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IJFF - Volume 6 - Issue 1

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Title: Contents
Abstract :
Title: Supplementation of milk with honey, oat, safed musli, carrot juice and its effects on characteristics and shelf-stability of probiotic products
Abstract :
The current work is aimed to study the effect of supplementation of milk on culture viability, characteristics and shelf life of probiotic fermented milk products. The products were prepared using toned milk supplemented with honey, oat, safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum), carrot and fermenting with probiotic Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 and Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 5460. Probiotic fermented milk without any supplementation served as control. Products were evaluated periodically for sensory properties, probiotic and starter viability, pH, free fatty acids and tyrosine content during storage at 5±2°C. Supplementation had a significant effect on sensory, culture count and chemical properties of products. Sensorily all products exhibited significant difference in flavor, colour and appearance, body and texture and overall acceptance till the end of storage period. Honey containing product was the most acceptable sensorily. All products exhibited an increasing trend in culture counts till 14 days of storage, after which the counts started declining. Probiotic viability was highest in carrot followed by honey, oat, safed musli compared to control. All products had >9log cfu/g probiotic count at the end of 21days of storage. In comparison with control the increase in free fatty acids and tyrosine were significant in all products and this increase was found to be highest in oat and musli containing products. Over all, a positive effect of supplementation was observed on the probiotic count and sensory aspects of products.
Title: Metabiotics and their Health Benefits
Abstract :

Probiotics are said to confer a number of health benefits on the host through their varied mechanisms of action in the human GIT. But a number of limitations exist with use of live probiotics. We are yet to be sure about the optimal dosage of probiotics, their specific mode of action, duration of the beneficial effects and the nature of the final results. The metabolic substances elaborated by probiotics and or their structural components, popularly called as metabiotics are said to provide more precise results in the above said aspects. These substances are said to possess better absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion abilities compared with classic probiotics based on live microorganisms. Hence use of metabiotic products may provide a more precise approach for treatment of pathological conditions associated with the imbalance of host microbiota.

Title: Lactobionic Acid: Significance and Application in Food and Pharmaceutical
Abstract :

Lactose has long been used as a precursor for the manufacture of high-value derivatives with emerging applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. This review focuses on the main characteristics, manufacturing methods, physiological effects and applications of lactobionic acid. Lactobionic acid is a product obtained from lactose oxidation, with high potential applications as a bioactive compound. Recent advances in tissue engineering and application of nanotechnology in medical fields have also underlined the increased importance of this organic acid as an important biofunctional agent.

Title: Studies on Bacteriocin Producing Abilities of Indigenously Isolated Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains
Abstract :

Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) known to produce bacteriocins; a small, ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides considered as next generation antibiotics due to the broad spectrum antibiotic nature. Scanty research was reported on the isolation and screening of different LAB species with high bacteriocin yield. With this lacuna the present study aimed to screen various isolated LAB cultures for their bacteriocin yield abilities and subsequently indentifies the elite LAB species representing higher bacteriocin yield. Initially isolated and preserved LAB cultures were sub-cultured and further screened for their bacteriocin yield abilities on CM media as a production media under submerged state fermentation (SmF) conditions. Based on the bacteriocin yield an elite species was identified, and studied morphologically by growing on different media namely Nutrient agar (NA) media, Acetate agarmedia and MRSmedia. Pediococcus pentosaceus strain 2269 obtained from culture collection centre NCIM, Pune, India was used as a standard culture. Microscopic study was performed to screen the visible similarities between the isolate and the standard strain. Further biochemical characterization i.e. Indole, Methyl red, Vogues Proskaeur, Catalase and Carbohydrate fermentation; studies were carried to confirm the culture at Genus level. Finally molecular characterization was done using 16s RNA sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis (MEGA V-6)to confirm the isolate at species level. Results reported that the culture isolated from the Sanna batter (Sanna 14) was identified as an elite species i.e. Pediococcus pentosaceus with higher bacteriocin yield (0.4mg/l) among the three bacteriocin positives cultures reported in the present study. The 16s RNA sequence of the Pediococcus pentosaceus culture was submitted to NCBI GenBank with an issued accession number MF183113.

Title: Safety Aspects of Fermented and Probiotic Foods
Abstract :

Fermentation is an age old technique that has been progressing continuously for better shelf life, safety, digestibility and for better nutritional value of fermented milk products. Lactic acid bacteria are most important in onset of fermentation which directing health benefits conferred by them. These health benefits are strain specific as genetic, biochemical and physiological differences among the strains of the same species. Safety evaluation and assessment of local and undefined cultures are utmost important otherwise, it may promotes public allegations succeeding into confidence loss in functional foods. Conventional techniques of toxicology and safety evaluation are not sufficient since a probiotic is meant to survive and grow in human colon in order to benefit humans. Hence, there is a need for in vivo assessment in support of in vitro confirmation for an adequate safety of currently undefined cultures before their use in fermented milk products preparations.

Title: Yogurt: A Nature’s Wonder for Mankind
Abstract :

Yogurt is a fermented dairy product, having several health benefits. Yogurt starter culture consists of a blend of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus. Today, there are more than 700 yogurt and cheese products found in Indian cuisine. Consumption of yogurt imparts various health beneficial effects to the host by promoting bone health, improving diet quality, reducing the incidence of chronic diseases such as obesity and cardio vascular disease. Yogurt also serves as a vehicle for fortification of several essential nutrients including protein, calcium, potassium, phosphorus and vitamins B2 and B12. Yogurt properties can be enhanced by the addition or treatment with various additives. Addition of minerals, herbs or their active components like oils could be an effective strategy to improve functionality of milk and milk products with respect to the health benefits, food safety and bio preservation. Recent developments in this regard have been thoroughly discussed.

Title: Isolation and Characterization of Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri Strains Isolated from Different Sources
Abstract :

The present study was designed with a aim to isolate and select potential probiotic L. gasseri strains from breast fed human infant feces (0-3 months), saliva and breast milk samples (0-3 months old lactating mothers). A total number of 34 L. gasseri isolates isolated from these samples were initially screened to check their survival at pH-2. Out of these 34 isolates only nine isolates viz. Lg5, Lg6, Lg12, Lg23, Lg50b, Lg61b, Lg70, Lg8sf and Lg2sc were found to be most acid tolerant and selected for further in vitro evaluation. When tested for bile tolerance three isolates Lg70, Lg2sc, Lg8sf were found to resist 2% bile and showed highest viability among the tested nine strains. The nine isolates exhibited varying degree of hydrophobicity to three tested hydrocarbons and were also demonstrated to have adhesive properties on Caco-2 cell lines. Four L. gasseri strains viz. Lg50, Lg61b, Lg70 and Lg8sf were found to have strong BSH activity and were also found to assimilate cholesterol in vitro. The isolate Lg70 showed highest in vitro cholesterol assimilation following 24 h incubation in broth having cholesterol. Almost all the L. gasseri isolates showed activity against tested indicator strains. These nine isolates were susceptible to clinically used antibiotics. When tested for virulence traits none of the isolate were found positive for hemolysis, DNase and Gelatinase activity and hence were found to be safe. In this study the L. gasseri strain Lg70 was found as the most promising probiotic candidate.