Title: Oxytocin, Functions, Uses and Abuses: A Brief Review Abstract :
Oxytocin a peptide hormone has the distinction of being the first among the peptide hormones to be sequenced and biochemically synthesized. Oxytocin is secreted from neural as well as non-neural sources inside the body. Among the neural sources supra-optic and paraventricular nuclei of the brain are major sources of secretion, the arcuate nucleus being a minor source. There are many non-neural sources from which synthesis of Oxytocin has been reported. The important ones include interstitial cells of Leydig in testis, epididymis, prostate glands, corpus luteum inside ovary, uterus, oviduct, placenta and adrenal glands. Oxytocin directly acts on the smooth muscle cells and causes muscle contraction. Indirectly it stimulates synthesis of PGF2α inside the female genital tract. As such the Oxytocin is involved in a wide spectrum of activities from milk letdown, parturition, penile erection and ejaculation to social, sexual and maternal behavior. Because of the spectrum of its functions it has since been used therapeutically for conditions like facilitating parturition in uterine inertia, prevent bleeding after parturition and abortion, management of incomplete abortion, milk letdown, retention of placenta etc., although the success has not been predictable. However, Oxytocin is also being misused under the false impression that its use in dairy animals increases the milk yield. Oxytocin abuse is also rampant in fruits and vegetables. This article is an attempt to explore the body of knowledge with respect to functions, uses and most importantly the abuses of this wonderful hormone.
Title: Histomorphology of Thyroid Gland and Thyroid Hormonal Changes in Pati ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) of Assam with Age Abstract :
The study was conducted on 36 number of Assam Pati ducks divided into 6 groups to study the histomorphological characteristics of thyroid gland and Thyroid hormones from 2 weeks to 40 weeks of age. The thyroid glands were collected from 6 birds in each group. After recording the gross parameter values the material was fixed and processed for histological studies. Blood samples of about 2-3 ml were collected from the wing veins of each bird before sacrifice of each age group and immediately transferred into blood collection tubes without adding any anticoagulant for biochemical study. The paired thyroid glands in the Pati ducks were located on either side of the trachea close to the vascular angle formed by the subclavian artery and common carotid artery. The microscopic structure of thyroid glands of Pati ducks revealed primarily the capsule enclosing the follicles that contained colloid in the H & E sections. The interfollicular area contained the parafollicular cells. A homogenous translucent colloidal mass filled the thyroid follicles in all age groups. C cells were present in the interfollicular zone of the thyroid gland. The average serum triiodothyronine level in 2 weeks old ducks was 2.706 ± 0.049 nmol/L. The mean serum level of thyroxine in 2 weeks old ducklings was 53.981 ± 0.590 nmol/L and in 40 weeks ducks was 71.198 ± 2.337 nmol/L.
Title: Enzymatic Activities in Fresh Seminal Plasma and Extended Refrigerated Semen in Nari Suvarna Rams Abstract :
Enzyme activities in the seminal plasma are the good indicators of fertility. A study was conducted to determine the activities of certain enzymes in fresh seminal plasma and extended refrigerated semen in Nari Suvarna rams. Six rams of Nari Suvarna breed were selected and sixteen ejaculates were collected from each ram for a period of eight weeks at the rate of two collections per week by artificial vagina technique. The seminal plasma was separated by centrifugation. Enzyme activities such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were estimated. There was a non-significant (P>0.05) difference between the activities of enzymes in seminal plasma except ALP activity between the rams. The semen was extended using Tris and citrate buffers and the enzymatic activities such as ALP, ALT, AST and LDH were determined after refrigeration for 24 hrs for four Nari Suvarna rams. The numerically increased activities of all the enzymes were observed after extension and refrigeration. It was concluded that the levels of ALP, ALT, AST and LDH enzymes were established in the seminal plasma of Nari Suvarna rams in the present study and the numerical increase in the activities of these enzymes after refrigeration with extension of Tris and citrate buffers for 24 hours could be due to damage to the sperm membrane and leakage of enzymes in to the seminal fluid.
Title: Per-vaginal successful management of a rare case of dystocia in murrah buffalo due to dicephalus thoracophagus tetrabrachius tetrapus and dicaudatus monster: A case report Abstract :
First report a case of conjoined twin monster (Dicephalus Thoracophagus Tetrabrachius Tetrapus and Dicaudatus) was delivered by per vaginum without fetotomy in a pluriparous Murrah buffalo. The twin monster consist of two male fetus which were possessed separate set of structure two head, two pairs of forelimb and hindlimbs.
