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TI - Volume 7 - Issue 3

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Title: Contents
Abstract :


Title: Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita from a Holstein Friesian Cow
Abstract :

A 3 year old artificially inseminated Holstein Friesian (HF) cow was presented with dystocia on 1st May, 2017 after 273 days of gestation. Rectal examination revealed a calf in transverse presentation with its dorsum towards the cervix. The head was in right ilial position with stiff and fixed flexed forelimbs and hind-limbs. Forced traction of the foetus was unsuccessful and a caesarean section was conducted which led to the exteriorisation of a small foetus with severe contraction of the limb joints, torticolis and lack of muscle development. The calf died shortly after birth and post-mortem revealed a cleft palate. To our knowledge, this was the first reported case of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita in Zambia.

Title: Profile of Endometrial Secretory Proteins in Repeat Breeder Jersey Crossbred Cows
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to evaluate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the endometrial secretory proteins in uterine flushing collected on day 12 of estrous cycle in 10 normal and 10 repeat breeder Jersey crossbred cows. In the estrous cycle preceding the one in which uterine flushing were to be collected, all the repeat breeder cows were evaluated by phenolsulphonphthalene dye test to exclude the possibility of ovarobursal adhesions and fallopian tube blockade, both of which are established reasons of repeat breeding. The total protein content in the uterine flushing was higher in normal than repeat breeder cows (9.9 ± 1.6 mg/ml vs. 7.6 ± 0.5 mg/ml). On SDS-PAGE analysis, six protein bands of molecular weight 41, 53, 63, 69, 85 and 91 kDa were recorded in all the normal, but only in 8 of the 10 repeat breeder cows. The remaining 2 repeat breeder cows revealed an absence of three proteins of 63, 69 and 91 kDa. In conclusion, a lower total protein content and/or absence of specific proteins could be a potential reason of repeat breeding.

Title: Piglet Mortality and its Management
Abstract :

Pigs produce more offspring in each litter but the higher mortality rate among piglets is an issue of concern. Piglets death during the perinatal and lactation period is responsible for reduced production efficiency in swine herds. It has been revealed that majority of the preweaning deaths are due to crushing by the sow. Other causes of death include respiratory problems, Scours, chilling, piglet anaemia and various fatal diseases. Preweaning mortality varies among herds between 12-25% depending on housing system. High mortality rates before weaning not only affect the economy but must also be looked at as both an animal welfare problem and an ethical issue. Understanding the various causes of piglet mortality and timely implementation of suitable operations and strategies helps to reduce piglet mortality.

Title: Milk Urea Nitrogen as an Indicator of Nitrogen Metabolism Efficiency in Dairy Cows: A Review
Abstract :

The milk urea nitrogen concentration can be used as a tool management of the nutritional strategies in dairy farm and of improving proteins utilization efficiency by dairy cows. The level of dietary crude protein is the most nutritional factor that influence the milk urea nitrogen concentrations in lactating cows. Recent researches suggest that the milk urea nitrogen content depends mainly on the nitrogen/energy ratio in the diet, but other many factors may affect ureogenesis. Level and quality of protein contents, milk yield, season effects or lactation stage, parity and lactation number, weight and breed, feeding frequency and water intake are factors associated with the variation of milk urea concentration. Several studies have suggested that measuring milk urea nitrogen may serve as indicator to monitor nitrogen efficiency in dairy cows and to improve milk nitrogen production. However, the targeted milk urea nitrogen values for optimizing the nitrogen utilization efficiency are different from those required for milk protein production. Thus, an increase in milk protein production can be expected at milk urea nitrogen levels >11 mg/dL, while protein utilization efficiency is below this level (<11 mg/dL). Normal MUN values range from 10 to 14 mg/dL, but for many countries, the recommended milk urea nitrogen values for cow’s milk are ideally ranged from 10 to 16 mg/dL of milk. Finally, to ensure a balance between milk protein production and reducing urea nitrogen excretion in urine and milk, recent studies suggest to include 16.5% of crude protein supply in dairy cows diets.

