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IJFF - Volume 7 - Issue 2

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Title: Contents Vol. 7, No. 2, December 2018
Abstract :
Title: Interaction Effect of Starter Cultures, Forms and Rates of Finger Millet flour on Quality Parameters of Finger Millet Enriched Probiotic Fermented Milk
Abstract :

In the present study, three starter cultures viz., C1 (Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 5460 + Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463), C2 (Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 5460 + Lactobacillus rhamnosus MTCC 5945) and C3 (Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 5460 + Lactobacillus rhamnosus MTCC 5946), two forms of finger millet flour viz., malted and unmalted were used to prepare finger millet enriched probiotic fermented milk. Both forms of finger millet flour were incorporated in toned milk at 15% and 20% rates. Products were analysed for titratable acidity, sensory and microbiological parameters. Study results revealed a significant interaction effect between type of cultures, forms and rates of incorporation of finger millet especially with respect to titratable acidity and culture count in the products. Malted finger millet supported better growth of all starter cultures which was evident from the higher titratable acidity and culture counts in the malted products. Sensorily also these products were superior compared to unmalted products. Among the cultures, the products made using culture C1 was found to be superior sensorily in comparison to cultures C2 and C3. Rate of incorporation of finger millet @20% supported a better growth of cultures. Average count of all the strains in the products were more than10 log cfu/g.

Title: Development of Cheddar Cheese Whey based Growth Medium for Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463
Abstract :

Whey has been used as a growth medium for lactic acid bacteria (LAB). This is the cheapest medium for production of biomass in larger amount as the whey is a by-product of dairy industry. The pure strains of Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 was inoculated in Cheddar cheese whey. Proteolysis was done by treating with papain (0.5%) at 50°C for 4h. Among several nutrient supplements used to promote the growth of bacteria; WPC (@ 0.5%) and inorganic salt MnSO4 (@0.01%) were found most promising for boosting the growth of lactic culture. Such standardized whey based medium was compared for growth characteristics of Lb. helveticus MTCC 5463 to that of only whey and commercially available media (MRS) and found to have no significant difference in growth of bacteria. The viability of Lactobacillus in MRS as well as standardized whey based medium was also non-significant. To assess industrial feasibility for the commercialization of medium, yield of biomass of the strain was determined at laboratory scale and found to be 2.41 g from 500 ml whey. When this optimized process was scaled up to 5L capacity using fermenter for 12 h, dry yield of Lb. helveticus MTCC 5463 was found 5.51 g/L while total viable counts were 10.11log cfu/g. Thus, use of whey as culture media for the production of biomass of lactic acid cultures offers a low cost alternative for commercial media

Title: Nutritional Quality of Rice Based Noodles Supplemented with Germinated Chickpea Flour
Abstract :

The rice based noodles were prepared by incorporating germinated chickpea flour of 5, 10, 15 and 20 per cent from 36 hours of GNG 469 and GNG 1581 chickpea cultivars. With the incorporation of germinated chickpea flour, the highest mean moisture content of 11.47 percent was recorded in treatment T1 (100:00::RF), crude protein (10.14 per cent), crude fat (1.10 per cent), crude fiber (4.14 per cent) in treatment T5(80:20::RF:GNG1581CF), ash content of 1.53 per cent in treatment T5(80:20::RF:GNG1581CF) and T9(80:20::RF:GNG 469CF) and total carbohydrates (78.34 per cent) in treatment T1 (100:00::RF). The minimum cooking time of 09.51 minutes was observed in treatment T5(80:20::RF:GNG1581CF) and gruel solid loss of 9.20 per cent in treatment T7(90:10::RF:GNG469CF). Sensory evaluation of chickpea flour based rice noodles revealed that highest overall acceptability score of 7.20 was recorded in treatment T4 (85:15::RF:GNG 1581CF).

Title: Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus plantarum
Abstract :

The present study is to investigate the probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from different food sources. Bacterial strains were screened for probiotic properties viz. tolerance to pH, bile salt, NaCl and phenol. They were also tested for auto-aggregation and hydrophobicity. They were also subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing for their potential in reducing the negative effects of antibiotic therapy on host system. Out of 7 samples, 2 bacterial strains were tolerant to acid, bile salt, NaCl and phenol stress. Both the strains were identified by morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization. BLAST tool was used to compare the 16S rRNA sequences. Auto-aggregation and hydrophobicity were carried out and found the good auto-aggregation and hydrophobicity capability of both the strains. Bacteriocin produced by these two strains were investigated for their anti-bacterial potential against test pathogens. Among several selected bacterial strains L.plantarum SK3 and L.plantarum DB2 have good probiotic potential for further use in preparation of functional food. Currently research has been done to prepare functional food with health benefits along with overcoming nutritional deficiencies. These functional foods can be prepared by using lactic acid bacteria in fermentation. The lactic acid bacteria isolated in this study proved a good probiotic candidate as they survived during stress conditions posing to them. This study revealed the potential/possibility of using LAB and /or bacteriocin produced by them as food bio preservative to control foodborne pathogenic bacteria in near future.

