaction for protein and Feulgen for DNA was also strongly represented. Sudan black-B and oil red-O revealed an increasing trend with age. AKPase and ACPase activity was moderate in the Leydig cells.
Title: Estimation and Analysis of Genetic Association Between Important External and Internal Egg Quality Traits in White Leghorns Abstract :
Under this study, it has been aimed to determine the genetic correlations for different external and internal egg quality traits .The
eggs were collected form 548 progenies (1 egg from each progeny) of 282 dams mated to 47 sires of a White Leghorn flock at Central Poultry Development Organization (CPDO), Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar, Government of India. Full-sib method of analysis was adopted to estimate the existing genetic correlations among different egg quality traits. Egg weight was found to have statistically significant (p<0.01), positive genetic correlations with shell weight (0.73), albumen weight (0.73), yolk weight (0.68), yolk height (0.51), yolk diameter (0.46) and yolk index (0.42). It was also determined that most of the internal quality traits of the egg changed at statistically significant levels (p<0.01) according to the changes in egg weight and egg breadth. Our studies show that if selection for albumen height will be operated, it will positively affect to internal and external traits whereas shape index will be affected negatively (-0.52±0.14). It is feasible to formulate an index selection depending upon the magnitude of correlations between different quality traits for improvement of more than one traits at a time.
Title: The Relationship Between Meat Quality Characteristics and Nutritional Composition of Nandanam Quail-III Slaughtered at Different Ages Abstract :
In recent years, Japanese quail meat has gained much popularity among consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the meat quality characteristics and nutritional composition of Nandanam Quail-III (Coturnix coturnix japonica) meat as influenced by age at slaughter. Totally twelve birds were divided into two different age groups. The birds were slaughtered and breast muscle was obtained. The meat quality characters, proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid content of meat of two age groups were analysed. The significant difference (P<0.01) was observed in muscle fibre diameter, myofibrillar fragmentation index, moisture, protein, fat, major amino acids, total saturated fatty acids, total P/S, cholesterol content between two age groups. Based on the results it was concluded that the meat of young Nandanam Quail-III had the superior meat quality characters in terms of less fibre diameter, lesser myofibrillar fragmentation index and nutritional composition like less fat, saturated fatty acids, higher poly unsaturated fatty acids and amino acids.
Title: Histochemical and Ultrastructural Studies on the thyroid gland of Pati Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) of Assam Abstract :
A total of 36 ducks were utilised in this study ranging in age from 2 weeks upto 40 weeks of age. For histochemical parameters, the thyroid glands were separated out of the thoracic cavity and the required representative tissue samples were preserved in deep freeze maintained at -80oC. For scanning electron microscopy the tissue samples were processed by SAIF, NEHU, Shillong. The colloid showed a strong PAS positive reaction in all the age groups. The activities of both acid and alkaline phosphatases were present in all the age groups.The scanning electron microscopy revealed the normal structure of the thyroid gland in all the age groups. Parenchyma of thyroid gland was composed of follicles which were separated from each other by interfollicular connective tissue made up of collagen and reticular fibers. The follicles were closely packed together and their shape varied from oval to polyhedral. Microvilli of the follicular cells were observed on the apical surface. The SEM also showed the thyroid artery penetrating the gland.
Title: Molecular Detection and Therapeutic Management of Exudative
Epidermitis in Swine Abstract :
Of 343 swine examined, 34 (9.91%) were found to be affected with exudative epidermitis from which 39 S. hyicus and 6 S. aureus isolates were recovered. Out of 39 S. hyicus, 34 S. hyicus isolates were found to be positive for virulence genes of which, 6 isolates (17.64 %) were positive for exhA gene and 28 isolates (82.35 %) were positive for exhD gene with an exhibited band size of 316 bp and 588 bp respectively in PCR. Early recovery of swine with exudative epidermitis was found with amoxyclav with supportive therapy than ceftriaxone and tazobactam combination with supportive therapy though the recovery rates with both the antibiotics were 100 per cent.
