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Title: Economic impact of tourism in India
Abstract :

Tourism is world’s largest industry without making smoke. It occupies one in nine global jobs and contributes 10 per cent to the world’s Gross Domestic Product. It is a dynamically developing area of external economic activities. It affects different other sectors of the economy through its high growth and progress rates, substantial amounts of foreign currency inflows, infrastructure expansion and introduction of new management and educational experiences. Consecutively it adds positively to the social and economic development of the country as a whole. Its actual and potential economic impact is amazing. So this paper is an attempt to measure the economic impact of tourism in India. Currently a lot of measures are there to measure the impact. The important measures are Input-Output Method, Multiplier Method, Economic Impact Assessment Scale, Tourism Satellite Accounts Method, Impacts of Visitor Spending Method and Computable General Equilibrium Model. In this study the author is using the Visitor Spending Method.

Title: Characteristics of Mystical Experiences and Impact of Meditation
Abstract :
Mystical experiences have always been studied with a sense of awe and mystery both by the laypersons as well as the scientists. Today due to advancements in Spiritual Psychology, Consciousness studies and Meditation studies, they are being explored from a scientific perspective. As a result several features, identifying criteria, and unique characteristic of these experiences have surfaced in scientific research works. The applications of spirituality have spread into such hitherto new settings like workplaces, hospitals, and educational institutions with many studies on the impact of spiritual/mystical experiences on several important variables. However, many researchers are not aware of the research studies in this emerging area. This paper attempts to present the definition, nature, characteristics, classification, effects of mystical experiences and the impact of meditation.
Title: Occupational aspiration of agricultural graduates
Abstract :

Aspiration is considered as one of the important traits of personality of an individual. The present study has to be conceived as a contribution towards understanding of the nature and extent of aspiration of the students. It is essential to understand the various occupational aspirations of the Agricultural Graduates and the sources of information utilised by the Agricultural Graduates for occupation and job opportunities. The study was conducted during September-December 2011 at the faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya (BCKV). The sample consists of all the 1st semester and 3rd semester students of M.Sc (Agriculture). The analysis of occupational aspirations suggested that while students aspired to a particular type of job, they were not necessarily expecting to get the job to which they aspired. In the context of this study, a higher percentage of students (30%) aspired to be A.R.S performers exclusively, however many were not really expecting to go as a researcher. Among the mass media sources, all the respondents used news papers as sources for job placement followed by websites (88.36%). Among the least used mass media sources was radio (only 1.72%). Among the informal sources it is noted that students received maximum information regarding job from their friends (88%) followed by their parents (50.43%).least used sources for information was neighbours (6.46%).

Title: Rabindra Nath Tagore is a soul of literature
Abstract :

Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) was the youngest son of Debendranath Tagore, a leader of the BrahmoSamaj, which was a new religious sect in nineteenth-century Bengal and which attempted a revival of the ultimate monistic basis of Hinduism as laid down in the Upanishads. He was educated at home; and although at seventeen he was sent to England for formal schooling, he did not finish his studies there. In his mature years, in addition to his many-sided literary activities, he managed the family estates, a project which brought him into close touch with common humanity and increased his interest in social reforms. He also started an experimental school at Shantiniketan where he tried his Upanishadic ideals of education. From time to time he participated in the Indian nationalist movement, though in his own non-sentimental and visionary way; and Gandhi, the political father of modern India, was his devoted friend. Tagore was knighted by the ruling British Government in 1915, but within a few years he resigned the honour as a protest against British policies in India.

Title: Understanding the Functions and Classification of Market Centres in Rural India: A Case Study
Abstract :

The market centres perform the functions as service centers, helps in increasing the socio- economic and political contacts in the surrounding area. The functions of markets are largely depends upon the threshold population, transacted commodities, administrative character and the transportation links between the market and its hinterland. On the basis of varying functions and numerous characteristics of market centres, they can be further classified into different types, so as to understand the peculiar nature of the market centres in any spatial unit. This paper aims to analyse the function and classification of market centres of the study area on the basis of several variables which are closely related to the spatial development of market centres, such as, number of shops, estimated participants, transacted commodities, market function, and trade area.

Title: The Right to Work, State and Society:Study of MGNREGA
Abstract :
Development of people’s rights in a representative democracy like India’s is a complex historical process. It could be distinguished between two kinds of rights (customary and legal rights). The former refers to rights based on customs and rituals and the later refers to rights sanctioned by the state. Usually such rights are enshrined in the constitution. The anti-colonial struggle and the post-independence India opened up streams of democratic consciousness and it spread new visions of social transformations, giving concrete socio-economic content to the agenda of freedom struggle. Creative society thus emerged as a theatre of intense struggle between forces of freedom and forces of domination. Here, the paper has discussed about legal rights (in the context of modern nation states) especially with reference to the right to work in India through a case study of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA).
Title: Working and earning status versus domestic responsibilities: A reverse ratio for women
Abstract :

The present study examines the impact of the working and earning status of women on their everyday domestic responsibilities from the experiences of a sample of 112 working women from Nashik city ranging in 23 to 56 years of age. A questionnaire with the basic demographic information, some close ended questions and a checklist of forty-two family chores were administered to the sample as research tools. Main findings reveal that in spite of the working and earning status of women the everyday domestic responsibilities of family living are not shared on fair basis by men and women. Some of the backbreaking ‘everyday family chores’ are not at all done by men in the sample population. This inequality in work distribution and shouldering responsibility could be an outcome of the prevalent patriarchal or male dominant family system in India. Nashik being a religious town seems to follow the traditional role-patterns of women and men even though due to the economic reasons women have taken up the additional function of earning for the family. The data were analyzed and mean, standard deviation and t-value were estimated. The present study was confined to the urban working women in the city of Nashik in Maharashtra, India.

Title: Contribution of MGNREGS in eradication of rural poverty- An Assessment
Abstract :

Poverty reduction and rural development are the most difficult and biggest challenges in the country. Since independence a number of poverty alleviation and rural development programmes have been implemented during the plan period aiming to reduce poverty.These development programmes can be grouped in two categories (i) wage employment schemes (ii) Scheme self-employment schemes. In these programmsviz: MFALDA, SFDA, Food For Work programme, National Rural Employment programe and Employment Assurance scheme (EAS). During 1989-90 a massive programme of JawaharRozgarYojana was launched by merging NREP and RLEGP. Later a unique new wage employment programme known as SampoornaGrameenaRozgarYojana (SGRY) was introduced by merging JGSY and EAS. The Swarnjayanthi Gram SwarozgarYojana (SGSY) is a major ongoing programme for the self-employment of the poor.

Title: Study on possibilities of low cost waste water management in urban India with special reference to Kolkata, West Bengal
Abstract :

Cities in India have been in under tremendous pressure of population growth as well as with huge production of wastewater. Wastewater treatment projects have found vulnerable due to various constraints. In result natural bodies around the cities have been used as disposal site hence contaminated severely. So, controlling pollution through managing the wastewater as well as resource recycling has gained increasing urgency in recent decades. An effort has been made in this paper to critically examine the status of wastewater generation in urban India, its possibility of management through recycling with a special attention to Kolkata. It has been observed that city wastewater has been used as revenue earning combination of agriculture and aquaculture in Kolkata. The entire system created and developed by the local people in the area is the unique of its kind and serve as a ‘Natural Kidney’ of the Megacity Kolkata where sustain resource recovery system in the form of vegetable farms, fish ponds and paddy fields. Despite of various constraints fisheries have been functioning successfully in this area with producing employment opportunity for two persons per hectare. Therefore, the study shows that disposal of waste water in other Indian cities as well as in other parts of Kolkata can be used as low cost resource recovery process for future sustenance.

Title: Gender responsive budgeting in India: Trends and Analysis
Abstract :

Gender based violence is quite common in almost all the developing countries. Religion, customs, age-old prejudices, etc. have put Indian women in a subservient and exploitable position in many domains of life. Low rates of participation in education, lack of economic independence, value biases operating against them, etc., have resulted in the women being dependent on men folk and other institutions of authority like the family, neighbourhood and the society.

Title: Empowerment and domestic violence: An empirical investigation on rural women in Bankura district
Abstract :

Domestic violence against women is an emerging issue of concern to social and health planner. This study has examined the impact of economic and political empowerment of women on incidence of domestic violence on women. We have formed a composite index of economic empowerment using Principal Component Analysis method. Incidence of domestic violence has been measured by the fact whether the woman suffered from physical assault in last six months from her family member. The impact of economic and political empowerment of woman along with other individual and household characteristics on the incidence of domestic violence has been traced out on the basis of a set of primary data collected from 125 ever-married women residing in the district of Bankura, West Bengal. A binary probit model has been formulated for estimation. Our cross section study reveals a negative and significant relation of economic and political empowerment of women with the incidence of domestic violence on women. This relation may be due to having increased voice and consciousness of politically and economically empowered women.

Title: Understanding the paradigm shift in teaching and learning
Abstract :

Knowingly or unknowingly the teaching and learning takes place directly or indirectly in different forms (formal, non formal and informal) at different level (primary, secondary and higher education) from ancient to present era. Here the method of teaching and learning knowingly or unknowingly has been changing according to social change. In modern era the teaching and learning takes place with well formulated school environment and it is the primary source to generate skilled human resource. To enhancement of this primary and predominant process it is need of the hour to takeout the paradigm shift in the teaching and learning process.

Title: Destitute children and initiatives for their welfare in Bangladesh
Abstract :

A large number of children are destitute in Bangladesh. They suffers severely from malnutrition, under weight and drink unsafe water. They are never enrolled in school. About 0.68 million children lives in the street in Bangladesh and they involved in child labour such as domestic works, agriculture, vehicle helper, garments workers, shoe polisher, construction helper, carpenters, hawkers etc. They also engaged in bidi factory, match factory, transport sectors, brick-field, dyeing factory, tannery factory and printing press sectors and they are totally deprived from healthy environment. Even a large number of them are involved in different types of crime such as stealing, snatching, smuggling, pilfering prostitution etc. No doubt this is very much unexpected situation for the children who are the future leader of the nation. So there are responsibilities for the concern authorities of Bangladesh to rescue these destitute children from their miseries and also to ensure their rights.

Title: Economics of Production of Sugarcane in Orissa
Abstract :
Sugarcane is a major cash crop of India, particularly in UP, Maharastra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujurat, and Foot hils of Uttarakhand. Sugarcane crop has a productivity of 70 tonnes/ha and an area of 4.2 mha. It plays a pivotal role in the national economy. Sugarcane is considered as one of the best cash crops in Orissa. It is grown in all the 30 districts of Orissa. The selected district Dhenkanal occupied 4th position in area (1.49 thousand ha) & in production (99.06 thousand MTs) and 5th position in yield (668.50 qtls/ha) in 2005-06. This study was carried out in Dhenkanal district, Orissa. The study area to find out status and constraints of sugarcane cultivation. A sample of 160 farmers was randomly selected from two blocks i.e. Dhenkanal & Kankadahad. The establishment of a sugar factory in Dhenkanal district has increased the prospect of this crop in the surrounding area. The average size of holding was 2.44 ha. in region-I and 1.89 ha. in region-II. The land was unequally distributed among different categories of farms. The net return over variable costs per hectare were ` 38220.96 in region-I and ` 34380.10 in region- II. The average yield of sugarcane per hectare was 73.88 tonnes and 69.88 tonnes in region –I and region-II respectively
Title: Colonisation and good governance in Africa: Myth or reality
Abstract :

The paper examined the concepts of colonisation and good governance. The argument was guided by the principles of dependency theory married with elements of social contract theory. Secondary source of data was employed. Based on facts, it was concluded that colonialism has distorted the African economy and since there is positive correlation between economy and good governance, it follows that, the issue of good governance in Africa is a myth. Among the recommendations made is, African countries should be left to decide what suits them in terms of economic, political and social issues rather than the west imposing what they (the west) think is good for Africa and Africans.

Title: A brief history of Bengali Drama: Nineteenth and early Twentieth century
Abstract :

A popular culture developed in Calcutta in the nineteenth century with the amalgamation of folk culture and urban patronage under a stylistic unity. One of the important expressions of popular culture that developed in Calcutta was the dramatic performance done through the medium of jatra pala, theatres and folk plays. The form of jatra originated from the ritual of songs and dance which formed part of the religious festivals in villages. A leading proponent of jatra pala during the mid- nineteenth century in Calcutta was Gopal Uday (1817-1857). He introduced jatra pala in a new style. He formed his own troupe and rewritten ‘Vidya-Sundar’. During the nineteenth century and first half of the twentieth century, a number of bhadraloks set up jatra troupes, being influenced by the folk form of the art of jatra. There are evidences of the existence of women artists who used to act in jatra. In the first half of the twentieth century, Swadeshi Jatra became very much important. Jatras were performed not only for entertainment but also to make the people conscious of the British dominance over Indians. Swadeshi Jatra pala grew up and opened a novel chapter during the anti-partition movement in Bengal. Along with the Jatra, there was the prevalence of performance of stage-theatres in Calcutta. It was from the second half of the nineteenth century that the socio-economic conditions of Bengal and the essence of nationalism were reflected in the plays. The folk theatres also had important part in forming consciousness of the people against suppression, oppression and differentiations of the society. Apart from giving delight and entertainment to the people, the folk theatres became the platform for catering popular and non-formal education as well.

Title: Study on access to change agents by the farm women engaged in paddy cultivation in West Bengal
Abstract :

The present study examines farm women’s access to change agents for obtaining useful information which include market prices, local weather conditions, pest alerts and medical advice. Farm women’s access to change agents for the information related to paddy crop was low in the study area. Farm women distinguished salesman and input dealers as the most credible extension personnel. The study also noted that the contact between the farm women and the line department is very weak.

Title: Impact of Educational Institutions on Literacy Rate in Dakshin Dinajpur, West Bengal, India:A Statistical Analysis
Abstract :
The present research is focused on impact of educational institutions on literacy rate. Traditionally literacy has been commonly defined as the ability to read and write at an adequate level of proficiency that is necessary for communication. According to 2011 census literacy of Dakshin Dinajpur district is 73.86 %, whereas national literacy is 74.04 % which is near to national literacy. There is 1169 primary and 302 upper primary school which create a vital role on literacy. This study reveals that literacy rate is proportionally linearly related to the educational institutions. In this paper analysis is the dependent and two independent data by matrix technique and multiple correlation. It has been found that there is a very strong correlation between literacy rate and educational institutions.
Title: Popularizing Grape Cultivation and Wine Production in India – Challenges and Opportunities
Abstract :
Wine grape cultivation is gaining strong impetus in tropical climatic conditions throughout the world. Tropical viticulture has only been practiced commercially, since approximately 50 years. Countries such as Brazil, India, Thailand and Venezuela play a leading role in the tropical grape production. However, it can be noted that there is a trend towards the expansion of tropical viticulture in the world, since there are vineyards being established in different countries in South America (Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Guatemala), in Africa (Madagascar, Namibia, Tanzania) and Asia (Vietnam, China). The production technology in the tropical regions differs significantly from the one employed in the traditional temperate regions. It is necessary to break the bud dormancy in order to foster bud burst, and special management techniques have to be employed to overcome problems of low fertility and to control vigor.
Title: Community participation in integrated child development services programme in rural Punjab
Abstract :

Realizing the great importance of bringing improvement in children and women’s health and nutritional status, Integrated Child Development Services (ICSD) Scheme was launched on 2nd October 1975. The scope of present study is to evaluate the community participation in ICDS programme. In order to achieve the objectives of the present study, all three ICDS project: Barnala, Sehna and Mehal Kalan of the Barnala District of Punjab were selected for the study. A total of 30 villages (10 from each ICDS project) were selected on the basis of random. From each village Anganwadi Worker and village Sarpanch were selected for study. Thus a total of 30 Anganwadi Workers and 30 Villages Sarpanch was in the sample, from all 30 villages which were having Anganwadi for at least the last 25 years. It was disappointing to find that a majority (76.66%) of the AWWs did not receive any help from anyone in running the AWCs at village level. Half of the village Sarpanches did not make any contribution to the AWWs. It was also found that a majority (66.66%) of the village Sarpanches did not visit the AWCs at all. All (100%) village Sarpanches answered that there was no local committee formed to help the AWWs to conduct different activities and nor any organization like youth club or village school teachers or voluntary organizations at the village level to help the AWWs. In this regard, it is recommended that the training of project ICDS functionaries should be strengthened to impart them specific skills to elicit community participation and also need to have a short duration preparation phase to raise awareness of the community regarding ICDS services.

Title: Issues of Migration in Nagaland
Abstract :
The movement of people from one place in the world to another for the purpose of taking up permanent or semi-permanent residence, usually across a political boundary is called migration. People can either choose to move which is “voluntary migration” or be forced to move which is “involuntary migration”. A variety of reasons lie behind migration. People may migrate in order to improve their economic situation, or to escape civil strife, persecution, and environmental disasters. The reasons encouraging an individual to migrate were categorized as “push” or “pull” factors. Push factors come in when people are left with no choice but to leave their
country of origin. Pull factor happens when people are attracted to move to a particular area or place from their own home. The present state of Nagaland, which has an area of 16, 579 sq. km. with a population density of 119 per sq. km, has been faced with migration issues during the recent years. Thus, taking into account all
the push and pull factor of migration, this article tries to explain the reason for the in and out migration in the state of Nagaland.
Title: Preference for son: Cry of unborn girl
Abstract :

Preference for son is visible in India in the form of skewed sex ratio. Patriarchal shackles never let girl born and flourish in beautiful earth. However, only patriarchy is not the norm for preference of male over female. Many psychological and economic dimensions are involved in this aspect. The present paper highlights these perspectives especially in the context of Haryana which is prosperous in terms of GDP but poor in sex ratio.

Title: Contested Commons: History of Colonial Grazing Policy in South India (Andhra), 1890-1930
Abstract :

Historical dimension of common property resource management systems acquire prominence with emergence of environmental history in India. This paper examines the policy and practice of colonial grazing management policies in South India with particular reference to Andhra region. It has been proposed by this paper that

British colonial state initiated a radical change in the composition of common property resources by the way of incorporating them into agricultural expansion, forests and grazing reserves. This process exercised significant impact upon rural society particularly of small peasantry and landless were the main victim of this process. This paper also shows that consistent struggle exists between colonial
state and rural society over the issue of control over forests and grazing lands. The fights to access village commons so intense that colonial state was compelled to change the grazing policies to incorporate the demands of peasantry. This paper provides a historical trajectory of the way communities which depended upon
common pool resources react when their access is curtailed by the state and other agencies.
Title: Integration of Agricultural Commodity Markets in India
Abstract :
The status of integration among various domestic markets of select agricultural commodities in India has been documented. The degree of integration and the speed of price transmission were found to be different across various commodities. Cereals like rice and wheat showed better integration compared to other perishable
commodities. The wholesale and retail markets of rice and wheat were integrated in the long run as well as in the short run. Grams also showed better market integration which may be due to the absence of trade restriction on the domestic trade of grams in India. The domestic apple markets in India were poorly integrated due to weak market infrastructure and institutions as well as lack of competition between domestic suppliers. Markets of other fruits like banana and pineapple also showed poor integration. Among the vegetables, domestic potato markets were poorly integrated in contrast to the better integration among the onion markets. The information flow and the price transmission was found to be effective among the futures and spot markets of some of the agricultural commodities. The spot and futures were integrated
in the case of chickpea, wheat and maize, and that of barley was not integrated. Wheat and maize markets showed better efficiency in price discovery.
Title: Human research development: A case study of an NGO in Assam
Abstract :

The present paper discusses about development followed by human development. Concept like human research development has also got due importance in the paper citing its need in context to present day condition. The paper has further highlighted the contribution of an NGO named “Society for North East Handmade Paper Development (SNEHPAD)” of Assam, India in the field of Human Research Development through a case study. The paper has been concluded with few suggestions made by the authors on the basis of the data collected through case study.