Title: Effects of Age, Breed and Scrotal Circumference Interactions on Sperm Morphology of Bulls Raised on Commercial Farms in Zambia
Abstract :

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of interaction of age, breed and scrotal circumference (SC) on the sperm morphological characteristics of bulls raised on commercial farms in Zambia. A total of 365 bulls comprising of 164 Boran, 139 Bonsmara, 35 Tuli, 12 Santagetrudis, 5 Holstein Friesian (HF) and 10 Sussex bulls were studied. Semen was collected once using an electro-ejaculator after which eosin-nigrosin stained semen smears were made. Thereafter, the eosin-nigrosin stained semen smears were examined under a microscope for abnormal spermatozoa. The interaction between age categories and the Boran bulls did not differ from the interaction of Sussex bulls older than 72 months (mo) of age in predicting sperm abnormalities (P>0.05). However, Bonsmara and Sussex bulls older than 72 mo of age had lower percentages of sperm abnormalities (P<0.05). Interaction of age and Tuli bulls showed high midpiece and tail defects (dag defects and simple coiled tails), total abnormal sperm, major defects and the Proximal cytoplasmic droplets (PCD), (P<0.05). Santagetrudis bulls between 48 and 60 mo of age showed an increase in the midpiece defects, total abnormal sperm, major defects and the PCD, (P<0.05), but lower than those of the interaction between age and the Tuli bulls. Higher coiled tails were found due to the interaction between age and HF bulls compared to age and the Tuli bulls (P<0.05). The interaction between age and SC had an effect on sperm abnormalities, (P<0.05). The study suggested that the interactions of age, breed and SC are important sources of variation in sperm morphology. However, further research is needed to determine the effect of minor nutritional differences on the sperm morphological characteristics on the farms.

Title: Pathomorphological Studies on Natural Cases of Marek’s Disease in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
Abstract :

The incidence of natural outbreaks of Marek’s disease in a Japanese quail flock was investigated on the basis of mortality rate, clinical signs, cytology, PCR, gross and histopathology. The mortality rate was 2 percent over a period of 20 weeks. The death started from 16 weeks onwards and continued upto 35 weeks with the highest incidence was recorded during 25–30 weeks. Cytology smears prepared from feather follicles, livers and kidneys showed infiltration of pleomorphic lymphocytes. Grossly, there was severe diffuse enlargement of organs like hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, nephromegaly along with ovarian lesions. Focal lymphomas in these organs were also noticed in few cases. Microscopically, there were pleomorphic lymphoblastic infiltration in liver, spleen, kidney, ovary and sciatic nerve tissues noticed. The final confirmation was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This is the first report on Marek’s disease in Japanese quails in Namakkal region which is the hub of laying chicken in Tamil Nadu.

Title: Oestrus Induction and Fertility Response in Post Partum Anoestrus Buffaloes using CIDR Alone or in Combination with Antioxidants
Abstract :

The present study was carried out to study the effect of ControlledInternal Drug Releasing Device (CIDR-B) with and without antioxidants (vitamin E & selenium) on oestrus induction response and oxidative stress parameters in postpartum anoestrus buffaloes located in different villages of R. S. Pura areas of Jammu district. A total of 18 postpartum anoestrus buffaloes were equally divided into three groups with 6 buffaloes in each group. Group I animals were kept as control, Group II animals were treated with CIDR protocol and Group III animals were treated with CIDR protocol and were given two intramuscular injection of vit. E-Care-Se (50 mg α-tocopherol acetate and 1.5 mg selenium per ml, Vetcare, Banglore) at the dose rate of 1ml/50 kg BWT. on day 0 and day 7, respectively. Oestrus induction response was 100% in treated animals and onset of oestrus occured within 70.50±6.38 h and 68.33±3.12 h and mean duration of oestrus was 22.33±1.14 h and 20.75±1.30 h in Group II and III, respectively. The pregnancy rate was 0.00%, 50% and 83.33% in Group I, II and III respectively. Among the oxidative stress parameter, a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) level along with significant increase in catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) level was observed by treating post partum anoestrus buffaloes with CIDR protocol either alone or in combination with vitamin E and Selenium.

