Title: Clean Labels: The New Wave Sweeping the Fermented Milks Industry Abstract :
Functional ingredients from naturally occurring food biopolymers are a trend catching up amongst food and beverage developers. This is driven by the demand of consumers for clean label ingredient listings on products. The clean label trend is extending into the yogurt market (acid gel) with consumers demanding hydrocolloids, stabilizers or thickeners are purged from ingredient listings. Substituting hydrocolloids in food systems especially yogurts could mean compromising on rheological properties and water holding capacities. However, structure functionality relationship of naturally occurring biopolymer caseins in milk can be exploited to overcome this foreseen loss of product characteristics. The following review is an attempt to delineate clean label solutions for the manufacture of acid milk gels.
Title: Changes in Chemical Properties of Dreid Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Beans during Fermentation Abstract :
Changes in acidification and sugars of cocoa pulp during fermentation of pulp pre-conditioned cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans were investigated using a 3 × 3 full factorial experimental design with tree level treatment (control (TI), inoculum added in begin fermentation (IA), inoculum added in step (IB) and fermentation time as principal factors. pH, non-volatile (titratable) acidity, reducing sugars, and fermentation indexes of cocoa beans were studied using standard analytical methods. pH of the cocoa nibs increased with inoculum added and fermentation with consequential decrease in non-volatile acidity. Contrary, inoculum added and fermentation decreased the reducing sugars in cocoa nib. The most abundant fermentation indexes in unfermented cocoa bean with values of (TI) 0.31 – 0.88, (IA) 0.32 – 0.99, (IB) 0.33 – 1.03).
Title: Exploration of Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC 8711 Microencapsulation by spray drying for their use as probiotic Abstract :
Microencapsulation can carried out by many techniques but spray drying is promising, reliable, low cost and quick technique compare to other techniques. In many functional foods L. fermentum MTCC 8711 is used as a probiotic microorganism. Spray drying microencapsulated powder of probiotic organism increase survival rate of organism during storage; increase the shelf-life of product and micro particle optimal size increase dispersion of probiotic bacteria in final product. In this paper, we have used spray drying technique with three encapsulated material viz. 11% non-fat skimmed milk solution (SKNF 11%), 20 % non-fat skimmed milk solution (SKNF 20%) and soy milk plus 10 % maltodextrin solution (SMMD 10 %). During spray drying process inlet air temperature was 110oC, outlet air temperature was70 oC and aspiration flow rate 70 Nm3/h and feed pump flow rate 1ml/min were maintained. Parameter like particle size analysis (PSA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), moister content, water activity, acid tolerance and bile salt tolerance of L. fermentum MTCC 8711 encapsulated powder and free cell without encapsulated (control) were perform. Viable count of same organism were studied at before and after spray drying process, as well as time interval of 30 days and 60 days.
Title: Formulation, Sensory and Microbial Aspects of Functional Fermented Dairy Product – Synbiotic Dahi Abstract :
The present investigation was carried out for the formulation of new functional dairy product “synbiotic dahi” and to study its properties. To formulate synbiotic dahi in three different forms, heat treated cows’ whole milk (95 °C/5 min. and subsequently cooled to 37 °C) was inoculated with probiotic culture L.helveticus MTCC5463 @2.0% v/v. Prebiotic inulin @2.0% along with other functional food ingredients like WPC (whey protein concentrate) @3.0%, NMCP (natural milk calcium powder) @200 mg/100ml was added to prepare a plain synbiotic dahi (blend A). To make synbiotic dahi sweeten, in one form of dahi added non nutritive sweetener sucralose @19.5 mg/100 ml (blend B) and into another form added cane sugar @9.0% w/v (blend C). These different rates of addition of ingredients were decided on the basis of sensory profile evaluation during preliminary studies carried out. These three blends once formulated were compared with control dahi (M) which was made by using cow milk, without any additives and fermented with the same probiotic culture. All the four dahi prepared were stored at 4 ±1 °C for the period of 28 days and evaluated for chemical composition and microbiological attributes at an interval of seven days. As all the three forms of synbiotic dahi prepared were acceptable throughout the storage period for all the sensory and biochemical parameters, without noticeable and undesirable changes, along with around 107 to 108 cfu/ml of live count for probiotic culture.
Title: Development of novel indigenous pearl millet based fermented Skim milk product Abstract :
The present study was aimed to develop pearl millet based fermented skim milk product. The strain, L. rhamnosus RSI3 isolated from indigenous cereal based fermented milk product Rabaadi was screened and finally selected for starter formulation on the basis of appreciable phytate degrading activity and significant antibacterial and antifungal activity against pathogens. However, this culture didn’t happen to be a good acid producer and hence was paired with a prolific acid producing compatible S. thermophilus ST20, a native strain isolated from dahi. With these strains as starter cultures, method of development of cereal based fermented milk product was standardized using skim milk and ungerminated pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) flour as raw material and cumin (Cuminum cyminum) , black pepper (Piper nigrum), curry patta (Murraya koenigii) and salt as flavouring agents. The product so developed was analyzed for fat, protein, moisture, ash, acidity content and HCl extractability of minerals (as an index of bioavailability of minerals).
Title: Effect of inulin on growth and antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus spp. Abstract :
Prebiotics function by acting as selective substrates for probiotic microorganisms, thus enhancing their growth and colonization in the intestine. Inulin, a fructooligosaccharide, is effective in reducing intestinal disturbances, when ingested along with probiotics. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of inulin in enhancing the growth and antimicrobial activity of a Lactobacillus spp. Growth and antimicrobial activity of five lactobacilli strains in inulin containing broth were compared with MRS broth. All lactobacilli cultures were able to utilize inulin, however growth and antimicrobial activity were differ from culture to culture. Lactobacilli acidophilus NCDC 14 showed maximum growth. Lactobacillus cultures antimicrobial activity against indicator organisms in presence of inulin. Lactobacillus casei NCDC 298 showed antimicrobial activity against all three indicator organisms. Inulin utilization, growth and antimicrobial activity were variable among the Lactobacillus cultures tested.
Title: Diversification of Probiotics through Encapsulation Technology Abstract :
Probiotics are live bacteria and dietary concepts to improve the intestinal microbial balance. Microencapsulation technique significantly improves the stability of probiotics during food processing and gastrointestinal transit. However, the matrix has a positive impact on survival without affecting the release of entrapped cells in simulated colonic pH solution. Maximum survival of cells has been noticed in encapsulated bacteria compared to the normal cells during different processing treatments as well as acid and bile tolerance and resistance to the gastric juices.