Title: Assessment of Lactate Dehydrogenase Enzyme Activity in Milk as a Marker for Detection of Subclinical Mastitis Abstract :
Sub clinical mastitis is responsible for heavy economic losses throughout the world in dairy sector. The objective of present study was to investigate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activity in milk for detection of subclinical mastitis in buffaloes Milk samples from 60 buffaloes, including 40 subclinical infected and 20 healthy were subjected to the estimation of LDH using a LDH activity assay kit. LDH concentration in milk of buffaloes having subclinical mastitis was reported to be high (1.88±0.91 µmole/ml/min) as compared to healthy animals (0.26±0.10 µmole/ml/min). The receiver operating characteristics analysis at cut off value of 0.44 µmole/ml/min for LDH activity exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 95% each and area under curve was 0.959. Results of the correlation matrix revealed significantly strong positive interdependence of somatic cell count with enzyme LDH (r = 0.722**; P <0.01). Measuring LDH activity in milk was found both easy and cost effective with high sensitivity and specificity indicating that LDH activity has great potential as a diagnostic tool for detection of sub clinical mastitis in buffaloes.
Title: Effect of Bread Waste Feeding on Growth Performance and Carcass Traits of Crossbred Pigs Abstract :
The study was conducted at Pig farm of AICRP on Pigs, Livestock farm, Adhartal, College of Veterinary Science & A.H., Jabalpur (M.P.) for a period of three months. A total of 36 Large White Yorkshire crosses (LWY X Desi) were randomly assigned to six different groups and diets were formulated as per ICAR (1998) standard. All the diets were isoproteinous except group-6, which was formulated as per farmers practice. Composition of the diets (Table-1) are as follows; G-1(Control); concentrate mixture-1, G-2; concentrate mixture-2 (75%)+ bread waste (25%), G-3; concentrate mixture-3 (50%) + bread waste (50%), G-4; concentrate mixture-4 (25%) + bread waste (75%), G-5; wheat bran (19.5%) + bread waste (66%) + GNC (10%) + fish meal (3%) + mineral mixture (1%) + common salt (0.5%), G -6; rice bran (50%) + bread waste (50%). At the end of the experiment, the two animals from each group were slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Daily feed intake was significantly (P<0.05) varied among the groups. Highest daily feed intake (kg/pig/day) was observed in G3 group (1.647) and lowest value observed in G6
group (1.219). Average daily gain (ADG) were significantly (P<0.01) different and highest ADG (kg/pig/day) was observed in group G2 (0.377) and lowest ADG (kg/pig/day) observed in G6 group (0.171). Carcass characteristics were not significantly varied among the experimental groups. Finally, the study concluded that bread waste could be fed to the growing crossbred pigs without affecting performance.
Title: Influence of Season on Semen Quality in Karan Fries (Tharparkar × Holstein Friesian) Bulls Abstract :
Availability of good quality semen is essential throughout the year to achieve the sustainable productive growth of dairy cattle. Therefore, the present study was designed from five (n=5) adult healthy Karan Fries bulls from Animal Breeding Research Centre (ABRC) of National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Karnal (India) with emphasis to observe the semen quality during different seasons (winter, spring, hot-dry and hot- humid). Weekly ejaculates were collected using artificial vagina (42-45 °C). Immediately after collection, the ejaculates were placed in a water bath (37 °C) for assessing semen evaluation parameters. Ejaculate volume (3.53 ± 0.08 VS 3.96 ± 0.12 mL), individual motility (48.00 ± 1.12 VS 55.16 ± 1.32 %), concentration (1487.10 ± 26.55 VS 1590.77 ± 25.90 in 106/mL), non-eosinophilic sperm count (62.42 ± 0.75 VS 68.05 ± 0.77 %), Hypoosmotic swelling test (59.75 ± 0.57 VS 64.97 ± 0.84 %) and acrosomal integrity (74.22 ± 0.62 VS 83.40 ± 0.48 %) decreased (p<0.05) during hot-humid season as compared to spring season. The major abnormalities (10.74 ± 0.18 %) increased (p<0.01) in hot-humid as compared to spring season. It can be concluded that the semen quality of Karan Fries bulls deteriorate during hot humid season as compared to other seasons of the year under tropical climatic conditions.
