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IJFF - Volume 6 - Issue 2

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Title: Contents Vol. 6, No. 2, December 2017
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Contents Vol. 6, No. 2, December 2017

Title: Role and Current Trends of Developing Fruit, Vegetable and Cereal based Probiotic Foods: A review
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Scientific investigators have motivated recently from principal role of food by supplying adequate nutrients and energy to sustain physiological functions and well-being. Conversely, the consumer interest about the active role of food in well-being and life prolongation has been improved. In this manner, a novel term functional food was introduced which refers to the prevention and therapeutic effects of food beyond its nutritional value. A wide array of functional foods has been developed recently and many of them are being produced in all over the world i.e. probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic foods. All these functional components are able to exercise substantial influences on human well-being. The present review focuses on recent developments in dairy and non-dairy probiotic products. All over the world, dairy probiotics are being commercialized in several different forms. However, the allergy and lactose intolerance are the major health concerns to dairy probiotics. Whereas, flavor and refreshing nature are the principle advantages of non-dairy drinks, especially fruit juices. Emphasizing these positive activities is one possible approach for improving the health image of non-dairy fermented products and developing the functional foods. Discovering of new probiotic/prebiotic/synbiotic functional foods is linked to the interest of the food industry to renovate constantly through introduction of products with enhanced nutritional value, but also with health advantage for consumers.

Title: Hildur Lassi’: A Probiotic Fermented Food with Oats and Milk
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The world situation can be observed from many different perspectives. Here in this context we can see it as a coin with two sides. On one side we can see high income population suffering from welfare related health problems like obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer which are shown to be related to a dietary habit describing high intake of food with very high content of fat and easily digestible carbohydrates. On the other side of the coin we can see low income population suffering from poverty related health problems due to lack of food in general and lack of essential nutrients in particular. In both these cases life style and socio-economic factors do play an important role. Most of the low-income people of the world depend on agriculture and food production for their livelihood. At the same time agro-food sector continues to be of low productivity due to lack of efficient post-harvest handling and or lack of innovative food processing facilities. The value addition is very low and farmers in many parts of the world remain to be suppliers of raw un-processed food products.
In this project, an effort has been made to connect low income sector to high income sector by adding innovative food design with the help of new knowledge in food science and nutrition. The result is a probiotic fermented functional food product which contains oats and milk called Hildur Lassi. Oat (Avena sativa) is known to contain large amount of dietary fibre that give beneficial physiological effects. It is also a source of good protein, minerals, antioxidants and vitamins. The soluble fibre β-glucan is claimed to have a cholesterol lowering effect according to the Food and Drug Administration (USA) as well as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and it may be used to control and maintain a beneficial plasma lipid profile. Cow milk is well known to be a highly nutritious food item. The insulinotrophic feature of some milk proteins are reported to be useful in tailoring foods for regulation of blood glucose level in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Given the nutritive composition and natural buffering capacity, fermented milk is considered best career of probiotics. Positive health effects of fermented foods and especially of those with probiotic microorganisms and prebiotic food components are reported in many recent. Based on our research, we have designed and developed a new fermented functional food product using nutritious components from oats, cow’s milk and probiotic microorganisms as the principal ingredients. The beverage will be further improved to suit the consumer by adding colour and flavour from chosen fruits.