Title: A Rare Case of Foetal Maceration in Bitch and its Successful Management Abstract :
A seven years old bitch was presented with the history of whelping signs that appeared five days ago followed by abnormal brownish vaginal discharge since last three days. The body temperature and pulsation was normal without any signs of septicaemia or toxaemia. Per vaginal examination revealed foetal bones in the birth canal but the birth canal was not fully patent. Therapeutic treatment to dilate the birth canal for expulsion of the foetal masses was carried out. After treatment, the foetal masses of three puppies were recovered by applying slight traction with the help of fingers per vaginum. X-ray imaging of pelvic region was done to ensure the complete evacuation of the uterus from foetal bones.
Title: Effect of certain additives on the quality of boar semen during preservation at 15°C and 5°C Abstract :
The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of four additives viz. KMnO4, Vitamin E, Butylatedhydroxytoluene and trehalose on quality of boar semen during preservation at 15°C and 5°C up to 96 hours. 24 ejaculates were utilized for the study. Sperm motility was significantly higher with BHT irrespective of preservation temperature and period. However, the mean sperm motility was significantly higher (P<0.05) in semen preserved at 15°C than 5°C. Live sperm was significantly (P<0.05) lower in Trehalose than KMNO4, Vitamin E and BHT. The mean percentage of live intact acrosome irrespective of temperature and preservation period was significantly higher (P<0.05) with BHT than others additives. Semen in Modena extender with BHT had significantly higher (P<0.05) percentage of HOST-reacted sperm at different preservation periods irrespective of different temperature. In conclusion, Butylatedhydroxyltoluene (BHT) was found to be superior to KMNO4, Vitamin E and Trehalose for preservation of Hampshire boar semen.
Title: Role of Micro-nutrients in Bovine Reproduction Abstract :
Micro-nutrients have critical roles in the key interrelated systems of immune function, oxidative metabolism, and energy metabolism in ruminants. Micro minerals have a great impact on animal's reproductive physiology and its imbalance causes various problems leading to lowered reproductive efficiency and resultant monetary loss to the dairy industry. Reproductive efficiency is a major factor that affects profitability in ruminants. Trace minerals such as Zinc, Copper, Manganese, and Selenium are essential with classically defined roles as components of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins. Adequate micro minerals supplementation is required as most of the roughages, greens, concentrates and even most of commercial feeds available to Indian market are deficient in trace mineral elements. Often correcting an imbalance in mineral levels can sole a troublesome problem by improving reproductive performance and health with little additional cost. Due to diversity of terrain and agro climatic regions of India, so one therapeutic treatment may not be suitable for other regions. Hence there is a need to map of the various nutrient status in soil, fodder and animal, so that accordingly an area specific mineral may be supplemented.
Title: Ultrasonographic and Clinical Studies on Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Dogs Abstract :
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is prostate gland enlargement in which squamous metaplasia or glandular hyperplasia, or together, result from hormone imbalance in intact male dogs. Seventy five clinical cases of different ages and breeds, presented to ultrasonographic unit Veterinary college hospital, Hebbal, Bengaluru were utilized for the present investigation. The most common clinical findings in BPH were urinary retention, constipation, dysuria, cystitis, and haematuria. Clinical signs were evident in six dogs and in three dogs BPH was an incidental finding. Ultrasonography examination revealed enlarged prostate with normal to increased echogenicity, and with homogeneous or inhomogeneous echotexture. On transverse image, the two lobes were usually symmetrical. Benign prostatic hyperplasia with intraprostatic cysts was observed in two dogs one in mongrel and the other boxer aged 9 and 8 years respectively. Studies towards early diagnosis of this condition are crucial for effective treatment and improvement of quality of life of affected animals.
Title: Effect of different extenders on the quality of boar semen during preservation at 15°C and 5°C Abstract :
The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of three extenders viz. GEPS, BTS and Modena on quality of boar semen during preservation at 15°C and 5°C up to 96 hours. A total of 24 ejaculates were included for the study. The semen quality was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Modena followed by BTS and GEPS extended semen irrespective of preservation temperature and preservation period. Sperm motility, live sperm, live intact sperm and HOST-reacted sperm was significantly higher (P<0.05) at 15°C than 5°C. The sperm quality reduced gradually during different preservation periods. In conclusion, Modena extender was found to be superior to BTS and GEPS extenders for preservation of Hampshire boar semen.