Title: Factors Affecting Age at First Calving in Kankrej Cattle Abstract :
The data of 35 years from 1980 to 2014 were analyzed to study the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors viz. period of calving, season of calving as fixed effect and sire as random effect on the reproduction trait (age at first calving) of Kankrej cattle maintained at Livestock Research Station, S.D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat. The least square mean of age at first calving in Kankrej cows was found to be 1376.0 9 ± 14.55 days. Heritability estimates was 0.44 ± 0.18 for the age at First calving. Genetic correlation of age at first calving (AFC) with first lactation 300 milk yield (F300Y), total milk yield (FLY and lactation length (FLL) were 0.358 ± 0.218, 0.341± 0.216 and 0.661 ± 0.361, respectively while the phenotypic correlation were 0.055, 0.048 and 0.044, respectively. The effect of period of calving and sire was significant (P<0.01) on age at first calving. Season of calving did not affect significantly to this trait under study. Effect of season of calving was not significant on age at first calving indicated breed characteristic for adoption in particular environment. Age at first calving showed a significant variation over the period that indicated some selection measures for age at first calving.
Title: Gross and Microscopic Study of Different Organs in Zinc Intoxicated Male White Leg Horn Abstract :
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of excess zinc on the gross and microscopic changes of different organs along with performance parameters in male white leg horn (WLH) chicks. A total of 80 WLH male birds of 4 weeks age were randomly and equally divided into four groups (C, G1, G2 and G3). Zinc sulphate was incorporated in drinking water @ 15000 ppm, 25000 ppm and 35000 ppm to group G1, G2 and G3, respectively, for a period of 8 weeks. The birds from each group were sacrificed at the end of the experimental trial for pathomorphological changes and estimation of organ body weight ratio. Significant histopathological changes were noticed in liver, spleen, gizzard, bursa kidneys and pancreas. Atrophy of liver, testes, spleen, bursa, pancreas and gizzard were also noticed. This study confirms that, the high levels of zinc have an adverse effect on health and performance of the birds.
Title: Effect of Heat Stress on Haemato-biochemical and Endocrinological Profile Abstract :
Present study was planned to investigate the cause of postpartum true anoestrus in buffaloes during summer through the analysis of hemato-biochemical and endocrinological profile of anoestrus buffaloes. Blood samples were collected from 50 buffaloes belonging to two groups i.e. cyclic (n=10), and summer anoestrus buffaloes (n=40) animals respectively. The samples were analysed for haematological parameters including total erythrocytes count (TEC), total leukocytes count (TLC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration(MCHC), biochemical parameters viz., glucose, total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, alanine amino transaminaseand aspartate transaminase, calcium, phosphorus, manganese, zinc, copper cobalt and hormones of the plasma sample viz., progesterone, estradiol tri-iodothyronine (T3) thyroxine (T4) and cortisol using commercially available kits. The results revealed that Hb and MCH varied significantly (P<0.05) between the groups and other haematological parameters did not vary between two groups. In biochemical parameters glucose, total protein, albumin and total cholesterol were significantly (p<0.05) lower in anoestrus buffaloes than normal cyclic buffaloes and the progesterone, estradiol, tri-iodothyronine and the cortisol concentration varied significantly (P<0.05)between two groups. It can be concluded that variation in some hematobiochemical and hormonal levels might be the cause of the anoestrus during summer stress in buffaloes.
Title: Marketed Surplus and Factors Affecting Milk Market Outlet Choices in Raipur District of Chhattisgarh Abstract :
The present study was undertaken in Raipur district of Chhattisgarh. A total of 100 milk producing sample households comprising of 52 small, 38 medium and 10 large herd size categories were randomly selected from the four village viz. Sarkhi and Kolar from Abhanpur block and Farfoud and Shivani from Aarang block. Marketed surplus and disposal pattern of dairy farmers were worked out through tabular analysis while Multinomial Logit Model was employed to analyze factors affecting milk market outlet choice. Among the herd size categories, of the total milk produced marketed surplus ranges from 45% for small category to 76% for large category. Largest share of milk was disposed to Dairy Co-operative Society (DCS) constituting 58.71% followed by consumer (23.57%) and the least (17.71%) to market. Small category disposes maximum quantity of milk to consumer while medium and large category dispose maximum quantity to DCS. Among the different milk outlet choice
maximum of the dairy farmers prefer to sell to local consumer directly, followed by DCS and market. Analysis on the factor affecting milk market outlet choices revealed that education, milch animal holding and DCS positively affect the selection of local consumer as a milk outlet choice while land holding and non-farm income negatively affect the selection of consumer as a milk outlet choice. For sale of milk to DCS and market, age of head of household and milch animal holding had a positive effect.