Title: Applications of Probiotics in Women’s Health
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A FAO (2004) report states that India is known for often treating common ailments primarily with foods. Nine out of ten urban Indian consumers have been reported to generally choose foods based on health and wellness benefits. Fermented milk products containing healthy lactic acid bacteria like dahi and butter milk are commonly recommended by the elders in the family for control of diarrhea, dysentery and common intestinal ailments. Deliberate incorporation of selected strains of healthy bacteria called as “probiotics” became more popular in last 2-3 decades due to increased evidences of clinically proven health benefits of probiotics. Among various health effects of probiotics, a few strains have been found to have special benefits in women’s health. These beneficial effects are mainly related to maintenance of health vaginal flora and there by control many ailments related to urogenital tract, mainly bacterial vaginosis (BV). BV is said to be the major problem because it directly affects women’s quality of life and health care systems. Several strains of Lactobacillus spp. have been found useful restoring a normal vaginal flora that also reduces the risk of urogenital infections such as candidiasis, genital herpes, HIV, etc apart from bacterial vaginosis. These urogenital infections affect an estimated one billion women each year. The size of this problem and the increased prevalence of multidrug resistant pathogens make it imperative that alternative remedies need to be found. Probiotics have therefore come out as a potential alternative to drug and more than 25 brands of commercial probiotic preparations are available in market at present. Apart from urogenital health, probiotics also improve digestive and immune systems which help protect the consumers from other problems. Common problem of iron and vitamin deficiencies in young girls and pregnant women can also be taken care by selecting a probiotic formulation with appropriate supplements. A study was done at Anand Agricultural University to develop an ointment for treatment of Bacterial vaginosis using our own probiotic isolate of Indian origin, Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463(V3). Comparison of ready-made emulsion from market and laboratory made emulsion with different concentrations of selected strain was done by determining viscosity, pH, viability and rate of freeze thaw stability. The market cream formulations had pH value ranging from 3.69-6.95 while laboratory made probiotic cream had pH value ranging between 4.4 - 5.38. The viability of probiotic culture in formulation was ranging from 9.83 to 10.20 log cfu/ml. The developed cream with MTCC 5463 as probiotic was able to inhibit indicator organism’s G. vaginalis, Candida albicans, E. faecalis, S. aureus and E. coli. The cream stored at room as well as refrigeration temperatures was found to be thermodynamically stable. The sub-acute vaginal toxicity study conducted in rabbit model showed that cream made was giving no side effects and can be deemed as safe for human clinical trials. The presentation gave an overall review of application of probiotic preparations for women’s health with a special focus on research work carried out at the laboratory.
Title: Bacteriocins from Bugs of Millennium: Uses, Potential and Prospects in Food Industry
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Are Lactic Acid Bacteria the bugs of the millennium? These surely are one of the highly pragmatic bugs of the millennium due to their diversity of metabolism, making them the most important group of bacteria in the production of traditional and modern fermented food products, their potential use in health and disease when used as probiotics or even their effect in protection of food products against microbial contaminants due to the production of acids and bacteriocin. These micro-wonders, the super-edible bugs are the food-grade lactic acid bacteria, with ability to produce bacteriocins. Bacteriocins, also known as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), are small peptides with anti-bacterial properties, generally produced by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These represent a huge family of ribosomally synthesized proteinaceous molecules that are extracellularly released and heat-stable. These possess remarkable antibacterial activity towards closely related strains and to which the producer cell expresses a degree of specific immunity. Also, sizeable numbers of bacteriocins have been reported to have broad range antimicrobial activity. These antimicrobial peptides have huge dual fold potential: as food preservatives and as next-generation antibiotics targeting the multiple-drug resistant pathogens. Bacteriocins antagonize sensitive cells through different and distinctive mechanisms. Although structure–function relationships have only been determined for particular bacteriocins and to varying degrees, examples of bacteriocins targeting the cell wall, cell membrane, nucleic acids, or enzymes have been established. There exists difference of opinion on classification scheme because of large number of new bacteriocins that have been identified and characterized and the evolving definition for these antimicrobial peptides. The different classes that can be used are: Class I bacteriocins, or lantibiotics (lanthionine- containing antibiotics), that are small peptides (<5 kDa); and Class II bacteriocins, or the non-lantibiotics, that are small (<10 kDa), heat-stable non-lantibiotics, Class I bacteriocins are often further subdivided into four subclasses: Class IIa — “pediocin-like” bacteriocins, these are found to have high potency against the food pathogen Listeria monocytogenes; Class IIb — two-component bacteriocins that require both peptides to work synergistically to be fully active; Class IIc — circular bacteriocins with N- and C-termini covalently linked giving the peptide an extremely stable structure and Class IId — unmodified, linear, non-pediocin-like bacteriocins The (former) Class III group, which included large (> 30 kDa) heat-labile non-lantibiotics, has been proposed to be reclassified as bacteriolysins, since they are lytic enzymes rather than peptides.