Title: Understanding the paradigm shift in teaching and learning
Abstract :

Knowingly or unknowingly the teaching and learning takes place directly or indirectly in different forms (formal, non formal and informal) at different level (primary, secondary and higher education) from ancient to present era. Here the method of teaching and learning knowingly or unknowingly has been changing according to social change. In modern era the teaching and learning takes place with well formulated school environment and it is the primary source to generate skilled human resource. To enhancement of this primary and predominant process it is need of the hour to takeout the paradigm shift in the teaching and learning process.

Title: The Paradox of Social Identity and Changing Values of the Young Males in Urban and Rural Areas of Democratic Bangladesh
Abstract :
A Social Identity is a manifestation of an array of shared values and the reflection of the social life of the people of a particular society. Any socially expressed value in the everyday reality, on the other hand, is the eventuality of a composite of several socio-cultural and political elements only rather apprehensively conjoined. Identity
and values are formed in accordance with the social settings of the people that they are a part. Hence, in different social settings, the prevalent values ought to be different. This study concentrates to the values that are difficult to eliminate from the daily lives of the people of Bangladesh. It is concerned with the situation in which different values of the same issue arise and cover the areas like, believe in
magic, sexuality, and gender issue. Based on a survey of three hundred and ninety-two (392) male adolescents of urban and rural areas, the study arrives at a conclusion that there are differences in social values in regard to the social settings where it is formed.
Title: Social Integration and Psychological Well-being of Elderly Women in India: A Comparative Study of Elder Women at Homes and in Elder Care Facilities
Abstract :
In the present study, we examined the critical role of institutionalization of elder women on the social relationships, social integration and psychological well-being. A total of 194 elderly women were selected from Kannur district (Kerala) using multistage cluster sampling. Hundred and one participants were from homes and ninety three participants were from institutional care facilities. The data analyses were performed by using descriptive statistics, chi-square test for association, t’ test for independent samples and stepwise logistic regression analysis. The results revealed that the unmarried, widowed and separated elder women were more likely to be institutionalized than married elder women. Former employment, being economically active, religion and place of residence were significantly associated with institutionalization of the elder women. Objective social integration was higher among the institutionalized elderly women while subjective social integration was higher among elderly women living at homes. The elder women at homes enjoyed better family group support, better social support and more social contacts than those who were institutionalized. But the primary group concern, perceived ill health and inadequate mental mastery were higher among elder women at homes than the institutionalized. The step wise logistic regression analysis revealed that; age, marital status and perceived ill health significantly explained 58% (R2=0.581) of the variance on social integration. The caste affiliation and conflicts in social relationships accounted for 62.7% (R2=0.627) of the variance on psychological well-being. The study concluded that the socio-demographic variables, especially elder women’s residence have significant influence on social integration and psychological wellbeing.
Title: Traditional Media of Communication
Abstract :
Traditional media have been in existence in India for long and have been used as a medium of communication, particularly in remote parts of the country where the modern media of communication has either less penetration or no penetration at all. Despite the revolution of modern media including; new media such as kiosks, internet, social networking such as facebook, twitter, MySpace etc., the traditional media yet occupy some space in the delivery of messages to a large number of people in the country. The traditional media are defined as ‘those media which attempt to
communicate a message to a particular group of target audiences in a given time in local dialect with entertainment’. Centre for communication program, John Hopkins University, Baltimore (USA) advocates ‘Enter-Educate’ approach for making the communication more effective. Traditional media, hence, become personal forms of
communication and can be considered to be ‘matchless persuasive means of communication for policy makers and administrators’ and an inexhaustible treasure of colorful forms and meaningful themes for mass media personnel
Title: Market Driven Agribusiness Education in Agricultural Institutions for Sustainability
Abstract :
Under the given circumstances the agribusiness courses offered by agricultural
universities/ institutions need a market orientation for sustainability. The institutes should be sensitive to students’ and industry needs by identifying the target agroindustry, trade or services enterprises and co-coordinating with them in course structure design. This will also make the courses commercially viable and sustainable. The industry focus can give them an edge in the market if some experimental learning is facilitated by placing them in specific industries in the last semester over and above the usual summer training as a part of the course as is done in some leading institutions. The institutes should provide functional area managers to the concerned trade and industrial units who should also be capable to manage independently small business units and entrepreneurial ventures. On the-job training is very helpful for developing such skills to make the students self dependant. Since the PG students in such courses come from B. Sc. (Ag.) stream they are technically conversant with most of the agricultural specialties but lack seriously in managerial orientation and leadership qualities. They are also found to be deficient in communication and soft skills. Added emphasis should be given on these components. They have to be made better managers in addition to being good technocrats. A package with an outsourcing of such modules through collaboration with professional management institutes may do wonders for the conventional institutes. Such leading institutes may also offer teachers’ training for preparing the faculty to take the challenge themselves in future.
Title: Study on Utility and Revival through Community approach in Sundarbans Mangrove
Abstract :
Mangroves are salt tolerant group of tropical plants that generally grows in the inter-tidal zones of land and sea. The Sundarbans is the world’s largest mangrove forest covering Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta of India and Bangladesh. It protects the coastline of Bangladesh, and West Bengal of India from different environmental catastrophes and act as means of livelihood for numbers of people
of both the countries. The population of mangrove species is declining rapidly due to continuous deforestation by the wood pirates, mafias and some other causes. Mangroves are normally propagated by seeds which are usually vivipary in nature.
Seeds are buoyant and hence short and long distance dispersal occurs by tidal water. Attempt was made to propagate some of the true mangrove plants artificially. Nursery was raised collecting seeds in different ways. Vegetative propagation like cutting and layering were also tried and proved successful but tedious and
time consuming.
Title: An Empirical Study on the Relationship Between Nature Worship and the Preservation of Environment in Some Parts of West Bengal in India
Abstract :
In India, especially in the state of West Bengal, there is a tradition of environment preservation in the form of nature worship. A study has been conducted, through primary level field survey, among the indigenous people and the villagers of several districts of West Bengal in India to find out whether there exists any relation between nature worship and the preservation of the environment. The author observed that some particular trees and animals are worshiped by the indigenous people and the villagers of this state. These trees and animals were identified as sacred and people started worshiping them from time immemorial. The author tried to identify the different components of nature that are worshipped by the people residing in different regions of the state. The purpose of the study was also
to find out whether the identification of sacred grooves had any relation with the beneficial qualities such as economic and medicinal values of that particular tree.The present study revealed that only those trees which have medicinal properties were identified as sacred grooves and incorporated within the religious activities of the indigenous people and villagers of the state. The author also observed that sometimes the religious practices in this region had evolved not out of scriptures but out of necessity and have an important role in the preservation of environment. The author argues that along with the Joint Forest Management programme of the Government, worship of trees has a significant role in preservation of forest in rural areas of Bengal.
Title: Public service delivery in ‘Digital Bangladesh’: strategies and challenges of citizen outreach
Abstract :

The advent of information and communication technology (ICT), i.e. e-government has introduced an array of options of accessing government services and information on citizens’ own terms. These terms include citizens’ expectations of availing 24x7 services from anywhere through multiple channels at their convenience. To ensure more access to government services and information, Bangladesh, like other governments of the world, has taken several measures to implement e-government and in 2009 introduced the theme of ‘Digital Bangladesh’ (DB) integrating all the measures and initiatives of e-government under a single vision. One of the key objectives of DB is to ensure the technology-based delivery of services at the doorsteps of citizens especially to reach the unreached. In this context, the paper enquires about the emerging form of public service delivery network under the theme of DB particularly focusing on the strategic components like self-service web portal, Public Information Centers (PIC) installed at different administrative levels and cell phone-based applications. It also attempts to pinpoint the challenges that pose obstruction to the smooth realization of the initiative. The study concludes that in spite of the challenges the taken strategies play a seminal role in making the public service delivery more efficient and effective and thereby achieving the purpose of citizen outreach effectively.

Title: Foreign Uncontrollable Elements of Marketing: Roots of Cultural Forces
Abstract :

Among the uncontrollable elements of international marketing cultural forces are in the focus of the present paper. In the globalised world it is not enough to be familiar “only” with the geographical, economic, legal, infrastructural, social, etc. environment of the partner country. We should not forget, that we, people are different. This difference originates from our culture. Practice often proves that geographical closeness of the foreign market does not always equal to cultural closeness. It may happen that our product, because of cultural reasons, can be more easily sold in a faraway country instead of in any of our neighbouring countries. But what do we mean by culture? How can we define it? How it is build up of? How it works? How can it cause so extreme differences and sometimes unexpected similarities between people? Building on the research of recognised scientists we are investigating the origin of cultural differences and similarities.

Title: Impact of Micro-credit on the Agrarian Economy – A Case Study in Hooghly District of West Bengal, India
Abstract :
This study focuses on the impact of micro-credit upon the livelihood of rural households based on empirical study over 549 takeholders of SHGs (Self Help Groups) in Hooghly district of West Bengal State in India. One of the distinct areas of the study concerns with the comparative analysis of different rural enterprises propagated through micro-credit. Another objective of this study has been to compare and contrast income as well as savings position of the sample
households before receiving financial credit. Additionally, this study attempted to discriminate between high-performing and low-performing stake-holders on the basis of selected socio-economic indicators.
Title: Unorganized Workers in Beedi Industry: A Study on Women Beedi Rollers of Karnataka, India
Abstract :
Beedi rolling is one of the major unorganized sector activities in India, which employs a large number of women. The beedi industry is the fourth largest employers of workers in India, after agriculture, handloom and construction. The India’s Ministry of Labour estimates about 50 lakh workers in the beedi rolling industry, majority of them are home based women workers. On the other hand, the trade unions claim that there are over 70 lakh beedi workers. Women constitute a very high percentage of labour force in the beedi manufacturing. In this backdrop, the study has been
conducted in Dakshina Kannada district with a selection of 120 women beedi roller households for an in-depth analysis. In this paper, we analyse the income and employment generation in beedi rolling and explore the nature of health hazards experienced by the members of the beedi roller families in the study area
Title: Social Marketing
Abstract :
Social marketing is globally recognized as a key strategy for improving access to a wide range of products and services that directly and positively influence the outreach and coverage of health care. From conceptualizing product development, testing and targeted communication to consumer research and market segmentation, social marketing looks at the provision of health care products and services not as a medical problem but as a sociological issue and marketing challenge. Precisely, social marketing in the health sector seeks to introduce changes in health seeking behaviour of the target audiences by creating access to and increasing the demand for products and services. (National Strategy for Social Marketing (2001)).
Title: Sustainability of Jhum Cultivation as perceived by the Tribal People of Tripura
Abstract :
Jhum/shifting cultivation is traditional land-use practice of North East region of India, is an ecologically and economically viable system of agriculture as long as population densities are low and Jhum cycles are long enough to maintain soil fertility. Population explosion resulted in reduction of Jhum cycle due to which, the resilience of ecosystem is interrupted and the quality of the land is
worsening day by day which is important to maintain the sustainability of Jhum. Hence an attempt has been made to know the perception of tribal people about the sustainability of Jhum cultivation. The study was conducted in Tripura and data was collected using pretested interview schedule. The result indicates that majority of the farmers perceived sustainability level of Jhum as medium followed by low and high. It is also revealed that number of family member involved in Jhum, area under Jhum, Jhum cycle and cosmopoliteness have direct correlation with sustainability level and contributed most for variation in sustainability level of Jhum. So these variables must be manipulated and farmers need to be supported by enterprises such as dairy, poultry, piggery, goatery etc. to improve their socioeconomic condition. This diversification can naturally promote sustainable Jhum by way recycling farm wastes.
Title: Status of Physical Environment and Land use Pattern in Rabindra Sarobar Lake Area of Kolkata
Abstract :
The Rabindra Sarobar lake ecosystem is playing a key role in maintaining the oxygen balance of the Kolkata metropolis by generating fresh oxygen. The Physical environment is considered as an essential part of a lacustrine system. Degradation
of environment largely affects the physical component. If the physical components are spoiled, then the entire system of the lake will get degraded. Water, air, soil, sound level etc. have been taken as the physical components of the study. Due to cultural activities and improper monitoring system practicised by the lake authority,
the physico-chemical properties of Rabindra Sarobar Lake are degrading over time. The total land and water area of Rabindra Sarobar is about 192 acres which is being used for sports, recreational and cultural activities. Holistic measures need to be
followed for improvement of the ambient air and the water quality of the lake area.
Title: A Study on level of satisfaction among beneficiaries under Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram (JSSK) at regional hospital Nahan (H.P.)
Abstract :

JSSK is a Central Government Sponsored Karyakaram implemented in Himachal Pradesh. It has been started to provide better health services to pregnant mothers and children up to one year of age, to reduce maternal and infant mortality rate. However, it has been observed that about one-third of beneficiaries were not aware about this Karyakaram. In public health institutions (Hospitals) buildings were quite old; require repair of ante natal, postpartum and children wards including toilets. It has been found that the satisfaction level is better in relation to supporting services of the hospital specifically with the availability of transport i.e. National Ambulance Services (108), especially among the attendants of infants. However, there is enough scope to improve services, like housekeeping, drinking water, waiting and resting area for the attendants.

Title: Factors Affecting Marketed & Marketable Surplus of Paddy: A Case Study in Some Districts of West Bengal
Abstract :
The importance of precise estimation of marketed and marketable surplus has
been felt in India in view of its crucial role in forming the economic database for formulation of economic policies/decisions by the government. As available data of marketable surplus has become obsolete, the present survey throws up information not only on marketed & marketable surplus ratios but also on factors that influence them with particular reference to cultivation of paddy in West Bengal. It has been observed that both marketed & marketable surplus ratio tends to increase steadily with increase in farm-size. While average marketed surplus ratio, taking all farms together, stands at 55.30 percent of net availability of paddy or 61.19 percent of current production of paddy, the marketable surplus/ ratio stands at 43.49 percent of net availability of paddy 36.43 percent of current production.
It is evident that factors like farm size, average price received by the farms, access to credit and possession of pucca storage have significant positive relationship with marketed/marketable surplus ratio, while factors like household size, indebtedness of farm households exhibit a significant negative relationship with marketed/marketable surplus ratio. On the whole it comes out that marketed/ marketable surplus ratio of paddy in West Bengal is much lower as compared to other agriculturally advanced states, and that the ratio of marketed/marketable surplus depends much upon the socio-economic condition of the farmer households.
Title: Culture As a Successor of Quality Initiatives: A Review
Abstract :
Quality management has been extensively used for few decades now. Organisations worldwide have leveraged the concept of quality to achieve their goals and survive the tides of competition. Organisational culture represents a collective belief and values of the organisation’s members. Literatures relating to quality initiatives and organisational culture have repeatedly described that organisational culture study is imperative to implementation of quality initiatives. Now, with an aim to digress the focus from culture as a predecessor to quality initiatives, attempt has been made to find out the scope of research of impact of various quality initiatives on organisational culture as the organisation evolves. It would be of much interest
to the young managers to understand the implications of process improvements on the organisational culture. Changes in processes may bring changes in the values, beliefs, attitudes of the individuals engaged in process improvements.The culture, thus created will instil a confidence to take up any change activity for organisational development and facilitate in surviving the stress and strains of any unpredictable environment.
Title: Evaluating Self-help Groups: A Village Level Analysis
Abstract :
Self-help groups have become very significant in promoting savings and income generating activities in Indian villages. The rural district of Birbhum has numerous such SHGs working successfully. The paper has focused on some such SHGs and tries to analyse their success and factors behind their success. The paper utilizes village level data to evaluate the self –help groups to bring out the situation in the district of Birbhum. The paper also analyses the scope for social work intervention in the process of formation and functioning of the groups.
Title: Information Science: Interdisciplinary Characteristics, Indian Educational Scenario emphasizing Growing Trends in West Bengal
Abstract :
India is a leading country for many perspective as far as education is concerned, India is also a leading country; not only in Asia but also in the world. India has so many educational institutes such as universities, research centers, colleges, schools, training centre, and so on. such university and educational institute offers so many
courses and so many subjects including interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary subjects. However, in so many subjects India is still in growing stage out of which Information Science is an important subject. India is a big country constituted with near about 28 states and other central Union Territories. West Bengal is a leading state in many perspectives and even in Information Science education too. This paper is also talks about Information Science and its several aspects including nature and characteristics or Information Science; its uses and importance in several sectors. Paper also illustrates Indian higher education at a glance in very brief manner.
Title: Pessimism in T.S. Eliot’s Poem “The Waste – Land”
Abstract :

This study aims to reflect the Pessimism in the poet: Thomas Steearns Eliot’s poem “The Waste Land” in which he represented both an assessment of the World situation in the time of World War I as he felt it to be, and a creative transformation of the world that is observed in the final section of the Poem.The Poem “The Waste Land’’ is divided into five sections under the title of :(I) The Burial of the Dead. (II) A Game of Chess. (III) The fire Sermon.(IV) Death by water and (V) What the Thunder Said.Each section is discussed and analyzed and then the researcher draws a conclusion that Eliot is:Not always pessimist.Eliot’s poem shows the society during the World War 1.