Title: Salt Induced Variation on the Bioactive Components of Fermented Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds
Abstract :
Background and Objective: Processing of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth seeds into “Ugba” delicacy not only reduces the anti-nutrient concentrations but also introduces some unique compounds that improves its nutritional potentials and enhances its acceptability and palatability.
Methodology: A quantity of 2.0 kg of raw sample was boiled in water at 100 °C for 12 hrs, the testa was dehulled and 10 g of edible salt was added to the sliced cotyledons. The mixture was boiled for 3 hrs and allowed to stand for 24 hrs at room temperature. The sliced cotyledons were filtered and divided into three parts of 0.5 kg each. One part was ground immediately into a smooth paste to give the “cooked-salted unfermented sample”. The 2nd and 3rd parts were seeded with 0.2 g each of three days fermented P. macrophylla Benth seed and allowed to ferment. The second part was ground after 48 hours while the third part was ground after 96 hours to give“cooked-salted 2 days fermented” and “cooked-salted 4 days fermented” samples respectively. Results: Oleic acid was the highest volatile component observed via GC-MS analysis of cooked salted unfermented sample with a total percentage concentration of 94.909, while 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- (Linoliec acid) was the highest bioactive component observed in cooked salted two days fermented and cooked salted four days fermented samples with total percentage concentrations 96.807 and 55.598 respectively. Conclusion: This study shows that the product of P. macrophylla Benth fermentation is a factor of both fermentation conditions and predominant fermenting organism favoured by such conditions.
Title: Buttermilk: An Unrevealed Nutraceutical
Abstract :

Buttermilk is a refreshing drink obtained in the preparation of butter from dahi or by churning cream. It is rich source of phospholipids and other constituents of MFGM. Therapeutic Properties of Buttermilk is described in Ayurveda texts. Consuming buttermilk on regular basis offers manly health benefits. Presence of MFGM has given buttermilk an added value. Cultured buttermilk also serves as a good source of bioactive peptide which can offer additional therapeutic values.

Title: Development of Health Functional Wine produced from Emblica officinalis and Phyllanthus niruri and a Comparative Study of them over Commercial Wine
Abstract :

Wine is one of the functional fermented foods that have many health benefits. Using fruits and herbs having medicinal and nutritional value as a substrate for wine production, the health benefits of them can be improved widely. Bhumi Amla and Indian gooseberry, which are known for its high medicinal and nutritional value, are used as the substrate here. Fermentation is carried out with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Daily monitoring was done to study the composition and characteristics of the wine. The wine produced resembled the commercial wine in terms of its composition, taste and aroma. After the fermentation period the wine was analysed for pH, total soluble solids, alcohol and antioxidant profile, post aging. The wines with Phyllanthus niruri and Emblica officinalis displayed high quantum of tannins, phenols and free radical scavenging activity. After the aging period parameters such as Antioxidant profile, Alcohol content, Total Suspended Solids (oBrix), pH, Titratable Acidity were analysed. These parameters were compared with that of commercial wine. Thus the studies showed that the pH, TSS, Tannin and Alcohol content were higher for commercial wine. But the phenol, reducing sugar and % inhibition of free radicals is higher for homemade wine.

Title: Oxalate Degradation Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Traditional Fermented Milk Products, Human Vagina and Human Faecal Matter
Abstract :

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from faecal matter of healthy human volunteers and traditional fermented milk samples such as dahi, buttermilk, lassi were identified and characterized by morphological, API identification and 16SrRNA sequencing. Selected isolates were studied for oxalate degradation potential using colorimetric assay kit (Sigma-MAK179). One human vaginal isolate was also included in the study. Study results revealed a higher LAB count in faecal matter as compared to fermented milk products. Faecal isolates mainly belonged to genera Enterococcus and Lactobacillus. Out of the 24 isolates studied, 11 isolates gave > 30% oxalate degradation and among them, five isolates gave > 50% degradation, which included Enterococcus hirae F8, Weissella confusa F9, Enterococcus faecium M11, Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus MTCC 25062. Oxalate degradation ability is found to be both species and strain specific. Fermented milk isolate Enterococcus faecium M11 gave highest oxalate degradation (69.7%) followed by vaginal isolate Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 (68.8%)and faecal isolate Enterococcus hirae F8 (68.4%).

Title: Preparation and Sensory Evaluation of Arrowroot Masala Khakhra
Abstract :

Khakhra is a crispy version of roti, it is usually a cracker that is handmade and roasted to provide crunchiness. It is also a healthy snack which is a common recipe in the Rajasthani and Gujarati cuisines of western India, especially a Jain’s and Gujarati’s. In present investigation efforts were made to prepare masala khakhra by using different proportions of ingredients like whole wheat, besan, rice flour, arrowroot powder, dehydrated onion. After few trials a recipe was standardized using blends of whole wheat flour, gram flour, rice flour, arrowroot powder, dehydrated onion and spices to taste. Physico-chemical, nutritional profile and sensory analysis of final product made using standardized recipe was carried out. Sensory evaluation was done by semi trained panelists on 5 point hedonic scale. Shelf-life study of the final product was carried over a period of 14 days at room temperature it was found that product maintained the required texture for first seven days at room temperature.

Title: Nutritional Status of Adolescents from High Socio-Economic Strata in Delhi
Abstract :

The study was conducted to assess the dietary intake and nutritional status (in terms of anaemia and physical growth) of adolescents from high socioeconomic strata in Delhi. Factors affecting anaemia among subjects were also analyzed. Study was conducted on 100 adolescents in age group of 10 -17 years. The study revealed low intake of calories and very low intake of iron by adolescents. There were no economic constraints but various factors like convenience. Traditional practices and dietary beliefs appeared to influence the dietary intake patterns of subjects. It was found that 28 percent subjects were overweight, 68 percent had normal BMI while 8 percent were underweight. Only 23 percent were non anaemic and remaining had low or moderate anaemia. BMI for age was significantly correlated with calorie intake. Haemoglobin levels had no relation with BMI however they were significantly correlated with iron intake of subjects. A need for nutritional counselling was felt after completion of study so as to address problems of anaemia due to faulty eating habits.