Lantibiotics (Class I bacteriocins) like nisin have a relatively broad inhibitory spectrum including a number of different genera of Gram-positive bacteria. Bacteriocin target specificity, like for nisin and circular bacteriocins, has also been described as concentration dependent, with a nonspecific activity at higher bacteriocin concentrations and a specific activity at lower bacteriocin concentrations. This specific activity at lower bacteriocin concentrations make bacteriocins often very potent, acting at pico- to nano-molar concentrations, whereas micromolar concentrations are required for the activity of eukaryotic anti-microbial peptides. LAB bacteriocins, besides being a by-product of Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) LAB, are especially attractive for various food applications because they are colourless, odourless, tasteless, with tolerance to high thermal stress and are known for their activity over a wide pH range, positive attributes for their possible use as an ingredient in food production. These have huge potential in the biopreservation of various foods, either alone, or in combination with other methods of preservation, as a means of hurdle technology.
Title: Fermented Foods and Enhancement of Immune System
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Functional food is known as a food, either natural or formulated, which enhances physiological performance or prevent or treat diseases and disorders. Functional foods include those items developed for health purposes as well as for physical performance. Nowadays, Probiotics and prebiotics, as functional foods, are both pretty big topics in nutrition due to their importance for human health. However, they play different roles. Probiotics are live bacteria found in certain foods or supplements. They can provide numerous health benefits, whereas, prebiotics are the important ingredients for supporting the bacteria growth. Many studies showed that there are many benefits health effect of probiotics: improvement of lactose intolerance phenomenon, cholesterol reduction, antidiarrheal and anticarcinogenic agents. Therefore, research in the probiotic areas has progressed considerably and significant advances have been made in the selection and characterization of specific probiotic cultures and substantiation of health claims relating to their consumption. Fermented dairy products are generally considered to be one of the most suitable vehicles for the administration of an adequate number of probiotic microorganisms. Our related studies to this concern were focused on the therapeutic properties of two different fermented food probiotic products. The first probiotic product was fermented camel milk fortified with dates, while the second one was aged black garlic which is known as a type of fermented garlic. The experiments were carried out on model systems of experiment animals. Results of both studies showed remarkable findings since both fortified fermented camel milk and fermented black garlic had significant effects on enhancement of humoral immune system meanwhile fermented black garlic had more hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects.

Title: Soybean Fermentation and its Applications
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The fermented soy foods that originated many thousand years ago in the Asian countries are often referred to as indigenous fermented foods. Some of the fermented soy foods are now popular in the west. The increased palatability of fermented soy foods is due to the desirable changes in soybeans properties, including texture and organoleptic characteristics (flavor, aroma, and appearance or consistency). Elimination of beany flavors, improvement of digestibility and enhanced keeping quality of the product improved safety and increase the nutritional value are considered the main goals. Fermentation makes the organoleptic characteristics of soybean more attractive to the consumer than the raw soybean. Microbial fermentation is considered as one of the oldest and most economical method for food production and preservation. Fermentation process may increase the digestibility and bioavailability of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals; enhance the nutritional value such as vitamin content; shorten the cooking time, convert animal feed into food fit for humans; and increase the microbial safety.

Title: Effect of different Processing Methods on Chemical Composition and Sensory Quality of Soymilk
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Background and Objective: Although soymilk is a dairy substitute for people with lactose intolerance; many people are reluctant to buy because of it’s unpleasant flavor produced by traditional processing. New techniques have been developing to improve flavor of soymilk but these have reported adverse affects on its protein content. Also, the cultivar of soybean and method of storage have influenced the quality of soymilk. The objective of this research was to study the effect of different extraction methods of soymilk (hot and cold extraction) on the chemical and sensory quality of soymilk and its quality during storage (shelf-life). Methodology: Dry beans were soaked in cold and hot water for about 8 hrs, followed by grinding with enough added water (10:1), then boiled for 15 min and then, insoluble residue (okara) were separated by filtration. The chemical composition of soybean seed and soymilk were determined. Results: Chemical composition of soybean seeds were reported as: moisture content: 3.6%, ash 5.88%, protein 52.50%, oil 12.30%, fiber 10.36%, carbohydrate 15.36%. Chemical composition of soymilk was found to be: moisture content 90.5%, ash 0.55%, protein 3.6%, oil 2%, fiber 0.45%, carbohydrate 2.9%), respectively. The chemical composition of soy milk samples (hot extraction and cold extraction) indicated that the nutrient composition of the two soymilk sample were significantly different (P≤0.05). Soymilk sample prepared by hot extraction contained more protein, fat, carbohydrates and fiber than the soy milk samples prepared by cold extraction, this increase could be due to processing conditions. The hot extraction method increased the water activity of the seeds and possibly improved the release of anti- nutrition material and reduced bean off flavors. This method thus might be a better method of processing of soymilk. Conclusion: Further studies are needed to highlight the benefits of utilize soybean seed as raw material in manufacture of different milk and milk products.