Title: Economic Analysis of Soymilk as Partial Milk Replacer for Buffalo Calf Rearing Abstract :
The study was conducted to assess the economics of soymilk as partial milk replacer on Murrah buffalo calf rearing. The study was conducted at Livestock farm, Adhartal, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, N.D.V.S.U., Jabalpur (M.P.) for three months period. Eighteen Murrah buffalo calves with similar body weight of either sex at the age of 5 days were selected and randomly distributed in three different groups (M, SM20 and SM40) with six calves in each group. Calves of the M group were reared on buffalo whole milk, SM20 group was offered buffalo whole milk and soymilk in the proportion of 80:20, and SM40 group was offered buffalo whole milk and soymilk in the proportion of 80:20. Calves were maintained under uniform managemental condition except milk feeding. Economic analysis indicated that the recurring cost of rearing of the buffalo calves was significantly decreased in SM20 and SM40 groups in comparison to the M group. Percent decrease of total recurring expenditure in comparison to M group was 11.57 and 19.47, respectively for the SM20 and SM40. Decrease of recurring expenditure (percent/kg body weight gain) in comparison to M group was 9.04 and 12.02, respectively for the SM20 and SM40. It can be concluded that soymilk can replace up to 40 percent whole buffalo milk to reduce the cost of buffalo calf rearing.
Title: Physiological Responses of Indigenous Sheep under Water Restriction Abstract :
Eighteen farm born indigenous hoggets were selected on the basis of body weight (25-30kg) and randomly divided in to three treatment groups viz. T1 (Control), T2 (WR1:20%WR) and T3 (WR2:40%WR) and each treatment comprised of six animals to evaluate physiological responses. The pulse rate (per min) recorded at 7.30 am significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in 40% WR group as compared to 20 and 0% WR groups whereas respiration rate (per min) and rectal temperature (0F) recorded at 2.30 pm significantly (P < 0.05) elevated when animals were subjected to 40% WR as compared to 20 and 0% WR indicated that the 40% water restriction was more stressful to the animals.
Title: Effect of Area Specific Mineral Supplementation on Growth and Reproductive Performance of Female Black Bengal Goats Abstract :
To find out the effect of area specific mineral supplementation (ASMS), 24 female Black Bengal goatling were divided into four groups (Gr.I, II, III & IV) which were supplemented with 0, 1, 2% deficient minerals and 2% commercial mineral mixture, respectively. Body weight (BW) was recorded in specific time span. Study revealed that final body weight as well as average daily gain (ADG) in three months significantly (P<0.05) differed from control and treatment group. Among treatment groups, better body weight gain was observed in higher mineral supplemented group but was not significant. But, interestingly, the overall body condition score (BCS) differed significantly (P<0.05) between control and treatment as well as within treatment group. Age at maturity of control and treatment groups were 222.50 ± 5.74,207.50 ±8.92, 187.50 ± 5.12 and 192.50 ± 6.29 days, respectively and the difference was significantly varied. Mean oestrogen and progesterone level was marginally high in mineral supplemented group than control group.
Title: Linear Regression Equations for Estimation of Body Weights in Sahiwal Calves Abstract :
The study was conducted on 194 purebred Sahiwal calves of both the sexes and different age groups (0-6, 6-12, 12-18, 18- 24 and 24-36 months) to find out the correlation coefficients between body weights and different body measurements and to develop linear regression equations for prediction of body weights of the various age groups. Among the body measurements, heart girth shown highly significant and highest correlation coefficients with body weights. It was concluded that the linear regression equations incorporating heart girth alone could be used to predict body weights of growing Sahiwal cattle.
