Title: Effect of Pre-insemination Intrauterine Antibiotics on
Conception Rate in Crossbred Cows Abstract :
The repeat breeder crossbred endometritic cows (N = 30) were divided into three groups (n= 10, each), as Group I (Gentamicin IU given 6 hrs before AI) Group II (Cephapirin given 6 hrs before AI) and Group III (control cows, no IU antibiotic treatment). The cows in estrus were inseminated twice (12 hours apart, if not conceived at first, again inseminated at second heat) with good quality frozen thawed semen. Cervico- vaginal mucus and blood sample was collected and physic-biochemical properties (appearance, consistency, Whiteside test, pH, Total bacterial load) and Serum amyloid- A, were evaluated respectively. The overall conception rate of different groups (I to III) of cows were 60, 20 and 10 %, respectively. On the basis of recovery rate as well as conception rate Gentamicin found to be the best when compared to Cephapirin.
Title: Features of Uterine Involution in Dairy Animals: A Review Abstract :
Uterine involution is the process of resumption of pregnant uterus to non pregnant state along with restoration of ovarian function which occurs during puerperium/post-partum period. Estrogen and progesterone hormones are responsible for changes in shape and size of uterus during pregnancy whereas, release of fetus, reduced oxytocin and increased PGF2α help uterus to resume normal state. Fast involution of uterus is essential in order to make cow receptive and conceive again. Though rectal palpation is most commonly used technique for assessing uterine involution in cows but it is less accurate than trans-rectal ultrasonography. Annual incidence of uterine infection in herd has been recorded by different scientists to the extent of 10-50% in cows and 20-75% in buffaloes whereas an anatomical, physiological and phagocytic barriers prevents the uterus from getting infection. Purulent discharge and its odour indicate severity of infection due to pathogenic bacteria under field condition. pH of secretions act as first line defense preventing infection through tract. Poor and delayed uterine involution contributes to poor reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle and it is affected by age, nutritional status, suckling by calves and milk yield of the individual cows, respectively. Rate of uterine involution can be accelerated by using PGF2α, methylergometrine maleate, Vitamin E, selenium and cloprostenol injection, respectively. Intrauterine lactobacilli application puts a very positive effect of on involution.
Title: Hair Histology and Ultrastructure of Few Wild and Semi-Wild Mammals: A Forensic Approach Abstract :
Hair is physiologically an important structure as it protects the mammalian body from external injury, insect bite and electromagnetic rays. In modern days hair is considered as important tool of study in forensic science to solve the complicated vetero-legal cases. Forensic science deals with the exposition of those medical problems which by their nature have to come before the court of law. The examinations of hair from the scene of crime is extremely important in the criminal investigation as hair is an appendage of the skin and resist putrefaction; thus, is of an evidential value when other evidences are not available. The present investigation was undertaken to study the hair of few species of wild and semi wild mammals e.g. Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris), Indian one horn Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), Mithun (Bos frontalis), Barking deer (Cervulus muntjac) and Yak (Bos grunniens), to find out the specificity of the hair to the animal based on indices like colour, length, average diameter of the hair- shaft, cortico-medullary index and cuticular scale pattern to develop a base line information to solve the vetero-legal cases. Present study revealed that the cuticular scale pattern of tiger was coronal simple, imbricate crenate in rhinoceros, imbricate flattened in elephant, imbricate crenate in mithun, imbricate flattened in barking deer, and imbricate crenate in yak. Again, the mean diameter of their shafts (in μm) were found to be tiger 140 ± 0.417, rhinoceros 160 ± 1.199, elephant 200 ± 1.958, mithun 150 ± 2.665, barking deer 135 ± 1.864 and yak 150 ± 3.670. Therefore, a cumulative data derived from these indices are helpful to determine the species of animal they belong to.
Title: Mechanisms Linking Heat Stress to Poor Reproductive Performance of Nigerian Indigenous Zebu Cows Abstract :
Study was conducted to evaluate how heat stress affects follicular size, reproductive hormones, oestrus expression in different seasons. Twelve (n=12) zebu cows were utilized over a year. Ambient temperature, relative humidity was collected and THI value determined, rectal temperatures were also collected. Cows were synchronized for oestrus. Ultrasonic follicular studies were carried out until ovulation. Blood was collected to assayserum concentration of progesterone, oestradiol and Luteinizing hormones using Enzyme -Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique. Oestrus activities were monitored; follicular diameters at 42 hr were shorter P< 0.05 in cold dry season than hot dry and raining season. At 72 hr follicular diameters were longer P< 0.05 in hot dry season than cold dry and raining season. Time to peak of oestradiol was shorter P< 0.05 in cold dry season than hot dry and raining seasons. Amplitude of oestradiol was higher P< 0.05 in cold dry season than hot dry and raining seasons. Time to peak of LH surge was shorter P< 0.05 in cold dry season, than hot dry and raining season. Amplitude of LH surge was higher P< 0.05 in raining season than cold dry and hot dry season. Duration of LH surge was longer P< 0.05 in cold dry season, than hot dry and raining season. Mounting was higher P< 0.05 in cold dry season than raining and hot dry season. Conclusion: Heat stress has increased follicular size without increasing oestradiol concentration, reduced mounting, increased LH surge and progesterone concentration.