Title: Bioprospecting of Oxalate Degrading Lactic Acid Bacteria for Potential Use in the Management of Kidney Stone Disease
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Background and Objective: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human feces and fermented foods and subsequently characterized and assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro. Methods: Human faecal samples were collected from ten healthy individuals (mean age of 23–40) who had not taken antibiotics and probiotics at least for the past three months. Fermented milk products viz., dahi, chaas, lassi, shrikhand were collected from in and around the areas of Anand district. To isolate lactic acid bacteria, desired dilutions of samples were prepared and plated on MRS agar medium. The plates were incubated at 37ºC for 48-72h. Typical colonies of LAB were picked up and streaked on the MRS agar for further purification. The isolates were then studied for morphology using Gram’s staining, biochemical reactions using API kits and growth characteristics in the presence of potassium oxalate. Active isolates were inoculated in MRS medium containing10mM potassium oxalate and incubated at 37ºC for 72h. Growth was measured at different intervals (0, 8, 24, 32, 48,72h) as optical density at 600nm.
Results: A total of 10 fecal and 10 fermented milk samples were used for isolation of LAB. The average LAB count of fecal samples varied between 8-10 logcfu/g of faecal matter. For fermented milk products it varied between 5-8 log cfu/g of the products. Based on the morphological and biochemical characterization, 15 LAB isolates from fecal matter and seven fermented foods isolates were taken for further growth studies and oxalate degradation studies. API studies revealed that the fecal isolates mainly belonged to Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus faecalis and Aerococcusviridans, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Whereas the fermented products isolates belonged to Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Growth curve studies of fecal isolates in MRS medium containing 10mM Potassium oxalate exhibited variation. Some isolates entered into stationary phase after 8h of incubation while some other entered into stationary phase after 24h of incubation and few isolates were poor growers. In case of isolates from fermented products almost all of them showed good growth rate and remained in log phase up to 24h. Conclusion: species isolates mainly belonged to genera Lactobacillus and Enterococcus. Most of the isolates were able to grow in presence of 10mM potassium oxalate. The isolates which showed promise belonged to Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus.
Title: Evaluation of Probiotic Vanishing Cream as Potential Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis
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Objective: To develop a vanishing cream containing potential probiotic bacteria for treating bacterial vaginosis which may help in the release of lactic acid for a prolonged period to restore the acidic pH of the vaginal lumen and also to study sub-acute vaginal toxicity on animal models using this cream. Methods: The probiotic culture in the present study viz., Lactobacillus helveticus (V3) MTCC 5463 was used which was obtained from Anand Agricultural University. Comparison of readymade emulsion from market and laboratory made emulsion with different concentrations of selected strain (1part emulsion: 0.5 culture pellet; 1 part emulsion: 0.8 part culture pellet and 1 part emulsion: 1 part culture pellet) was done by determining viscosity, pH, viability and rate of freeze thaw stability. The optimized vanishing cream (stearic acid 37% and KOH 0.6%) was further compared with market cream using different in vitro tests. The shelf-life study of optimized cream was done at 40 °C ± 2 °C and 7 °C± 2 °C, at 75% humidity for a period of three months. Sub-Acute Vaginal Toxicity on “Guinea-pig” was assessed to study the toxicological profile of the test item at high dose when topically applied on vagina daily for 28 days. Results: The market cream formulations had pH value ranging from 3.69-6.95 while laboratory made probiotic cream had pH value ranging between 4.4 - 5.38. The maximum viability of probiotic culture was seen in formulation