Title: Social Works Perspective on Policy Making
Abstract :
Social Policy entails the study of the social relations necessary for human wellbeing and the systems by which wellbeing may be promoted. The social policies to which societies give birth may be understood as the way in which any particular society recognizes and gives expression to the interdependency of its members. Today
social policies are huge, expanding, fast changing aspects of government. Good social service policy requires special knowledge and expertise. Today most public policy makers have no direct experience in social service /work and as a result they lack firsthand knowledge. Helping professionals, or for that matter clients and
consumers, would bring needed knowledge and experience to public policy making. An understanding of social policy is vital for engaging practically with social work values, dealing with political and ethical questions about responsibility, rights, our understanding of ‘the good society’.
Title: Leaving the Traditional Livelihood: A Case Study on Mawallis of Sundarban
Abstract :
The Mawallis are traditional occupational group in the local people of Sundarban. Wild honey collection is their main livelihood. They use most wonderful indigenous knowledge and technique to collect honey from the dense forest. It is their popular livelihood and income. Presently lots of issue affects their traditional livelihood.
They try to hold on to their profession but poor socio-economical condition compels them to change their traditional way of earning. Some external and internal social, economical and environmental pressures are responsible for this change. At the same time new generation does not give any positive response in favour of this
profession. So the tendency is very clear that it will change in near future. In this study, I try to find out the responsible socio-economical conditions of present scenario behind the changing patterns of traditional livelihood of mawallis community.
Title: Job Competence and Job Performance of the Extension Personnel of the Department of Agriculture in Tripura State of North-East India
Abstract :
The main concern in human resource development in agricultural extension organization is the improvement in the performance of the extension personnel. For enhancing the competence and performance of the extension personnel it is very important to delineate the factors responsible for it along with the level of job competence and performance. A study was conducted in Tripura state of northeast India and data was collected from eighty extension personnel [40 Agriculture Officers (AOs) and 40 Village Level Workers (VLWs)] by using structure interview schedule. The findings of the study indicated that most of the AOs had high level of
job competence whereas; most of the VLWs had medium level of job competence. AOs had expressed high level of job performance whereas, VLWs had medium level of job performance. 
Title: Environmental Education Awareness and Attitude Among Teacher Educators Vipinder Nagra
Abstract :
Environmental education is one of the sustainable tools being promoted to prevent further degradation of environment. Positive environmental attitude plays prominent role in enhancing its scope as well as improving the quality of the environment. Keeping this view in mind the present study was conducted to identify the level of environmental education awareness and attitude of 202 teacher educators in relation to their residential background and subject streams. Results revealed that teacher educators had average environmental education awareness and attitude level. Insignificant differences were observed in environmental  education awareness and environmental attitude in relation to residential background while significant difference was noted in relation to subject streams. A moderate positive and significant correlation was found to exist between environmental education awareness and environmental attitude of teacher educators.
Title: Ukraine: Stand-of Threatens Europe Breadbasket
Abstract :

This paper examines the current Ukraine wheat export condition after Russian- Ukrainian military confrontation. The political conflict in Ukraine and the recent military intervention of Russia in Crimea is raising concern full effect of the events there is still uncertain, but some hints can be seen in the wheat market by analyzing the trend and pattern of Ukraine wheat export. Crimea is extremely important as it is where most of Ukraine grain exported by ship from its ports of the black sea. European Union (EU) is a significant trading partner of Ukraine but geopolitical tension adversely affects the wheat trade from black sea, which threatens Europe breadbasket. This study also highlights an index of export intensity to analyze the intensity of existing trade for the period 2011-2014 between Ukraine and EU countries. The result show export has intensified over the years, but this year low trade intensity

Title: Indian Power Sector- A Review
Abstract :
Indian economy has been growing at a rate of 6-8 % annually during the last eight years which requires growth of basic infrastructural facilities at a still higher rate. Power sector being a major component of infrastructure development requires a growth rate of 9-10% during the next decade. This requires huge amount of investments and restructuring of power sector, for which Government cannot fund the entire amount independently. Hence, private participation is necessary either as an independent venture or through public-private partnership (PPP). This paper attempts to review the Indian power sector with respect to generation, transmission and distribution of electricity and identify and highlight the key initiatives and reforms undertaken for private participation in the electricity sector and some issues that are being grappled with in effort to make the sector efficient and attractive for investments.
Title: Tribal Rights and Protective Legislations in Odisha - An Overview
Abstract :
One of the most marginalized communities in India vulnerable to poverty and
exploitation are the Adivasis. Despite provisions in the Constitution and enactment of several laws by the central as well as by the state governments to protect their rights and interests the Adivasis continue to remain at the bottom of the development index, suffer exploitation and deprivation in various ways. Even after six decades of developmental planning high incidence of poverty still found among the Scheduled Tribes. In the state of Odisha which contains a sizeable tribal population around 73 per cent of Scheduled Tribes were estimated to be under below poverty line in 1999-2000. In rural areas of the country they continue to face multiple disadvantages and lack access to land, education, institutional credit and markets etc. In fact since independence the main objective of the policy & planning in India with regard to the development of tribals and other backward communities has been to uplift the communities especially from oppression and backwardness in order to bring them to the mainstream of national life. The inroad of ‘alien’ outsiders in the tribal tracts, their stranglehold over the resources like land and forests in collaboration with the government and the loopholes in the laws enacted for the protection of their rights and the lack of awareness among the tribals regarding such provisions have contributed to the present plight of the
tribals in Odisha especially in making them impoverished and deprived.
Title: Health, Nutrition and Care as Key Components for Early Childhood Development
Abstract :
There are many elements that affect a child’s start in life. But the preconditions for achieving these elements are likely to go well beyond the immediate circumstances of children themselves, to include the wider social, economic and cultural environment. For instance, nutrition depends heavily on the health of mothers and the knowledge and support they get in feeding infants. These factors in turn depend not only on food availability and prices in the economy as a whole, but also on how resources are distributed within households, gender attitudes and the availability of health services. Good health depends on a hygienic, safe environment including access to clean water and sanitation. But much rural and urban living in India are characterized by crowding, lack of clean water, poor sanitation, high levels of rubbish, exposure to dirt and in some cases environment toxins. The quality of child care depends on how much time parents have for each child, which in turn depends on diverse factors ranging from the structure of the rural and urban economy to birth spacing. There are wide ranges of things that need to happen to improve early childhood development.
Title: Educational Status of Tribals of Jammu & Kashmir: A Case of Gujjars and Bakarwals
Abstract :

Education as a means of advancement of capacity, well –being and opportunity is uncontested and more so among communities on the periphery. In India, marked improvements in access and to some extent in quality of education in tribal areas have occurred and stem from various government and non-government initiatives. However, the number of out-of-school children continues to be several millions mainly due to lack of proper infrastructure, teacher absenteeism and attitude, parental poverty, seasonal migration, lack of interest and parental motivation etc. The scenario of tribal education is no way different than other states in Jammu and Kashmir. In Jammu & Kashmir the overall literacy rate of the Scheduled tribes as per the census 2001 is 3.7percent which is much lower than the national average of 47.1percent aggregated for all S.Ts. Though various efforts have been made by the government for the development of education among tribal communities but much more still needs to do. In this paper an attempt has been made to explore the existing educational status of two prominent tribal communities of Jammu and Kashmir- Gujjars and Bakarwals. The study has been conducted in five tribal villages of district Anantnag. 124 households were selected with the help of stratified sampling for the survey. The study apart from presenting the existing educational status of Gujjars and Bakarwals in the area also provides suitable recommendations for the development of education among these tribal communities.

Title: Women Empowerment, Conflict Transformation and Social Change in Kargil
Abstract :
Ladakh is a high altitude cold desert located in the northernmost past of the
border state of Jammu and Kashmir. The region comprises of two districts-Leh and Kargil. While Leh is dominated by Buddhists, Kargil district is dominated by Shias Muslims. Kargil remains cut off from rest of the country for almost seven months i.e. November to May, as the only lifelong from Karil gto Srinagar remains snowbound due to heavy snowfall and extreme coldness of temperature at -400C to -500C. Kargil district which is situated close to the Line of Control (LoC) is a remote, rugged and geographically isolated region in Ladakh. Most of the inhabitants of Kargil are indulging in tradition farming in the river belts combined with herding and animal husbandry as the primary occupation for their livelihood. Kargil has been affected badly due to Kargil conflict between India and Pakistan in 1999.
Title: Nature of Policy Process Encourages Economic Underdevelopment in Africa
Abstract :
The paper discussed the concept of policy from different dispositions. It examined the attitude of African leaders within the context of policy formulation and how it affects the economic development in the continent. Some of such policies from selected countries were discussed. It was concluded that not until such approach is kept aside, economic development in Africa will be a mirage.
Title: A Study on Pre School Education and Supplementary Nutrition Program of ICDS for Children in Punjab
Abstract :

The present study was carried out to evaluate the pre-school education and supplementary nutrition ration components of Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) in Barnala district of Punjab. The results revealed that a majority 60% of AWWs faced different problems in organizing pre-school education activities and about 63.33% of the AWWs did not receive help from the Supervisor at all for organizing pre-school education activities at AWCs. It was found that only half Anganwadi workers were getting regular SN ration in time. Combining the entire three ICDS project, it was found that a high majority (76.66%) of AWWs did not distribute SN ration 300 days in a year as per national norms. Only 45.42% of the total beneficiary children were enrolled in register of AWWs for pre-school education and supplementary nutrition ration. It is recommended that vigorous campaigns need to be launched by the Government using T.V., drama, folk songs, theater and other media to create awareness especially amongst the rural population about the long term benefit of the pre-school education and supplementary nutrition rationprogrammeof ICDS scheme.

Title: Ensuring Rural Livelihood Security through MGNREGA: A Study in District Mewat, Haryana
Abstract :
The present development mandate in India is to ensure livelihood security as a legitimate policy commitment. This perspective is well rooted and reflected in the design of MGNREGA. The foregoing paper based on a field study conducted in Mewat, a backward district of Haryana, analyses the livelihoods context in selected
villages and determines the effectiveness of this Act within wider livelihood strategies of rural poor. A concurrent mixed method research design has been used and perspectives from different stakeholders have been taken into account. The livelihoods analysis has yielded information on a plethora of constraints in terms of inadequacy of physical infrastructure, amenities, human and natural capital in the study area. The potential of this Act though found incipient, but the findings are also suggestive of the change it can bring to the rural edifice of this district, provided livelihoods oriented interventions are carried out in a participatory and
sustainable manner.
Title: Relevance of Spirituality on Employee Health and Attitudes
Abstract :
Spirituality is a path through which people recognize their own identity and know about the super power of the universe. This is not only an alleged immaterial reality but also a deep feeling of super truth behind us and universe. At this modern time health complication becomes major issue. Climate change and natural
forces affect human life externally while for employees; organizational burdens affect a lot from internal affairs. In many cases it is seen that people remain ill both mentally and physically due to various known and unknown causes. Unhealthy condition keeps a person in sorrow and pain. Unnecessary pressure creates
depression, hypertension and many mental hazards. Both physical and mental illness do not allow a person to work perfectly. In many cases an employee falls in problems in workplace due to unpleasant attitudes produced. Health and attitudes are dependent with each other. One healthy person expresses healthy attitudes.
Attitudes are dependent on thoughts generated in mind. Due to temptation of environment sometimes negative forces come in and generate negative thoughts lead to harmful attitudes. But Spirituality pours impact on generating positive thoughts. A Person recognizes his self properly and awakens his conscience due to spiritual awareness. Truly spirituality plays a major role on health and attitudes.This paper contains Introduction, objectives, literature review, Importance, discussion and conclusion. At last references are included.
Title: Documentation and Digitalization for Access to Traditional Medicine Knowledge in Southern Odisha
Abstract :

Knowledge of traditional medicine is an integral part of the indigenous knowledge of local communities. One of the basic features of traditional knowledge is that it is unwritten and exists in the minds of the local people. It is transmitted orally from one generation to another. Documenting Indigenous Medicinal Knowledge (IMK) may help to preserve tacit indigenous medicinal knowledge. The present study is conducted in the Semiliguda block of Koraput District. It tries to explore the importance of documentation and digitalization of tacit indigenous medicinal knowledge and also analyses the inadequacy of the existing frameworks in protecting and enhancing access to traditional medicine knowledge. The study highlights how the collected plants were preserved in herbarium for identification and were identified with the help of local experts by following Haien’s Flora. Herbarium of specimens were prepared and deposited in COATS, Koraput. Thus it ensures access to traditional knowledge and information.

Title: Effect of Executive Functioning on Classroom Adjustment in Children with ASD
Abstract :
Any intervention for Classroom integration requires us to focus on the nature of the disorder children have. Executive function skills predict learning in general rather than learning in one specific domain. (Bull, Espy,et al., 2008). Research suggests a significant difference in executive functioning in children who have ASD as compared with the neuro-typical peers (F.Pooragha, S.M.Kafi, et al., 2013). Furthermore, successful classroom adjustment is based in social as well as cognitive skills. Underlying these social and cognitive skills are executive functions: both action based executive functions (such as response inhibition, emotional control, sustained
attention, task initiation, goal-directed persistence, flexibility) and thinking based executive functions (such as working memory, planning/prioritization, organization, time-management, meta-cognition) apart from academic conceptual understanding.
Title: A Study of Relationship Between Creativity and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Pupils
Abstract :
A Study of Creativity and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Pupils has been dealt with in this paper. The sample consisted of 100 students of different High schools in Kollegala Taluk. The basis of was Government- 50 Unaided-50 students. Research tool used in the study was “Bekar mahadiyar creativity test” the research tool has 3 types of activities. Coefficient of correlation and‘t’-test’ technique was adopted for data analysis. There is slightly positive relationship between creativity and academic achievement of 8th standard students and there is no significant difference creativity of 8th standard students between boys and girls, rural and urban students and government and aided school students.
Title: Social Construction of Gender in School
Abstract :
This paper was written as a part of writing a conceptual paper in the sociology course, to particularly understand the ‘social construction of Gender in school’, during post graduation. This therefore does not effectively include empirical data, but I have brought in some experiences as a researcher/ teacher/ student and most critically as a woman to try understanding how social construction of gender takes
place in school.
Title: Classroom assessment in secondary schools in Nigeria
Abstract :

A purpose of secondary (High School) education in Nigeria is to prepare students for tertiary level education though not everybody that graduates from this level of education actually proceeds. Continuous Assessment is the educational policy in which students are examined continuously over most of the duration of their education, the results of which are taken into account after leaving school. It is often proposed or used as an alternative to a final examination system. It can also be looked at from micro and macro levels. At the macro level assessment is designed to collect information for purposes of certification and very often school assessments are integrated into results obtained for deciding on quality of performance in the examinations conducted by the examination boards external to the school. At the micro level assessments are conducted at the school level and these have been variously described as continuous assessments and school-based assessments. These assessments are used for determining progression from one class to another. The methodology employed in this study was derived from books, journals, archives, newspapers, reports, and the internet. This paper would attempt to show how well this has been done by highlighting the implementation mode, advantages of continuous assessment, problems, lessons learned and future directions in classroom assessments.

Title: Model of Simultaneous Counselling and Training Parents of Children with Special Needs to Nurture Parent-Child Interactions
Abstract :
Parents differ in their way of being with their children, in turn affecting the development of their child. With the addition of a ‘diagnosis’ or label to their child, they oscillate between how much leniency to give and how much strict they should be.With the diagnosis, there is a considerable shift in the parenting styles and hence, their coping styles; this affecting the focus child and their typical peers. In addition to children with autism, who had impaired parent-child interactions (less affection and more overprotection and authoritarian controlling); their siblings may be at risk for such problems too (Gau SS, et al.,2010). Parents of these children themselves undergo stresses and other psychological disorders like depression. Families participating in ABA experienced elevated depressive symptoms, much like any family raising a child with an ASD. ABA intensity related to maternal depression and personal strain.
Title: A Review of Gender Disparity in Education Sector in India
Abstract :
Education for all is must at one hand and a challenge on other for an all round
development of third world society. Gender wise disparity in education has also remained as a head ace for a country like India. Indian women constituting 50% of the country’s human resource, still faces literacy-gender-gaps with only 54.16% literate female. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the disparities in education sector in India along with their impact status based on the data procured from secondary sources. The disparity is calculated by Sopher’s Disparity Index on male female literacy state-wise, age-wise in terms of levels of education, socialgroups and residence. Finally by employing the technique of Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient, it has been observed that female education has significant impact on gender and human development. The study concludes that the essence of development lies in literating women by degendering that will pave way for better future by literating their kids.
Title: Social Software Engineering as non profit technologies: Trends and future Potentials for Social Informatics and Digital Humanities
Abstract :
Software Engineering and its application and integration to the community or society is called as Social Software Engineering. This is a concept and procedure rather than tools and products towards design, development and management of products, software, application and system for the society or community; directly and indirectly and thus social Software Engineering gain popularity recently for building Social Computing and Social Informatics much more advance and popular. In other sense, such Engineering practice may also known as Non Profit Technologies. This paper is talks about Social Software Engineering including
its basic feature and characteristics. Paper also illustrated some technologies and products which are helps in promotion of Digital Humanities and Digital product application too.
Title: Reproductive Behaviour of Tribal Women Participating in Agricultural Works:An Empirical Study
Abstract :

Based on empirical study, this paper plans to highlight the consequences of agricultural work participation upon reproductive behavior of tribal women analyzing the fertility pattern of 390 sample numbers of Deori and Mishing women of North East India. While analyzing the reproductive behavior of sample women, the agriculture related impact factors on fertility have been considered. Rank correlation and logistic regression have been used as analytical tools. The study has been completed in four sections: section-I deals with the paradox, section –II covers the literature reviewed, section-III includes research methodology & limitation of the study and section –IV has been devoted for discussion of analytical results and conclusion. The findings show that neither the agricultural farm size, nor the paddy farm size has any significant correlation with the reproductive health behavior of ever married women of the sample family.

Title: Comparative Analysis of Media Reach in Rural Area of Punjab
Abstract :

The study was undertaken to evaluate comparative analysis of media reach and its effectiveness in rural area of Punjab. One hundred respondents were interviewed randomly with a pre-tested questionnaire. The data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and differences in mean were assessed by using Turkey-b. The study revealed that television, radio and newspaper were accessible to 99%, 73% and 66%, respectively of the respondents with significantly (p<0.05) higher availability of television. The use of television for watching news, serials and agricultural programmes were significantly (P<0.05) higher where as radio has upper edge (p<0.05) in case of music listening. The 56% respondents thought mass media impacted both negative and positive on social and cultural values. About 60% (P<0.05) rural respondents considered television was most satisfying media while 15% felt it was radio, 19% voted for newspaper while 6% opted for internet . Therefore, from the present study it may be concluded that television is quite popular, effective and most satisfying mass media in rural area of Punjab.

Title: Education and Patterns of Marriage System: A Micro Study on the Birhors in Hazaribag District, Jharkhand
Abstract :
The Birhors, one of the most primitive tribes of Hazaribagh in Jharkhand states, are nomadic hunters, food gatherers and rope makers. In Jharkhand, Birhor are found in different places like Palamu, Garhwa, Singhbhum, Giridih, Lohardaga, Ranchi, Hazaribagh, and Gumla. Linguistically they belong to Astro- Asiatic Mundari group and have their own dialect.
The Birhors tribe of Jharkhand consider themselves as the descendants of the
Sun. The word Birhor means man of jungles. They are fully depended on natural environment. Their economy is still traditional and mainly based on forest. Forest plays a vital role in their life. Birhor collect a number of fruits, wood, vegetable etc. from the forests. Rope and rope made articles are also the important primary occupations of the Birhor. They have great specialization in making ropes from different types of bark of creepers and trees. Hunting and trapping of animals and birds are considered as their food. Sometimes they sell these articles at the local hatts (market) for earning money. They also gather roots, shoots, leaves, fruits and other forest products from the forest. As a result all the traditional settlements of the Birhors are found near forests.
Title: National Sample Survey Data Revealed Diverse Countryside Domestic Consumption Expenses across fifteen States in India
Abstract :
Recent debate in development literature pertains to identifying the focus of development, whether it should be growth, poverty, or inequality. The reemergence of the age old issue of growth inequality has brought the debate on poverty to the center stage with large political and emotional undertone. This has been also been facilitated by the quality and the type of data (panel data on
household consumption expenditure) which was not the case earlier. “Report of the Expert Group to Review the Methodology for Estimation of Poverty”, Planning Commission, GOI (2009) observed that “While acknowledging the multidimensional nature of poverty, the estimates of poverty will continue to be based on private household consumer expenditure of Indian households as collected by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO)”.
Title: Cure Emanates from Cause: Understanding Rapist’s Psyche
Abstract :
Alarming increase in crime against women particularly in the rape cases coupled with brutality and sadism continue to pose the question: why it happens and how it may be eradicated, or at least may be minimised. In this one has to know the mind of the rapist, which remains one of the darkest territories of human sexuality. The scientists focus their research on the psychological forces that drive sexual violence and brutality. But researchers think that there is no single psychological formula to explain every rapist’s psyche. However, the personality characteristics of rapists divulge that lack of empathy, hostile masculinity, aggressive and dominant and controlling personalities, impulsivity, emotional constriction, underlying anger
and power issues with women are governing forces in the acts of rape. The
important question is how to prevent such brutal crime? Of course, improving the law and order machinery is essential indeed but one can not deny that society as a whole needs to put in greater efforts for gender sensitisation and creating awareness about the equality of women and their rights to free movement.
Title: Women Need More Protection through MGNREGA: Role of Gram Sabha and PRIs
Abstract :
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is the central government scheme in response to the constitutional provision of
Directive principles of state policy (DPSP) and specially manifested right to work and means to promote livelihood security in India’s rural areas by providing 100 days work in a financial year. By generating employment for women at fair wages in the village, NREGA plays a substantial role in economically empowering women and laying the basis for greater independence and self-esteem. The most distinguishing feature of MGNREGA is its approach towards empowering women citizen to play an active role in the implementation of the scheme, through gram sabha, panchayat raj institution and participatory planning. But the MGNREGA
can’t turn out to be a major instrument for galvanizing panchayati raj institution
in India due to lack of mobilization of disadvantaged group like women, cultural non-acceptance of female participation in the labour force, non-parity of wages, non-availability of worksite facility, non-involvement of self help group & civil society organisation and non-implementation of an indispensable tool like Right to Information Act 2005 which are highlighted in the paper. The paper concludes with some policy suggestions by which women should be kept in forefront for planning, implementing and evaluation of the MGNREGA programme.
Title: Growth and Instability in Foodgrains Production in West Bengal
Abstract :
West Bengal agriculture has started to show a sign of change since 1980’s, by registering a modest growth in foodgrains production after three decades of near stagnation. Over the entire period i.e, 1950-51 to 2007-08, the state has recorded foodgrains production growth rate accounting 2.59% mainly due to moderate rise in productivity (2.23%) in spite of deceleration in area under aus (Bhadoi) rice and pulses. Study on effect of new crop production technology on growth and instability of foodgrains production reveals that growth in output of foodgrains along with constituents has become more stable compared to remaining two phases, but it is difficult to conclude a definite relationship between them. Again, yield effect has emerged as major contributor to foodgrains production increase in successive periods except wheat which clearly indicates that policy measures need to be directed towards augmentation of yields of major crops through development and popularisation of location specific HYV along with improved crop management practices to meet the growing demand of foodgrains in future.
Title: Approaching Domestic Violence against Men in Iranian Context: A Qualitative Study from Tehran, Iran
Abstract :

Using qualitative method the current study attempts to examine Iranian men’s perception of domestic violence (DV) based on their own narrative. Fifty married men who had volunteered to participate in the study were interviewed. In this study the instances of DV towards men, its context, and the role of the police and the judiciary system were examined. According to the findings of the research, extracted from analysing the interviews, the instances of DV towards men were categorised into psycho-emotional, physical, sexual, financial, legal, social, and failure in homemaking duties. Regarding the formation of DV, the factors were identified in three levels: micro, middle and macro.

