Title: Male Pseudohermaphroditism in a Bitch: A Case Report Abstract :
An eight months old Cocker Spaniel bitch, weighing 11kg, was presented to the Department of Surgery and Radiology, College of Veterinary Sciences & A.H., CAU, Selesih, Mizoram, with the complaint of dsyuria. On physical examination of the external genitalia revealed that the bitch possessed the vulva with enlarged clitoris protruding from the vulvar juncture and both testes remained undescended. Laparotomy revealed persistent Mullerian duct (PMD) with abdominally located testicles. Thus the congenital defects were diagnosed as male pseudohermaphrodititism (MPH) with PMD.
Title: Amorphous Globosus in a Cow: A Case Report Abstract :
A Holstein Friesian cow in its third parity was presented with complaints of severe straining and complete anorexia since last 24 hours. The water bag had been ruptured 24 hours before albeit the term was of seven and half month. As evident from the history and symptoms, it was a case of dystocia associated with premature delivery. After delivery of one male fetus by manual traction, another fetus was delivered which was found to be a case of Amorphous globosus and had only insufficient digestive tract developed. The detailed handling of the case, obstetrical correction and post-delivery care and management is discussed.
Title: Serum Cortisol Concentrations in Response to Ovario-hysterectomy and Following Post-operative Analgesia with Carprofen and Meloxicam in Dogs Abstract :
Serum cortisol levels following ovario-hysterectomy and post-operative analgesia with carprofen and meloxicam were studied in twelve dogs randomly assigned to Group A and Group B. In Group A, carprofen was administered @ 4 mg/kg i.v, whereas in Group B, meloxicam was administered @ 0.2 mg/ kg i.v, immediately after completion of surgery. Study revealed that the cortisol levels increased up to 6 to 7 fold immediately after ovariohysterectomy. Induction of analgesia with carprofen and meloxicam significantly reduced the level of cortisol. Carprofen was found to be a better analgesic than meloxicam in terms of its role in reducing the cortisol levels post-operatively.
Title: Benchmark to Reach Precocious Puberty in Replacement Heifers: A Review Abstract :
To achieve precocious puberty in heifers, female calf should be selected with their birth earlier in calving season i.e., heifers born in the first 21 days of calving season. Essential points for successful heifer raising include colostrum feeding to produce best start in the life, monitoring growth rate regularly, accommodation in spacious ventilated barn, body capacity and frame improved by quality forage supplementation. Proper disease control along with maintenance of health and welfare as well as use of sire selected for calving ease. Monitoring of nutrition and pre-weaning growth to achieve early weaning. Standardized target weight is essential to achiev optimum pregnancy at early age. Ionophores and hormones may be used, for achieving precocious puberty provided stair step gain in body weight along with vaccination and de-worming. Feeds with high phytoestrogen may be avoided. Scoring for Body condition, frame and reproductive tract is essential steps at interval for all heifers. Estrus synchronization together with on time estrus detection may be utilized to achieve better conception and pregnancy after early puberty.
Title: Occurrence of Prostatic Diseases in Intact Adult Dogs Abstract :
Retrospective studies showed an overall occurrence of 1.48 per cent of prostatic diseases among male dogs aged more than two years. The highest occurrence of 2.89 per cent was noticed in German Shepherds, followed by 2.61 per cent in Labrador Retrievers, 2.50 per cent in Belgian Shepherds and 2.40 per cent in St. Bernards. Occurrence progressively increased with the advancing age and 4.48 per cent occurrence of prostatic diseases was recorded in dogs aged more than eight years. The most common prostatic disease recorded was BPH (74.21%), followed by prostatitis (18.42%), prostatic cyst (3.16%) and prostatic neoplasia (4.21%).
Title: Luteal Dysfunction: A Potential Cause of Repeat Breeding and the Strategies to Combat it Abstract :
Luteal dysfunction, also called as luteal insufficiency or luteal inadequacy is a major endocrine etiology of repeat breeding syndrome in the cattle and buffalo leading to early embryonic mortality and decreased reproductive efficiency of the dairy herd. The luteal inadequacy as an independent component of repeat breeding acts as a sequela to either inadequate progesterone or the premature luteal regression that clinically manifest as delayed ovulation with an extended follicular phase, longer interval between luteolysis and ovulation, delayed postovulatory rise in progesterone concentration and presence of suprabasal progesterone concentration during follicular phase allowing follicular and oocyte ageing due to postponemet of LH surge. Luteal inadequacy can be addressed either at post breeding window of day 0-12 with different hormonal combinations including GnRH, hCG, progesterone or by non hormonal antiluteolytic strategies like ω-3 and ω-6 polyunstaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation in the diet.
Leptin, an adipocyte hormone plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis by inhibiting hunger, interacts with the reproductive axis of mammals at multiple sites with stimulatory effect at the hypothalamus and pituitary and its high dose has inhibitory action on steroidogenesis. As a marker whether nutrition stores are adequate, leptin may act in concert with gonadotrophins and growth hormone axis for the initiation of complex phenomenon of puberty. The expression and secretion of leptin are correlated with body fat mass and are acutely affected by feed intake. Moreover, circulating leptin increases during pubertal development in rodents and domestic animals. Effects of leptin are mediated mainly via receptor activation of the JAK-STAT pathway; however, activation of alternative pathways, such as MAP kinase, has also been reported. Leptin helps in oocyte development and maturation .It also has angiogenic, immuno-modulatory and anti inflammatory activities helps in implantation and prevents embryo rejection by the maternal immune system, invasion of trophoblast and cause mammary growth development.
Title: Comparison of Sperm Attributes in two Indigenous Layer Breeds and their Relationship with Fertility Abstract :
To compare Aseel and Kadaknath breeds, 50 roosters per breed were evaluated for colour, volume, pH, motility, viability, membrane and acrosome integrity. Ten roosters / breed were also evaluated for fertility rate. There was no significant difference in colour, pH, volume and motility of semen among both breeds. However, percentage of viable spermatozoa and spermatozoa with intact membrane was non-significantly (P > 0.05) higher in ejaculates of Kadaknath (82.04 ± 4.47, 44.17 ± 3.96 than Aseel (78.35 ± 5.37, 30.98 ± 9.02) roosters. Significant positive correlation was observed among different sperm attributes, but correlation between motility / viability and membrane integrity / acrosome damage was higher in Aseel breed (0.86 and 0.60) as compared to Kadaknath (0.40 and 0.05). A very weak positive correlation was also observed between fertility rate and sperm traits in both breeds. Although, viability, membrane integrity and acrosome integrity were higher in semen of Kadaknath than Aseel breed, but both breed were almost equivalent in their fertility. Selection of roosters on the basis of sperm attributes may be useful in AI practices aimed at genetic improvement for breeds.