having 1:1 concentration (10.20 log cfu/ml) followed by 1:0.8 concentration (9.83 log cfu/ml) and 1:0.5 concentration (9.69 log cfu/ml). The market cream formulation had viscosity in the range 31.2-48.11 Pa at 6 rpm while the viscosity of Laboratory made Probiotic cream was in the range 38.69-54.61 Pa. The minimum pH was seen in cream made of concentration of stearic acid 37% and 0.6% KOH. The final optimized cream (37 % stearic acid and 0.6 % KOH) showed best results for different in vitro tests when compared with four different market creams also this cream was able to inhibit indicator organisms G. vaginalis, Candida albicans, E. faecalis, S. aureu,s E. coli for bacterial vaginosis. The initial average viable count of dosage forms (10.20 ± 0.20 log cfu/g) got reduced up to 5.67± 0.06 log cfu/g after storage of 30 days. A significant (P<0.05) difference in pH was observed in first week of storage. The initial pH of cream was 4.15 ± 0.13 which increased to 4.24 ± 0.06on 30th day when stored at 40 °C ± 2 °C. At 7 °C ± 2 °C, the initial average viable count of cream (10.76 ± 0.31 log cfu/g) got reduced up to 7.32 ± 0.07 log cfu/g after storage of 90 days. A significant (P<0.05) difference was observed in first week of storage. The initial pH of cream was 4.14 ± 0.13which almost remained same i.e. 4.17 ± 0.03on 90th day. The cream stored at both temperatures was found to be thermodynamically stable. The sub-acute vaginal toxicity study showed that cream made was giving no side effects and is safe for human clinical trials.
Conclusion: The probiotic cream developed is safe and can be used by humans after clinical trials are done. The in vitro test proved that this probiotic cream can be a potential treatment for treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis.
Title: Probiotic Potentials of different Lactobacillus Isolates from the Ethnic Fermented Foods of Garo Hills, Meghalaya, India
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Background and Objective: Probiotics are the health promoting viable microorganisms that exhibit a beneficial effect on the health of human being by improving the intestinal microflora. The probiotics are generally consumed as a part of the fermented foods. Traditional fermented foods of Garo Hills, Meghalaya, India contain lots of friendly bacteria. This study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus cultures isolated from the traditional fermented foods of the Garo Hills of Meghalaya. Methods: The Lactobacillus isolated were analysed for their tolerance to low pH, bile salts, antimicrobial potential, auto-aggregation ability, microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons, antioxidative potential, antibiotic susceptibility, proteolytic activity and cholesterol assimilation. Results: Out of eight Lactobacillus isolates, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (K4) and Lactobacillus helveticus (K14) was found to tolerate pH 2 and pH 3 for 1.5 and 3 hours. Lactobacillus fermentum (K16) could survive efficiently at 0.5% bile salts after 1.5 and 3 h and it was also able to reduce cholesterol efficiently (60.64%) as compared to the other isolates. Lacto bacillus rhamnosus (K4) strain displayed highest antioxidant activity (49.13, 62.8973,97 and 82.17% at 0, 2, 6 and 24 hours respectively) and also exhibited the highest cell surface hydrophobicity (69.95%). Lactobacillus helveticus (K14) also exhibited the highest aggregation (81.32%) and proteolytic activity (0.67 O.D.) justifying their capability to self-aggregate easily which is a prerequisite for colonization and protection of gastrointestinal tract. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of selected isolates were also observed and antimicrobial activity was demonstrated against E. coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. Further, the evolutionary relatedness between the Lactobacillus isolates was signified by a DNA alignment program, MAFFT v6.864. Conclusion: The present study confirmed the potentials of the Lactobacillus cultures as probiotics for exploitation in the development of novel functional fermented foods for the betterment of human health in North-Eastern region of India and the other parts as well. Further, clinical investigations are required to validate the health claims against these Lactobacillus cultures.