Title: Measuring Core Inflation in India: An Empirical Evaluation of Alternative Methods
Abstract :
In view of formulating credible monetary policy to attain the price stability objective, the difficult part for the central banks is to distinguish, within ongoing inflation evolutions, between short term volatility and the underlying pressure of inflation. While it has now become a standard practice for most central banks around the world to monitor core inflation, little progress has so far been made in the Indian context. This paper takes a pioneering look in measuring core inflation in India focusing on the popular exclusion and trimmed mean approaches. The performance criteria adopted in this analysis show that the measure of core inflation developed in the paper has strong money-induced characteristics and therefore, can credibly be used as a short or medium term guide of monetary policy in India. This paper aims to introduce the concept of core inflation and to calculate alternative measures of core inflation for India. We have used two approaches: (1) Exclusion based approach (2) Trimmed mean method, to identify the measures of core inflation. We have obtained five alternative measures of core inflation using exclusion approach these are: WPI excluding food articles, WPI excluding food articles and non food articles.
Title: Adjustment status of students in relation to intelligence
Abstract :

Adjustment is a process by which an individual varies his behaviours to maintain balance between his needs and environment. Intelligence is one among those factors which influence the adjustment status of an individual. The objective of the study was to know the adjustment status and intelligence level of college students and also to know the relationship between the two variables. The study concluded that most of the students either have average or below average level of adjustment and most of the students are average or above average intelligent. Above average intelligent students have better general, home, health and educational adjustment but in social and emotional areas of adjustment, both the above average and below average intelligent students are equally adjusted. Intelligence has shown a significant relationship with adjustment.

Title: Gender Differences in Aggression Among Pre-School Children and its Impact on Social Competencies
Abstract :
Aggression has been a widely researched phenomenon. In contemporary times, it has become a topic of great concern in the field of behavioural research especially that related to children and adolescents. The concern is to be able to identify aggressive behaviour as early as possible while children are still young, since they are at risk for the development of a host of adjustment problems in the social arena in addition to them having a perpetuating influence during their adolescence and adulthood. The present study aimed to study gender differences in aggressive
behaviour in pre-school aged children and its impact on the social competencies of these children. It was conducted on a sample of 50 children (29 boys and 21 girls) aged 3 to 6 years selected randomly from a pre-school in South Delhi. Initially children were rated by their class teacher on a checklist of aggressive behaviour.
This rating was used to divide them into 3 groups - Group A (highly aggressive), Group B (average on aggression), Group C ( low on aggression). The results indicated that boys were rated as physically aggressive and girls were found to be more relationally aggressive. Further children in these three groups were studied
individually through an observation checklist for skills related to Social Competence (Popularity, Sharing, Managing a conflict and Ability to cooperate). The results obtained are discussed in the light of literature survey.
Title: Historical Overview of the Hungarian Labour Market
Abstract :
The Central Eastern economy went into a deep crisis after 1990. It became obvious that the structure of the economy built during the socialist era was not competitive enough to join the world economy. The changes after 1989 were accompanied by business closures, and high and continuous unemployment. As a consequence,
the standard of living decreased and social differences started to grow. Public opinion had to face what previously had been unknown: unemployment. This term became for many a concept with which “one has to live together”. The objective of this study is to introduce the informedness of the adult Hungarian population as to the current situation of the Hungarian labour market, 20 years
after the appearance of unemployment. The aim of the investigation was to map whether current prospective employees have enough information to manage themselves on the labour market and whether it is necessary to make up for this lack of knowledge during their school years. The investigation, based on 300 filled in questionnaires, reveals that the knowledge of adults is satisfactory as regards the labour market and employment policy, but on some questions, their knowledge is incomplete or incorrect.
Title: Maternal Factors Associated with Nutritional Status During Early Childhood in Nagla Qila and Panjipur Villages of Aligarh District
Abstract :
India is home to the largest number of children in the world, significantly larger than the number in China (World population prospects: 2008). The country has 20 percent of the 0-4 year’s child population of the world. Globally, more than one third of under-five deaths are attributable to under-nutrition (UNICEF, 2009). About 20% of children under age five in India are wasted, 43 % underweight and 48 % stunted (NFHS-3, 2005-06). In terms of number about 54 million children under five years in India are underweight which constitutes about 37 % of the total underweight children in the world (SOWC, 2010). In India, 25 million children under five years are wasted and 61 million children are stunted, which constitutes 31 % and 28 % of wasted and stunted children respectively in the world (UNICEF,2009).
Title: The Gays – A Sociological Study A Case Study of yellammagudda
Abstract :
Diversity is the Law of nature. Because of diversity likes and dislikes of human beings vary. On the basis of human organ we can decide, he is a man, she is a woman. Man includes masculine characteristics and a woman includes feminine characteristics. Apart from these two genders there is a group of people, who does
not identify either masculine or feminine characteristics, i.e.”Gay Community”. As for as Sexual attraction is concerned among man and woman we find heterosexual relations, which are natural. But mong Gays the normal sexual relations are homosexual, which is unnatural and not accepted by mass of society in India. But
law gives permission. Keeping this aspect in view an attempt is made to study the gays who are visiting Yellammagudda of saundatti taluka in Belgaum district of Karnataka. The gays are called by different names, viz, “Mangalmukhi” and “Jogappa”.
Title: ‘Information’ as Term: Historical Root, Present Focus and Future Potentials with Technologies
Abstract :
Information is one of the important term now days. Today each and every one; including human being, organization, institutes are directly and indirectly
associated with Information. The role and value of Information is increasing day by day. Virtually for centuries the societies in their various stages and development have prospered on the basis of Information and Knowledge. Information-The term is actually deals with Latin roots and Greek origin and was readily deployed in empiricist philosophy because it seemed to describe the mechanics of sensation objects in the world inform the senses. Virtually¸ due to several input, Information has reckoned as a driving force for all human developments. This paper presents a conceptual overview of information which includes origin and historical aspects powered by information. Paper lastly highlights some aspects of information; compare to data and knowledge, which we deemed equal many times.
Title: Role of SHGs: A Case Study in Bardhaman District, West Bengal
Abstract :
The study reveals that initially most of the members of SHGs were very poor and they had no alternative sources for generating some additional income but after involvement in SHGs they have been able to increase their income as well as savings from their additional economic activities. Again it has been found that the SHGs have become instrumental in empowering the normal housewives in terms of their capacity building and household decision making along with other social and economic activity. To strengthening the SHG movement, the most profitable and cost saving activities should be encouraged along with development of efficient marketing channels for the products produced through the pursued economic activities. With a view to increase standard of living, economic activities taken up by members need to be diversified.
Title: Teaching of the Scientific Method in High Schools in India
Abstract :

The Scientific Method is the tried and tested way we conduct a scientific enquiry. It is the basis of our insight into understanding natural phenomena and human-engineered processes. As eloquently put by Goldhaber et al. [1] “The  scientific method  is a body of  techniques  for investigating  phenomena, acquiring new  knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge”.  

Title: Urban and peri-Urban Agricultural Migration: An Overview from Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR), India
Abstract :

Urban and peri-urban agriculture provide income generation to urban poor and making the cities more sustainable. In Mumbai Metropolitan Region, UPA activities play a major role in supporting people’s life. A wide range of agricultural production systems with maximum utilization of resources can be seen in Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR). Migration is an acute issue in MMR and UPA production plays a vital role in supporting migrant people and reducing urban poverty. Marketing of agricultural commodities is very easier inside the MMR with a well connected network of wholesalers, retailers and street venders. With the help of a baseline survey as well secondary data, this paper tries to reveal an overview of UPA production in association with migration. Migration patterns among various UPA production systems were identified and studied. Like all other informal sectors, the role of UPA in supporting migrant people in MMR should be studied in detail to find out its contribution to employment and economic growth.

Title: Trade Performance of SEZ in Southern India – A Comparative Study of Karnataka and Kerala Special Economic Zones
Abstract :

Since the SEZ policy was announced in 2000, there has been a continuous effort made for the improvement in the export performance. The Special Economic Zone scheme was also upgraded through a revision in the Export-Import Policy of 1997-2002 and the Special Economic Zones Act was passed in 2005. However, it was the enactment of the SEZ Act that provided a major push to the SEZs’ export performance and the SEZ policy for the increased exports. Export growth is necessary to offset the deterioration in the balance of payments. Through the establishment of Special Economic Zones export is increasing considerably. Therefore, there is a need to understand the contribution of Southern SEZs towards India’s Trade. In this background, the present paper analyses the Trade performance of Special Economic Zones of Southern India, focusing on Karnataka and Kerala SEZs. With the help of the collected sources of data it examines the export – import trade of Karnataka and Kerala SEZs and their contribution to Indian exports.

Title: Sexuality Landscape of Modern Kerala: A Discourse on Male Social Gathering among Malabar Muslim Men
Abstract :

An enquiry that would light on the past of sexuality and the ways in which the contemporary is of sexuality is produced through its historical legacies. Sexual topics of any kind are avoided in polite conversation in India, and any talk concerning homo-sociality1 (male social gathering) is altogether taboo, especially in Kerala (even kiss of love). Here how Malabar became popular for the homo-sociality expedition and its nature and nurture is tracing out. Sketching the process of transformation from homo-sociality subculture to a kind of gay politics in Calicut (Kozhikode) is the focus of the study.

Title: factors Affecting the Adoption of Agricultural Technology in Bijnor District of Western Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :
Agriculture plays a significant role in addressing poverty, hunger and malnutrition and livelihood security of millions of people in India. Since independence, the country has made significant strides in agriculture, to meet the growing demands of our growing population. The Indian farming is mostly characterized with diversified agro-ecologies, water scarcity, unpredicted rains due to vagaries of monsoon and high cost of technological inputs. Based on the changing scenario of agriculture year by year, it requires promotion of proper management of natural resources like soil, water and micro environment, besides wellbeing of all stakeholders involved in the food production and consumption chain. This is primarily possible by technological empowerment of farmers.
Title: Food Security in India: An Overview
Abstract :
The problem of food security in India has been analyzed in this paper. This paper also tries to explore the strategies of government of India [GOI] in fighting the problem. It has been observed that the government of India has taken several steps to curb the problem, which has already reached at an alarming stage in the form of PDS, MDMS, MNREGA, SJSY, SGSY, FSB, etc. Yet, the problem of hunger has not been eradicated from the country due to several reasons such ascorruption,mismanagement, inflation, natural hazards, etc. But, now-a-days,MNREGA is playing a significant role in making India hunger free and the National Food Security Bill [FSB] is also going to play a revolutionary role in this context. The paper concludes that the MNREG Act and FSB are feathers in the cap of UPA government, who seems to be feeling concerned seriously about the welfare and wellbeing of common man of India.
Title: Impact of Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) on the Food Security of the Poorest of the Poor in Rural Areas – A Study Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand
Abstract :

One of the Public Distribution System schemes namely ‘Antyodaya Anna yojana’ (AAY) has been implemented in India from the end of the year 2000. This  scheme  ensures‘food security’, to create a hunger  free  India and to reform and improve the Public Distribution System so  as to serve the poorest of the poor in rural and urban areas. Various reports and estimates reported around 5% of population of the country are unable to get two square meals a day throughout the year. This scheme proposed to cover poorest of the poor by supply of food grains free of cost and other important commodities on subsidized rates. Over a period of time, the performance of the scheme has been improved due to evolving various monitoring mechanism and other vigilance committees. Even though, the criticism of the various civil society organizations and reports of press on the status of implementation of the scheme by the different states brings out number of problems in the identification of beneficiaries and distribution of benefits. In this context, a study on the impact of the AAY programme on the food security of the poorest of the poor was conducted to bring out various untouched issues on the status of implementation, ability of the distributing agencies, problems faced by the implementing agencies and beneficiaries. The study was carried out in the states of Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand in India. This article brings field realities of the functioning of the scheme.

Title: Tobacco and Alternate Crops in Karnataka - A Management Perspective
Abstract :
Flue-Cured Virginia (FCV) tobacco is the major commercial crop in Southern Transitional Zone (STZ) 7 of Karnataka. FCV tobacco is being grown in kharif as rainfed crop with more institutional support and sustained demand in the international market. The various crops cultivated include Ragi, maize, Paddy, Jowar (Cereals), Red gram, Cowpea, Field bean, Horse gram, Sesamum, Niger
(Pulses and Oil seeds), FCV tobacco, Cotton, Sugarcane, Turmeric, Chillies, Ginger, Potato (Commercial Crops), Coconut, Areca nut, Banana, Mango, Tamarind, Sapota (Horticulture and plantation crops). India is a signatory to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and is under obligation to halve tobacco cultivation in the country by 2020. The present communication deals with
various management initiatives involved in the process of finding an alternate or substitute to tobacco in some pockets with demand driven crops. The present paper deals with various factors and issues to be studied for substituting tobacco in micro-zones. An attempt is to identify domains for developing protocols to study the agro-system and priorities for stakeholders for joining hands with
Government of India’s initiative to halve the crop size from 100m.Kg by 2020. As a precursor to sustain the rural development possible areas for CSR activity have also been discussed. The protocols developed help in the management initiatives for substituting the crop in pockets.
Title: Status of Health Security of the Forest Dwellers of Assam
Abstract :
Forests, the important renewable resource on the earth have gradually been transformed to a non renewable resource mainly by the individuals in the urge of a better life. Generally the socio economic impacts of forests are pushed backward by its ecological effects. As a result of this a special group and their lifestyle also
remains in periphery. Their ineffectiveness in organization of the demands for protection of the specific forests based culture has left them in a situation where on the one hand they are not getting the modern facilities which the government guarantees them and on the other hand they are unable to practice their traditional ways of lives. Medicinal plants constitute important NTFPs on which life of the people living in the adjacent areas of forests depend to a great extent. With the depletion of the plants with medicinal values, status of health of those people has come under severe threats. The present study is an attempt to examine the role of medicinal plants in the lives of the fringe villagers of Kaziranga and Manas National Park of Assam, two important World Heritage sites of the state.
Title: Energy Economics and Resources in India: An Overview
Abstract :

Energy economics’ is a branch of applied economics. In this paper, energy economics tools are used to analysis demand, supply and other aspects of energy sector in India. Issue of non-renewable resources and increasing gap between demand and supply in the major concern of today. India has to tackle this problem with diversification in energy mix and by increasing domestic production to decrease the rising bill of the import on the country. It has to lead with sustainable energy supply and rapidly increasing economic growth.

Title: A Study on the Views of PDS Beneficiaries about the Quantity and Quality ofCommodities, Supplied by the FPS in Haryana and Gujarat
Abstract :
Public Distribution System not only provides essential goods to the common man at a reasonable price, but it also enables the farmers to get a suitable price for their produce. The PDS, despite its much success, has over the years manifested a broad array of problems particularly with reference to its management. The extent and timing of procurement, poor forecasting capacity, antiquated logistical systems to support storage and delivery functions, inappropriate product mix, cost inefficiencies, poor quality food grain, harassment of consumers at the point of client interface and exclusion of large number of the poor from the system are some of the problems which hinder the effectiveness of the public distribution system. Keeping these perspectives in view, this paper analyses the views of PDS
beneficiaries about the quantity and quality of commodities supplied by the fair price shops in Haryana and Gujarat.
Title: Impact of roads on income and employment of rural households in West Bengal
Abstract :

It has been observed in several studies that lots of deprived communities are remote by distance, terrible road conditions, lack of or bust bridges and scarce transport. These conditions make it difficult for rural people to get their sell to market and finding jobs to place of work, to grip health emergencies, to admit children to school, and to obtain public services. In view of this, an attempt has been made in this study to consider the impact of rural roads on income and employment of the households in West Bengal. It has been found that better roads and railway systems lead to access and opportunities leading to diversified livelihood and accordingly diversified income are generated. The study also reveals that there is both quantitative and qualitative divergence in employment of the households between near and away from main road & rail station. The area which has high road and high population density positively influences the educational level too. Better access to education is materialised due to proximity of main road and rail station. The Gini coefficient is higher in case of those households who are near to main roads and rail station as well as a high Simpson index reflecting a diversified rural livelihoods mainly because of better access in income niche and implying a variation and heterogeneity in income.

Title: Cock Fight: A Symbolic View of Social Status
Abstract :

Cockfighting is an ancient sport that has deep roots in rural parts of the world as well as India and West Bengal. The bloody and dangerous sports of cockfighting as practised by the Santals people of Foringdanga, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India. Most of the fights were held in an inn that was specially prepared or in a cockpit. The Cock-fighters selects two types of fighting cock—one is called Desi Morog and another variety is called Pahari Morog. Only Santal males are participation in this game. Sometimes santal male child also participating with their fighting cock but Santal female cannot participate in this bloody game. It also has great symbolic significance to its practitioners and aficionados as an affirmation of high-status identity in an increasingly complex and diverse Santal society.

Title: Profile and political ideology of Azam Inqilabi (31 Dec. 1948…)
Abstract :

The Kashmir Issue has been boon of contention between India and Pakistan since 1947. It has not only posed serious security threats but has also resulted in the creation of a genre of Separatist leadership in Kashmir. Azam Inqilabi is one of the most senior Separatist leaders who has played a pivotal role in the rise and growth of Kashmir militancy. The present paper aims to delineate in detail the political ideology of Azam Inqilabi.

