Title: Macro Anatomical study of Femur of Domestic Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) Abstract :
In present study, one pair of femur was utilized. Femur was composed of shaft and two extremities-proximal and distal. Proximal extremities contained trochanter and head with fovea capities. Distal extremities contained two condyle-medial and lateral, trochlea and inter condyloid groove. Lateral condyloid was traversed by a groove. The shaft consisted of four surfaces viz., medial, lateral, cranial and caudal. Lateral surface was wide above and narrow behind. Medial surface and caudal surface was separated by inter muscular line. The nutrient foramen was at the middle of the caudal surface of the shaft.
Title: Comparison of Right Flank and Caudal Midline Approaches for Ovariectomy in Gilts Abstract :
To evaluate the two different approaches to accomplish ovariectomy in gilts was used. The animals were randomly divided into two equal (n = 6) groups of Flank and Midline. Ovariectomy was performed by the right flank approach in group flank and by the caudal midline approach in group Midline. In the present study surgical, physiological, haematological parameters, postoperative pain scoring, healing time and wound score were assessed. Bleeding was noticed in group Flank compared to group Midline due to surgical trauma to the muscles. The duration of surgery was 43.33±4.08 and 55.83±5.84 minutes and length of surgical incision was 5.03±0.37 and 5.87±0.35 cm in Group Flank and Midline respectively. Post-operative swelling and erythema were noticed in group Flank compare to group Midline. The time taken for the surgical wound to heal was 9.33±0.81 and 10.83±0.75 days in group Flank and group Midline respectively. There was no significant variation in physiological parameters like heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature in both the groups and within the groups of different periods. There was no significant variation in haematological parameters like haemoglobin and PCV in both the groups except for TLC in group Midline. Based on the observations and evaluation made during the present study, it was concluded that no clinical and haematological alterations were observed in gilts undergoing open ovariectomy (OVE) through the caudal midline and right flank approach. Therefore, both the right flank and caudal midline approaches could be implemented effectively for ovariectomy in gilts. However, the flank approach was less time consuming and the length of surgical incision was comparatively less to the caudal midline approach. Hence, the results show that the right flank approach can be a good alternative to the caudal midline approach for ovariectomy in gilts.
Title: Gross Anatomical Study on the Pelvic girdle of Domestic Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) Abstract :
In present study, one pelvic girdle was utilized. Pelvic girdle was composed of two hip bones. Each hip bone consisted of ilium, ischium and pubis. Ilium was elongated bone and attached with the synsacrum. Ilium was divided into pre actetubular and post acetabular part. Pre acetabular part was dorsally concave and contained cranial and caudal iliac crest. Internal surface of ileum contained renal fossa. Ilium and ischium form acetabulum. Acetabulum had articular area and perforation. Caudodorsal aspect of the acetabulum antitrochanter was situated. Obturator foramen was found caudal to the acetabulum. The size of the obturator foramen was smaller than the acetabulum. Caudal to the antitrochanter an elongated oval iloischiatic foramen was found. Ischium was plate like bone and it contained one pair of caudal process. Pubis was thin rod like bone and there was no symphysis between the pubic bone. Cranially pubis contained pectinal process and caudally it was curved. Between the dorsal border of pubis and ventral border of ischium incisura puboischiadica was observed.
Title: Surgical Management of Atresia ani et recti in a Buffalo Calf Abstract :
Atresia ani or imperforate anus is a congenital anomaly defined as the failure of development of anal opening. A two day old male buffalo calf was presented to the polyclinic with the history of not passingfaeces since birth. Based on history and clinical examination the case was diagnosed as atresia ani et recti. It was decided to perform emergency surgery to correct the condition. Surgery was done under epidural anesthesia and local infiltration analgesia using lignocaine hydrochloride 2 %. Skin incision was made in a cruciate pattern. The rectal cul-de-sac was identified by blunt dissection and was sutured to the perineal wall. Reconstruction of anal opening was done. Post-operatively animal was treated with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs for five days. The skin sutures were removed on 11th post-operative day. The buffalo calf showed normal defecation pattern and made an uneventful recovery
Title: Anatomy of Pedal Scant Gland in Greater one Horn Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) Abstract :
The present study was conducted on one Pedal scant gland of Greater one Horn Rhinoceros. The Pedal scant gland was exocrine glandular complex, situated in the subcutaneous layer. The Pedal scant gland was composed of proximal, intermediate and distal. The proximal part of the gland contained large cutaneous pores on the skin surface. A canal was observed in the intermediate part of the gland. The intermediate part of the gland was lined by keratinized stratified squamus epithelium. Dermal layer of the gland contained connective tissue along with blood vessels. The distal part of the gland contained abundant acini. These acini were lined by simple cuboidal epithelium. Collagen fibers were observed among the acini as well as dermal layer of gland.