Title: Cost Effective γ- linolenic Acid from Microalgae through Biorefinery Approach
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Background and Objective: One of the major challenges related with the algal biofuel production in a biorefinery approach is improving biomass utilization for net energy gain providing economically viable and scalable process for deriving commercially important co-products through a greener route. A novel integrated process based on detergent (sodium dodecyl sulphate) based hydrolysis to convert the carbohydrates present in microalgal biomass to reducing sugars for microbial fermentation, while making available lipids for downstream processing of γ- linolenic acid, leaving protein rich fragment behind. Methods: The microalgal cultivation of Chlorella variabilis was carried out during the peak summer season (June 2016) in Gujarat, India with a 46±3°C ambient air temperature. A cell concentration of 2g/l (wet basis) was used to inoculate the tank with an area of 1.2 m2. The total lipid content was quantified gravimetrically from the sun-dried biomass as per Bligh & Dyer, 1959. The obtained total lipids are subjected to fractionation with urea followed by transesterification of obtained poly-unsaturated fatty acids. γ- linolenic acid was extracted and purified from total polyunsaturated fatty acids through argented silica gel chromatography as per Guil-Guerrero et al. 2000. Further, hydrolysis of the spent biomass was done using 1% (w/v), 3% (w/v) and 5% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at 120 rpm for 12 h at ambient temperature for obtaining reducing sugars. Bacillus licheniformis, a marine bacterium isolated from CSIR-CSMCRI’s experimental salt farm, Gujarat, India was used for the production of ε-polylysine utilizing microalgal hydrolysate prepared from the spent biomass of Chlorella variabilis. The crude extract ε-PL extract obtained after ammonium sulphate precipitation was subjected to lyophilisation for obtaining dry powder containing ε-PL. Further, the dried material containing ε-PL was completely dissolved in 10 ml EAN at 60 °C and kept immediately at -20 °C for 4 h for precipitation of ε-PL. Finally, the ionic liquid (EAN) may be decanted and the precipitate will be dried for obtaining pure ε-PL. Results: In the current context, textile effluent was supplementing the carbon and nitrogen source for the growth of Chlorella variabilis. From 495 gm. of microalgal biomass, 109.4 gm total lipids can be extracted containing 34.65 gm. γ- linolenic acid. After lipid extraction, SDS mediated hydrolysis of spent microalgal biomass yielded 36.68 gm. of reducing sugars and protein rich biomass was left containing 9.65gm. total proteins. Further, microbial fermentation using obtained hydrolysate containing 36.68 gm fermentable sugars along with medium components was carried for 1.3 gm pure ε-polylysine. Conclusion: One of the major environmental issues with the textile industry sector is the disposal of their effluent containing unreacted dyes and high concentration of salt. Most of the textile effluents consist of high concentration of bicarbonate salts which is an important substrate for the growth of Chlorella sp. In the present study, Chlorella variabilis was grown in open tanks at a scale of 100L using 40% textile effluent for generating microalgal biomass containing γ- linolenic acid which is an important nutraceutical and generally added into the cooking oil’s. A total of 495 gm. microalgal biomass was generated containing 34.65 gm. γ- linolenic acid. Further, 36.68 gm. of fermentable sugars was extracted from the deoiled microalgal biomass for preparing 1.3 gm ε-polylysine which has various biomedical applications in pharmaceutical sector.
