Title: A Review of the Nutritive Value and Meat Quality Characteristics of the Dromedary (Camelus dromedaries) Camel Meats Abstract :
The dromedary camel is a good source of milk and meatin harsh areas where the climate adversely affects the survival of other livestock. The dromedary has unique physiological characters, including a great tolerance to various
temperatures, solar radiation, water scarcity, rough topography and poor vegetation. Dromedaries are mostly raised under traditional systems on low feeding system and slaughtered at old ages. In general, dromedary camel
carcasses contain about 57% muscle, 26% bone and 17% fat with fore-quarters significantly heavier than the hind halves. Camel lean meat
contains about 78% water, 19% protein, 3% fat, and 1.2% ash with a small amount of intramuscular fat, which renders it a healthy food for growing human population. The amino acid and mineral contents of camel meat are
often higher than other meat animals, probably due to lower intramuscular fat levels.Camel meat has been processed into burgers, patties, sausages and shawarma to add value.
Title: Enrichment of yogurt made from camel milk with Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum: Influence on syneresis, water holding capacity, exopolysaccharides and rheological properties Abstract :
The influence of Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum water extracts on the water holding capacity (WHC), susceptibility to syneresis (STS), exopolysaccharides (EPS) and rheological properties of yogurt during 0,7, 14 and 21 days of refrigerated storage (4°C) were investigated. The WHC of yogurt in presence of C. verum or A. sativum was significantly higher than plain-yogurt overall storage period. The highest WHC showed on day 21 of storage with 24.5±1.6% and 17.3±1.5% for C. verum- and A. ativumyogurts respectively. The STS uniformly reduced (p<0.05) in presence of herbs compared to in absence. ESP in plain- and herbal-yogurts increased during refrigerated storage. However, both plain- and A. sativum-yogurt decreased (p<0.05) on day 21 of storage. Amplitude sweep showed liquid like behaviour for both herbal and plain-yogurt during storage.
Title: A short note on Morphological aspects of camel embryos recovered from uterine flushing of superovulated female camels Abstract :
Identification of embryos in stages prior to its hatching when viewed under
stereo-microscope presents no difficulties because of the a-cellular transparent coating called Zona- Pellucida. But majority of the embryos
recovered from the camels are usually at the hatched blastocyst stages
(Cooper et al.., 1990; Annouassi et al., 1992; Cooper et al., 1992; McKinnon et al.., 1992; Skidmore et al., 1992; McKinnon et al., 1994), which lacks Zona-Pellucida, initially they are spherical in shape (Figures - 4,5,6) but soon lose their spherical shape also (Figures-10, 11, 12 ), which may be of some concern for the beginners for identification of embryos, also it may be of concern to beginners is the size of embryos, which may vary from 175- 500 um (Skidmore et al., 1992), or may be 400-2500 um, bigger enough to be visible by necked eyes even (Anouassi and Tibary, 2012).
Title: Mineral indices in Algerian camels (Camelus dromedarius): effect of season Abstract :
In order to evaluate the climate influence on mineral indices in dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius), blood samples were collected from 40 clinically healthy animals, reared under semi-extensive conditions in the Djelfa valley,
(in the south of Algeria), during the dry season (July / August) and the green season (December/ January) to determine and compare the mineral indices. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) depending on the season for the serum phosphorus and calcium (high during the hot season) were observed. These reference ranges for serum biochemical analysis can be used for early detection of metabolic and nutritional disorders in dromedary camels.
