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Title: Surgical Management of Vaginal Leiomyoma in Bitch
Abstract :

Vaginal tumors are more common in bitch as compared to tumor of upper reproductive organs. Vaginal leiomyomas are benign solid tumors of the vagina. Two bitches were presented to Teaching Veterinary Clinics, College of Veterinary Sciences & A.H., Selesih with a gross lesion of large mass around vagina in one dog and other one having swelling on external genitalia. Clinical examination revealed round, solid mass of 5-7 cm diameter. A complete surgical excision was performed by vaginal route. Animal recovered uneventfully with no relapse of tumorous growth on the incision site till report. On the basis of gross and histopathologic findings, a diagnosis of leiomyoma was made.

Title: One / Two Days Preservation of goat oocytes at refrigerator and their maturation in vitro
Abstract :

This study was conduct to evaluate the feasibility of one / two days preserving immature goat oocytes without freezing. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were obtained from ovaries of slaughtered goats. Selected COCs were kept in tissue culture medium (TCM-199) and 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) and stored at 4°C for 1 or 2 days. After preservation, oocyte morphology and viability were evaluated. Post-warmed stored and Non-stored oocytes were cultured in TCM-199 and 10% FCS in CO2 incubator for 30 h. Oocyte maturation was indicated by cumulus expansion after in vitro culture. Data analysis revealed a high percentage of morphologically normal and viable oocytes after preservation either for 1 or 2 days (70, 60 vs. 60, 50%, respectively) with low percentage of damaged oocytes. There was no significant difference in the maturation of stored oocytes for 1 or 2 days in comparison to fresh oocytes although  the  value  of  the  fresh oocytes was higher (   55, 50 vs. 65%, respectively). Thus, we have developed a simple method for preserving immature goat oocytes by refrigeration at 4°C for two days without evident damage of oocyte and keeping oocyte developmental competence.

Title: In silico prediction of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pregnancy associated glycoprotein-1 signaling pathway
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to predict and analyze signaling pathway of buffalo pregnancy associated glycoprotein-1 in silico. Various databases viz. String database, Panther pathways, Biocarta pathways were used for deducing signaling of buffalo pregnancy associated glycoprotein-1. Analysis reveals buffalo pregnancy associated glycoprotein-1 exerts their biological function by interacting with cytokines viz. placenta growth factor and SP1 transcription factor. Placental growth factor belongs to the vascular endothelial growth factor superfamily. Vascular endothelial growth factor is mainly involved in cellular proliferation, migration, differentiation, angiogenesis acting through protein kinase-C signaling pathway. SP1 transcription factor is mostly involved in mediators of transcription and signal transduction during cellular process acting through the SMAD factors. In toto pregnancy associated glycoprotein-1 through these factors may exert its biological functions of angiogenesis, endothelial cell growth, proliferation, migration and differentiation enhancing embryonic growth and development. In conclusion from this study the signaling pathway of buffalo pregnancy associated glycoprotein-1 (PAG-1) was predicted in silico.

Title: Effect of multiple vs. single preovulatory follicle on oocyte quantity and quality and in vitro maturation of goat oocytes
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of multiple vs. single preovulatory follicle on oocyte quantity and quality and in vitro maturation of goat oocytes. Slaughtered goat ovaries were collected and ranked into 2 types according to the number of preovulatory follicles on their surface: Type I (with multiple preovulatroy follicles, > 2 follicles), Type II (with single preovulatory follicle). The number of goat oocytes retrieved from follicles (2-6 mm Ø) was recorded for each ovarian type. The released immature goat oocytes were scored for cumulus - oocyte cell adhesion into one of 3 grades (C+; cumulus - enclosed oocytes, C+/-; cumulus partially enclosed oocytes, C- ; cumulus - free oocytes). Grade C+ and grade C+/ were matured in tissue culture media (TCM -199) supplemented with 10% Fetal Calf Serum for 30 h in CO2 incubator at 38.5ºC and 95% humidity. The results indicated that a greater number of aspirated oocytes were found in type I than type II. The number of Grade C+ and Grade C+/- oocytes in Type I was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than type II. The in vitro maturation rate of oocytes recovered from goat ovaries was non significantly different in both types but the number of cumulus - full expanded oocytes (CE+) appeared to be higher in ovaries having multiple than single preovulatory follicle. In conclusion, higher quantity, quality and maturation rate of oocytes may produce in multiple preovulatory follicles of goat ovaries.

Title: Effect of Leukemia Inhibiton Factor (LIF) on in vitro maturation and fertilization of matured cattle oocytes
Abstract :

Effect of Leukemia Inhibition factor (LIF) on in vitro maturation and fertilization of matured cattle oocytes were tested using frozen thawed semen. Oocytes collected from ovaries of slaughtered cattles were matured at in vitro conditionsand fertilized with frozen thawed semen in the fertilization medium with different LIF concentrations Maturation rate and Fertilization rate for five different bulls was determined. A maximum maturation rate was observed at a LIF concentration of 20 μg/mL while the maximum fertilization rate obtained was also at a LIF concentration of 10 μg/Ml.

Title: Ectopic Kidney and Lymph Nodes and Intra-abdominal Testicular Structure in a Freemartin Holstein Friesian Calf
Abstract :

Freemartinism in a 3.5 months-old Holstein Friesian calf was investigated. External examination of the animal revealed the presence of two vulvar openings ventral to the anus. The urine is voided from the lower aperture. Transrectal palpation and ultrasonography revealed an ectopic left kidney in the caudal abdomen. At autopsy, an ectopic left kidney, right unilateral cryptorchidism, left testicular aplasia and intra-abdominal edema were the main findings observed. Histopathologically, narrowing of the seminiferous tubules and degenerative changes of the sertoli cells were recorded. This is the first report of testicular cryptorchidism and aplasia and ectopic kidney in free martin calf.