Title: Development of Fiber Fortified Probiotic Shrikhand
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Objective: To develop fibre fortified probiotic shrikhand with an addition of probiotic culture as well as dietary fiber containing ingredients. Methods: Shrikhand using the probiotic culture thermophilic lactic acid freezed dried DVS (Direct Vat Set) culture (ABY-3) and three fibers banana powder, oat powder and inulin powder were incorporated in Shrikhand on w/w basis of expected yield of Shrikhand. All the samples were evaluated for the composition, physico-chemical, rheological property i.e. consistency, sensory properties and microbial quality. The data generated during the investigations was statistically analyzed by using Completely Randomized Design. Results: Three fiber containing powder were incorporated in Shrikhandat three rates viz., banana powder @ (B1: 1.0, B2: 3.0, B3: 5.0)%, oat powder @ (O1:1.0, O2: 2.0, O3: 3.0) %, inulin powder@ (I1:1.0, I2: 2.0, I3: 3.0) % on w/w basis of expected yield of Shrikhand. These levels were selected based on preliminarytrials. The fiber content of banana powder, oat powder and inulin powder was 2.5, 12.8 and 92% respectively. Among the three levels studied for each fiber containing powder, B3, O2 and I1 were selected as the most acceptable rates of addition for fiber fortification in Shrikhand. In the next part of the study comparison of Shrikhand containing selected level of each fiber containing powder viz. B3, O2 I1 and C was done and O2 was selected as the best supplementation of fiber followed by I1 and B3 and C. Shrikhand was prepared using the method described above. The gross composition of the developed cardamom flavor probiotic fiber fortified Shrikhand was total solids 59.01%, milk fat 6.37%, protein 5.72%, carbohydrate 44.76%, sucrose 41.47%, ash 0.68% and fiber 0.24 %. The physico-chemical properties and consistency of the developed cardamom flavor probiotic fiber fortified Shrikhand was acidity 0.98 % LA, free fatty acids 0.58 μ.eq/g, soluble nitrogen 0.27 %, water activity 0.938, pH 4.36 and consistency 8.65 N. the total sensory score obtained by the product was 93.28. The probiotic count of the developed product was 8.46 log cfu/g and higher than minimum count (6.00 log cfu/g) to state that product is probiotic. The average yield of chakka was 310g/ lit of skim milk and the average yield of Shrikhand472g / lit of skim milk. Conclusion: An acceptable quality cardamom flavoured fiber fortified probiotic Shrikhand was developed by addition of oat powder 2% by weight expected yield of Shrikhand.. The product can be consumed with breakfast or meals and designated as a fiber enriched Shrikhand. The probiotic count of the developed product was 8.46-log cfu/g, which was much higher than minimum count (6.00 log cfu/g) to state that product is probiotic.
Title: Techno-functional potential, development and evaluation of functional soy yogurt from Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional fermented foods of West Garo Hills, Meghalaya, India
Abstract :
Background and Objective: Lactic acid bacteria produces a group of enzymes namely α-galactosidases and β-glucosidases that catalyse hydrolysis of galactose containing oligosaccharide, which reduce digestibility of various food products and contribute to the dietary and sensory attributes of fermented foods by deglucosylation. This study deals with the techno-functional potential of Lactobacillus species isolated from naturally fermented foods of West Garo Hills region of Meghalaya, India for the development and evaluation of functional soy yogurt. Methods: The Lactobacillus isolates were analysed to check the α-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activity using spectrophotometric enzyme assays and the best producers were used as starter cultures for the development of functional soy yogurt. The shelf life study of each soy yogurt variety was analysed in by storing them in different incubation temperatures (-4°C, 6°C and 33°C) and storage days (0, 3, 6 and 10 days) respectively and their physicochemical properties, microbial counts and sensory evaluation were determined.
Results: Out of forty nine fermented food-derived strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (K4) was selected as the most adequate producer of α-galactosidase (0.407 μM/ml/min) and Lactobacillus helveticus (K14) produced maximum β-glucosidase (0.396 μM/ml/min). Soy yogurt was produced from four formulations (control, plain, vanilla and rose white) with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (K4) and Lactobacillus helveticus (K14) as the starter cultures. The pH decreased and the titratable acidity (% lactic acid) increased during the storage period (0, 3, 6 and 10 days) of different soy yoghurt samples kept at different temperature conditions (-4°C, 6°C and 33°C). The microbiological evaluation (Lactobacillus, coliforms, yeast and moulds count) was done to examine the finished product on the survival of starter organisms as well as the presence of undesirable spoilage and pathogenic organisms. The organoleptic/sensory evaluation was carried out according to 9 points Hedonic scale and out of all the quality attributes of the soy-yoghurt samples; rose white flavoured yogurt sample was the most preferred by the sensory panellists. Conclusion: In this study, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (K4) and Lactobacillus helveticus (K14) were potent producer of α-galactosidase and β-glucosidase enzymes and these culture combinations incorporated rose white flavoured soy yogurt showed acceptable sensory characteristics and further the probiotic potential and bio-functional properties of this product can be exploited.