Title: Surgical Management of Tumor at Chest Pad in Camel (Camelus dromedaries) Abstract :
An 8 years old male camel with large, firm, mass occupying the antero-ventral aspect of the chest-pad was referred to Surgery clinic. Growth enlargement developed gradually since 5 month. The tumor was surgically removed by blunt dissection. Wounds were covered with sterile gauge followed by multi tail bandage. Postoperatively, administrated oxytetracycline injection 1500 mg, I.V. for 7 days and phenylbutazone injection 3000 mg, I.M. for 3 days. The postoperative course was uneventful
Title: Reproductive Performance in Camel(Camelus dromedarius) Abstract :
The study was conducted to explore various aspects of reproduction in camels viz. Effect of breed on fertility, effect of repeat services during same estrous period on pregnancy rate, effect of copulation time on fertility in female dromedary camels, early versus late onset of sexual libido in males, male fertility and investigations into mating ability, semen donation efficiency in Artificial Vagina, gross characteristics of semen ejaculate, individual
sperm motility examination and morphological evaluation of spermatozoa of sterile male camels. Bikaneri breeds of camels exhibited greater First service and overall conception rate as compared to Jaisalmeri and Kachchi
breeds. Infertile females were also lesser in Bikaneri breed than Kachchi and Jaisalmeri. Repeated services during the same estrus period had no beneficial effect on pregnancy rate over single service, when females were selected for follicular phases prior to breeding.
Title: Effect of gonadotrophin treatment on circulating estradiol and progesterone profiles, growth and maturation of follicles and embryo collection in female camels for
two successive superovulation trials Abstract :
Gonadotrophic treatment of female camels for superovulation resulted in increased circulating concentration of Estradiol after day 6 of the initiation of gonadotrophic treatment followed by peak levels on days 7, 8 and 9, while the treatment did not show any increase in estradiol concentration for first 5 days after initiation of the treatment. The magnitude of estradiol peak varied individually between the two females receiving same sort of superovulation treatment, greater in one (69.79 pg/ml) than the other (40.81 pg/ml), and peak levels were also greater for the superovulated females (69.79 pg/ml, 40.81pg/ml) as compared to females used as recipients (35 pg/ml and 41.35 pg/ml). This might have been due to higher dosages and combined use of two gonadotrophic preparation (Both PMSG and FSH plus LH Combined)
used in donors as compared to low dosages and one gonadotrophic preparation (PMSG only) used in recipients. The rise in estradiol concentration is indicative of growth and maturation of multiple follicles in response to the treatment.
Title: An Abbattoir-Based Study on Relative Prevalence of Histopathologic Patterns of Hepatic Lessions in One-Humped Camels (Camelus deromedarius), Semnan, Iran Abstract :
An abattoir based study was carried out during spring 2011 to investigate pathological conditions of the liver in camels (Camelus deromedarius) slaughtered in Semnan slaughter house, Northerneast of Iran. In this study, 40 carcases out of 150 randomly selected carcases inspected at postmortem, found with liver lesions. Proper tissue samples obtained from livers with macroscopic lesions, fixed in 10% neutral buffer formaldehyde, processed for routin histopathological techniques, and finally embedded in paraffin blocks. Sections of 5µm thickness then cut and stained by H&E staining techniques.In histopathological examination of hepatic tissue the following changes were observed: Hydatid cysts; 65%, Cirrhosis; 10%, Hepatic lipidosis (Mild to Severe fatty changes); 12.5%, Glycogen deposition; 2.5%, Cholangitis; 2.8%, Cholangiohepatitis; 5%, Calcified hydatid cyst; 2.5%, Hepatic abscess; 2.5%, lipofuscin pigments; 17.5%.It is concluded that the highest and lowest prevalent patterns of hepatic lesions were Hydatid cysts and Hepatic abcess respectively.
Title: Surveillance of Camel Trypanosomosis in Al-Jouf region, Saudi Arabia Abstract :
Three hundred and ten blood samples from clinically healthy and suspected camels (male and female) of four breeds from different location of Al-jouf (Saudi Arabia), were examined to detect prevalence rate of T. evansi infection by CATT test. An overall prevalence was determined as 43.8%. The variability of
trypanosomosis was highly significant according to the factor moving, clinical signs and animal status regarding its age, sex and lactation status. Prevalence rate increased significantly in May and a second peak was observed in September.