Title: Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin and its Role in Dairy Production: A Review
Abstract :

Bovine somatotropin (bST) is a natural metabolic protein hormone produced by the pituitary gland in all cattle and used to increase milk production in dairy cows. Recombinant bovine somatotropins (rbST), that has several amino acids, have been synthesized using recombinant DNA techniques. rBST is administered subcutaneously at day 60 of a cow’s lactation cycle when milk production normally begins to decrease and repeated every 14 days. Even though bST has the potential to increase the efficiency of milk production, there is no change in milk composition. In the case of rBST, potentially 10-15% more milk can be obtained from each cow. rBST is biologically inactive in humans and its residues in food products have no physiological effect. Concentration of Insulin-growth factor-I (IGF-1) is no significant difference in bovine growth hormone levels in milk from rBGH-treated and untreated cows. Even if there were a much higher level of bovine growth hormone ingested by humans, our digestive system would break down and inactivate the hormone protein. In addition, the bovine growth hormone does not affect human growth hormone receptors and good management measures should be taken as per manufacturer to ensure a high response in milk yield to bST administration. Thus, the use of rbST to improve productivity within the lactating cow herd allows for a reduction in resource use and environmental impact per unit of milk.

Title: Bovine Haematic Mummification New Observations-Report of Two Cases in HF Crossbred Cows in Mekelle
Abstract :

A five year old HF X local crossbred cow, in her first lactation, was reported by the owner to have overshot her gestation by nearly a month, without showing any signs of udder development and approaching parturition. Clinical examination revealed the presence of fetal head just anterior to the pelvic brim. Attempts to stimulate fetal movements by digital pressure on the eye orbits failed to produce any response. The rest of the uterus appeared as an enlarged structure containing a doughy mass. Fetal fluids and placentomes were not palpable. A tentative diagnosis of fetal mummification was made with a strong probability of an anomalous fetus. Caesarean section was resorted to, through a left ventro-lateral incision. After removal of one fetus in anterior presentation, it immediately became apparent that another fetus of similar size was present in posterior presentation. Both fetuses were tightly covered by leathery fetal membranes and a brownish colored, thick, viscous material. The uterine cavity was cleaned with mild antiseptic solution, before closure of the uterine incision. The abdominal incision was closed routinely. The animal had uneventful recovery and skin structures were removed on day 9. The other animal was a seven year old HF x local cross, brought to the clinic for threatened abortion, with partly necrosed membranes hanging from the vulva. Vaginal examination revealed the presence of a small fetus, tightly surrounded by fetal membranes in the vagina, which was easily removed. The external os was firmly closed and did not admit even one finger. A detailed examination of the fetus confirmed the existence of haematic mummification. This paper records some new features of the condition, so far not reported, in bovine fetal mummification.

Title: A retrospective study on incidence of dystocia in cattle and buffaloes at referral center
Abstract :

A retrospective study on the incidence of bovine dystocia between October, 2012 to September, 2013 was screened. A high incidence of maternal cause of dystocia was found in both cows (78.89%) and buffaloes (80.33%). Maldisposition of fetus was the commonest cause of fetal dystocia in both cows (16.67%) and buffaloes (18.03%). Imperfect dilatation of cervix (50%) was the major cause of maternal dystocia in cattle while uterine torsion (55.74%) in buffaloes. Other causes of dystocia with low incidence include narrow pelvis, fetal emphysema and fetal monster.

Title: Postpartum endometritis in dairy cows: current status of diagnosis, therapy and prevention
Abstract :

Clinical (CE) and subclinical endometritis (SCE) occur a few or several weeks postpartum in dairy cows. Immunosuppression, microbial proliferation and disruption of endometrial lining of the uterus are risk for the development of metritis which can be associated with increased likelihood of development of endometritis. Diagnostic approaches for CE have utilized the vaginoscopic presence of pus in the vaginal lumen as the common diagnostic criterion although currently Metricheck and ultrasonography are preferred procedures. The identification of pathologic numbers of microbes in the uterus appears difficult unless the samples are collected using specialized instruments. Inflammatory changes in the endometrium (of CE affected cows) can be identified with high accuracy in histologic sections of the endometrial biopsy specimens or hysteroscopy however, such approaches are limited to specialized cases only. Cows with SCE evidence a cervico-vaginal discharge without pathogenomic properties (pus and or altered consistency) and thus the diagnosis of SCE continues to be presumptive in cows with lowered fertility. Ultrasonography and uterine cytology on swabs or fluids collected from uterus have been considered accurate for the diagnosis of SCE.

Title: Characterization and immunolocalization of HBP, FA-1 and TIMP-2 like proteins in cattle bull semen: HBP modification in vitro capacitated spermatozoa
Abstract :

Characterization and localization of HBP, FA-1 and TIMP-2 like proteins in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of cattle bulls was carried out by immunoblotting and immunofluoresence. Anti-HBP, anti-TIMP-2 and anti-FA-1 reacted with 55, 48, 45, 42, 35, 30, 24, 18, 16 kDa; 65, 45, 24, 16 kDa and 55, 48, 16 kDa sperm proteins on immunoblots. Immunofluoresence indicated that HBP/ TIMP-2 are localized mainly on acrosomal cap, whereas, FA-1 predominantly on post acrosomal cap. Among the bulls, positive for 60, 45, 16 kDa FA-1 like proteins in sperm extracts and 11/ 16 kDa in SP; 7, 8, 6 and 7 bulls also showed higher rate of in vitro AR. Number of bulls positive for 65, 24 kDa-TIMP-2 and with higher rate of AR was more as compared to other anti-TIMP-2 reactive sperm/ SP proteins. Therefore, 60, 45 and 16 kDA-FA-1, 65 and 24 kDa-TIMP-2 like proteins may serve as indicators of higher rate of in vitro AR vis a vis fertility of cattle bulls. Immunoblotting of capacitated and uncapacitated spermatozoa with anti-HBP suggested that removal of 55, 48, 45, 40, 37 and 30 kDa HBP from in vitro acrosome reacted cattle bull spermatozoa allowed heparin to mediate in vitro AR and an increase in intensity of 110, 90 kDa and exposure of 65, 60, 26 and 16 kDa HBP after AR may be important for binding of sperm to ovum, penetration and fertilization.

Title: Prognostic tests for uterine torsion affected buffaloes
Abstract :

Twenty-five female buffaloes suffering from uterine torsion were presented to the clinic of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics, CVAS, Bikaner for treatment. Three times blood samples were obtained from 25 buffaloes with uterine torsion (at the time of presentation of the animal, 1 h and 24 h after fetal delivery) and 5 healthy buffaloes to investigate the relationship between concentrations of SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase), SGPT (serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase), Bilirubin, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). The aim of this study was to investigate related alterations in these blood constituents. There were significant (P < 0.01) increases in SGOT, SGPT, Bilirubin, serum creatinine and BUN in the affected buffaloes, possibly due to high uterine tissue damage. It may be inferred that torsion may lead to imbalance in biochemical profiles that affect the proper functioning of the uterine musculature. Buffaloes subjected to uterine torsion are associated with hepatic and renal dysfunction. In conclusion, concentration of above parameters can be used as a prognostic indicator for the occurrence of uterine torsion in buffaloes.

