Title: Incidence of Genital Organ Abnormalities in Female Genitalia
of Marwari Goats Abstract :
The present study was conducted to record various gross genital abnormalities of female genital organs in Marwari goats. A total of 115 genital organs were collected from municipal and local abattoir of Bikaner city, randomly. Slaughtered genital organs were segregated in 3 groups viz. healthy non pregnant, pregnant and abnormal groups based on their visual observations. The incidences of various gross genital abnormalities were recorded. Out of total 115 genitalia collected, 80 were found to be grossly normal (69.56%).The percentage of pregnancy wastage was 11.30% (13 out of 115). Over all 22 (19.13%) genitalia had abnormalities. The common genital abnormalities found were uterine infections (18), ovarian cyst (3) and parovarian cyst (1), respectively. All these genital disorders are causes a big damage to reproductive health of goat and if they are not diagnosed or treated early then they cause infertility.
Title: Estimate the Serum Trace Minerals of Female Black Bengal
Goats at Different Stages Abstract :
Serum hormone level was estimated to find out FSH, LH and total estrogen for all the animals under three treatment groups from 20 to 55 week. The FSH level (from 0.56 to 1.32 ng/ml; 0.91 to 1.91 ng/ml and 0.46 to 1.36 ng/ml for first, second and third treatment group, respectively) was higher in the second group; and third group had lowest level out of the three groups. The serum LH level (0.46 to 1.40 ng/ ml and 0.27 to 1.91 ng/dl in first and second treatment group, respectively) showed similar pattern like FSH. The total estrogen was higher in the first treatment group (1.08 to 4.2 pg/ml) than that of the second group (0.14 to 2.30pg/ml) and third group ((0.04 to 2.37 pg/ml)). The serum biochemical profiles of the animals under three groups were estimated by serum glucose, total protein in blood and serum cholesterol levels. The glucose level varied from 65.66 to 77.11, 50.03 to 63.78 and 55.22 to 68.66 mg/dl for the first, second and third group, respectively, with higher value at the time of service. The total protein level did not vary much among the animals under three treatment groups (64.45 to 78.55 g/l). The serum cholesterol level varied between 50.17 to 110.05 mg/dl among all the animals irrespective of groups. During prepubertal period this value was low, but it was higher during pubertal period, time of several other services and towards pregnancy for all groups of animals. Regarding the serum trace mineral status, serum copper level showed higher value from 7 months onwards; serum zinc and iron level were almost similar in first and second group; and the third group showed lower value for all the trace minerals. All the good effects noticed in the first treatment group were due to the non-hormonal factors applied to them through nutrition and buck. The effects in the second group of animals was due to the nutritional effect, whereas, the third group showed poor performance without any support from nutrition and social interaction through buck.
Title: Reproductive Traits for Identifying Prolific Black Bengal Goat
(Capra hircus bengalensis) Abstract :
The present investigation recorded that the average litter size was 2.03 per doe and the prolificacy rate being 202.92%. The result indicates that the litter size proportion for single, twin and triplet were 28.3%, 40.4% and 31.3% respectively. There was a tendency of increasing body weight with higher litter size and such variation was highly significant (P<0.01). The result revealed that the overall mean age of first estrus was 209.08±2.06 days. Maximum age of first conception was 226.18±5.39 days when the animal gave single birth and the minimum AC was 216.65±4.9 days when it produced triplet indicating that failure of conception was more in single bearing does. Service period were recorded to very significantly (P<0.01) among different litter bearing groups, the highest value was observed in triplet producing does (80.88±4.68 days). This is an important finding to understand that, less Age of Puberty (AP), Age at 1st Conception (AC), Days Open (DO) & Kidding Interval (KI) has prominent benefit for multiple foetuses and thus achieving economic benefit.
Title: Identify the Phenotypic Indicators for Prognostic of
Hypothetical Litter Size of Black Bengal Goat Abstract :
The present investigation recorded that the average litter size was 2.03 per doe and the prolificacy rate being 202.92%. The result indicates that the litter size proportion for single, twin and triplet were 28.3%, 40.4% and 31.3% respectively. The present study revealed substantial phenotypic variations among the goats bearing single, twin and triplet foetus. Based on stepwise discriminant function to find out month wise phenotypic descriptors, some important linear traits namely Punch girth (PG), Body Weight (BW), Rump Length (RL), Croup Height (CrH), Clearance of Sternum (CS), Distance between Tuber coxae (DTC), Distance between Trochanter major (DTM), Head-Rump Length (HRL), Body Length (BL), Curved Head- Rump Length (HRCL), Heart girth (HG, Pelvic Triangle (PLVT) and Wither Height (WH); were identified to be significant in discriminating the foetal numbers between groups. Out of these, HRL measurement might be considered as one of the best indicator for higher Litter Size (LZ) during the second, third, fourth, fifth parity. Other best suitable phenotypic descriptors like BL, CS, PG, PLVT and BW could be used to predict probable kidding size.
Title: Special Features in the Reproductive Anatomy, Physiology, and
Behavior of Male Camels (Camelus dromedarius) Abstract :
The peculiarities of anatomic and physiologic features of dromedary camels are elucidated in this review and compared with Bactrian, camels, and other species. Both dromedary and Bactrian camel scrotum varies in length from 10-20 cm and the testes are in the perineal region behind the thighs (like dogs) and weigh from 80-90 gm and length varies from 10-14 cm. Compared to ram and buck, camel epididymis has a higher weight (20-46 g) and has a unique structure called the intra-epithelial glands. Both dromedaries and Bactrian camels do not have seminal vesicles. Male camels have specialized secretory glands behind the ears known as poll glands that are bigger in the Bactrian camels compared to dromedary camels and similar glands are not seen in any of the other domestic species. Camels have a special reproductive behavior during the breeding season known as rut and include extrusion of the soft palate, copious froth from the mouth, gurgling sounds, splashing of urine, increased secretion from the poll glands and loss of appetite with considerable reduction in body weight. Such behaviors are not evidenced by any other domestic species including buffalo. Serum testosterone rises substantially in male camels during rut (2-42 ng/mL) compared to the non-rutting season (0.6-8 ng/mL) and the resultant increase in the size of the testes, number, and functionality of Leydig cells and secretion of poll glands. The serum thyroidal
hormones also increase significantly during the rut season. It is concluded that male camels have some special anatomic and physiologic features of reproduction not observed in other domestic species.
Title: True Hermaphroditism in a Goat – A case report Abstract :
A four-month-old prepubertal female goat was presented to RVP IVRI Bareilly, with the history of an abnormal growth in the vulva. On clinical examination the growth was found as prominent clitoris, and two peanut sized soft structures were palpable at the subcutaneous in inguinal region. Transabdominal B mode real time ultrasound of inguinal region revealed testis like morphology and presence of uterus and ovaries structures subcutaneously. The case was subsequently diagnosed as hermaphrodism.