Title: Rural Poverty and Irrigation Performance in India: A District-level Study
Abstract :

The main objective of the study is to analyze the impact of irrigation on rural poverty across districts in India. The secondary data from different sources have been culled using descriptive cum regression analysis. The statistically significant inverse and strong relationship between irrigation and rural poverty has been pointed out not only from descriptive analysis but also regressions which is expected in this study. The important finding of the study is that irrigation infrastructure is more pronounced as lag variable in determining rural poverty than as normal variable.

Title: Kisan Call Centre: A New Vista for Indian Agricultural Extension System
Abstract :
Given its range of agro-ecological setting and producers, Indian Agriculture is faced with a great diversity of needs, opportunities and prospects. The well endowed irrigated areas which account for 37 percent of the country’s cultivated land currently contribute about 55 percent of agricultural production, whereas, rainfed agriculture which covers 63 percent accounts for only 45 percent of agricultural production. In these less favorable areas, yields are not only low but also highly unstable and technology transfer gaps are much wider as compared to those in irrigated areas. If it is to respond successfully to these challenges, greater attention will have to be
paid to information-based technologies. Strengthened means of dissemination will be needed to transmit this information to farmers. Both technology generation and transfer will have to focus more strongly than ever before on the themes of optimization in the management of their available resources by producers, sustainability, coping with diversity by adapting technology more specifically to agro-ecological or social circumstances and raising the economic efficiency of agriculture. To make information transfer more effective, greater use will need to be made of modern information technology and communication among researchers, extension workers and farmers.
Title: Blurred Trajectories of Migration Among Tribes: A Study of the Chenchus of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana
Abstract :
Since time immemorial, human beings have been migrating in search of resources to make a living or to occupy territories to establish power over the other. All types of human societies underwent the process of migration in one way or the other. But, migration of the members of a hunting gathering community to urban centres is not a very common phenomenon. An interesting question to explore in this context is; what made a hunting-gathering community to migrate to urban centres? The paper explores historical as well as contemporary migration with the case study of a hunting-gathering community, the Chenchus of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh states of India. It examines the causes and consequences of migration and analyses the implications on Indian tribal Communities.
Title: Contents Volume 6 Issue 1
Abstract :

Contents Volume 6 Issue 1

Title: District-Level Wealth-Inequality in Infant Mortality in India
Abstract :

Using data from population based surveys; it has been tried to examine the extent of district-level wealth inequality in infant mortality in India, considering the districts as the units of analysis. Analysis shows that there was significant variation in infant mortality among districts of India. About one-fifth of the districts had IMR of above 65 of which more than 65% districts are economically backward. The degree of wealth inequality in infant mortality was higher among economically backward districts than that of economically well-off districts. Results from regression analysis suggest that the factors such as female literacy, the proportion of households having toilet facility and female workforce participation rate are the most significant predictors of district-level variation in infant mortality. The proportion of households having toilet facility has a strong bearing on infant mortality, indicating that availability of basic sanitation would help in reducing infant mortality. The female literacy and female workforce participation rate have strong and negative effects on infant mortality. The magnitude of the coefficients for female literacy, proportion of households having toilet facility and female workforce participation indicates that the level of IMR would decline by 7%, 5% and 4% for every 10% increase in female literacy rate, the proportion of households having toilet facility and female workforce participation rate, respectively. It has been found that the level of IMR is likely to be higher in the northern region and Uttar Pradesh and lower in the southern region of India.

Title: Challenges in Indian Agriculture and its Implications for Organizing Extension
Abstract :
India’s economic security is heavily dependent on agriculture. About half of India’s population is either wholly or significantly dependant for their livelihoods on some form of farm activity – be it crop agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry or fisheries. Although the Green Revolution increased production and productivity of food crops, improved food security and raised rural incomes, India still has a large
poor (27.5 per cent of the population living below the poverty line based on 2004-05 data) and malnourished population.
Title: Financial Inclusion Through Self Help Groups for Rural Livelihoods – An Analysis
Abstract :

Financial inclusion has becoming central to Indian policy making over the past few years and various attempts have been made to expand its scope. Social and economic justice has to be provided for common people through inclusive growth. Since beginning several measures were undertaking by the Government of India and Reserve Bank of India for financial inclusion with a view to develop all sections of the people. In order to achieve this subjective multi model approach was adopted. Service areas approach, priority sector lending differential rate of interest, leading bank scheme issue of general credit and kisan credit and so on to overcome financial hassle to get credit from financial institutions. In this backdrop NABARD has started an innovative programme 1992 from a linking of the banks to SHG groups of rural poor. It now boasts of the worlds largest microfinance initiatives with over 7.4 million representing 97 million rural households directly becoming parts of this great movement. With the emergence of SHGs and SHGs-Bank Linkage programme contributed large for improving the livelihoods especially women folk. SHGs play a significant role by developing thrift habit and providing credit as and when required. In this paper an attempt is made to examine the performance of SHGs, Bank Linkage for financial inclusion and rural livelihoods.

Title: Analyzing the Dynamics of Social Vulnerability to Climate Induced Natural Disasters in Orissa, India
Abstract :
Climate-induced natural disasters (CINDs) including droughts, floods, cyclones and heat waves have become serious problems to Orissa, a coastal state of India. Fluctuating weather conditions in the state suggest that it is reeling under a climatic chaos. It has been experiencing contrasting weather like heat waves to cyclone and from drought to flood for more than a decade. The dramatic change in state’s ecology and weather conditions are perhaps consequences of climate change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) links vulnerability with climatic change and point out that the vulnerability of a region depends largely on its wealth and poverty, which limits the adaptive capabilities The socio-economic systems of the state like Orissa remains more vulnerable to CIND because of high reliance on natural resources, limited ability to adapt financially and intuitionally, low per capita GDP, acute poverty and lack of safety nets. Vulnerability is social condition of measuring coping ability that differs across the regions, economic sectors and social groups. The historical disparities in the socio-economic structure of the state shaped the social vulnerability of the population and their responses to cope with looming crisis. These disparities are derived from caste, class, occupation, age difference and socially marginalized population which will result into uneven impact of hazards on the various communities in different districts of Orissa. This article examines how the pre-existing social vulnerability within different districts of Orissa interacted with catastrophe to produce socio-spatial pattern recovery.
Title: Incorporation of Fenugreek and Sesame Seeds for Alleviation of Menopausal Symptoms
Abstract :

The study was designed to evaluate the effect of phytoestrogen rich foods to improve menopausal dietary quality in alleviating menopausal symptoms. A total of n=1000 women (aged 35-48 years) were scanned. Of these, a sub sample of n=30 women, based on their severity of menopause rating scale (was obtained from the Professor Heinemann from Center of Epidemiology and Health Studies in Berlin) were purposively enrolled. To these subjects nutrition health education (NHE) was provided for 2 months (reinforced at 15 days interval), focused on sources of phytoestrogen and importance of consumption of phytoestrogen rich foods. Before and after NHE intervention data was collected for serum level of gonadotropin hormones (FSH and LH) estimation and menopause rating scale. The study revealed that in urban Vadodara 17.1% had menopause related symptoms. The baseline data for women in perimenopause state (n=30) showed the 24% were obese, 20% were overweight, 8% were undernourished. After intervention daily consumption pattern of phytoestrogen foods has increased from 6.9% to 15.2%; and that for the fenugreek seeds increased from 12% to 24% and for sesame seeds increased from 11.5% to 48%. The menopause rating scale was reduced from 0-32 to 0-17 after intervention. The improvement in consumption pattern of phytoestrogen foods has effectively shown significant reduction in the severity of symptoms for forgetfulness, swelling and weight fluctuation (p=0.01). The results of serum gonadotropin estimation showed that mean FSH was reduced from 18.03±5.01 to 10.95±3.55 and mean LH from 19.95±4.92 to 14.1±4.55, though this was not up to a satisfactory level. Phytoestrogens being nonsteroidal compounds with estrogenic activity showed a significant reduction in alleviating menopausal symptoms.

Title: Sustainable Development and Role of Urban Centers in Kachchh District
Abstract :

The world Commission of Environment and development (Brundtlend) –WCED, 1987, leads to the environmental problems, and development countries issues, discussing about sustainable development urbanization has changed the scenario of living standard, here this paper presents how urban center emphasis on overall of sustainable development. This paper illustrates performance of urban centers in wide areas like, housing, water supply, sewerage and sanitation, waste management etc. In Kachchh district urban centers are challenging increasing demand of urban population and not only performing in development but conserves our resources and having good correlation between population and development. This paper investigates the sustainable development through urban centers recital in Kachchh district.

Title: Reinforce Democratic Values for Socio - Economic Development with Sustainability
Abstract :

Development program are taking place in regular basis all over the world. The activities are taken place either by the support of the government agencies or by the development partners. It was found that majority of the development program are short in lived due to one or another reasons. It shows the weakness of the program implementing agencies and lack of clarity on sustainability issues. To overcome the basics of the problem and make the development program sustainable the policy makers and program implementing agencies should given enough attention in reinforce democratic values in community, equity & sustainability and must addressed all together.

Title: Status of Social Audit Process for Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 in Chhattisgarh
Abstract :

Social audit is a requisite tool under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) to monitor and evaluate the works that are being carried out under MGNREGA, in line with annual village plans. MGNREGA play a helpful role to reformation local governance and transforming social defense into social justice. By analyzing the Social Audit mechanism under Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Act, this paper explores how Social Audit process is effectively in Rural Employment. The basic objective of a social audit is to ensure public accountability in the implementation of projects, laws and policies. Primarily envisaged as only post implementation exercises, they have actually now emerged as a way to empower poor and transform social-political structures in the villages. Section 17 of the MGNREGA Act provides for conduct of regular ‘Social Audits’ at different stages of implementation of the scheme to ensure the reach of benefits to the poor. To strengthen the process of social audit, the Ministry Rural Development has notified the Social Audit Rules in June 2011 and made it mandatory to establish an independent Social Audit Unit to facilitate the Social Audits in Gram Panchayats and to ensure the proper implementation of various Rural Development Programs. We examine the accuracy and performance of Social audits process in Gram Panchayats of Different District in Chhattisgarh.

Title: A Study on the Performance of MGNREGA in Manipur
Abstract :

Being premised on the planks of inclusive growth, livelihood security and democratic empowerment as envisaged in the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), the state of Manipur is implementing the scheme with the mandate to provide at least 100 days of demand based guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work and creation of durable social assets in the process. In this backdrop, the present study examined the performance of the scheme in that state with respect to extent of employment generation, efficiency in work completion rate and efficiency in fund utilization through analyzing official records of 7 years between 2008-09 and 2014-15. During the period under study, a total of 3228861 number of job cards were issued of which the share of backward communities (ST and SC) was 53.83 per cent. In terms of social category wise employment generation, the shares of backward communities and women were 69.58 per cent and 42.37 per cent respectively. However, there remained a gap of around 5.39 per cent in the matter of employment provisioning as against actual number of job card holding households deserving the benefit of employment. The shabbiest parts of the scheme were detected in the forms of provisioning of 100 days employment to only 7.39 per cent of job card holders and failure to complete 95.55 per cent of the undertaken works by scheduled time. This calls for playing of more responsive role by the state authority so that very purpose of MGNREGA is not defeated.

Title: A Thematic Review of Social Audit in India
Abstract :

The crisis situation everywhere in the welfare sector in the country demands something new ways to combat. Social Audit may be one of the probable solutions. Whereas the private institutions doing Social Audit for their own reputation in the society, the government intends to stop the leakages in welfare services with gradual empowerment of the service providers and service users in the country. Irrespective of the nature - public or private, the essence of Social Audit lies in the interest and honesty of the organisations. In government sector, this requires a massive consciousness among public, besides top to bottom bureaucratic and political will with improved methodology with ethical values to achieve the desired goal.

Title: Micro Credit in Rural India with Reference to Poverty Reduction and Women Empowerment
Abstract :

Microcredit is a vehicle of change and helps in transforming the lives in rural areas. After the commencement of the Grameen bank in the field of micro-credit, it started to emerge throughout the countries. Self-Help Group (SHG), a homogeneous group of ten to twenty members, gets the micro-credit from the bank without any collateral. Under NRLM (National Rural Livelihood Mission) previously known as Swarnajayanti Grameen Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY), the micro credit to the SHGs helps not only in reducing poverty through the establishment of micro enterprises but also in bringing women empowerment for social change. NRLM functions as an engine for financial inclusion in the country. It aims to reach out all the rural poor families and to link them to sustainable livelihoods opportunities besides to strengthen the social mobilisation of women and excluded groups through the process of SHG-bank linkage. The role of microcredit helps to reduce poverty by enabling the poor household sustainable self-employment and skills wage employment opportunities besides it promotes to financial inclusion. It also nurtures entrepreneurs and provide skills for the job market. The sustainability of SHGs depends on the five principles or called panch sutra which includes regular savings, regular meetings, regular accounts, regular repayments and adherence to terms and conditions.

Title: Problems Faced by the Participant Farmers in the Training Process: A Case of Climate Risk Management Training in Agriculture
Abstract :

Training is a process of enhancing the capabilities of a person to utilize a specific technique or technologies. But various problems hinder its effectiveness. This study tried to investigate the problems faced by the participant farmers in training process on climate risk management in agriculture and to determine the factors that influence their problem orientation. Data were collected from the trained farmers of selected three unions of Nalitabari Upazila of Sherpur district of Bangladesh during April to May, 2015. The sample size of the study was 65 trained farmers and it was drawn from a population of 65 using total population sampling technique. For collecting quantitative data structured interview schedule wasused. Majority of the farmers (60.0%) had faced medium problems during the training process.“Lack of personal incentives to training” got the highest score and the first ranked problem for the farmers. Besides this, “Biasness in trainee selection”, “Lack of adequate resources”, “Lack of motivation and encouragement by other farmers”are some major problems faced by the farmers. Gender, farm size, access to information sources and attitude towards training were among the farmer’s characteristics found significantly correlated with the problems faced by them with only gender showing positive relationship. Among them access to information sources alone explained 27.2% of the variations to the extent of problems faced by the farmers was confirmed by the step-wise multiple regression analysis. However, attitude of farmers towards training and farm size also contributed significantly to explain the variation. A proper planning from Government with a better information dissemination system and access scope should be provided to the farmers to make the training given by different organization more effective.

Title: How Does ‘Geography Matter’ when the ‘World is Flat’: Re-Understating Core-Periphery through the Technological Variability in West Bengal
Abstract :

The study has significantly identified that locations are critical to impact ICT access as well as the usage which further manifested as digital inequalities. It shows how the individual-level operational and attitudinal disparity along with access inequality complement the previous analyses and theories where it has already been observed that there are prominent rural-urban distinction in ICT adoption and also variations among different urban centres. It is found that not only the material access decline from a core urban location towards its peripheries, but the functional diversity and intensity and the attitude towards the ICTs also display a similar pattern. The pattern among the individuals from a rural or an urban residence also differs significantly. However, the gap is higher in case of a comparatively developed region than a less developed where the overall penetration itself is poor.

Title: Positive Psychology in Sports: An Overview
Abstract :

The paper study attempts to ascertain the importance of how sports benefit from being closely engaged with positive psychology. Further, relationship between Sports and positive psychology is explored i.e. understanding how two distinct disciplines work in tandem. The paper focuses on culmination of sports with positive psychology; moreover it enhances its scope from focussing anxiety, stress, burnout to developing a positive sports psychology that focuses more upon mindset, strengths, grit, mental toughness and resilience. Thus, this study is in a growing line of research that would help to better understand mind-body connection and how it may be possible to prevent what is wrong and focus on what is right.

Title: Probability of Success of a Batsman for Scoring at Least Fifty Runs in any One-Day International Cricket Match
Abstract :

This paper develops a method for assessing the probability of consistent batting performance of the batsmen in the ODI cricket by using the Competency Levels of the batsmen. The Competency Levels of seven contemporary batsmen of Team India are computed on the basis of the ratings of 52 cricket fans on the skill and attitude components of the batsmen. Thereby the Probability of Success of each batsman for scoring at least fifty runs in any ODI match is computed against the numerical value of his Competency Level. The Rate of Success of the batsmen for scoring at least fifty runs per ‘effective opportunity’ in ODI cricket matches is calculated from statistical data of past performances of the batsmen. There is a strong positive linear relationship between the Probability of Success and the Rate of Success having Correlation Coefficient r=0.8709. This paper has a capacity to encourage the selectors of cricket teams for using the concept of the Probability of Success instead of the statistical records of performances in selecting batsmen for their teams.

Title: Poverty and Condition of Employment among Social Groups in India
Abstract :

Poverty is primarily a social problem in India which has its historical root in social structure. Poverty among socially marginalised groups is proportionately very high which is inferred from their high engagement in the primary sector, casual works and unorganised sectors with low wages. Development induced displacement and land acquisition have left them with depeasantization and casual works. Constitutionally provided affirmative action and other government steps towards poverty alleviation and employment generation have partially solved their concerns. This paper examines the current situation of poverty and employment condition among socially marginalised groups, specifically among schedule caste and schedule tribes. It focuses on the causes of their deprivation and marginalisation. It also reflects the impact of government programmes and policies under inclusive development.

Title: A Critical Analysis on Major Problems Faced by Reelers and Weavers of Silk Industry at Field Level in Murshidabad District of West Bengal
Abstract :
Once silk goods of Murshidabad were exported to the different countries of the world. In sixteenth century Murshidabad exported its silk product to the coasts of East Africa, Arabia, Turkey, Syria and other countries (Das, R, 2015). Then came Dutch, East India Company and captured the silk business in this district. The company used to purchase silk yarns from the reelers and exported them to the Western Countries for producing silk products and gradually the company acquired full control over the silk production in the district. Murshidabad has a rich cultural heritage and the art of hand weaving formed its integral part. But now a day’s both the sector i.e. reeling and weaving sectors are declining day by day. The present study highlights 9 major problems in reeling sector and 7 major problems in
weaving sector. The study reveals that above 93 % releers are complained about the lack of raw materials. The study also indicates that in only 20-33% successor of present are interested in this reeling sector and in weaving sector it is only 28%. The study also reveals that 90% -100% reelers and weavers are not satisfied for their wages. These are some the major problems which are responsible for declining the sectors in our district. The study also highlighted some future strategy to overcome the situation so that the “Murshidabad Silk” can regain its past glory.
Title: Creativity and Impulsivity among Deaf and Dumb Children: A Correlational Study
Abstract :

The present article tries to investigate the relationship between creativity and impulsivity among deaf and dumb students. Participants were deaf and dumb students of standard V to X of Bilaspur district, Chhattisgarh. Random sampling was used to select 100 participants from two randomly selected special school. Impulsiveness Scale (IS) developed and standardised by Dr S.N. Rai and Divergent production abilities (DPA) scale developed and standardised by Dr K.N. Sharama were used for the present study. The survey method has been adopted for the present study. Random sampling technique has been used in the study. The result indicates a negative relationship between creativity and impulsivity.

Title: Value Orientation in Higher Education: Problems and Prospects from Sustainable Development Perspectives
Abstract :

The field of value education is as broad as human life itself. In India during Ramayana or Mahabharata period values were taught to the child along with formal education in Gurukuls, where Guru or Priest teaches the students at their Ashrams through different methods and prepares them to face the life. In modern days Gurukuls were replaced by the formal schools and colleges which are providing the formal education. Not only schools and colleges but family, society, mass media and other means of communications also affects the learning of child and act as an instrument for incorporating essential values in child. Values can be transferred in students through hidden or unplanned method but curriculum plays an important role for providing value based education. In view of the above, an attempt has been made in this paper to find out appropriate methods and approaches for value orientation in higher education through Value Based Education (VBE). Accordingly, it has been also tried to study the role of teachers in promoting VBE to the students for sustainable development. It has been observed that providing value based education to our children in higher educational institutions can help us to overcome the problem of deteriorating moral values in our youth. Collaborative efforts of parents, teachers, society and media can bring the youth on right track to live a disciplined life. So far as social progress is concerned value-based education is an unavoidable reality.

