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IJASE - Volume 8 - Issue 2

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Title: Contents Vol. 8, No. 2, December 2020
Abstract :
Title: Ultrasound-Assisted Optimization of Pectin Extraction from Orange Peel Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN)
Abstract :
The objective of study was extraction of pectin from orange peel using ultrasound assisted extraction and response surface method and artificial neural network technique. The accuracy of the two models was studied to compare the performances of the two models to make decision for achievement of optimum process parameters during extraction of the pectin. The following findings are absorbed from the effects of extraction parameters. The pH solution was highly significant compared to ultrasound power. As well as interaction between ultrasound and pH solution were found to be strongly influenced the extraction yield of pectin. The optimal parameters for extraction were irradiation time of 22.5 min, pH of 1.5, and ultrasound power of 155W and liquid-solid ratio 22.5:1 mL/ g. Under these conditions, yield of pectin was 26.87% experimentally, while 26.74 and 26.93% of yield were predicted by response surface methodology and artificial neural network model respectively. The extracted pectin of orange peel was categorized as high methoxyl pectin, since it has 63.13% degree of esterification, which is above 50% affirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy detection. Both response surface methodology and artificial neural network model prediction was in good agreement with experimental data; however, the prediction of artificial neural network prediction was better than artificial neural network. Therefore, artificial neural network model is much more accurate in estimating the values of pectin yield and mean square error when compared with the response surface methodology.
Title: Stabilization of Natural Rubber against the Effect of Cyclic heating at Different Temperature using Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (Technical CNSL)
Abstract :

Natural rubber being a polymer formed in plants has very limited usefulness if not processed further. The processed (vulcanized) rubber can be further stabilized against thermal oxidation and degradation when put to use to extend the life span. The effect of cyclic heating on natural rubber treated with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was determined. The natural rubber samples were dissolved in a given di-ethyl ether and a measured quantity of paraffin was added and divided into two (2) parts. The first groups were samples without stabilizing additive while the other contains stabilizing additive blended in them. The samples were heated at 600C, 800C and 1000C over varying periods of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 hours respectively and the compounded dried rubber was weighed into each of 12 cavities of a locally fabricate aluminium mould and the mould and its contents introduced into the oven. A solution of a measured amount of each sample in hexane was taken for viscometric measurement. Change in viscosity with length of heating shows that the various samples were degraded with time. The level of degradation of the rubber samples treated with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) as stabilizer showed better thermal stability compared with those without stabilizing additive.

Title: Agricultural Sciences Vs. Agricultural Engineering: An Overview
Abstract :

Agriculture is one of the important and valuable facets in the world as for the survival we need the foods and from agriculture it has come from. Therefore Agriculture Science is important and consider as most for the betterment of the agriculture in scientific way. Initially Agriculture considered only a tool or way for the crop development and gradually it is become a field of study. Agricultural Science is about the study of plants, pathogens, pests, herbs, chemicals and various physiological properties in better and healthy crops, plants, and vegetable products development with the context of Agriculture sustainable. Agricultural Science is considered as important and valuable applied science deals with suitable methods, tools for the development of agricultural products and foods even including animal cultivation. After the development of Agricultural Science many other allied and related branches have been developed viz. Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Management, and Agricultural Biotechnology etc. Agricultural Engineering is focused with the designing, construction, development of the farming equipments, products, machines, tools etc. for the agricultural development and agricultural unit management. The field is dedicated also in scientific study, experiments, research, evaluation related to the Agricultural Systems. This paper is about the aspects of Agricultural Science and Agricultural Engineering including their features, attributes, natures, functions and roles and so on. Further the paper also deals with the job potentialities of the field as well.

Title: Assessment of Pre-Monsoon and Monsoon Groundwater Level and Fluctuation at Regional Level in South of Haryana; Reference to Rewari District
Abstract :

A present study was carried out at Dept. of Agro- Meteorology, CCS HAU Hisar to find the status of ground water in Rewari district for two decades i.e. from 1996-2017 With the main objective to investigate the temporal trends in annual and seasonal groundwater level and fluctuation in Rewari district. The study involved analysis of the ground water data for 20 years and mapped the changed in ground water levels between pre monsoon and monsoon seasons. The major activities in ground water fluctuation in five block of Rewari district involved the of existing data, generation of GIS database (shape files), interpolation, categorization, mapping and interpretation. Trend analysis has been done spatial analysis by Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The results indicated that a mix of negative and positive trends in the groundwater level series. Results also indicated the pre-monsoon ground water level influenced higher recharge of ground water than the total annual amount of rainfall. In pre- Monsoon rise in water level was found in north parts and decline was in south eastern parts. Study show that in Monsoon Central parts of Rewari district observed rising water table and South Eastern and North Western parts of district had declining water level from normal. The pre-monsoon season the groundwater level varied from 7.26 to 22.23 meters below ground level in depth and during the monsoon season the groundwater level was found to be from 10.46 meters to 22.23 meters bgl during year (2017).

Title: Post COVID-19: New Era for Higher Education Systems
Abstract :

On November 17, 2019, according to several sources, the first case of COVID-19 appeared in Wuhan, China, for a 55-year-old man. In addition to that, evolutionary estimates in genetic studies conducted in the early months of 2020 indicated that the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Virus most likely transfered to humans in the period between October 6th, 2019 and December 11th, 2019. The reason that led to the rapid spread of this epidemic is that its symptoms may not appear on the infected person in which, symptoms of the disease might not be shown before two weeks of the infection. The World Health Organization WHO recognized the spread of COVID-19 as a pandemic on March 11th, 2020. In the first period of the virus’s spread, specifically in January and February of 2020, Italy, Iran, South Korea, Japan, and China reported increasing numbers of cases. Later that month, specifically on the 26th of February, the number of cases outside China rapidly exceeded the number of cases inside China, with the total number of cases reaching 2,790 distributed in 37 countries. During the next few days, the virus spread around the world at a steady speed, and there was no way or method to find a solution or treatment for its spread. COVID-19 had devastating effects on all living areas and on all industries, in which, it had shocking effects and frightening figures related to the movement of the global economy and companies in a manner related to the repetition and duration of closures in addition to effects beyond description related to current and future effects in connection with the methodology of higher education, universities, and educational institutions, and the related future repercussions. COVID-19 causes many symptoms such as fever, dry cough, fatigue, headache, loss of the sense of smell and taste, it also causes difficulty breathing and nasal congestion. COVID-19 is an abbreviation for coronavirus disease of 2019. Throught out this paper, The virus is mentioned as Coronavirus, COVID, and COVID-19.

Title: Why Nabors Industries (NBR) Acquired Tesco Corporation (TESO) in an All-Stock Transaction: A Case Study
Abstract :

This article examines why Nabors Industries (NBR) acquired OFS (Oilfield equipment and services) industry peer Tesco (TESO). The study draws on a dataset from analysts, corporate advisers,and other sources, regarding the acquisition of Tesco by Nabors. The case study illuminates several dimensions of the Tesco & Nabors international experience before and after acquisitions and why analyst is calling the transaction a win for both buyer and seller? Is the deal also takes out a competitor in the top-drive market? Nabors Industries’ $216 million acquisition of Tesco Corp is still believed as a valuable deal at the oilfield services industry