Title: Gross Anatomical Studies on Femur of Hoary-Bellied Himalayan Squirrel (Callosciurus pygerythrus) Abstract :
The present study was conducted on the femur of an adult Hoary-Bellied Himalayan Squirrel (Callosciurus pygerythrus) which died due to road accident in the campus of College of veterinary sciences, Khanapara, Guwahati. The animal was collected immediately after death, and processed and then femur was removed, and a gross anatomical study was made on it. It was the longest bone of the skeleton. The head of the femur bent medially of the Hoary-Bellied Himalayan Squirrel (Callosciurus pygerythrus). It was situated in between the greater trochanter and lesser trochanter. The head of the femur was spherical and smooth with a shallow fovea capitis. The greater trochanter, the lesser trochanter and trochanter tertius were prominent. The greater trochanter had a small point on the lateral surface of the cranial part for muscles to originate. The trochanteric fossa was deep. The distal extremity was divided into two portions, namely the medial and lateral condyles through a intercondyloid fossa. The medial and lateral epicondyles had roughened surfaces. The supracondyloid fossa was not evident.
Title: Factors affecting sperm abnormalities and breeding soundness classification of bulls kept on commercial farms in Zambia Abstract :
A total of 441 eosin-nigrosin bull breeding soundness examination (BBSE) data was obtained from Matobo Veterinary centre and analysed. 82 bulls were classified as unsound for breeding representing 18.6% of the entire bull population studied. The breeds studied were the Bonsmara, Sussex, Brahman, Boran, Afrikander × Tuli and the Tuli. Breed and scrotal circumference (SC) were the significant predictors of BBSE classification. The Bonsmara and the Sussex breeds were not significantly different in predicting sperm abnormalities (p>0.05). The Brahman breed had odds of 0.358 less likely to be classified as sound, Boran breed had odds of 0.206 less likely to be classified as sound and the Afrikander × Tuli breed had odds of 0.097 less likely to be classified as sound while the Tuli breed had odds of 0.214 less likely to be classified as sound. Therefore, the Afrikander × Tuli breed had the highest probability of being classified as unsound for breeding. Bulls with a SC of <36 cm had odds of 0.235 less likely to be classified as sound while those of 39 to <42cm had odds of 0.384 less likely to be classified as sound compared to bulls with SC of ≥42cm. Body condition score (BCS) had an effect on mass motility (p<0.05). Bulls in month category (cat) 1 (September, October and November) had odds of 2.29 more likely to have fair mass motility relative to very good mass motility compared to bulls examined in June-July (cat 2) and month category 1 bulls had odds of 2.46 more likely to have good mass motility relative to very good mass motility compared to month category 2 bulls. Bulls in SC category 1 (≤39 centimetres (cm)) had odds of 1.81 more likely to have fair mass motility relative to very good mass motility compared to bulls in category 2 (>39cm) and bulls in BCS category 1 (2.5 and 3.0) had odds of 2.71 more likely to have fair mass motility relative to very good mass motility compared to bulls in category 3 (4.0)
Title: Effect of soya-milk based extender on the physico-morphological parameters of Murrah bull semen during cryopreservation Abstract :
Present investigation was undertaken on three buffalo bulls (Murrah) to study the effect of cryopreservation using Soya-milk extender. A total of 18 collections from three bulls (six collections per bull) were utilized for the study. After initial evaluation, each semen sample was diluted in two different extenders viz. Tris egg yolk extender which acted as control and Soya-milk extender as experimental. Various sperm parameters were studied at equilibration and post-thaw stages. There was no significant difference for percent head abnormalities, percent mid-piece abnormalities and acrosome integrity of spermatozoa among extenders at different stages of freezing. The progressive motility and live sperm percentage was significantly higher for Tris egg yolk extender at dilution, equilibration and post-thaw stages, but the values for Soya-Milk were also within acceptable limits at all stages of freezing as compared to Tris egg yolk extender. Furthermore the percent tail abnormalities and total sperm abnormalities were significantly higher for soya-milk extender at post thaw. In conclusion the experimental extender could be used as an alternate plant based extender in the cryopreservation of bubaline semen.
Title: Bilateral Diffuse Leydig Cell Tumour of Testicles in a Golden Retriever Dog Abstract :
A seven year old male Golden Retriever dog was presented with a history of unilateral scrotal swelling noticed for the last 20 days. The animal was obese and without any clinical signs. Physical examination revealed hard, freely movable enlarged and painless right testicle and hard and nodular left testicle. Ultrasonography revealed circumscribed, hypoechoic and irregular masses within the parenchyma of both testicles suggesting tumour of the testicle. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed as per standard surgical procedure under general anaesthesia. The animal had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology of tumour mass revealed diffuse Leydig cell tumour of both testicles.
Title: Effect of amla powder supplementation on haematological parameters, ceruloplasmin and transferrin levels in summer stressed murrah buffaloes Abstract :
The effect of amla powder supplementation was investigated on oxidative stress, metaloproteins viz; plasma ceruloplasmin and transferrin levels and haematological parameters i.e. packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) levels of summer stressed buffaloes. The study was carried out with 24 apparently healthy Murrah buffaloes during pre-summer and summer seasons. The animals were divided into 3 groups of 8 each viz. Pre-Summer group (Group I); Summer Control group (Group II); Summer Treatment group (Group III). Group III animals were supplemented with amla powder @ 200 mg/Kg body wt. /day for 30 days. In summer stressed buffaloes (Group II), a significant rise was observed in the erythrocytic lipid peroxidation level and ceruloplasmin whereas decrease in plasma transferring, PCV and Hb was observed. Supplementation of amla powder to summer stressed buffaloes was able to lower lipid peroxidation levels and superoxide dismutase activity coupled with the increase in transferrin, PCV and Hb levels coupled with decrease in ceruloplasmin concentration. It was concluded that amla powder supplementation can ameliorate the adverse effects of summer stress in Murrah buffaloes.