Title: Impact of Participation In HIV/Aids Awareness Programmes among Adolescent Children of HIV Parents
Abstract :

Adolescents have poor knowledge on HIV/AIDS due to lack of access to scientific information and sources. There are number of awareness programmes. But the level is not up to the mark and hence the study is aimed to measure the impact of participation and correlations done with social variables for better understanding. The results showed that nearly half of the respondents had not participated in the HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. A greater proportion of the respondents had only moderate level of sexual awareness. There was a significant mean difference between the educational status of the fathers and mothers of the respondents and the level of sexual awareness. There was no mean difference between the level of sexual awareness and the family type of the respondents. It was concluded to have open and free education and suggested to promote access to scientific sources and use of ICT and social media through internet.

Title: Societal Influence on Emotional Competence
Abstract :

Emotions are universally experienced irrespective of culture and geographical location. They are subject to cultural connotations, intercultural settings, and interpersonal relationships. Emotional Intelligence constitutes of identification, management and judgement of emotions for self and others. This fulfills the purpose of socio-cultural communication. Different paradigms have emphasized varied perspectives to understand emotional development as a result of social setting. Evolutionists were pre-occupied with social roles that emotions facilitated, modern day theorist position on a spectrum of debates (positivist to constructivist). In a world where survival is based on exchange, emotional reciprocity holds connect with status, power, relation, setting, and wider network. Individuals not physically emote but contextually learn to display emotions. The evolutionary process and continuous revisions in academia, medicine, corporate roles and other professions benchmark emotionally competent individuals. According to sociological analysis, geographical locations play a significant role in emotional aspects of an individual’s personality. Therefore, this paper reviews how residing in a particular social environment can affect emotional competence, particularly in children. The scope of this paper remains on the increased awareness about sociological revelations that influence experiences. This implies to bring a change in thinking pattern and in historical definitions of concepts.

Title: Identification of Morphometric Relief Aspects case study of Kottur Block at Tiruvarur Districts, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract :

Morphometric analysis is part of geomorphological studies. It can provide vital clues concerning the landscape evolution. The present paper examines the implications different morphometric parameters. This parameters using find out the relationship proves its significance of relief development in this study area. The study area is extends between 10°94 ′N, 79° 55′ E to / 11°7’N, 79.62°E / 11.03; 77.13. It has an average elevation of below 5 meters. The study area locates in Thiruturaipoonditaluk, Thiruvarur district at Tamil Nadu, India. The study area has a plain terrain of alluvial soil, consisting of sand, silt and clay. The study Area located between Delta of Cauvery River and near to coast of Bay of Bengal. These study analysis of various drainage parameters namely ordering of the various streams and measurement of area of basin, perimeter of basin, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), drainage frequency, bifurcation ratio (Rb), drainage texture (T), Roughness index and ruggedness was determined. The total parameter analysis of this study area, overlays each and every parameter.

Title: Economic  Valuation  and Causes of Degradation of Pong Dam Wetland of Himachal Pradesh
Abstract :

Wetlands are the most productive ecosystem on the earth. The Pong Dam wetland is one of the largest man-made wetland in Himachal Pradesh. The local people adjoining the Pong wetland also exploit the wetland for crops production, fishing and as such provide a significant role in their household system. Keeping this in view, the present study has been planned. The two-stage sampling design was employed for the selection of the sample. The sample consists of 80 households. The collected data were analysed by using suitable analytical tools. The literacy rate of the family members of sampled farms was quite high i.e. around 79.40 per cent. The average size of holding was found to be higher among agricultural farmers (0.5 ha) as compared to fishermen (0.07 ha). The sampled farms maintain a livestock unit of 3.83 (SAU). The total income of sample farms was ` 2,54,575. On an average 2.11, 1.36, 1.20 numbers of cattle per day per farm were grazed during summer, winter and rainy seasons respectively in owned land followed by 1.72 in summer and 1.48 in winter seasons in wetlands. The time spent for grazing of animals on the wetland was noted 2.95 hours per day per farm. The total quantity of grasses consumed by animals per farm during grazing was 1038.69 kg from the wetland, 749.06 kg from CPR lands and 972.77 kg from own land. The estimated income contribution to the sample households from wetland was ` 94,213. It was accounted for 59.65 percent of the total farm income. The sample households were willing to pay for different economic activities and management of wetland. The higher proportions of sample household were willing to pay ` 100-150 for these activities. The coefficient of multiple determination in the case of willingness to pay indicated that 74 percent of variation explained by the chosen explanatory variables. The variables like net sown area, household income, the share of income from wetland to the total income and awareness about benefits from wetland were the factors influencing significantly to the willingness to pay. The result of Hedonic regression model revealed net sown area, the share of income from the wetland, education level and awareness of benefits about wetland were significantly affecting the wetland income. It was suggested that to reduce the dependence on wetland for crop cultivation and pressure of chemicals farmers should be provided irrigation facility to grow cash crops on owned lands. Since the fishing business is adopted by the large population, therefore, the royalty and commission charged from the fishermen should be reduced and facility of the mechanised boat at subsidised rate should be provided to fishermen to enhance their efficiency and income of fishermen.

Title: Impact of Self-help Group on Women Empowerment: A Case Study of Patna District
Abstract :

Effort has been made in this paper to examine the impact of SHGs on the basis of occupation, income and benefits both at pre-SHG and post-SHG stages. It has been evident that 25 per cent of the respondents had no occupation in the pre-SHG stage whereas cent per cent is occupied at the post-SHG stage. The occupation chosen by the SHG members depends on the availability of skill and resources. It has been also observed that the income of the members of the SHG has increased substantially after joining SHG. Increase in income had helped to reduce the levels of poverty to a great extent in several families.

Title: A Study on Socio-political Harmony among Displaced Women of Odisha through R & R Policy
Abstract :

The present study has been carried out in TATA Steel of Kalinga Nagar of Jajpur district of Odisha. In this study, attempt has been made to collect the information from displaced women of three villages of Kalinga Nagar. As the study intended to make a cross-class study of resettlement and rehabilitation of displaced women, it has been decided to give coverage to the women from the pre-displacement and post-displacement period. Socio-political harmony plays an important role in maintaining a cordial relationship with each other in the society. The post displacement scenarios have shown a very distressing picture of socio-political harmony. Collectivism is an essential part of socio-political harmony. The displacement has disturbed the collective involvement of women in village development activities, but by forming the SHGs and by providing training for skill development in post displacement TATA Steel has tried to make the displaced women self-reliant and they can able to establish their socio-political harmony. Social bonding plays a very important role in strengthening the social relationship. The ultimate aim of the study was to recommend mitigating strategies to combat the issue of displaced women.

Title: Contents
Abstract :

Contents

Title: Factors Determining the Adoption of Polyhouse Farming in Thrissur District
Abstract :

Controlled environment in agriculture has gained importance not only in vegetable and ornamental crop production but also in the production of plant seedlings, not only from seeds but from tissue culture procedures also. Though this technology has been accepted by farmers in Thrissur district, still the adoption rate is not impressive. Identifying the factors that encourage the farmers for adopting and declining poly-house farming has significance, because it leads to the grass root level constraints faced by them. In this circumstances, the present study identified the factors determined the adoption of poly-house farming and the constraints faced by poly-house farmers from a sample of 60 farmers through convenience sampling technique. The important factor that determined the adoption of poly-house farming was farmers’ awareness about the poly-house farming practices, expected economic benefit and their willingness to take risk. The main problem of poor adoption was the fear of initial decline in yield. There is a need for awareness campaigns for attracting youth to poly-house farming. Finally the study reflected that the farmers were moderately favourable to the poly-house farming.

Title: A Critically Review of Pakistan Education system compare with Iran Education system
Abstract :

This paper compares the education system of the Islamic Republics of Iran and Pakistan by critically reviewing secondary sources of data related to both the countries. It examines and compares the history, laws on education, school levels and structure of the education sector, universal primary education, quality of education, language and the education of women of Pakistan and Iran. This comparison reveals how Iran has achieved rapid growth in its education sector especially after the Revolution while Pakistan lags far behind Iran in all realms of education. Hence, this paper also serves to highlight the current situation of the educational system of Pakistan and the flaws that it suffers from.

Title: Contents
Abstract :

Contents

Title: The Unquenchable Quest for Beauty
Abstract :

In this beauty-crazed superficial world where surgically enhanced and digitally airbrushed media images have become an unquestioned standard, millions of men and women are selecting surgical treatments to enhance, minimise, nip and tuck just about every inch of the body. But when cosmetic procedures are met with little satisfaction, and fuel the desire for more surgical enhancements an underlying psychological cause may be to blame. This paper aims to understand the surge in the requests for cosmetic surgery by evaluating whether there is any connection between body dysmorphic disorder and addiction to cosmetic surgery

Title: Profile Study under Entrepreneurial Behaviour of Young Farmers of Navsari District
Abstract :

This study reports the profile of the young farmers under the broad objective of Entrepreneurial Behaviour of Young Farmers. This study was conducted at Navsari, Gujarat (1014-2015) with 60 young farmer entrepreneurs belonging to age group of 15 to 35 years who were sampled following simple random sampling. The profile was studies using a structured schedule. The results indicated here are the major findings, majority of the young farmers belonged to age group of 29-35 years, had secondary level of education, medium level of farming experience, big land holding, higher annual income, medium material possession, low level of extension contact, medium extension participation, high social participation and medium mass media exposure.

Title: Attrition in Fisherwomen Activity Groups: A Case Study on Theeramythri, Kerala
Abstract :

Women engage in a wide range of activities in the fisheries and in fishing communities which is vital to a community’s well-being. They play a very crucial role in though their contribution is invisible and unacknowledged. In Kerala almost 50% of the posts harvesting activities of the marine fisheries are undertaken by them. The 26th  December 2004 Tsunami significantly affected the coastal villages of Kerala. A vast majority of the coast dwelling people were affected by the huge and wide spread destruction of the tragedy. In order to provide relief and rehabilitation to the affected, Department of Fisheries, Kerala implemented multiple programs, which were christened under  a common livelihood program named “Theeramythri” under the  Society for Assistance to Fisherwomen (SAF). The SAF visions to initiate, encourage and strengthen locally organized activity groups among fisherwomen, thereby providing assistance for expertising their business development skill, resource utilization and management, performance improvement, networking and marketing. The Theeramythri programme facilitates and handholds fisherwomen to engage in gainful self-employment for their economic and social emancipation. Among the total 2500 microenterprise groups formed initially as part of various Tsunami rehabilitation programs, only 1500 are fully in operational at present. Mass closure of 500 groups happened over the years due to various unforeseen reasons.   The present study gauges to provide a comprehensive picture about the reasons for the non performance of SAF groups in Kerala with a special focus on its technical, economic, institutional and social impacts. The study identifies the attributes determining the non-performance and the role of different stakeholders in the non-functioning of the microenterprise units. The study also aims at developing coercive measures for revamping/strengthening/reconstituting the group and also facilitating innovative ideas for overcoming the vulnerability of an activity group. Statistical and economic tools such as weighted average analysis, cluster analysis percentage analysis and Garrette ranking technique, and have been employed to analyse the data.

Title: Urban Centers Trend, Pattern and Key Challenges for Sustainability: Case of West Bengal, India
Abstract :
This paper focuses on number of aspects of urban centers of West Bengal. It shows that small and intermediate towns are negatively growing and big and large city are positively growing. Population share of small, intermediate and Million plus city is decreasing while it’s increasing in case of big and large city. Therefore people are staying more in large city compare to million cities. It may be due to higher cost of living in million city while poor service and infrastructure in case of small and intermediate towns. Urban area both in percent and share has very high correlation with level of urbanization. Dispersion of urban population is also a remarkable and it is highly correlated with number of small scale industry units which helps to transform the small towns and surrounding rural areas economy. But lack of infrastructure in small and intermediate town is major problem and there is no major programme or strategy to develop small and intermediate town more attractive.
Title: Historiography of Nature’s Despoliation: A Study of Exploitation of Himalayan Resources
Abstract :

The Himalayas, which has been customarily regarded as a land of natural sanctity and divine beauty, has not been free from exploitation for centuries. As a part of imperialistic motif of different intruders, the land has experienced years of plunder and destruction of natural resources. The present paper intends to study the ecological history of the Himalayas to examine how the historical events of invasion coupled with exploitation of resources at different levels and in different forms has lead to changing in the natural morphology of the land and brought into a changed pattern in the geo- bio-physical and natural system of the land. In the wake of modern industrial development, due to a steep rise in the demand for natural resources, the exploitation has increased manifold; that has posed threat to local human and non-human living system in the mountain.

Title: Critical Analysis on Role of Women in Sericulture Industry
Abstract :
Women constitute more than fifty per cent of the world’s population, one third of the labour force, and perform nearly two thirds of all working hours. Women are also mostly engaged in the unorganized sector (Mehta and Sethi, 1977). This is more so in the case of agriculture and allied activities. Sericulture is one of the important potential labour intensive agro- based rural industry in the world. No wonder women are playing a very important role in the sericulture industry. Their qualities like maternal instincts and loving care of those under their charge prove to be very helpful in the successful breeding of silk worms. The sericulture industry has opened up phenomenal employment avenues and helped women to become important players in the decisionmaking process—whether in the household or in the community at large. The active involvement of women is very essential for
the success of the any community development initiative. This has been proved on many occasions all over the world—more so in the developing countries. This paper analyzed that impact of women workers’ dominance in sericulture sector upon the process of inclusive development in the rural household sectors of West Bengal. Women has patience, perseverance, caring attitude and adaptability to new technologies have made her activities more dominant in sericulture and silk production. Present study reveals that the Women are engaged about 60% (about 57% in 1st year and about 64% from 2nd year onwards) work in various sector in Sericulture i.e from Mulberry cultivation to Silk weaving etc. and women are doing their works successfully in every sector.
Title: Deprivation Consequences among the Rural Oldest Old
Abstract :

‘Deprivation’ the term commonly used in social sciences that refers to a situation in which people feel themselves deprived, either in comparison to other people or in comparison to own previous condition. On the other hand, the term ‘oldest old’, generally used to refer to the population aged 85 and older, was coined for a 1984 session on this population in the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). However, in India the term ‘Super Senior Citizen’ is used to designate the elderly people above 80 years of age in case of income tax assessment. The oldest old subpopulation in India is growing much faster than any other age group and due to their physical incapability they fall in peril situation which make them more dependent on others for their needs of financial support, medical assistance and social services etc. Therefore, the ‘oldest-old’ or ‘super senior citizen’ is that group of people who are the sufferer of deprivation. The author of the present paper aims to highlight the deprivation consequence among the oldest old population residing in the rural areas of Medinipur Sadar Block under Paschim Medinipur District. The deprivation consequence has been described on the basis of the first hand data collected by the author on the Financial Support, Living Arrangement, House-hold Chores, Physical Mobility, Main Source of Care and Measurement of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) of the oldest old population under study area.

Title: Media, Conflict and Tourism: Insights from Kashmir
Abstract :

Once known for its natural beauty and called as heaven on earth, Kashmir is torn between two nations of India and Pakistan. The verdant green forests, sweet springs, perennial rivers, picturesque, alpines scenery and pleasant climate of Kashmir valley has remained an internationally acclaimed tourist destination. But unfortunately, conflict and instability in Jammu and Kashmir have been a major hindrance to its development and progress levels. Tourism is identified as the engine of growth and Development of Jammu and Kashmir economy in general and Kashmir valley in particular. The development of tourist industry can have a significant impact on the overall growth of the state, because of its ability to create direct and indirect employment, as well as growth in allied industries. Tourism will likely contribute to the growth of secondary sectors such as handicrafts, which have historically benefitted from visitors to the state. As tourism is widely recognized as a major mechanism of employment generation, especially in the service sector, holds significant role for poverty alleviation and unemployment in the state. Kashmir being an important tourist destination in India and elsewhere has witnessed downfall because of the ongoing unrest especially during the last two decades which has hindered the smooth growth of tourism industry. The tourism in the whole state was affected badly due the conflict, tourists stopped to visit Kashmir. All the tourism stakeholders were in loss and the unemployment increased swiftly in the state as a whole due to the turmoil in the Kashmir and created negative image of valley in the minds of tourists. Tourism around the world is considered as a noteworthy device of advancement and in the current past it has demonstrated its potential by rising as the quickest developing Industry contributing around 9% to worldwide Gross Domestic Product 8.7% of aggregate business. The present paper investigates the impact of conflict on the tourism sector in Kashmir and followed by some suggestions and recommendations aimed at optimally exploiting the potentials of Kashmir tourism in the fast improving socio-political scenario.

Title: Age Identity and Social Exclusion of Elderly Persons: A Cross Sectional Study
Abstract :
Background: The dominant social constructions of age identity are negative, leading to social exclusion in elderly persons through collective ill-representations. Hence, this study examines how age identity induces and sustains social exclusion in elderly persons. Method: Using a cross sectional research design, this study measured the age identity and social exclusion in older persons. The sample is defined as elderly persons aged 65+ years and live with family of procreation. We selected 41 samples by using multistage cluster sampling procedure. Age Identity Measurement Scale and Social Exclusion Scale were used alongside with sociodemographic profile. We analyzed the data using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Results: As age identity increased, elderly persons negatively perceived self and subscribed negative social attribution of ageing. Age identity has lead to high level of material deprivation and overall social exclusion in elderly persons. The negative perception of ageing was associated with high level of social exclusion. Inadequate social participation and normative integration lead to high level of social exclusion. The regression model showed three significant predictors of social exclusion in elderly persons.
Conclusion: Elderly persons give importance to their age identity, though they predominantly perceive the ageing process negatively. Negative self-perceptions of ageing significantly increased social exclusion. The study concludes that alongside sociodemographic factors, the negative self perception of ageing lead to high level of social exclusion in elderly persons.
Title: Health Status and Health Seeking Behaviour of Oraon Female Adolescents in Jharkhand
Abstract :

Oraon is the second largest tribal group in Jharkhand, consisting of 20% of total Scheduled Tribe (ST) population. Despite their numerical strength, not much research has been conducted on the health status of Oraons. The confined geographical location, unique socio-cultural settings, and inadequate health facilities, are among various factors responsible for creating vulnerability among Oraons in terms of health. This study analyzed the health status and health seeking behavior among Oraons from their perspectives. The main focus of this study was on female adolescents since adolescence is an important phase in the life span of humans when they develop and rationalize various concepts about everyday life in context to health issues and health seeking behaviour. An in-depth qualitative study was conducted in Gokhulpur village at Nagar Panchayat in Sisai block, Gumla district of Jharkhand for detailed understanding about notions on health issues that influence their health status and health seeking behavior. The health status of Oraons is highly influenced by their perception of heath and ill-health which is shaped by their culture. Regarding their health-seeking behavior, it can be contended that Oraon female adolescents rely heavily on traditional healer, the Bhagat. Such reliance was shaped by the cultural practices of the community. Analysis of field data suggests that for Oraons culture acts as a facilitator of maintaining good health care practices. Hence, this paper reinforces the role of culture as an important social determinant of health affecting health status and health seeking behavior of Oran female adolescents.