Title: Effect of a Graded Levels of Probiotic Feed Supplementation on the Performance in Commercial Broiler Chicken
Abstract :

The study was conducted to assess the probiotic supplementation, fed to a total of 240 day old commercial broiler chicks from day 1 to 42 days of age and to evaluate the body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio. The trial results revealed that, the overall gain at 42 days with dietary supplementation of probiotic and antibiotic (300+100g/ton) yielded significantly (P<0.05) highest body weight gain (1700g) followed by commercial probiotic (200g/ton) (1691g) and probiotic (1685g) compared to control (1514g) during the overall period. The feed consumption during the period is significantly (P<0.05) higher with supplementation of probiotics or a combination of probiotic and antibiotic compared to control. The differences in the feed efficiency (kg of feed/kg gain) were significant among the probiotic (1.856) probiotic and antibiotic (1.694), commercial probiotic (1.715) and control (1.803) during over all experimental period. All dietary supplements did not have significant (P>0.05) effect on various carcasses parameters, except breast yield. The breast yield was significantly (P<0.05) lower in probiotic, at 42 days, while the rest of the treatment groups did not differ from control. Mortality was more in commercial probiotic added group. However, the mortality rate was within the limits and no specific disease was recorded. It can be concluded that, supplementation of probiotics as alternative to antibiotic can be used for improving performance of broiler chicken.

Title: Effect of Vaccination on Performance of Dairy Animals with Special Reference to Bulls: A Review
Abstract :

Vaccination stimulates immune system to generate memory cells responsible for immunity against specific antigen. Milk production decreased by vaccination however milk composition not changes significantly. Bull vaccinated against bacterial and viral diseases increases cellular damage and testicular degeneration leading to enhanced sperm abnormalities and decrease sperm motility, concentration and live cells. Exotic and crossbred bulls are more prone to diseases and vaccination. Offshoot of vaccination includes pain, swelling and redness at site of injection together with high temperature, shivering, fatigue and pain in muscles and joints. Marker vaccine help in differentiation or segregation of infected from vaccinated animals. Aversion of pyrexia to maintain normal body temperature can be a preventive measure against the adverse effects of vaccination. Vitamin E supplementation and pre-vaccination levamisole injection was tried to mitigate vaccination stress, though partial positive effect was observed. Therefore temporary suspension of semen freezing is advisable for 2 to 3 months post vaccination to avoid low fertility rate in herd.

Title: Relationship between Estrus Signs and Subsequent Fertility Rates in Buffaloes Subjected to Estradiol based Synchronization Treatments
Abstract :

The study was carried out on 60 postpartum cyclic buffaloes subjected to Presynch-Heatsynch (n=30) and Heatsynch (n=30) synchronization treatments. In Presynch-Heatsynch group, two injections of PGF2α analogue were administered at 12 days apart (Day -14 and -2) with last injection two days before GnRH administration (Day 0). A third PGF2α alpha was given on day 7 followed by estradiol benzoate injection on day 8 and fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI) on day 10. In Heatsynch group, first two PGF2 alpha injections were not given; however, rest of the treatment was same. Frequent urination, vulvar swelling and bellowing were prominent estrus signs observed in all buffaloes of both groups at the time of FTAI. The study revealed significantly pronounced (p<0.01) cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) discharge and high uterine tonicity in buffaloes that became pregnant (100.00 and 70.00 %) than those failed to become pregnant (60.00 and 20.00 %) in group I and II, respectively. Further, it was observed that none of the buffaloes that became pregnant had low uterine tonicity, whereas 40.00 and 55.55% buffaloes which failed to become pregnant showed low uterine tonicity on rectal examination. In conclusion, appearance of CVM at vulva and rectal finding of high uterine tonicity at the time of AI had positive influence on the pregnancy rates in buffaloes subjected to estradiol based synchronization protocols. Thus, successful pregnancy may be predicted if a buffalo shows above two estrus signs at the time of FTAI.

Title: Succesfull Management of Dystocia due to Foetal Anasarca in Holstein Friesian Crossbred Cows
Abstract :

Fetalanasarca is a condition characterized by excessive accumulation of fluid in the tissue and body that causes subcutaneous edema of the foetus. Attempt to deliver the foetus by a practicing veterinarian, but it was futile and referred to TVCC. Per-vaginal examination revealed that the cervix was fully dilated and the foetus was in posterior longitudinal presentation (P1), Dorso-pubic position (P2) with both the hind limbs were extended into the vaginal passage and limbs look like a short stumpy legs, one of the right side hind limbs was broken at the level of hock joint (P3). No clear-cut demarcation of fetal body parts noticed. Traction on both the hind limbs of the foetus failed to deliver the foetus due to ruptured of fetal part along with over weight of the foetus. Hence, the case was diagnosed as fetal anomalies. Dystocia due to fetalanomalies along with ascites in a Holstein Friesian crossbred cow was successfully relieved by following a Caesarean section.