Title: Fetal Membranes and Associated Complications in Dairy Animals: A Review
Abstract :

Fetal membrane is temporary organ that feeds the fetus intrauterine. It also permits transfer of oxygen and nutrients from mother to fetus and release of carbon dioxide and waste products from fetus. Placenta is partly maternal and partly embryonic in origin. Actual mixing of maternal and fetal blood is not possible due to placental membrane. After conception uterine contraction and tonicity decreases to retain blastocyst in situ position in uterus. Protein factors like blastokinin, trophoblastin has role in maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP). Placenta of dairy animals is polycotyledonary and non-deciduate type. Prevention of RFM includes reducing stress, improving comfort and balance ration during transition period. Proper exercise, Vitamins (Vitamin A, E and Selenium), minerals along with infection control are common factors which control post-parturient problems including retention of placenta. Use of ecbolic, collagenase, antibiotics, herbal preparation and hormones are common practice used by farmers and farms with very positive effect i.e., reducing infertility.

Title: Contents Vol. 10, No. 1, April 2020
Abstract :
Title: Epidemiological Study on Mastitis in Holstein-Friesian Cattle on Organised farm in Jammu, India
Abstract :

The current study was carried out with an aim to determine the epidemiological factors responsible for mastitis in dairy cattle and generating epidemiological data on this important disease in an organized cattle farm in Jammu. Screening was done on 100 randomly selected animals. A questionnaire was framed and completed with detailed management practices, including the risk factors like age, parity and lactation number along with the management practices. The samples were screened using Modified California Mastitis Test (MCMT), Somatic Cell Count (SCC). Management practices and detailed questionnaire revealed the high risk groups. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical practices was found to be 43% (SCM: 41% and CM: 2%). Further, the highest prevalence of sub clinical mastitis was found in cattle belonging to groups; 8 to 10 years age (40%); in 5th to 7th month lactation stage (36%) and 3rd to 6th parity (38.8%) whereas clinical mastitis showed highest prevalence in 2-7 year old (2.4%); 5th to 7th month lactation stage (4%) and 3rd to 4th parity (2.7%) groups. A significant (p<0.05) difference in Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) was observed between control and subclinical and clinical cases. MCMT proved to be an important screening test in the field conditions. Managemental practices and risk factors contribute to the occurrence of disease. Preventive and control measures need to be adopted strictly to reduce the disease in animals.

Title: Surgical Resection of Multiple Vaginal Fibrosarcoma in an Intact Female Dog
Abstract :

An eight-year-old Labrador retriever bitch weighing 30 kg with history of sanguineous vaginal discharge associated with progressive perineal enlargement for last 1 year was presented to the Referral Veterinary Polyclinics of Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly. Clinical examination revealed multiple palpable growths of varied size in the vaginal canal. Surgical resection of the same was performed under diazepam-ketamine anesthesia. On the basis of histopathological examination, the removed growth was diagnosed as Fibrosarcoma. The animal recovered uneventfully with no post-operative complications and reoccurrence till one month after surgery.

Title: Predicting the Body Weight Using Appropriate Regression Model in Beetal Goat Kids
Abstract :
This paper deals with designing a cheap and easy-to-attain method to replace weighing for estimating the body mass of goats. Several models on the relationship of heart girth (HG) to live weight (LW) were used and data was collected on 50 Beetal goat kids (25 males and 25 females) of different age groups maintained at organized goat farm in Tarn taran district of Punjab. The animals were divided into four age groups as 0, 1, 2 and 3 months. To predict the body weight of Beetal goat kids four body measurements (height at wither, heart girth, body length and paunch girth) were recorded on each animal which was further used to develop the step wise multiple regression equations. Body measurements varied with increasing age of animals. In goat kids, the highest correlation (r) was observed between body weight and heart girth at 0 (r = 0.701) and 1 (r = 0.762) months of age. Similarly height at wither at 2 month (r = 0.813) and paunch girth at 3 month (r = 0.825) of age.
These correlations between body weight and body measurements were positive and significant (P<0.01). The regression analysis indicated that live weight and body measurements (height at wither, heart girth, body length and paunch girth). Multiple regression analyses were used to calculate the prediction equations. The coefficient of determination (R2) for weight estimation were for height at wither and paunch girth (86.0%) at 3 month. It was concluded that body weight of goat kids can be estimated in field using body measurements taken with a tape in the absence of weighing scales.
Title: Contents Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2019
Abstract :
Title: Management of Dystocia due to Primary Uterine Inertia in Bitch: A Case Report
Abstract :

A five years old bitch was presented to the TVCC, LUVAS, Hisar with the history of commencement of whelping by delivering a dead foetus yesterday, but after that, no other foetuses or placentae were delivered. Primary uterine inertia was confirmed as a cause of dystocia which was immediately intervened by cesarean section and four dead putrefied foetuses were delivered. The bitch recovered without any postoperative complications.

Title: Seasonal Variations in Reproductive Performance of Crossbred Cows in Kerala and the Influence of Climatic Stress Factors over a Period of Six Years
Abstract :

Affection of the reproductive performance forms early indicator of the influence of adverse environment on physiological processes. Comparing fertility parameters with climatic variables over the years helps to understand the impact, magnitude and determinants of climate change on animal system. Objective of the present study was to assess the yearly and seasonal variations in reproductive performance of crossbred cows, and the influence of thermal stress factors over a period of past six years. Retrospective data collected from farm records and climatic data were analysed using SPSS software. Climatic parameters such as maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and THI showed highly significant (P<0.001) seasonal variation. THI was consistently high at a level for causing mild to moderate stress all over the years. However, fertility parameters did not show significant variation across seasons. Between years, fertility parameters varied significantly and climatic variables did not. No significant correlation was found between fertility parameters and climatic variables across seasons, even though time series analysis showed significant correlation between these parameters. In spite of significant variation of climatic variables between seasons and fertility parameters between years, lack of significant seasonal variation of the fertility parameters appears to be due to the inconsistency of seasonal pattern between the years. To conclude, no obvious interrelationship between climatic variables and fertility parameters was evident between seasons, even though THI values were beyond the level of thermal comfort for dairy cattle and is attributed to the adaptation of animals to changing climate through continuous rearing at the same place, and passive selection over the years.