Title: Socio-economic Correlates of Values Attributed to Sons and Daughters
Abstract :

The paper examines the values of having sons and daughters as perceived by mothers and how these values change with the socio-economic status of the respondents by analyzing data from Shimla, the capital city of Himachal Pradesh. The sample comprised of 417 mothers in the age range of 30-49 years. The respondent’s perceptions of the value of children were measured by means of open ended questions. The great variety of mother’s responses were coded and clubbed into three main categories: economic/utilitarian values, socio-cultural values and psychological values. Some very interesting findings emerged from the present investigation. Results indicated that the values of having children in the state of Himachal Pradesh are multi-dimensional. However, sons were desired or valued primarily for economic and socio-cultural reasons such as old age security and continuity of family name regardless of the mother’s education, work status and household income. The instrumental value of sons, especially expected economic help, is inversely related to socio-economic levels and the opposite pattern was noted for most measures of psychological appreciation which becomes important at higher levels of development. On the other hand, daughters were desired for utilitarian reasons by unemployed mothers with fewer years of schooling whereas the employed mothers with higher educational attainment value daughters for emotional support.

Title: Contents
Abstract :

Contents

Title: Ranking of Functions in the Central Business District (CBD) of Jammu City
Abstract :

The Central Business District (CBD) developed as the market square in ancient cities. On market days, farmers, merchants and consumers would gather in the center of the city to exchange, buy, and sell goods. This ancient market is the forerunner to the Central Business District (CBD). As cities grew and developed, Central Business District (CBD) became fixed location where retail and commerce took place. The Central Business District (CBD) is typically at or near the oldest part of the city. A variety of goods are sold in the different markets of Jammu city. However, some goods are sold in some markets. This leads to functional specialization of the different market centers. The number of establishments present and the types of goods sold, help in determining the intra- city hierarchy of markets. In this paper an attempt has been made to identify the types of functions which are further ranked by applying Kendall’s method.

Title: Degree of use of food labels by consumers in Trinidad and Tobago
Abstract :

Food labels are not only an essential component of a comprehensive public health and nutrition strategy, but also marketing. Food labels help consumers to make informed decisions about what they chose to consume. Food labels help consumers to make informed decisions about what they chose to consume. This study was conducted among the population of twin-island Caribbean nation, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago with a sample of 320. The objectives of the study are: to examine the extent to which consumers use various components of the food label; and to study the influence of socio-demographic and health related factors on the degree of use of nutrition labels. The study found that the aggregate degree of importance attributed to food labels far outweighed their actual usage. Of the explanatory variables included in the model to determine the influence on the degree of usage of food labels, six explanatory variables, viz., (i) diabetes; (ii) allergies; (iii) gender-male; (iv) level of schooling; (v) fast food consumption and (vi) fiber consumption had significant impact on the use of food label information. Although Trinidadians may have an appreciation for the information provided on food labels, they lack the incentive to actually incorporate it in their daily lives which could be achieved through proper health education campaigns.

Title: Phytoextraction of Cadmium and Lead in Three Vegetables Crop Plants
Abstract :

Phytoextraction, is an effective and promising means to cure soil contamination with heavy metals. The present study investigates the ability of three vegetables plants for removal of heavy metals from the contaminated soil and metal mobilization to different plant parts. The three plants selected for the study, Momordica charantia, Vigna unguiculata and Solanum melongena were grown for 90 days in soil artificially contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) (50mg metal/kg of soil). The concentrations of the two metals were observed to be higher in roots of Momordica charantia and Vigna unguiculata than in soil, but root Cd level of Solanum melongena was slightly lower than that of soil after 90 days. Translocation potential of the heavy metals indicated higher accumulation of Cd in roots of Momordica charantia and Solanum melongena than in leaves while the pattern was completely opposite in Vigna unguiculata. Lead accumulation was higher in roots than in leaves for all the three plant species studied. The Translocation Factor (TF) of Cd for the three plants was in the range of 1.16 to 2.29 whereas, TF values of Pb remained <1, indicating that only small amount of Pb was translocated from roots to aerial parts.

Title: Street Vendors and Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture: Scenarios from Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR), India
Abstract :
Rapid urbanization in India creates social problems where urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) has a role of in reducing urban poverty and ensuring environmental sustainability. Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) is a fastest growing region in India with a population of 21 million where high proportion of urban poor along with higher migration to MMR makes the region vulnerable to food crisis. This paper focuses on the current situation street vending and UPA production systems in MMR with special attention towards their contribution towards the local services. An over view about the various concepts of street vending were also presented. The question about the various social dimensions and aspects of these marketing systems were also mentioned. Based on primary and secondary data, this paper attempts to confirm that street vending in UPA production complement rural supply chains and reduce ecological food prints. These marketing systems should be better planned and incorporated into the city architecture for ensuring local food supply and employment opportunities in MMR.
Title: Role of Sattra and Namghar in the Vaishnava Tradition of Srimanta Sankaradeva
Abstract :

Srimanta Sankaradeva (1449 AD-1569 AD) was an important personality in the archives of Indian History. He was not only a religious preceptor, but also a social reformer, who had Sanskritized the diverse ethnic groups of north east India and assimilated them with the national mainstream. He is considered as the father of modern Assamese society and is also considered by his followers as an incarnation of God because of his multi-faceted contribution to the mankind. Sankaradeva preached a doctrine of universal brotherhood and humanism for improving the condition of Assamese society and created a harmonious socio-cultural-religious environment for the diverse ethnic communities in the Brahmaputra valley. Srimanta Sankaradeva made his magical impact on the religion, social, literary and cultural life of the Assamese people. It was because of Sankaradeva’s philosophy of equality and universal brotherhood revealed through his Neo-Vaishnavism many indigenous people took religious shelter under the new faith, the hallmark of which is the evolution of two distinctively unique institutions, namely the sattra and namghar in Assam, both of which began to serve not only as the instrument of spreading faith but also intimately associating with the social as well as the cultural fabric of the Assamese society. In this paper, a humble attempt has been made to discuss at length about the uniqueness of the Neo-Vaishnava movement initiated by Srimanta Sankaradeva and the long lasting changes that it brought about in the Assamese society. The paper further attempts to highlight how sattra and namghar have contributed immensely in the process of assimilation and socialization of the assamese culture and identity.

Title: Virtual Groups: An Effective Tool for Knowledge Sharing and Dissemination
Abstract :

A virtual world is a computer-based online community environment that is designed and shared by individuals so that they can interact in a custom-built, simulated world (Bartle, 2003). A group of people who share similar interests and exchange information and ideas via computer networks are called virtual group or online community (Rheingold, 1993). Mousavidin and Goel (2009) developed a conceptual model of virtual group life cycle. In this model, the life of a virtual community is influenced by four elements namely socially shaped aspects, individually demonstrated characteristics, technologically facilitated features and the external influence. Virtual group formats can be broadly classified into virtual groups through social media networks and virtual groups through other media like email, video conferencing, voice conferencing, bulletin board system, drop box, text chat and virtual groups. Most popular virtual groups are virtual groups of social media networks such as facebook, youtube and whatsapp groups. Alexander et al. (2003) reported that moral obligations, conducive environment and community interest were motivational factors for contributing knowledge to virtual communities and doubtful nature about accuracy and relevancy of information, fear of criticism and information hoarding were demotivating factors. Virtual groups allow people to bond without being in close proximity either spatially or temporally. It improves interpersonal relationships and facilitates crowd funding. People may use fake identities which often lead to inconsistency and discontinuance of communication. Moreover, authenticity of information in virtual groups also cannot be assured. Hence an appropriate policy to limit the freedoms of users has been the need of the hour.

Title: CONTENTS
Abstract :

CONTENTS

Title: Awake India to Face E-wastage, is an Emerging Threat to Environment
Abstract :
In ancient days, people lived ecofriendly with primitive technology. People were lived dependent on agricultural and allied activities, and they created some kinds of wastages which were used as manure and raw material for other products. In this era, the modern science and technologies are lead innumerable inventions to make human comfortable. All instruments invented by modern technology creating some kinds of severe wastages and the modern technologies are failed to solve these problems. From last half century, we are suffering due to unsolvable environment related problems like the treatment of sewage, industrial and urban wastages, plastic pollution, air pollution, etc. Along with that management of E- (electronic) wastages is one of the major problems in developed countries and it is an emerging problem in developing countries like India. Keeping this as background, this article reveals issues related with e-wastages in India.
Title: Contents
Abstract :

Vol. 7, No. 2, June 2018

Title: When Gender Intersects with Class: Taking ‘Masculinities’ into Picture
Abstract :

It is common to talk about girls and women when one talks about policies for ‘gender equality’. But then what about men and boys? Are all of them oppressors and at a superior and privileged position in society? The answer is ‘NO!’. Just as girls and women are ‘stereotyped’ and conditioned in a ‘patriarchal’ society into being submissive, dependent, polite, emotional etc., boys and men are stereotyped as brave, independent, rational/logical, aggressive etc. This kind of conditioning put an additional pressure on them to survive in a society practicing the notions of ‘hegemonic masculinities’ to continuously ‘justify’ their gender. The observations made in an all boys’ school, reveal that education of boys belonging to low socio-economic backgrounds gives very low expectations and ‘hope’ to them and many deviate to crimes as well as substance abuse. Therefore, this paper is an attempt to include masculinities in the study of gender.

Title: Media, Conflict and Tourism: Insights from Kashmir
Abstract :

Once known for its natural beauty and called as heaven on earth, Kashmir is torn between two nations of India and Pakistan. The verdant green forests, sweet springs, perennial rivers, picturesque, alpines scenery and pleasant climate of Kashmir valley has remained an internationally acclaimed tourist destination. But unfortunately, conflict and instability in Jammu and Kashmir have been a major hindrance to its development and progress levels. Tourism is identified as the engine of growth and Development of Jammu and Kashmir economy in general and Kashmir valley in particular. The development of tourist industry can have a significant impact on the overall growth of the state, because of its ability to create direct and indirect employment, as well as growth in allied industries. Tourism will likely contribute to the growth of secondary sectors such as handicrafts, which have historically benefitted from visitors to the state. As tourism is widely recognized as a major mechanism of employment generation, especially in the service sector, holds significant role for poverty alleviation and unemployment in the state. Kashmir being an important tourist destination in India and elsewhere has witnessed downfall because of the ongoing unrest especially during the last two decades which has hindered the smooth growth of tourism industry. The tourism in the whole state was affected badly due the conflict, tourists stopped to visit Kashmir. All the tourism stakeholders were in loss and the unemployment increased swiftly in the state as a whole due to the turmoil in the Kashmir and created negative image of valley in the minds of tourists. Tourism around the world is considered as a noteworthy device of advancement and in the current past it has demonstrated its potential by rising as the quickest developing Industry contributing around 9% to worldwide Gross Domestic Product 8.7% of aggregate business. The present paper investigates the impact of conflict on the tourism sector in Kashmir and followed by some suggestions and recommendations aimed at optimally exploiting the potentials of Kashmir tourism in the fast improving socio-political scenario.

Title: Contents Vol. 7, No. 3, September 2018
Abstract :
Title: Life of Tribal Women in Kerala: Identity Psychosocial Disability and Social Exclusion
Abstract :
We examined identity induced psychosocial disability and social exclusion among 601 tribal women, recruited using multi-stage cluster sampling. The standardized were used to measure the variables of interest. The result showed that tribal identity, stigma, discrimination, social integration, conflicts in social relations, self-esteem and quality of social life have significantly differed between married and unwed mothers. Identity, stigma, discrimination, social integration, conflicts in social relations, self-esteem and quality of social life were significantly varied across different marital groups such as married, unwed mothers and widows. The study concludes that tribal communities exert and maintain control over unwed mothers through stigmatization and discrimination for social system maintenance. The tribal groups were collectively ill represented and they experienced significant level of psychosocial disability.
Title: Promoting Inclusiveness and Participation in Governance: The Directions of Electronic Government in Ghana
Abstract :

In Ghana, there are more mobile phones than people and there are more people connected to the internet than people in schools1. In spite of this, ICT tools have not been optimized to contribute to development. E-Government as a tool for ensuring inclusiveness and participation in governance in Ghana is characterized with challenges such as inability to fulfill the basic prerequisite for e-government development which includes minimum technological infrastructure, conducive environment and human capital. This paper attempts to assess the e-Government initiatives of Ghana; e-Government projects in Ghana, success stories and failures, IT visions of administration and the future directions of e-Government in Ghana. The emergence of the concept: e-Government in Ghana can be linked to the effort of the Ghana government to ratify and adopt an ICT policy in 2003-Informations and Communication Technology for Accelerated Development (ICT4AD). A cursory look at the Ghana e-Government initiatives reveals that Ghana is making considerable strides in allowing citizens and businesses to access and pay for services through an online network infrastructure. Renewal of driving licenses, clearing of goods at the port, business registrations, paying of taxes, public procurement and NABCO applications has been made possible through Government of Ghana electronic portal. This study dwelled on mainly secondary sources of data from peer reviewed journal articles, government policy documents and web sources. The study found that, Government of Ghana has exhibited commitment with her attempt to digitalize governance in Ghana. However, this paper also acknowledges the fact that the attempt by the Government of Ghana to digitalize the public sector of Ghana has not been rosy. Improved network and ICT infrastructural facilities should be extended to rural communities as a foundation for e-governance accessible to them, awareness, education and proper training session should be held to educate personnel of public sectors about benefit of e-governance, installation and maintenance of ICT gadgets in public sectors in Ghana to facilitate smooth implementation of e-governance services, proper security checks must be improved upon to restore peoples’ confidence in transacting or dealings through e-governance, extensive advertisements and publication of e-governance must be embarked upon to create awareness of the e-governance services available in Ghana.

Title: Levels of Secondary School Students’ Attitudes and Anxiety towards Mathematics in MUSANZE District in RWANDA: An exploratory study
Abstract :

Mathematics is still considered as a subject that causes fear to Students in Rwandan schools. This study aimed at exploring the levels of Mathematics attitudes and anxiety manifested by secondary students in urban and rural secondary schools in MUSANZE District. Tapia & Marsh’s (2004) instrument was used to collect data and descriptive statistics was used to analyse data. The study showed the students’ attitudes were mostly high and female students were less anxious than their counterpart males in urban and in rural secondary schools.

Title: From Passive to Active Learning: Experience from INES-Ruhengeri, a University of Applied Sciences in the Republic of Rwanda
Abstract :

The aim of this study was to explore students and lecturers’ attitudes and views towards active learning strategies (ALS) implemented at the Institutd’Enseignement Supérieur de Ruhengeri (INES-Ruhengeri), an Institute of applied sciences in Rwanda. Each class was taught in an active (non-traditional) manner for one course and in a passive (traditional) manner for another course. Several active learning methods (Think-Pair-Share, Card for Active Learning, Cooperative Learning, Supporting all the students, and Expert group) have been implemented during student teaching sessions. Questionnaires and interviews were administrated to students and lecturers, and then data were analysed. The results have shown that 78% of students learn better when the lesson involves ALS and it helps them to understand things better. 58% said that they enjoy lessons more if they involve ALS. It has also been reported (56%) that ALS helps students to communicate and to have better relationships with other classmates. The study has also found that over 82% of the lecturers agree that using ALS have a positive effect on students’ performance. This is very encouraging as it will help to improve the teaching and learning of students at INES. About 75% of the lecturers agreed that ALS methods ensure that total participation of students is achieved, integrate the learners’ experience and makes students interact in class. Some lecturers (15%) indicated that the class size of students and workload can affect the ability to use ALS. The different findings of this research will probably be useful for other institutes about the best ALS that the academic staff members in developing countries need for their teaching work, especially in the context of applied sciences.

Title: Challenges in Quality Higher Education with Special Reference to Women Education
Abstract :

In the 1970s, struggles by women around issues of domestic violence, women’s employment and livelihoods, communalism, representations in the media, etc., provided the impulse to women’s studies, which has been referred to as the ‘academic arm’ of the women’s movement. Critical inquiry into the structural and cultural bases which characterise the maintenance and reproduction of patriarchy in India at the familial, community and state levels have been carried out by women’s studies scholars. Women’s studies gained well-earned legitimacy within academia firstly through state support for its institutionalization in the 1980s, and more significantly, through the substantial contributions of feminist scholarship to the so-called mainstream disciplines. By questioning the value-neutrality of disciplinary perspectives, pointing to exclusions and invisibility, recovering women’s voices and concerns from the margins, and often from outside the pages, of mainstream academic discourse, and constantly unveiling and exploring the complex relationship between power and knowledge, women’s studies have engaged directly with the politics of knowledge.

Title: Performance of Fruit and Vegetable processing under Food Sector in West Bengal
Abstract :

Food processing has been identified as a major thrust area in West Bengal’s future industrial development. Fruit and vegetable processing sector is one of the core segments under food processing in Bengal. Development of this sector is critically important to the expansion and diversification of state’s agricultural sector. It provides vital linkages and harnesses synergies between the two pillars of our economy, industry and agriculture. Bengal has huge potentials for the growth of this sector in the state. Since economic liberalization, several policy measures have been taken by union and state governments to promote fruit and vegetable processing in the state in particular and in the country in general. But such growth potentials are constrained by several factors. The processing of fruit and vegetable is still at a very low level in Bengal (2.8 per cent) as well as in India (2.2 per cent) against the highest post harvest losses (27 per cent). The main constraint lies behind this with infrastructure, technology, quality measurement and lack of farm-firm linkages. In view of the above facts this paper tries to examine the strengths of this particular sector in the state and highlighting on its existing constraints. The paper also made suggestions to achieve the future progress of this sector in Bengal.

Title: Project Acceptability and Participation as Determinants of Beneficiaries’ Income in Fadama II Communities in Ogun State, Nigeria
Abstract :

This study investigates how project acceptability and participation determine beneficiaries’ income in ten local government areas that participated in Fadama II rural development project. Descriptive survey design of the ex-post facto type was adopted. Two objectives and two research questions were stated while two null hypotheses were tested. A self-designed instrument i.e. “rural development innovation acceptability and participation scale’’ with 0.73 reliability was administered complemented by focus group discussion. Data generated were analysed using descriptive statistics comprising frequency counts, percentages, mean score and content analysis as well as inferential statistics of multiple correlation matrix. Out of a total of 795 participants, 537(68%) were male while 258(32%) were females. Income sources of the respondents are 565(71%) farming, 107(13.5%) fishing, 33(4.1%) animal husbandry, 53(6.7%) public service, 31(3.9%) trading and 6 (0.8%) others. Beneficiaries in Ijebu North local government area ranked project acceptability 1st with 34.80 while participation was ranked 1st with 39.43 in Obafemi Owode local government area. Results of analysis showed there is a positive significant relationship between the dependent variable income and the two independent variables acceptability (r=0.292) and participation (r=0.793) at 0.05 level of significance. The study therefore recommended that the involvement of all stakeholders in projects acceptability and participation should be improved to ensure higher project impacts.

Title: Thirty Decades on Agroforestry and its Socio-economics: A Review of Fifty Research Articles
Abstract :

Various scholars working in the agroforestry sector have recognized the importance of social and economic aspects in agroforestry. The purpose of this study was to take a fresh look at the nature of available literature and findings of researches done in socioeconomics of agroforestry, and their likely contribution to agroforestry development. Based on a mixed methodological approach the study reviews a number of books, research articles and findings of case studies done earlier. Finally fifty research articles published during 1989 to 2016 were selected for the review purpose. Results show that many researchers and scientists reported a number of socio-economic factors like land holding, land size, gender, marketing aspects, level of education, age of farmers, policy and programmes as some of the factors that influence a farmer’s decision on agroforestry adoption. However, they also reported a big gap in full adoption of all recommended agroforestry practices and advised to intensify extension services so that farmers could motivate themselves to adopt all the agroforestry practices. It was concluded and suggested that studies on relationship of socio-economic factor and agroforestry practices types as individual and as a whole are required to analyze their influence on adoption and promotion of agroforestry.