Title: Ixodid tick and the influence of age and sex of camel on tick infestation rates in onehumped camel (Camelus dromedarius)population in the Northeast of Iran Abstract :
This survey was carried out in eleven towns and cities in the three provinces of Northeast Iran (Khorasan Razavi, Northern Khorasan, and Southern Khorasan) during the period from May 2012 to January 2013 to identify the
distribution of different tick species infesting camels and to evaluate the influence of sex and age of camels on the infestation rate of ticks. A total of 200 camels were examined and 480 ticks were collected (347 males and 133 females). Tick infestation was observed in 171 (85.5%) camels. Hyalomma dromedarii was found to be the predominant tick species (90.7%). Other
tick species were found in low numbers and were as follows: Hyalomma anatolicum (6%), and Hyalomma marginatum (2.9%), Hyalomma asiaticum (0.4%). Significant differences were observed in tick burden between females and males (p<0.01). Comparison of older and younger animals showed no significant difference in the number of ticks (p>0.05).
Title: Serum Creatinine, Urea Nitrogen And Endogenous Creatinine Clearance Based Glomerular Filtration Rate In Camels To
Evaluate Renal Functions Abstract :
To evaluate renal functions in camel, the study on profiles like Serum Creatinine (SC), Serum urea nitrogen (SUN), SUN/SC ratio was undertaken in institute’s herd of camels (n=250) (Camelus dromedarius) of all age
groups, both sexes and three breeds and in addition Glomerular Filtration rate (GFR) of 18 male camels of 3 breeds (n=6 each) with 6 individual replicates (Total 108 observations) were determined. The values of SC and SUN/
SC ratio differ significantly (P< 0.05) between breeds, while those of SUN did not differ (P>0.05). SC was significantly higher in male (P<0.05), while SUN and SUN/SC ratio was significantly higher (P<0.05) in females. The
values of SC and SUN/SC ratio did not differed significantly (P>0.05) in different age groups, while SUN differed significantly (P<0.05) between different age groups. Daily Urine Output (UO) and GFR differed significantly
(P<0.05) between Bikaneri and Kachchi breeds, while the difference was statistically non-significant (P>0.05) between Bikaneri and Jaisalmeri and Bikaneri and Kachchi breeds.
Title: Cesarean section in dromedary camels under field conditions in United Arab Emirates Abstract :
In this study we analyze the causes of dystocia in 17 camels for which cesarean section had to be performed at the farmer’s doorstep, along with the outcome of such surgeries. Maternal causes of dystocia were common (58.82%) indications for the surgery compared to the fetal causes (41.18%). The maternal causes included uterine torsion (17.64%), cervical dilation failure (11.76%), narrow birth canal (11.76%) due to pelvic fracture or dam’s immaturity, uterine rupture (5.88%), uterine prolapse (5.88%) and vaginal rupture (5.88%). The fetal causes included uncorrectable fetal malpostures (29.41%), oversized fetus (5.88%) and schistosoma reflexus (5.88%) monster. Only 35.29% of the calves could be delivered alive and the calf viability depended upon the time of referral (6h-10days) after the
onset of 2nd stage of labor. The proportion of male and female calves delivered was 58.82 and 41.18% respectively.
Title: Assessing the Osmotic fragility of Erythrocytes of rural and semiurban Camels (Camelus dromedarius) Abstract :
Dromedary camel, despite subjected to harsh environmental condition, has been adapted to arid and dry climate. Camel has shown exceptional ability to withstand considerable period of dehydration and camel erythrocytes have the ability to expand twice their volume without rupturing in hypotonic solution. Osmotic fragility of camel erythrocyte of rural and semi urban area was compared especially in relation to exposure to pollutants. Camel erythrocyte did not show any hemolysis when suspended to descending concentration of NaCl solution. The greater resistance of camel erythrocyte to osmotic fragility was attributed to their morphological characteristics and its membrane protein, “Spectrin”.