Title: Amorphus Globosus Monster Removed by Laparohysterotomy in a She Buffalo – A Case Report
Abstract :
Dystocia in buffalo due to amorphous globosus monster, relieved by laparohysterotomy is reported. Fetus was explored to have actual status of morphology and visceral organs Exploration of the fetus didn’t reveal any kind of identifiable viscera.
Title: Surgical Management of Atresia ani et recti in a Buffalo Calf
Abstract :

Atresia ani or imperforate anus is a congenital anomaly defined as the failure of development of anal opening. A two day old male buffalo calf was presented to the polyclinic with the history of not passingfaeces since birth. Based on history and clinical examination the case was diagnosed as atresia ani et recti. It was decided to perform emergency surgery to correct the condition. Surgery was done under epidural anesthesia and local infiltration analgesia using lignocaine hydrochloride 2 %. Skin incision was made in a cruciate pattern. The rectal cul-de-sac was identified by blunt dissection and was sutured to the perineal wall. Reconstruction of anal opening was done. Post-operatively animal was treated with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs for five days. The skin sutures were removed on 11th post-operative day. The buffalo calf showed normal defecation pattern and made an uneventful recovery

Title: Current Treatment Aspects of Bovine Reproductive Disorders
Abstract :

Economy of the dairy farming mainly depends on first service conception rate and 12-months calving interval to get a calf each year which is advantageous for high milk yield per cow with the good economic return. Reproductive disorders are the major threats antagonizing fertility as well as productivity of dairy cattle. Antimicrobial therapy, phytotherapy (herbal remedy), homeopathy and immunotherapy are currently used for the alleviation of these disorders. But due to more negative impacts of antibiotics; phytotherapy, homeopathy and immunotherapy have been given more attention as a treatment approach in recent years because they are cost effective, have minimal side effects and milk residues which are important from public health point of view.

Title: Concurrent Occurrence of Hydrallanto-amnios in a Buffalo and its Clinical Management: A case report
Abstract :

A 4-year old primiparous buffalo was presented with the stated history of prolonged gestation, inappetance and gradual bilateral abdominal enlargement since last 10-15 days giving a characteristic bloated bull frog appearance. General clinical examination revealed rectal temperature 101.4ËšF, pale mucous membrane but there was no evidence of straining. To investigate further, per rectal examination revealed a taut uterus (bulged, tense and inelastic) with palpable placentomes whereas fetal parts were inaccessible. Per-vaginal examination revealed a soft cervix without any advancement of fetal parts into the pelvic inlet. Based on characteristic clinical observations ultrasonography (USG) was recommended which revealed an enlarged fluid filled uterus with speckled appearance. The characteristic signs and USG results were suggestive of hydrops of fetal membranes. Animal was stabilized with sufficient intravenous fluids and was followed by cervical dilation therapy for expulsion of fetus. Upon gradual dilation of cervix, trans-cervical allantocentesis was performed to remove allantoic fluid, with simultaneous infusion of intravenous fluids to prevent hypovolemic shock, which was performed over a period of three hours. A dead male monster fetus was extracted per vaginally. The presence of large quantity of allantoic and amniotic fluid, monster fetus as well as characteristic placental lesions confirmed that it was a case of concurrent hydrallantois and hydramnios. The supportive treatment included intravenous fluid, parental antimicrobial agent, anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamins and antioxidants. The treatment regimen was followed up for 5 days and animal was recovered uneventfully.

Title: Supplementation of Seminal Plasma-Heparin Binding Proteins to Capacitation Medium Increases In Vitro Acrosome Reaction Percentage in Beetal Bucks
Abstract :
This study was focused evaluating the effect of heparin binding proteins (HBP) on in vitro capacitation and acrosome reaction (AR) in Beetalbucks. HBP were purified from pooled seminal plasma of six bucks to evaluate their effect on in vitro capacitation. Semen, washed twice with TALP medium was incubated in TALP, supplemented with glucose, BSA, heparin and HBP for 6 hrs at 37°. A control was also run without HBP. Incubated samples were evaluated for motility, viability, acrosome reaction and inner mitochondrial membrane potential (IMMP) after every 2 hrs. Standardization of HBP concentration on in vitro acrosome reaction revealed 150 μg/ml HBP as an optimum dose. Based on sperm parameters, six bucks were divided into two groups i.e. G-I (> 80% motility) and G-II (<80% motility).There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in individual motility, viability and high IMMP from zero to six hrs of incubation in both control and HBP treated samples of both groups. A significant (p<0.05) increase in acrosome reaction and medium IMMP was noticeable in control and HBP treated samples with an increase in incubation time. In Vitro induced AR was also significantly (p<0.05) higher in HBP treated samples compared to control in both groups at 4 hrs and 6 hrs of incubation. However, Effect of buck on in vitro capacitation and AR was noticeable in both control and HBP treated samples of G-I and G-II. A non-significant (p>0.05) increase in LPO during capacitation and AR was also observed. This study concluded that SP-HBP enhanced the rate of in vitro AR in beetal bucks.
Title: Fatigueness and Work Efficiency of Large White Donkeys
Abstract :
Three pairs of adult Large White Donkeys (Equus asinus), based on similar age, height & weight were selected for this study. The experiment was conducted in triplicate, on different set of workloads such as Light (30
kg draft), Moderate (45 kg draft) and Heavy (60 kg draft) on same set of animals for the evaluation of Fatigueness and work efficiency. The same working schedule (1 hr work - ½ hr rest - 1 hr work i.e. 2 hrs work /day from 6.30 am to 8.30 am) was followed in all the experiments for a period of 5 days. Physiological symptoms (RR/min., PR/min. & BT as °C) as well as behavioral symptoms (excitement, frothing, tongue protrusion, panting, leg in-coordination, & sweating) of the experimental animals were recorded at 0
hr, 1st hr and 2nd hr of the work. The results of fatigue score during light, moderate and heavy work were 0, 5 & 9 at the end of 1st hr of the
work where as at the end of 2nd hour of the work they were 5, 10 and 18. The behavioral symptoms particularly panting and sweating were more pronounced and complete reluctant to work was noticed in heavy type of the work experiment whereas animals were quite normal during light & moderate type of the work experiment.
Title: Surgical Management of Traumatic Testicular Evisceration in a Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
Abstract :

Traumatic testicular evisceration is not an uncommon condition in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In order to attain dominance among mates, leporids exhibit territorial aggression which often lead to trauma among the cage mates. Testicular evisceration can be either unilateral or bilateral. Surgical management is considered as the pertinent method of correcting traumatic testicular evisceration. An eight-month old rabbit buck weighing 1.8 Kg was brought with the history of left testicle evisceration as a consequence of attack from the cage mate. Unilateral orchiectomy was performed under general anesthesia for the surgical removal of eviscerated left testicle. Post-operative management included antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs for a period of 3 days. The rabbit made an uneventful recovery.

