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TI - Volume 9 - Issue 3

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Title: Contents Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2019
Abstract :
Title: Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin and its Role in Dairy Production: A Review
Abstract :

Bovine somatotropin (bST) is a natural metabolic protein hormone produced by the pituitary gland in all cattle and used to increase milk production in dairy cows. Recombinant bovine somatotropins (rbST), that has several amino acids, have been synthesized using recombinant DNA techniques. rBST is administered subcutaneously at day 60 of a cow’s lactation cycle when milk production normally begins to decrease and repeated every 14 days. Even though bST has the potential to increase the efficiency of milk production, there is no change in milk composition. In the case of rBST, potentially 10-15% more milk can be obtained from each cow. rBST is biologically inactive in humans and its residues in food products have no physiological effect. Concentration of Insulin-growth factor-I (IGF-1) is no significant difference in bovine growth hormone levels in milk from rBGH-treated and untreated cows. Even if there were a much higher level of bovine growth hormone ingested by humans, our digestive system would break down and inactivate the hormone protein. In addition, the bovine growth hormone does not affect human growth hormone receptors and good management measures should be taken as per manufacturer to ensure a high response in milk yield to bST administration. Thus, the use of rbST to improve productivity within the lactating cow herd allows for a reduction in resource use and environmental impact per unit of milk.

Title: Surgical Resection of Multiple Vaginal Fibrosarcoma in an Intact Female Dog
Abstract :

An eight-year-old Labrador retriever bitch weighing 30 kg with history of sanguineous vaginal discharge associated with progressive perineal enlargement for last 1 year was presented to the Referral Veterinary Polyclinics of Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly. Clinical examination revealed multiple palpable growths of varied size in the vaginal canal. Surgical resection of the same was performed under diazepam-ketamine anesthesia. On the basis of histopathological examination, the removed growth was diagnosed as Fibrosarcoma. The animal recovered uneventfully with no post-operative complications and reoccurrence till one month after surgery.

Title: Seasonal Variations in Reproductive Performance of Crossbred Cows in Kerala and the Influence of Climatic Stress Factors over a Period of Six Years
Abstract :

Affection of the reproductive performance forms early indicator of the influence of adverse environment on physiological processes. Comparing fertility parameters with climatic variables over the years helps to understand the impact, magnitude and determinants of climate change on animal system. Objective of the present study was to assess the yearly and seasonal variations in reproductive performance of crossbred cows, and the influence of thermal stress factors over a period of past six years. Retrospective data collected from farm records and climatic data were analysed using SPSS software. Climatic parameters such as maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and THI showed highly significant (P<0.001) seasonal variation. THI was consistently high at a level for causing mild to moderate stress all over the years. However, fertility parameters did not show significant variation across seasons. Between years, fertility parameters varied significantly and climatic variables did not. No significant correlation was found between fertility parameters and climatic variables across seasons, even though time series analysis showed significant correlation between these parameters. In spite of significant variation of climatic variables between seasons and fertility parameters between years, lack of significant seasonal variation of the fertility parameters appears to be due to the inconsistency of seasonal pattern between the years. To conclude, no obvious interrelationship between climatic variables and fertility parameters was evident between seasons, even though THI values were beyond the level of thermal comfort for dairy cattle and is attributed to the adaptation of animals to changing climate through continuous rearing at the same place, and passive selection over the years.

Title: Surgical Management of Traumatic Testicular Evisceration in a Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
Abstract :

Traumatic testicular evisceration is not an uncommon condition in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In order to attain dominance among mates, leporids exhibit territorial aggression which often lead to trauma among the cage mates. Testicular evisceration can be either unilateral or bilateral. Surgical management is considered as the pertinent method of correcting traumatic testicular evisceration. An eight-month old rabbit buck weighing 1.8 Kg was brought with the history of left testicle evisceration as a consequence of attack from the cage mate. Unilateral orchiectomy was performed under general anesthesia for the surgical removal of eviscerated left testicle. Post-operative management included antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs for a period of 3 days. The rabbit made an uneventful recovery.

Title: Concurrent Occurrence of Hydrallanto-amnios in a Buffalo and its Clinical Management: A case report
Abstract :

A 4-year old primiparous buffalo was presented with the stated history of prolonged gestation, inappetance and gradual bilateral abdominal enlargement since last 10-15 days giving a characteristic bloated bull frog appearance. General clinical examination revealed rectal temperature 101.4ËšF, pale mucous membrane but there was no evidence of straining. To investigate further, per rectal examination revealed a taut uterus (bulged, tense and inelastic) with palpable placentomes whereas fetal parts were inaccessible. Per-vaginal examination revealed a soft cervix without any advancement of fetal parts into the pelvic inlet. Based on characteristic clinical observations ultrasonography (USG) was recommended which revealed an enlarged fluid filled uterus with speckled appearance. The characteristic signs and USG results were suggestive of hydrops of fetal membranes. Animal was stabilized with sufficient intravenous fluids and was followed by cervical dilation therapy for expulsion of fetus. Upon gradual dilation of cervix, trans-cervical allantocentesis was performed to remove allantoic fluid, with simultaneous infusion of intravenous fluids to prevent hypovolemic shock, which was performed over a period of three hours. A dead male monster fetus was extracted per vaginally. The presence of large quantity of allantoic and amniotic fluid, monster fetus as well as characteristic placental lesions confirmed that it was a case of concurrent hydrallantois and hydramnios. The supportive treatment included intravenous fluid, parental antimicrobial agent, anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamins and antioxidants. The treatment regimen was followed up for 5 days and animal was recovered uneventfully.

Title: Role of Life Style Factors in Male Reproductive Functions: A Review
Abstract :

The prevalence of male and female infertility is being increased in many nations and has emerged as a serious problem. Many life style factors and occupational exposures can have substantial effects on fertility problems. Life style factors such as smoking, illicit drug (cocaine, cannabis),alcohol and caffeine consumption, exposure to extreme heat etc. have negative effects on functions of male reproductive system. In recent years, increase in disorders of male reproductive system may be associated at least some extent with these factors; which are enhanced by some of new emergent life style habits. A detailed study is required based on the data i.e., excess use of mobile phones and impact of mental stress on male reproductive health. This review highlights the role of various life style factors, environmental stresses and occupational exposures in male reproductive functions and their negative feedback in declining semen quality, increased oxidative stress as well as sperm DNA damages in male.