Title: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Gastrointestinal Nematodiasis in Small Ruminants in North East Ethiopia Abstract :
A cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 small ruminants in and around Kombolcha , north east Ethiopia from November 2014 to April 2015 to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode and to observe the association of GIT nematodes with age, body condition, history of anthelmintic treatment and species of small ruminants. Screening and generic identification of observed gastrointestinal nematodes was done by coprological methods including floatation and faecal culture technique. The fecal samples examined revealed an overall prevalence of 42.2% (162/384) GIT nematodes in the small ruminants with 47.2% (111/384) in sheep and 34.2% (51/384) in goats. During fecal culture examination, five different genera of nematodes were identified. The most prevalent nematode was the Haemonchus 15.9% (OR=3.57, CI=2.46-5.16) as single infection and mixed infections of Haemonchus with Trichostrongylus 6.8% (OR=3.17, CI=2.71-3.68) followed by Trichuris 19.7% (OR=1.92, CI=1.20-3.07). The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode infection showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between young and adult age groups, in both sheep and goats, and animals with poor/moderate body condition and good body condition scores (p<0.05). In addition, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in prevalence among anthelmintic treated and non- treated animals and also between sexes of study animals. The present study highlights the higher prevalence of GIT nematodes in small ruminants in the study area and associated risk factors of small ruminant nematodiasis. Therefore, effective strategic treatment and public awareness creation should be instituted in the study area
Title: Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Campylobacter species among poultry and poultry handlers of Jammu Abstract :
Campylobacter is one of the emerging zoonotic pathogens with poultry and their products serving as an important source of human infections. The present study was aimed to assess the prevalence of Campylobacter species among poultry and poultry handlers of R.S. Pura, Jammu and their antibiogram pattern. A total of 177 samples from poultry (n = 167) and poultry handlers (n = 10) were examined and 39 samples were found positive for Campylobacter species (32 C. jejuni, 6 C. coli and 1 C. lari). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 40.3, 13.2, 7.7 and 30.0% in poultry faeces, poultry meat, poultry carcass swabs and poultry handlers, respectively. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates was studied against nine antibiotics. Multidrug resistance among the isolates was found against ampicillin, metronidazole and cepholathin while high sensitivity was observed towards gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, furazolidone and tetracycline. The results of the present study indicate high prevalence of Campylobacter both in poultry and poultry handlers with varying in vitro sensitivity to different antibiotics. The outcome enunciates that appropriate control measures ensuring safety of poultry products and human health need to be devised.
Title: Influence of Prepartum Injection of Vitamin E and Se on Postpartum Reproductive and Lactation Performance of Dairy Cattle Abstract :
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of vitamin E and Selenium given prepartum on reproductive and lactation performance of dairy cattle. Twenty pregnant animals in their last trimester were randomly divided into two groups. Group I animals were kept as control and Group II animals were given two injections of vitamin E and selenium 7 days apart. First injection was given 30-60 days before the expected calving. The placental expulsion period and involution period was significant higher in Group I compare to Group II animals and there was a nonsignificant increase in clostrum production, lactational yield, lactational length and mean calf birth weight of Group II animals.
Title: Effectiveness of different hCG and GnRH based protocols in progesterone primed goats on estrus induction and reproductive outcomes in out-off-season goats Abstract :
We evaluated whether Gonadotrophin releasing hormone incorporation to the Human chorionic gonadotropin protocol improves the sexual response during the natural anestrous season in goats. Thirty-two adult multibreed anovulatory goats (n = 8, four groups), received 20 mg progesterone i.m. on d-1; on d0, all goats received 7.5 mg prostaglandin F i.v. and control group (CG) 0.5 mL of saline i.m., hCG group (GH) 100 IU of hCG i.m., hCG+GnRH group (GN) 100 IU hCG i.m. + 8.4 µg of GnRH at once, and hCG+GnRH-24h group (GN24) 100 IU hCG i.m. + 8.4 µg of GnRH 24 h apart. GN, GN24 and GH depicted estrus and ovulatory activity, favoring the GH (25%, 25% and 100% for both variables, respectively). Regarding pregnancy rate, the largest values (P<0.05) were observed in GH (12%, 12% vs 75%, respectively). A protocol based on P4+PGF+hCG was the best option to induce and synchronize estrus as well as ovulation regarding the administration of GnRH during the natural anestrous season in goats.