Title: Gross Anatomical Study on the Pelvic girdle of Domestic Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus)
Abstract :

In present study, one pelvic girdle was utilized. Pelvic girdle was composed of two hip bones. Each hip bone consisted of ilium, ischium and pubis. Ilium was elongated bone and attached with the synsacrum. Ilium was divided into pre actetubular and post acetabular part. Pre acetabular part was dorsally concave and contained cranial and caudal iliac crest. Internal surface of ileum contained renal fossa. Ilium and ischium form acetabulum. Acetabulum had articular area and perforation. Caudodorsal aspect of the acetabulum antitrochanter was situated. Obturator foramen was found caudal to the acetabulum. The size of the obturator foramen was smaller than the acetabulum. Caudal to the antitrochanter an elongated oval iloischiatic foramen was found. Ischium was plate like bone and it contained one pair of caudal process. Pubis was thin rod like bone and there was no symphysis between the pubic bone. Cranially pubis contained pectinal process and caudally it was curved. Between the dorsal border of pubis and ventral border of ischium incisura puboischiadica was observed.

Title: Comparison of Right Flank and Caudal Midline Approaches for Ovariectomy in Gilts
Abstract :

To evaluate the two different approaches to accomplish ovariectomy in gilts was used. The animals were randomly divided into two equal (n = 6) groups of Flank and Midline. Ovariectomy was performed by the right flank approach in group flank and by the caudal midline approach in group Midline. In the present study surgical, physiological, haematological parameters, postoperative pain scoring, healing time and wound score were assessed. Bleeding was noticed in group Flank compared to group Midline due to surgical trauma to the muscles. The duration of surgery was 43.33±4.08 and 55.83±5.84 minutes and length of surgical incision was 5.03±0.37 and 5.87±0.35 cm in Group Flank and Midline respectively. Post-operative swelling and erythema were noticed in group Flank compare to group Midline. The time taken for the surgical wound to heal was 9.33±0.81 and 10.83±0.75 days in group Flank and group Midline respectively. There was no significant variation in physiological parameters like heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature in both the groups and within the groups of different periods. There was no significant variation in haematological parameters like haemoglobin and PCV in both the groups except for TLC in group Midline. Based on the observations and evaluation made during the present study, it was concluded that no clinical and haematological alterations were observed in gilts undergoing open ovariectomy (OVE) through the caudal midline and right flank approach. Therefore, both the right flank and caudal midline approaches could be implemented effectively for ovariectomy in gilts. However, the flank approach was less time consuming and the length of surgical incision was comparatively less to the caudal midline approach. Hence, the results show that the right flank approach can be a good alternative to the caudal midline approach for ovariectomy in gilts.

Title: Endometrial Cytological Evaluations in Repeat Breeding Crossbred Cows
Abstract :

Endometrial cytological study using cytobrush technique was conducted on 80 crossbred cows under field condition to evaluate the prevalence of subclinical endometritis. Animals were grouped in three groups, the group-I (n=20): normal cyclic cows having no previous repeat breeding history and had clear stringy vaginal mucus discharge on estrus; the group-II (n=40): repeat breeding cows, had clear stringy vaginal mucus discharge on estrus; and the group-III (n=20): endometritic cows, had turbid vaginal mucus with visible white flakes. The endometrial cell cytology was performed using modified cytobrush technique. All animals with clear stringy cervico-vaginal mucus discharge (group-I and group-II) were inseminated without any treatment. The mean polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell % in the normal cyclic, repeat breeding and endometritis group of cows were 2.01 ± 0.25, 5.36 ± 0.39, 11.82 ± 0.82 with 1(5%), 26(65%) and 20(100%) animals having >4% PMN cells in the respective group of cows. The overall conception rate in normal cyclic group was 95% after 3 inseminations while in the repeat breeding group it was 10%. Cows with turbid discharge (group-III) were given 20 ml liquid Levofloxacin + Ornidazole + α-Tocopherol (Lenovo AP; Intas Pharmaceuticals-vet) intra-uterine infusion for three consecutive days of the estrus and AI was performed on the next estrus, resulted conception of 35% animals in two inseminations. Cytobrush technique was observed useful in differentiating subclinical endometritis in the repeat breeding cows and Levofloxacin + Ornidazole + α-Tocopherol (Lenovo AP) treatment was satisfactory in the cows showing turbid mucus discharge.

Title: Non Hormonal Induction of Oestrus in Nellore Ewes
Abstract :

A non hormonal induction of synchronization of estrus in ewes of Nellore breed, in two seasons June-July and September – October, covering 39980 and 42370 ewes respectively, spread over 2015 to 2019, with micro minerals (Bioplex High Seven), after onset of monsoon and deworming the sheep, appropriate to the season and type of prevailing parasitic infection, were studied. All the supplemented ewes came to estrus within a week, and were bred with stud rams. After the completion of gestation period all the ewes were lambed within a week uniformly. This may be due to elimination of stress due to environment, nutrition, parasites, replenishment of minerals and stimulation of folliculogenesis with Bioplex. The current extension method induction of estrus is safe, economical, easy to adopt and eco-friendly.

Title: Study on Relationship of Soil, Plant and Serum Minerals Concentration in Cyclic and Anestrus Buffaloes
Abstract :

The present study was carried out to study the relationship of concentration of minerals in soil, plant and in cyclic and anestrus buffaloes. A total of 22 anestrus and 5 cyclic buffaloes were utilized for the study. The concentration of minerals i.e. Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca and P was studied in soil, plants and serum of buffaloes. The ration of Ca:P was disturbed in anestrus buffaloes. The concentration of Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn and P were significantly lower compared to plants. The concentration of Cu, Zn, Mn, Ca and P in the true anestrus and normal cyclic buffaloes were within the normal range. However, the concentration of Fe in true anestrus and normal cyclic buffaloes were higher compared to normal range.