Title: Industrial-scale Production of Microencapsulated Lactic Acid Bacteria
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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a heterogeneous group of gram-positive bacteria. They are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and occupy a central role in the food industry for centuries. LAB has been widely used in many industrial applications as a starter culture in production of fermented food products and as biocontrol agent in food preservation. In addition, many strains of LAB have probiotic properties that colonize the host mucosal surfaces, including gut, where they may contribute to host health. Several factors affect the viability of LAB during food manufacturing, storage and after consumption during transition through the gastrointestinal tract. Two options could maintain the viability of probiotics. Selecting resistant probiotic strains or genetically modified one to adapt the stress conditions or developing an effective encapsulating delivery system. Microencapsulation appears to be one of the promising techniques in protecting the LAB. Encapsulation efficiency was affected by the capsule size, carrier agent, encapsulation technique and the probiotic cell load. Several methods and carrier agents have been investigated and appeared promising, however, in the laboratory scale. Designing a good delivery system for industrial scale production could be performed through understanding the characteristic features of the entrapped bacteria and how it interact with the carrier agent, the kind of the exposed stress, the required capsule size and the in vivo assessment for its benefit on the human health.

Title: Using Pomegranate Peel Extract as Natural Antioxidant on Cream Cheese Manufacture from Goat’s Milk
Abstract :
Background: Lipid oxidation may be the primary cause of deterioration in quality of food products. It decreases the organoleptic value of foods and imparts rancid and unpleasant flavors to the raw and end-use oil and fat products, thus making them unacceptable to consumers. Pomegranate peel is an important source of bioactive compounds and has been used in folk medicine for many centuries. The antioxidant activity exhibited by phenolic compounds from pomegranate peel has been reported in terms of reduced lipid oxidation. Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of utilization of pomegranate peel extract as natural preservation in goat’s cream cheese which rich in fat. Methods: cream cheese was prepared from goat’s milk supplemented with different concentration of Pomegranate peel extract (0, 0.5, 1, and 2%) as natural antioxidant. Goat’s cream cheese evaluated for antioxidant activity, oxidative stability, microbiological and organoleptic properties during storage periods at 4±1Cº for 45 days chemical composition were determined for fresh cheese. Results: The obtained results showed that a significant differences observed in antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid compounds. Stored goat’s cream cheese have significantly decreased in total bacterial count, proteolytic, lipolytic bacteria and yeast &mould counts than the control cheese, coliforms were not detected throughout the storage period. Organoleptic results showed that concentration of Pomegranate peels extract up to 0.5% and 1.0% respectively recorded high scores.
Conclusions: Overall, pomegranate peel extract could be successfully used as natural preservation to improve acceptability, the oxidative stability and storage quality in goat’s cream cheese.
Title: Competitiveness of Egyptian Dairy Products in the Most Important International Markets
Abstract :
Background and Objective: The Egyptian dairy industry is one of the most important production activities in Egypt, which is characterized by an increase in quantities produced significantly, and during the previous years, there are many dairy products manufactured in the structure of the most important Egyptian commodity exports. The problem of the study is concentrated in the decline of Egyptian exports of dairy products after a period of remarkable growth due to the difficulties faced by the Egyptian industry due to the economic and political developments in previous years and the competition facing Egypt in the international markets. Objective: To study the competitive position of Egyptian dairy products in the most important international markets, while identifying the experiences of some countries in order to benefit from them. Methodology: It was based on descriptive and quantitative analysis by SPSS. Results: Egypt ranks 32 among the world’s leading exporters of dairy products with a contribution of about 0.5% in global exports. The most important markets in the Arab world, such as Saudi Arabia, Libya, Jordan and Kuwait, are the proximity of the quality of Egyptian dairy products to the tastes of consumers. Saudi Arabia accounted for 27% of Egypt’s total exports, while Libya, Jordan and Kuwait accounted for 16%, 11% and 7%, respectively, as an average for 2012-2016. The results also indicated that Egyptian dairy products need more efforts to strengthen their competitive position and activate the role of state institutions to promote these products in the most important international markets. To identify ways to enhance Egyptian competitiveness, the experiences of some other countries were identified and used in this regard. Finally, the paper attempted to propose a set of ways and mechanisms that could be followed in Egypt to enhance the competitiveness of Egyptian dairy products. The main aims were to enhance the quality of Egyptian dairy exports, state support for exported dairy factories, and training of managers of the production and export process through state agencies. The new production technology is a means of studying, targeting and opening new markets.