Title: Successful repair of avulsion fracture of mandible in a dromedary male camel Abstract :
A male camel of age 24 years was referred to the Al Qattara veterinary hospital with a history of injury in the lower mandibular area. On examination it was found a fracture in mandible with necrotic debris and yellowish
pus at fracture site. There was only right lateral incisor present and rest of incisors were avulsed during an early accident. The fracture was diagnosed as avulsion type whereas the fracture line was running in oblique direction. The
avulsion fracture was reduced and immobilized by modified circumferential wiring technique. Stainless steel wire was applied over the mucosal surface of lower mandible in the figure of 8 pattern. The animal recovered after 12
weeks uneventfully without complication except embedding of wire in soft tissue which was re adjusted on 10th postoperative day. It was concluded that avulsion mandibular fracture in camel can be repa
Title: Surgical Management of Abdominal Hernia in a Camel (Camelus dromedaries) Abstract :
In the present study abdominal hernia was recorded in a 5 year old male camel. This hernia was diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical examination. Football size swelling on right side of ventral abdomen shows presence of hernia with approximately eight finger hernia ring. Hernial ring was repaired by herniorrhaphy. The hernia ring was closed with overlapping mattress sutures. Postoperatively, administrated oxytetracycline injection 1500 mg, I.V. for 7 days and phenylbutazone injection 3000 mg, I.M. for 3 days. The postoperative course was uneventful.
Title: Hormonal management of ovarian activity in breeding camels two months ahead of the natural breeding season Abstract :
Early ovarian activity in camels is rewarding for camel breeders on account of better growth in calves born to early bred females. The objective of this study was to stimulate ovarian activity in breeding camels two months ahead (September-October) of the natural breeding season (November-April) for early conception.Ovarian follicular growth and maturation was stimulated during two years (2010 and 2011) in camels (from 16 September) not evidencing any follicle growth on 4 consecutive transrectal ultrasonographic (TRUS) examinations (every 4 days between 1-15 September) by either im
administration of a low dose eCG (2000 IU) (n=43) or an Ov-Synch (n=39) protocol (GnRH + PG + GnRH on 0, 7 and 9 days). Camels with a persistent CL (n=20) and ovarian cysts(n=8) were treated by administration of 500 µg of a prostaglandin (Estrumate) and 4500 IU im of hCG (Chorulon) respectively. Thirty camels were not given any treatment and kept as control.
Title: Occurrence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Camels Slaughtered at Kano Abattoir, Kano, Nigeria Abstract :
This study assess the occurrence of Methicilin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among camels in Kano abattoir. A total of 300 nasal swabs were collected from camels at the lairage in Kano abbatoir, Nigeria to isolate and 'biochemically characterize Staphylococcus aureus and confirm Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among isolates using oxacillin resistance screening agar basal medium (ORSAB), disc diffusion method and also through detection of penicillin binding protein 2' (PBP2'). Fourteen percent (42/300) suspected Staphylococcus spp isolates were confirmed using coagulase, DNase, hemolysis and sugar fermentation test. Of the 42 isolated Staphylococcus aureus, 35.7 % (15/42) were confirmed to be MRSA on ORSAB medium of which twelve were also resistant to oxacillin, using disc diffusion method. Five (33.3%) of the fifteen purtative MRSA were confirmed to produce penicillin- binding protein 2' by PBP2' latex agglutination test kit. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA was higher in males than in females (p > 0.05). Multidrug resistance was displayed by all Staphylococcus aureus isolates with 100% resistance to ampicillin and penicillin, but 97.6% of the isolates were susceptible to amikacin and 90% to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. There was no statistical significance difference in antibiotic resistance between Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, cloxacillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin, tetracycline, sulphamethoxazole, vancomycin with p-value > 0.05 but there was statistical significance to oxacillin with p-value of 0.0001 and Odds Ratio of 0.7143. MRSA strains were found in 5% of camels and thus may play a potential role in disseminating the pathogen between animals and humans.