Title: Surgical Management of Ring Womb in Ewe
Abstract :

Failure of the cervix to dilate at the time of parturition remains one of the foremost reasons of dystocia in ewes. An adult ewe weighing ~25 kg was presented to the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex of College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Anjora, Durg with the history of straining and restlessness. The external examination revealed vaginal discharge with slight edematous vulva. Per vaginal examination revealed slight edematous passage with partially open cervix. The animal was diagnosed using ultrasonography which reveals presence of one live fetus. Caesarean section was performed and one dead fetus was recovered. After proper post operative care ewe recovered uneventfully without any complications.

Title: Macro Anatomical study of Femur of Domestic Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus)
Abstract :

In present study, one pair of femur was utilized. Femur was composed of shaft and two extremities-proximal and distal. Proximal extremities contained trochanter and head with fovea capities. Distal extremities contained two condyle-medial and lateral, trochlea and inter condyloid groove. Lateral condyloid was traversed by a groove. The shaft consisted of four surfaces viz., medial, lateral, cranial and caudal. Lateral surface was wide above and narrow behind. Medial surface and caudal surface was separated by inter muscular line. The nutrient foramen was at the middle of the caudal surface of the shaft.

Title: Prevalence of Theileria annulata on the Basis of Managemental Practices of the Crossbred Cows
Abstract :

Theileriosis is the major protozoon disease which can kills young animals & reduces the growth & production of infected animals. Looking to this aspects a study was conducted to evaluated the effect of managemental practices of crossbreed cow on disease prevalence. The prevalence of T. annulata on the basis of nutritional status of the animals was found to be highest in animals having poor nutritional status and lowest prevalence was found in animals having good nutritional status. The prevalence recorded on the basis of nutritional status of animals as inquired by owner have shown that calves up to 1 year of age having good nutritional status have prevalence of 14.81 per cent. Calves having fair nutritional status have prevalence of 40.74 per cent. The highest prevalence 44.44 per cent was recorded in calves having poor nutritional status.The prevalence of T. annulata in heifers 1 to 3 years having good nutritional status have prevalence of 20.00 per cent. Heifers that have fair nutritional status have prevalence of 33.33 per cent. The highest prevalence 46.66 per cent was recorded in heifers having poor nutritional status. The prevalence of T. annulata infections in animals up to 1 year reared in Pakka house was 18.51 per cent in kaccha house prevalence was 44.44 per cent and the prevalence of disease in open housing system was 37.03 per cent. The prevalence of T. annulata infection in heifers 1 to 3 years reared in pakka house was 20.00 per cent heifer reared in kaccha house had prevalence of 53.33 per cent and the prevalence of disease in open housing system was 26.66 per cent. The prevalence of T. annulata infection in adult more than 3 years reared in pakka house was 23.07 per cent. Adult reared in Kaccha house had prevalence of 46.15 per cent and the prevalence of disease in open housing system was 30.76 per cent. Hygiene is very important factor in dairy industry especially in disease prevalence and management hygiene play very important role in respect of disease flare up situation. The prevalence of T. annualata infection in calves up to 1 year reared under good hygienic condition was 11.11 per cent in fair hygienic condition prevalence was 37.03 per cent. The prevalence of disease was highest 51.85 per cent in calves reared under poor hygienic condition.

Title: Role of Life Style Factors in Male Reproductive Functions: A Review
Abstract :

The prevalence of male and female infertility is being increased in many nations and has emerged as a serious problem. Many life style factors and occupational exposures can have substantial effects on fertility problems. Life style factors such as smoking, illicit drug (cocaine, cannabis),alcohol and caffeine consumption, exposure to extreme heat etc. have negative effects on functions of male reproductive system. In recent years, increase in disorders of male reproductive system may be associated at least some extent with these factors; which are enhanced by some of new emergent life style habits. A detailed study is required based on the data i.e., excess use of mobile phones and impact of mental stress on male reproductive health. This review highlights the role of various life style factors, environmental stresses and occupational exposures in male reproductive functions and their negative feedback in declining semen quality, increased oxidative stress as well as sperm DNA damages in male.

Title: Role of Oxidative Stress, Reactive Oxygen Species & Antioxidants in Male Reproductive Functions
Abstract :

Gametes are susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS) attack. When manipulated in vitro during assisted reproductive techniques, these cells have the risk of generating and being exposed to supra-physiological level of ROS. Defective sperm functions are the most prevalent causes of male infertility and a difficult condition to treat. Male infertility is a major problem of mammalian reproduction. Numerous factors influence male infertility and oxidative stress is one of them. The term oxidative stress is generally applied when oxidants outnumber the antioxidants. The imbalance between the production of ROS and a biological systems ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or easily repair the resulting damage is known as oxidative stress. The main destructive aspects of oxidative stress are the production of ROS, which include free radicals and peroxides. In this article we discuss the role of oxidative stress in different sperm functions, means of ROS generation and their physiological implications in semen and how antioxidants act as defense in protecting sperm from oxidative /ROS attack.

Title: Clinical Importance of Lymphatic Territories with Special Reference to Mammary Glands and Uterus in Canine: A Review
Abstract :

The lymphatic circulatory system consists of two major components viz., the lymphatic vessels and nodes. This system plays important role in immune surveillance, lipid absorption and maintenance of tissue fluid balance. The lymphatic vasculature also serves as the primary route for metastatic spread of tumour cells to regional lymph nodes. Swelling of lymph node usually indicates the existence of a disease process in its tributary territory. Medial retropharyngeal lymph node serves as the collecting centre of the head region. The buccal lymph node is only found in a minority of dogs mainly larger purebreds. The axillary lymph centre is involved in vascularisation of the thoracic limb and first three mammary glands considered during mammary gland surgery. The popliteal lymph node is the important lymph centre found in hindlimb provides valuable data about health status of canine. The heterogeneity and plasticity of the lymphatic drainage of mammary glands is common in the bitch. Sentinel lymph nodes of uterus might be used to reach an early diagnosis of uterine diseases. There is great individual variability within the lymphatic system due to presence or absence of some lymph nodes. In this review we summarize the clinical importance of lymphatic territory and anatomical position of some important lymph nodes in dog.