Title: Contents Vol. 7, No. 4, December 2018
Abstract :
Title: Partners and Priorities for Bangladesh: Development Aid Effectiveness
Abstract :

From 1980s onward donors are increasingly focusing on sector based programmes and development assistances with interest-bearing loans to concession-based finance as well as conditional aid to unconditional grants. Recent trends under different aid modalities support that the priority sectors for Bangladesh are education, health, agriculture, rural and urban development, infrastructure and energy, environment and climate change adaptation, gender and development, and good governance through public sector reform initiatives including the macro-economic reform efforts. Presently both the aid modalities and sector based programme outcomes are central to the debate on aid effectiveness in Bangladesh. Considering the above mentioned aspects, the current round of studies on aid effectiveness is focusing on the overall effectiveness of the development assistance in Bangladesh following the qualitative focused synthesis method. This research article has tailored a historical retrospective analysis of the development assistance in Bangladesh, followed by a subjective assessment of donors, critical analysis of civil society of the recipient country and the balancing analysis of the recipient government on the aid effectiveness.

Title: Social Engineering in Public Policies and Legislations: A critical discussion in reference with Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)
Abstract :
The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) was enacted with immense hope for paradigm shift and societal change ensuring legal protection of employment to rural citizens, especially to the marginalized section in India. But, the implementation of the Act shows a mix picture in general, though it shares a major portion of national budget allocation. It is now the proven fact that the Act is not being successful to provide social justice to the marginalized population relating to the issues concerning ‘right to work’, ‘demand for work’, ‘right to get timely wages’ ‘right to conduct Social Audit’ along with ‘right of planning –implementation- evaluation of MGNREGA’, creation of productive and sustainable assets for promotion of livelihood in rural areas. On the other hand, there is an increasing apathy on the part of people on the Act. questions about ‘how to regain the faith and confidence of citizens on the Act. overcoming the present deficiencies at various levels. The introduction of ‘Social Engineering’ in reshaping and overcoming the present field related hazards and limitations along with deficiencies in the legislation might be one of the probable solutions. ‘Social Engineering’ is comparatively a new concept in development field and today it has become a general task of each and every organization. There is also a global need of ‘Social Engineering’ in every sphere of development sector involving technical, economic and social aspects to deal with and achieving sustainability as an end result. However, this paper will focus on how “Social Engineering” is becoming instrumental in overcoming the barriers and strengthening the existing systems and mechanisms in MGNREGA. The present study is based on few Focus Group Discussions held under two Gram Panchayats of Mongolkote Development Block of Purba-Bardhaman district under West Bengal.
Title: Activity Based Learning System in Higher Education: A Student Centred Approach
Abstract :

Higher education is considered to be the apex in all educational endeavors. It is imparted by universities and other institutions of higher education & research. It embraces teaching and learning for the promotion of faculties and research attitude among students. It mainly focuses on knowledge creation and its dissemination. Apparently, teaching, learning and research are considered to be the core activities in higher education. Besides, there are some associated activities which seem to augment the outcomes and effectiveness of higher education. Such activities include instruction and instructional mechanism, learning activities, campus environment and infrastructure, innovations and interventions etc. Therefore, a university teacher should involve students in learning process through activities aiming to inculcate academic & social skills among them.

Title: The Doctrine of Muhammad Hakim Tirmidhi
Abstract :

Hakim Tirmidhi is well-known Sunni jurist (faqih), traditionist (muhaddith) and Sufi master in the world. When discussing the problems associated with sufism, Hakim Tirmidhi had written various opinions that have been argued upon by numerous researchers while elaborating on their various thoughts over time until this present day[25]. These various opinions and views found in the heritages of Hakim Tirmidhi were compiled to discuss the problems associated with “sainthood”, “gnoseology”, “awliya”, “hukama” (sages), “ulama” (scholars), aql (intellect), “Hikmah”, “qalb”(heart), “Stations of the Heart” and etc. Thus, there is a need among researchers to examine and understand the methods used by the Hakim Tirmidhi in explaining these words in opinion[24]. This article analyzes the heritage of Mohammed Hakim Termizi, one of the most influential thinkers in the history of intellectual development. Evidence is given that the development of integrity and systematics in his reasoning has reached to the point of doctrine.

Title: A Survey of Climate Change and Livelihood in Selected Rural Coastal Communities in Waterside Local Government Area in Ogun State
Abstract :

This study is on climate change and rural livelihood in Makun-Omi, Ode-Omi and Iwopin communities in Waterside Local Government Area in Ogun State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey ex post facto design was adopted and three hundred and forty nine respondents randomly selected participated in the study. An adapted Climate Change and Livelihood Questionnaire were administered. 20% of the respondents engaged in agricultural production, 61% engaged in fishing and fishing related activities and 19% in non-farm livelihood activities. Temperature, flooding and water salinity have negative significant correlation with agricultural production. Eight types of manifestation of climate change were identified in the communities. Flooding had mean score 3.7, second was temperature with mean score 3.64, third was rainfall with mean score 3.6 and fourth was water salinity with mean score 3.54. Sea level had the fifth highest mean score 1.51, sixth was heat waves with mean score 1.48, and seventh was drought with mean score 1.45 and storm activity recorded the eight mean score 1.36. Temperature, flooding and salinity have a negative significant correlation with fishing and fishing related activities. Rainfall and flooding have negative significant correlation with livelihood assets while temperature, rainfall and flooding have negative significant correlation with livelihood income at 0.05alpha significance. It is concluded that climate change increased poor livelihood through reduction in agricultural production, poor outcomes of fishing and fishing related activities, low non-farm activities outcomes, loss of livelihood income. It is recommended that inhabitants of these communities should be trained on new strategies for sustainable livelihood strategies.

Title: Poverty Criminality and Communal Violence in India
Abstract :

The India is considered as seventh largest country in an area wise and also the second largest countries in population wise. Being the largest demographic structure, it also represented diverse culture and tradition. Almost all the major religions of the world are borne and flourished in India. The prevailing socio economic upheavals from medieval period to British time and also foreign involvement of different countries in present time brought the country under various socio economic cries. One side there is poor management of limited resources, weak education system, illiteracy, superstition and uneven economic growth and development running in the country made the country meager. On the other side, there is also constant raising pressure of population on availability of limited resources, along with the false policies of government, put the country on the track of unemployment. Many educated youths feel the sense of deprivations and marginalization. In the same ways they have been engaged themselves in various criminal activities in the country. These criminal activities sometimes took shapes of various communal violence in the country. My attempt in this paper is only to discuss about the rising consensus of poverty, its causes and harmful effect on coming generation in reference to crimes happening due to various communal violence in the country. Moreover this paper also highlights the role of central government, its programs and policies for eradicating the poverty in the country. After analysising all the causes of poverty in India and its effects on coming generation, this paper also forward some suggestions that may overcome this burning problems in the country.

Title: Composition of Public Expenditure and Economic Growth in India: A Time Series Analysis
Abstract :

The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamic link between government spending and economic growth for Indian Economy with the use of 44 years time series data and techniques. The empirical analysis of the study indicates the absence of short run causality between the variable in all the six models. The results showed that there is long run causality between Gross domestic product and Revenue expenditure in total as well as per capita term from GDP to Revenue expenditure. The study also found the Bi-directional causality from per capita total government expenditure and per capita Gross Domestic Product.

Title: Anal Culture at a Glance
Abstract :

Manipur, often called “Switzerland of the East” is home to people of different castes, creeds, tribes and religions with distinct culture, tradition and heritage. The Anals are one of the first settlers of the 19 Naga tribes in Manipur. They have rich customs, cultures and traditions like other tribes of Manipur. Their culture is manifested in various aspects of their life. Their artistic and aesthetic sense and love of beauty are found in their various festivals, dances and music and in their arts and crafts. The Anal dances are performed during their colorful festivals, death ceremonies and sacrifices. Their songs are really enchanting. There are various type of songs composed by great heroes of the past, poets and singers. Culture provides us with guidelines that are learnt and shared among the members of a tribe or society, in the absence of which there would not be order in the society. In this paper, the author will discuss Anal cultural life focusing on the festive and customary aspects of Anal culture.

Title: Cognitive Restructuring Therapy for Psychopathology of Patients with Schizophrenia
Abstract :

Cogenitive restructuring, or cognitive re-framing, is a therapeutic processs, it is a staple of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Ccognitive Rrestructuring Therapy (CRT) aims to help to reduce positive and negative symptoms through cultivating more positive and functional thought & habits. Present study is aimed to reduce positive and negative symptoms patents with schizophrenia using cognitive restructuring therapy. Method: five (5) patients with Schizophrenia were chosen from different inpatient department of RINPAS, Kanke using the simple random sampling technique. After taking informed consent from the patient, socio-demographic and PANSS were administered. All the five patients were assessed in pre-level and then after intervention of 18 sessions, they were assessed at post-level. Data was analyzed with the help of Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for statistical analysis. Result & Discussion: Results showed the significant differences in the areas; Delusion, Hallucination, Suspiciousness, in pre & post assessment at significant level of 0.01. In the study, it was found that application of cognitive restructuring therapy in the cases of schizophrenia has some effective measures in the areas of their positive and negative symptoms. Both positive and negative symptoms are resolves after application of cognitive restructure therapy.

Title: Learning Outcome Based Education Framework (LOCF): Challenges and Implementation Issues in Context of Indian Universities
Abstract :

The University Grants Commission (UGC) has recently introduced LOCF for enhancing outcome-driven teaching and learning in Indian Universities. This study aims to identify the key issues that may pose challenges in effective implementation of LOCF in Indian context. The study, which is based on review of secondary sources and unstructured interviews with identified professors in the different academic subject-areas, traces the strategic issues that need to be addressed for implementation of LOCF. Based on the analysis, the study provides a conceptual model for implantation of LOCF in Universities.

Title: Advancements and Changes in Public Administration Discipline: Compliance with Bangladesh Perspective
Abstract :

The present research is to review the ongoing advancements of Public Administration as an academic discipline and its compliance in Bangladesh. Eleven Public Universities were picked purposively for this examination. Course syllabi of every University for session 2016-2017 have been gathered as a unit of analysis. Public Administration as a discipline experienced numerous progressions and advancements forward and backward. This order extended incomprehensibly in Bangladesh in the 21st century. Aftereffects of the investigation uncovered that considerable rates of courses spread fundamental studies of Public Administration. Alongside that New Public Management and New Governance worldview are additionally being engaged in every university. Despite a huge spotlight on positivist abilities still there are some frail paradigmatic introduction for expert aptitudes like; leadership, interpersonal and negotiation skills.

Title: Re-evaluating the Changing Tune of Scroll Paintings in Bengal - Patachitra Artform
Abstract :
The uniqueness of our Indian folk artistry has an old age historical and habitual belief and carries with itself a rich aesthetics in the whole world. This traditional art practices require a specialized skills and perfection which has been passed on through generations. The art work of the artisans depicts diverse realities and myths in their own regional way. These artisans over the years have disseminated ethical values through their scroll paintings and have reached out to the inaccessible areas of our country. The cultural and traditional vibrancy of our tradition can be seen in this painting. Among this art form one of the famous art form are Patachitra paintings from West Bengal. This art has its own style and pattern of painting and expresses their own cultural identity, values and aesthetics. Patachitra art has a long history dated back to 2500 years and has contributed to the society through its audio visual scroll paintings narration. By just considering the Patachitrakars a folk art and a community practice in a defined region would not justify their uniqueness and undermine their contribution to the rural society and their role in keeping our old tradition alive and reaching out to the inaccessible areas of country and bridging the communication gap.
Over the period of time the Patachitra art form has shifted from oral and visual painting to just a visual paintings and the question arises that are we thinking about the sustainability of the uniqueness of this art form in the contemporary era. The demand of the contemporary situation has no longer confined the Patachitarakar to restrict themselves to their traditional periphery and forced them to transform their artform. The Patuas faced enormous problems and failed to compete with the liberalized market goods (Chatterjee, 2013). Other major drawback which made the Patachitra artisans more vulnerable was illiteracy and this artisans are living in situation of poverty, negligence and deprivation even after so many years of Independence. These artisans also lacked any major policy support from the government. The fast growing city life devalued the rural folk art work and this rural artisan found it difficult to find a safe and respectable space within any urban boundaries (Jefferson, 2014). At present the pressure are on these artisan communities either to preserve their tradition and uniqueness or to change as per the cultural shift and challenging globalized market. Hence, this study tries to focus on the issues and challenges faced by the present day Patachitrakars in terms of sustaining their own old tradition and for their own survival. The paper also tries to focus on the need of making the traditional art work as a source of livelihood for the rural artisans and preservation of our tradition through adaption.
Title: Do You Know That You Can Know Personality by Handwriting?
Abstract :

This information about handwriting helps a person to know personality, character, and mind-set of himself/herself and even to know their friends, family friends and others. This is a basic introduction for graphology. In this article, we will find out brief information about what is graphology, history of graphology, uses and limitations of graphology, difference between graphology and handwriting analysis and some facts about handwriting.

Title: Pre-Primary Education In Japan: Present Scenario
Abstract :
Pre-primary education has become popular strategy to protection drop-out from formal education of children all over the world. It has a strong and positive impact on further learning during the primary level and beyond. Pre-primary education is very important for the development of young children before they enter formal school. It helps in cognitive development of children at the early grades of primary education and it has strong bearing on attendance and participation of children once they enter primary school. So, protection drop-out from formal education of child is most necessary for a nation. For this reason pre-primary education is especially important for a nation. This article is about school younger children between the ages of three and five or seven, prior to the start of compulsory education. In this article I have investigated the role of governments of Japan in pre-primary schooling. The main objective of this paper is to study nature of pre-primary education, infrastructure, target group, curriculum, school activity and relationship among teacher, parents and student in pre-primary sector. This paper focuses how the daily activities and routines of Japanese preschool day constitute an unwritten curriculum for socializing children in the fundamental habits and attitudes of group life in Japan.
Title: A Study on Historical Analysis of Murshidabad Silk Industry at Nawab’s Reign (1717-1757)
Abstract :

The word used in India ‘Silk and cocoon’ is in ancient Sanskrit literature indicates that India had a kind of silk-worm in very ancient time. From the philosophical evidence with of silk-worm in very ancient time. From the philosophical evidence with reference to silk thread in Mahabharata, the ‘Ramayana’ and the ‘laws of Manu’ it can be said that silk industry existed in India since before the Christian era. Various accounts of the history of silk in India claim that silk weaving in Bengal existed from ancient times. Records show that the silk weavers of Murshidabad were operating in 18th century when Nawab Murshid Quli Khan (1717-1727) shifted the capital of the Dewanee of Bengal from Dhaka, now in Bangladesh, to a new capital he built on the east bank of the River Bhagirathi and named Murshidabad. Murshidabad is famous for its cowdial saris made of fine mulberry silk with flat, deep- red or maroon borders made with three shuttles. The borders are laced with fine serrated design in gold zari. Murshidabad silks are also popular for hand-printed designs and other materials which are also printed with wooden blocks. Calcutta and Serampore in the Hooghly district are the main textile hand-printing centres in West Bengal. In this study we are trying to know the golden era of Silk industry at Murshidabad and the price of silk,business and patronized by Nawab’s reign on this industry and also the farmer’s condition. Once silk goods of Murshidabad were exported to the different countries of the world. In sixteenth century Murshidabad exported its silk product to the coasts of East Africa, Arabia, Turkey, Syria and other Countries (Majumdar, M. 2017).

Title: Buddhism during the Bhaumakara Period: A case of study on Social life in Odisha
Abstract :

In this paper I try to highlight on the Buddhist faith and believe in ancient period. Especially Bhaumakara dynasty regime what is the social condition of the society specific reference to Buddhism. Many of the inscriptional and literary sources tell about social system of Odisha during the Bhaumakara Period. Many of the scholars study it but anybody not clearly mention which of the question raise this paper. The Bhaumakara grant tells various titles like Paramsaugata, Parambhattarak, Tathagata etc¹ but the scholar and historian analysis it the Bhuamakaras are followed and patronized Buddhism but many of the land grant goes to Brahmans. It is clear that the Brahmans are staying and maintain high class in the society. If In Odisha the Brahman are lived with a high standard living style so after the Bhaumakara fallen the Somyavamsi king Yayati I why calling the ten thousand Brahman from the Kanauj²? Another question is that if he calling for the Aswamedha sacrifice then why he donate village for the permanent settlement? The Study of Buddhist literature says that the One Buddhist monk defeated to Brahman on the Gospel (Sastra) discussion. After this gospel discussion five hundred Brahman converted from Brahmanical faith to Buddhist faith³. This paper is the based on the study of literarily and inscription sources and to get the answer to cast system during the period and increasing of the Buddhist follower. Further I try to this period can Buddhism emerges in the Brahminical faith? May this faith can effect of the social life of the people of Orissa.

Title: Contents Vol. 8, No. 1, March 2019
Abstract :
Title: A Case Study on the Pati Making Crafts of Assam
Abstract :

Pati making is an age old eco-friendly craft of mankind. Although it is a traditional craft of Bangladesh, it finds an important place among the handicrafts of Assam. This craft is found in small pockets of Assam, Tripura and West Bengal in India. This paper tries to study the scope and limitation of the pati making tradition of Paharsingpara village of Goalpara, Assam.

Title: Tokugawa Education System: To Build Up Modern Education in Japan
Abstract :
The success behind remarkable achievement of the rapid modernization of Japanese education following the Meiji Restoration of 1868 is the high standard of education which existed when Japan started to modernize her education by introducing Western theories and practices. The shogunate and local lords provided schools for their warrior to study the literary and military arts, while the common people attended the temple schools called terakoya in order to learn reading, writing and the use of the abacus. These were very popular at the end of the Tokugawa regime. The strong educational system of Tokugawa makes a new educational system was inaugurated in 1872 and provided the basis of today’s educational system in Japan. This article deals with various features of Tokugawa education system characterised by Chinese classics and Japanese abacus. The main objective of this paper is how the education of warrior or samurai in Edo period was considerable different from that of the mediaeval warrior and how to become a foundation of modern education system of Japan.
Title: Health Status and Health Seeking Behaviour of Oraon Female Adolescents in Jharkhand
Abstract :

Oraon is the second largest tribal group in Jharkhand, consisting of 20% of total Scheduled Tribe (ST) population. Despite their numerical strength, not much research has been conducted on the health status of Oraons. The confined geographical location, unique socio-cultural settings, and inadequate health facilities, are among various factors responsible for creating vulnerability among Oraons in terms of health. This study analyzed the health status and health seeking behavior among Oraons from their perspectives. The main focus of this study was on female adolescents since adolescence is an important phase in the life span of humans when they develop and rationalize various concepts about everyday life in context to health issues and health seeking behaviour. An in-depth qualitative study was conducted in Gokhulpur village at Nagar Panchayat in Sisai block, Gumla district for detailed understanding about notions on health issues that influence their health status and health seeking behavior. The health status of Oraons is highly influenced by their perception of heath and ill-health which is shaped by their culture. Regarding their health-seeking behavior, it can be contended that Oraon female adolescents rely heavily on traditional healer, the Bhagat. Such reliance was shaped by the cultural practices of the community. Analysis of field data suggests that for Oraons culture acts as a facilitator of maintaining good health care practices. Hence, this paper reinforces the role of culture as an important social determinant of health affecting health status and health seeking behavior of Oran female adolescents.