Title: Bovine Mastitis: Novel Protein Treatment Strategy Abstract :
Mastitis is a major challenge to the worldwide dairy industry in spite of the widespread implementation of mastitis control strategies. The major economic loss of all forms of mastitis results from reduced milk production. Because of the difficulty in controlling mastitis the disease will maintain its role in the foreseeable future. Identifying genes offers the opportunity to improve production efficiency, quality through utilizing them in breeding programs, developing therapeutic agents that can be used to alter disease attributes by altering gene expression. The Lactoferrin gene having significant association with mastitis has been identified which is an iron binding protein present in biological fluids. This protein is synthesized by mammary epithelium cells and neutrophils and secreted as non-haem iron binding protein. It is a glycosylated protein having antibacterial, antiviral, immune-modulatory and iron haemostasis properties. In addition to it modulates the immune response by decreasing the free radical formation and by down regulating LPS induced cytokines and is an potent activator of immunological functions such as granulopoiesis, cytokine production, antibody synthesis, natural killer cell toxicity, lymphocyte proliferation and complement activation and production of interleukins (IL-1), (IL-2) and TNF. The lactoferrin acts as a carrier of IGFBP-3 and allows translocation of extracellular IGFBP-3 into nucleus of bovine mammary epithelium cells. Its concentration increases during dry period and during mastitis concentration may increases several folds. Moreover it modulates the immune response by decreasing the free radical formation and by down regulating LPS induced cytokines and exhibits strong antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria (gram-positive & negative), fungi, yeasts and viruses and parasites. Lactoferrin acts as biomarker, antioxidant and vaccine adjuvant. This paper reviews the role of lactoferrin, its mechanism of action in regulation of mammalian host defense in combating mastitis which facilitates the inclusion of mastitis resistance in bovine breeding programmes.
Title: In vitro Maturation of Camel Oocytes: Current Status and Controversies Abstract :
Camel has been a very important animal in the desert regions and Arab countries. The importance of camel in these regions has been reported for fiber, meat, milk and hides production and transport in harsh and dry conditions. Since, camels have their place in countries economy, ways have to be found to improve their level and efficiency of reproduction and production. The using of biotechnology especially the technique of in vitro maturation is a useful tool in this respect. For that, the goals of this review are to discuss the current Status and controversies of in vitro maturation of camel oocytes.
Title: Distribution of chorionic villi in the foetal component of placenta in camel (Cameleus dromedarius) Abstract :
The placenta plays an important role in the exchange of metabolites from the foetal side. Studies concerning the dromedary foetal membranes have been compiled by Morton (1961), Moniem (1968), Musa (1977), Skidmore, Wooding, and Allen, (1996) and Salman (2001). It should be noted that the morphological studies of the dromedary foetal membranes carried out so far were concentrated mainly on gross anatomy and histology, with rather scanty information about their ultrastructure and histochemistry. In Sudan, Salman (2001) has studied the dromedary placenta in detail. However, very little work has been performed on the other foetal membranes. It appears from the literature cited that there is a need for further and detailed histological and histochemical studies on the foetal membranes of the dromedary camel. It is hoped, therefore, that the present investigation will be a contribution to a better knowledge of the structure and function of the various components of the camel foetal membranes and placenta.
Title: Prevalence, Diversity and Risk Assessment Camelid Eimeriosis in Hyper-Arid Partially Irrigated Zone of Rajasthan Abstract :
A total of 509 faecal samples of all ages and sex from camel population were randomly collected to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with coccidian parasites from hyper arid partially irrigated zone of Rajasthan which comprises of three districts viz. Bikaner, Churu and Jaisalmer during the period from March to December, 2016. An overall prevalence of 13.55% was recorded for coccidiosis in camels with a highly significant difference (p<0.01) among the seasons (summer; 8% and rainy; 8.66 and winter; 21.05%). Quantitative analysis revealed mild to high severity of infections ranging from 100-3700 with an average of 623.33±126.24 oocysts per gram of faeces in the camel population. Two morphotypes of Eimeria sp. were identified are E. cameli and E. dromedrii and E. cameli was the major contributor in coccidia population (71.33%). A comparatively higher prevalence was recorded for Eimeria sp. in female than male camel population.