Title: Clinicopathological Features of Ovarian Teratoma Presented as Colic in Mare
Abstract :

Ovarian teratoma is a tumor characterized by presence of well differentiated tissues that are not usual to ovarian stroma. A five year old multiparous Kathiawari mare suffering colic like symptoms (unresponsive to conventional treatment)was ultrasonograhically suspected for ovarian neoplasm of the right ovary by trans-rectal palpation and ultrasonograhic evidence. Histopathological observations following unilateral laparotomic ovariectomy of the affected ovary confirmed benign ovarian teratoma characterized by presence of hair follicles, sebaceous glands and tooth like calcified structures. Thereafter, mare recovered from abdominal discomfort and was confirmed pregnant four months later.

Title: Cystic Ovarian Disease in Dairy Cow
Abstract :

Cystic ovarian (OC) condition is an important ovarian dysfunction and a major cause of reproductive failure in dairy cattle. Previously defined as enlarged anovulatory follicle like structures (<2.5 cm) and persisting for 10 or more days OC in dairy cows are currently defined as cystic ovarian follicular structures of at least 17 mm that persist for more than 6 days in the absence of corpus luteum (CL). Past evaluations of OC using trans-rectal palpations have increased, and accurate diagnosis currently employs a combination of trans-rectal palpation, trans-rectal ultrasonography and plasma progesterone assay. Previously the manual rupture of OC was advised, but during the past several years single or combination hCG, GnRH, progesterone and prostaglandins have been frequently practice. Other therapies include clomiphene citrate and trans-vaginal ultrasound guided cystic follicle aspiration. Among the various therapies the Ov-Synch treatment appears to be the most logical approach, yet the pregnancy rates with timed inseminations following therapy with the OvSynch treatment are low, as with other hormonal treatments. It can be concluded that OC can be diagnosed easily yet in spite of many therapeutic options the establishment of pregnancy in cows with OC requires a longer time.

Title: Caesarean Operation in a Malnad Gidda Cow – A Case Report
Abstract :

A pluriparous Malnad Gidda cow was diagnosed to be suffering from dystocia due to carpal flexion, which was informed belatedly. An emphysematous calf was retrieved by an emergency laparo-hysterotomy through left ventro-lateral oblique abdominal incision. With good post operative care and management, the cow recovered uneventfully.

Title: Ultrasonographic Diagnosis and Clinical Management of Pseudopregnancy in Goats
Abstract :

Hydrometra, a synonymous of pseudopregnancy is a major cause of infertility in goats with varying incidences ranging from 1.37-20%. Four pluriparous goats were presented to the referral VGO polyclinic with the history of mating, nearly completed or prolonged gestation period, varying degree of abdominal distension and no signs of imminent kidding. The ultrasonography and X-ray examination revealed that animals were non-pregnant and contain hypoechoic fluid in the uterus. The cases were diagnosed as hydrometra and treatment consisting of cloprostenol sodium (PGF2α analogue), valethamate bromide, estradiol benzoate along with dexamethasone was given for evacuation of the uterine contents. All of the animals responded to treatment about 18-20 h later with varying success in uterine evacuation. Thus, the present article highlights the ultrasonographic diagnosis and therapeutic management of hydrometra in goats.

Title: Theriogenology of Pre and Post-parturient Downer Syndrome and Persistent or Recurrent Hypocalcaemia, in Cows and Buffaloes of Small Farmers, in Rural Areas of Rayalaseema Region
Abstract :

Theriogenology of pre and post parturient downer syndrome and persistent or recurrent hypocalcaemia, in 20 cows and 2 buffaloes of Small farmers, during July to October 2018, in rural areas of Rayalaseema Region, were intervened. After witnessing the poor response of conventional treatment which included an infusion of either Calboral or Mifex and Tonophosphan, parenteral phosphorus, all the 22 dairy farmers adopted the new intervention of infusion of calcium enriched Taurine (Taurocal). The recovery was dramatic with a cure rate at 86%. The possible therapeutic effect with regard to calcium homeostasis, stress factors, serotonin modulation and energy metabolism Were discussed.

Title: Anatomy of Pedal Scant Gland in Greater one Horn Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis)
Abstract :

The present study was conducted on one Pedal scant gland of Greater one Horn Rhinoceros. The Pedal scant gland was exocrine glandular complex, situated in the subcutaneous layer. The Pedal scant gland was composed of proximal, intermediate and distal. The proximal part of the gland contained large cutaneous pores on the skin surface. A canal was observed in the intermediate part of the gland. The intermediate part of the gland was lined by keratinized stratified squamus epithelium. Dermal layer of the gland contained connective tissue along with blood vessels. The distal part of the gland contained abundant acini. These acini were lined by simple cuboidal epithelium. Collagen fibers were observed among the acini as well as dermal layer of gland.

Title: Contents Vol. 9, No. 2, August 2019
Abstract :
Title: Partial Fetotomy to Relieve Dystocia due to Bilateral Carpal Flexion of Fetus in a Primiparous Mare
Abstract :

A primiparous mare was presented to the Referral Veterinary Polyclinic with the history of full term gestation, off-fed and straining since morning on the day of presentation. On gross observation, the animal was in sternal recumbency with fetal head protruded out from the vulva. Per-vaginal examination revealed oedematous and dry birth canal impacted with dead fetus in anterior longitudinal presentation, dorso-sacral position and bilateral carpal/knee flexion, causing obstruction and dystocia. After restraining the mare and giving initial therapy, birth canal was lubricated with ample amount of liquid paraffin. Manual resolution of dystocia was first attempted with no improvement. Thereafter, it was decided to go for partial fetotomy with Thygesen's fetotome, and head along with neck was amputated. Amputation of both forelimbs was carried out at the level of carpal joint due to lack of space for mutation. Then, two point tractions were applied and female fetus was extracted out. Mare was put on intensive therapy and recovered uneventfully.

Title: Management of a Complicated Case of Cervico-Vaginal Prolapse in Crossbred Cow— A Case Report
Abstract :

A case of cervico-vaginal prolapse in a 6 year old cross bred cow, in second parity was successfully managed in the veterinary hospital. The case was complicated due to several lacerations and bleeding points from the prolapsed mass which was hanging out from the last 18 hrs., was difficult to reposition in its natural anatomical position. Lacerations and bleeding points were sutured using absorbable suture and the prolapsed mass was manually repositioned and secured in vagina using Buhner’s sutures. Postoperative antibiotic, anti-inflammatory treatment and antiseptic dressing stabilized the condition of the animal. Mineral mixture was prescribed as a feed supplement to improve the condition of animal and prevent further occurrence of the prolapse.

