Title: Clinicopathological Features of Ovarian Teratoma Presented as Colic in Mare Abstract :
Ovarian teratoma is a tumor characterized by presence of well differentiated tissues that are not usual to ovarian stroma. A five year old multiparous Kathiawari mare suffering colic like symptoms (unresponsive to conventional treatment)was ultrasonograhically suspected for ovarian neoplasm of the right ovary by trans-rectal palpation and ultrasonograhic evidence. Histopathological observations following unilateral laparotomic ovariectomy of the affected ovary confirmed benign ovarian teratoma characterized by presence of hair follicles, sebaceous glands and tooth like calcified structures. Thereafter, mare recovered from abdominal discomfort and was confirmed pregnant four months later.
Title: Ultrasonographic Diagnosis and Clinical Management of Pseudopregnancy in Goats Abstract :
Hydrometra, a synonymous of pseudopregnancy is a major cause of infertility in goats with varying incidences ranging from 1.37-20%. Four pluriparous goats were presented to the referral VGO polyclinic with the history of mating, nearly completed or prolonged gestation period, varying degree of abdominal distension and no signs of imminent kidding. The ultrasonography and X-ray examination revealed that animals were non-pregnant and contain hypoechoic fluid in the uterus. The cases were diagnosed as hydrometra and treatment consisting of cloprostenol sodium (PGF2α analogue), valethamate bromide, estradiol benzoate along with dexamethasone was given for evacuation of the uterine contents. All of the animals responded to treatment about 18-20 h later with varying success in uterine evacuation. Thus, the present article highlights the ultrasonographic diagnosis and therapeutic management of hydrometra in goats.
Title: Partial Fetotomy to Relieve Dystocia due to Bilateral Carpal Flexion of Fetus in a Primiparous Mare Abstract :
A primiparous mare was presented to the Referral Veterinary Polyclinic with the history of full term gestation, off-fed and straining since morning on the day of presentation. On gross observation, the animal was in sternal recumbency with fetal head protruded out from the vulva. Per-vaginal examination revealed oedematous and dry birth canal impacted with dead fetus in anterior longitudinal presentation, dorso-sacral position and bilateral carpal/knee flexion, causing obstruction and dystocia. After restraining the mare and giving initial therapy, birth canal was lubricated with ample amount of liquid paraffin. Manual resolution of dystocia was first attempted with no improvement. Thereafter, it was decided to go for partial fetotomy with Thygesen's fetotome, and head along with neck was amputated. Amputation of both forelimbs was carried out at the level of carpal joint due to lack of space for mutation. Then, two point tractions were applied and female fetus was extracted out. Mare was put on intensive therapy and recovered uneventfully.
Title: Cystic Ovarian Disease in Dairy Cow Abstract :
Cystic ovarian (OC) condition is an important ovarian dysfunction and a major cause of reproductive failure in dairy cattle. Previously defined as enlarged anovulatory follicle like structures (<2.5 cm) and persisting for 10 or more days OC in dairy cows are currently defined as cystic ovarian follicular structures of at least 17 mm that persist for more than 6 days in the absence of corpus luteum (CL). Past evaluations of OC using trans-rectal palpations have increased, and accurate diagnosis currently employs a combination of trans-rectal palpation, trans-rectal ultrasonography and plasma progesterone assay. Previously the manual rupture of OC was advised, but during the past several years single or combination hCG, GnRH, progesterone and prostaglandins have been frequently practice. Other therapies include clomiphene citrate and trans-vaginal ultrasound guided cystic follicle aspiration. Among the various therapies the Ov-Synch treatment appears to be the most logical approach, yet the pregnancy rates with timed inseminations following therapy with the OvSynch treatment are low, as with other hormonal treatments. It can be concluded that OC can be diagnosed easily yet in spite of many therapeutic options the establishment of pregnancy in cows with OC requires a longer time.
Title: Role of Oxidative Stress, Reactive Oxygen Species & Antioxidants in Male Reproductive Functions Abstract :
Gametes are susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS) attack. When manipulated in vitro during assisted reproductive techniques, these cells have the risk of generating and being exposed to supra-physiological level of ROS. Defective sperm functions are the most prevalent causes of male infertility and a difficult condition to treat. Male infertility is a major problem of mammalian reproduction. Numerous factors influence male infertility and oxidative stress is one of them. The term oxidative stress is generally applied when oxidants outnumber the antioxidants. The imbalance between the production of ROS and a biological systems ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or easily repair the resulting damage is known as oxidative stress. The main destructive aspects of oxidative stress are the production of ROS, which include free radicals and peroxides. In this article we discuss the role of oxidative stress in different sperm functions, means of ROS generation and their physiological implications in semen and how antioxidants act as defense in protecting sperm from oxidative /ROS attack.
Title: Surgical Management of Ring Womb in Ewe Abstract :
Failure of the cervix to dilate at the time of parturition remains one of the foremost reasons of dystocia in ewes. An adult ewe weighing ~25 kg was presented to the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex of College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Anjora, Durg with the history of straining and restlessness. The external examination revealed vaginal discharge with slight edematous vulva. Per vaginal examination revealed slight edematous passage with partially open cervix. The animal was diagnosed using ultrasonography which reveals presence of one live fetus. Caesarean section was performed and one dead fetus was recovered. After proper post operative care ewe recovered uneventfully without any complications.
Title: Prevalence of Theileria annulata on the Basis of Managemental Practices of the Crossbred Cows Abstract :
Theileriosis is the major protozoon disease which can kills young animals & reduces the growth & production of infected animals. Looking to this aspects a study was conducted to evaluated the effect of managemental practices of crossbreed cow on disease prevalence. The prevalence of T. annulata on the basis of nutritional status of the animals was found to be highest in animals having poor nutritional status and lowest prevalence was found in animals having good nutritional status. The prevalence recorded on the basis of nutritional status of animals as inquired by owner have shown that calves up to 1 year of age having good nutritional status have prevalence of 14.81 per cent. Calves having fair nutritional status have prevalence of 40.74 per cent. The highest prevalence 44.44 per cent was recorded in calves having poor nutritional status.The prevalence of T. annulata in heifers 1 to 3 years having good nutritional status have prevalence of 20.00 per cent. Heifers that have fair nutritional status have prevalence of 33.33 per cent. The highest prevalence 46.66 per cent was recorded in heifers having poor nutritional status. The prevalence of T. annulata infections in animals up to 1 year reared in Pakka house was 18.51 per cent in kaccha house prevalence was 44.44 per cent and the prevalence of disease in open housing system was 37.03 per cent. The prevalence of T. annulata infection in heifers 1 to 3 years reared in pakka house was 20.00 per cent heifer reared in kaccha house had prevalence of 53.33 per cent and the prevalence of disease in open housing system was 26.66 per cent. The prevalence of T. annulata infection in adult more than 3 years reared in pakka house was 23.07 per cent. Adult reared in Kaccha house had prevalence of 46.15 per cent and the prevalence of disease in open housing system was 30.76 per cent. Hygiene is very important factor in dairy industry especially in disease prevalence and management hygiene play very important role in respect of disease flare up situation. The prevalence of T. annualata infection in calves up to 1 year reared under good hygienic condition was 11.11 per cent in fair hygienic condition prevalence was 37.03 per cent. The prevalence of disease was highest 51.85 per cent in calves reared under poor hygienic condition.