Title: Retention of Placenta in a Bikaneri She Camel: A Case Report Abstract :
The fetal membranes are made by the fetus and connect to the blood supply in the uterus and across the thin connection between the membranes of the dam and the membranes of the fetus. The essential materials pass to the developing fetus. When the fetus is born the placenta normally detaches within short time and is expelled. That is why it is referred to as the “afterbirth” (Ball and Peters, 2004). The camel placenta is diffuse epitheliochorial type (Abd-Elnaeim et al. 1999) and placental retention subsequent to parturition is rare. The release of fetal membranes postpartum is a physiological process and involves loss of fetomaternal adherence, combined with contraction of uterine musculature and usually The camel placenta is expelled within 49 minutes to 6 hours of calving (Prakash and Singh, 1962; Sharma, 1968; Nasr et al. 1996). The incidence of retention of placenta in camels is very low varies from 2-11% (Sharma, 1968; Tibary and Annouassi, 1997) with higher incidence being noticed in premature deliveries (Zhao, 2000). In this case report the retention of placenta is present in a dromedary camel.
Title: Morphological Identification of Hyalomma dromedarii Tick of Camel and its Morphological Differentiation from Hyalomma anatolicumanatolicum tick of Cattle in Bikaner, Rajasthan Abstract :
Ticks of genus Hyalomma are prominent vectors of domestic animal and human pathogenic agents as well as hematophagous parasites. Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma anatolicumanatolicum are primarily ectoparasites of camel and cattle, respectively and are prevalent in India and other tropical and sub-tropical countries. Being the ticks of interest, from regional point of view, the present paper is based on morphological identification and comparison of both the ticks on the basis of our observations on the morphological characters of adult males and females of both species in the Bikaner region. In males, key morphologically distinguishable characters identified as the sub-anal plates of H. dromedarii aligned outside the longitudinal aixs of the adanal plates while in case of H. a. anatolicum they are aligned in the same axis. In females of H. dromedarii the genital aperture posterior lips are narrow V shaped while in H. a. anatolicum they are U shaped. So, it becomes essential to morphologically differentiate H. dromedarii from H. anatolicumanatolicum for the actual estimation and assessment of H. dromedarii tick in this region.
Title: Gross Study on the Valves of the Jugular Veins and its Tributries in the Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Abstract :
Blood circulation, particularly of head and neck, plays a vital role in survivability of the animals especially more so in camel. The camel traverses long distances and has a great capability of tolerating adverse environmental conditions such as high temperature, non-availability of water and starvation for long period. This is being probably made possible by adaptations exhibited by camel like its size and shape, colour, tolerance of high temperature and tissue dehydration, specialized respiratory patterns, reduction in metabolic rate etc. (Wilson, 1989). The blood vessels of the head and neck provide blood supply i.e. nutrition to the most vital organ of the body, the brain. The blood supply of the brain is also responsible for the thermo-regulation of the brain. According to Baker & Hayward (1968) “The venous blood returning from the nasal mucosa and the skin of the head to the cavernous, cools the central arterial blood in the carotid rete”.
Title: Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Erythrocyte of Pneumonic Camel Calves Abstract :
Dromedary camels are mainly live in arid area of Africa and Asia and considered the important component of desert ecosystem. They are used not only for transportation but also for racing and meat and milk production. The dromedary generally suffers from fewer diseases than other domestic livestock such as goats and cattle. Respiratory airway diseases are among the emerging health problems to camel population worldwide that are causing considerable losses in production, significant mortalities and cost of treatment and vaccination (Kebede and Gelaye, 2010).