Title: Aspects of Milk Production and Availability in Birbhum District vis-à-vis the State of West Bengal – Steps for Augmentation of the Sector
Abstract :

The production and productivity of Milk Yielding Animals is low in Birbhum District and related to this factor, the per capita availability of Milk is as low as 99 Grams / Day, whereas the corresponding figure for the State of West Bengal and India were 145 Grams / Day and 307 Grams / Day in 2013 -14 respectively. However, as 6.77 per cent of Cattles and Buffaloes of Birbhum District were breedable in 2012-13 and there was a gap of 11,29,700 MT between Dry Matter (DM) Availability and Requirement for Animals in Birbhum District in the year of 2011-12 and only 00.13 per cent of the Gross Sown Area of Birbhum District was under Green Fodder Crops in 2014-15, the potent tools to increase the production, productivity and availability of milk in Birbhum District should be based on two main strategic interventions viz. Breed Up gradation of Milk Yielding Animals through Artificial Insemination (AI) Technology and improving the nutritional status of the Animals by feeding the Green Fodder through increased Cultivation of the same along with scaled up institutional infrastructure and service availability for the all round care of the milk yielding animals of the District in concern.

Title: Dystocia due to Diprospus Parapagus fetus and its Successful Delivery through C- Section in a Non-Descript Goat
Abstract :

The present paper reports the successful delivery of a dicephalus monster fetus through Caesarean section and the features of dicephalic fetus in non-descript goat as recorded.

Title: effect of repeated dual superovulation using FSHsh and PMSGsg+FSHsh on ovulatory response in Murrah buffalo
Abstract :

The current experiment was conducted to determine the ovulatory response of Murrah buffaloes subjected to repeated therapeutic doses of FSH and PMSG+FSH in two successive periods. Three elite, multiparous, Murrah buffaloes, 80 to 120 days postpartum, were included in multiple-ovulation embryo transfer (MOET) schedule. The estrus was synchronized with one injection of prostaglandin. Superovulatory treatment was started from day 10 of induced estrus after ablation of dominant follicle of over 10 mm diameter, using 5.0 MHz convex-array intravaginal transducer using a B-mode scanner with aspiration assembly. Study was undertaken in two consecutive periods so each animal was treated with PMSG+FSH in first superovulation period and FSH on the Second period after short interval period (14 day cycle). For FSH treated, Folltropin was administered in a twice-daily descending dose schedule (0–5, 5–4, 4–3, 3–2, 2–2 ml; 20 mg/ml, total dose 600 mg of FSH. For PMSG+FSH treated, an injection of PMSG (1000 IU) was given in the evening of day 10 followed by dose 400 mg FSH and schedule as of FSH treated group from the evening of day 11. All donors received prostaglandin injection on day 13 in morning and evening. Donors were inseminated with frozen thawed semen of proven bull on Day 15 a.m. and p.m. and Day 16 a.m. Nonsurgical embryo collection was carried out on Day 5 post-insemination.

Title: Luteal Dysfunction: A Potential Cause of Repeat Breeding and the Strategies to Combat it
Abstract :

Luteal dysfunction, also called as luteal insufficiency or luteal inadequacy is a major endocrine etiology of repeat breeding syndrome in the cattle and buffalo leading to early embryonic mortality and decreased reproductive efficiency of the dairy herd. The luteal inadequacy as an independent component of repeat breeding acts as a sequela to either inadequate progesterone or the premature luteal regression that clinically manifest as delayed ovulation with an extended follicular phase, longer interval between luteolysis and ovulation, delayed postovulatory rise in progesterone concentration and presence of suprabasal progesterone concentration during follicular phase allowing follicular and oocyte ageing due to postponemet of LH surge. Luteal inadequacy can be addressed either at post breeding window of day 0-12 with different hormonal combinations including GnRH, hCG, progesterone or by non hormonal antiluteolytic strategies like ω-3 and ω-6 polyunstaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation in the diet.

Title: Contents Vol. 10, No. 2, September 2020
Abstract :
Title: Effect of Boron Supplemetation on the Overall Health and Productivity of Livestock
Abstract :

Boron having the characteristics between metal and non-metal behaves like a metalloid and is considered as an essential element for plants, while in animals and human the knowledge of its biological effects is not fully explored yet and so it is the mineral of future prospect and interest. Boron is considered as a trace element in periodic table, known to influence various physiological functions specifically the metabolism of vitamins, minerals and hormones along with immunity and antioxidant defense mechanism. It acts as a lewis acid and in its cationic form has high affinity for the hydroxyl group to form borate and boric acid. The chemical properties of boron allow it to form complex with organic molecules containing hydroxyl group and therefore, interact with various metabolites to influence cellular activity. Boron interacts with calcium and phosphorus and its supplementation have direct effect on the bioavailability of Ca and P in the growth and bone development of chickens and other livestock. B plays a role in regulating the enzymatic activity of pathways involved in energy substrate metabolism and insulin release. Antioxidant activities of supplemental B were also elucidated. Boron plays a regulatory role in the metabolism of several micronutrients, such as calcium, phosphorus, aluminum, magnesium and molybdenum along with its effect on serum T3 and T4 concentration in livestock. B supplementation in chicken has shown better feed conversion ratio, bone development and body growth, respectively.

Title: Successful Clinical Management of Dystocia Due to Pre-cervical Uterine Torsion in a Crossbred Holstein Friesian Cow: A Case Report
Abstract :
A crossbred Holstein Friesian cow in sixth parity was presented with the history of completed gestation period and violent straining for three hours without any progress in calving. Gynaecological examination per-vaginum and per-rectum revealed 180O pre-cervical left sided uterine torsion. Caudal epidural anesthesia was applied by injecting 5 ml of 2% lignocaine, and the animal was calmed down with 0.2 ml xylazine (IV) and cast on the side of torsion. Rolling was applied as described by modified Schaffer‘s detorsion method. After second roll the torsion was completely corrected. A live healthy male calf was delivered by traction. The animal recovered uneventfully.
Title: Fetal Dystocia due to Postural Defects of Neck and Carpals in a Jenny: Case Report
Abstract :

This article puts on record successful management of dystocia due to lateral deviation of head and neck and flexion of carpal of both forelimbs in a jenny. A 5 year old jenny in her first parity was presented to outpatient department of Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar with a history of complete gestation, straining since morning, the water bag ruptured and treated by a local vet without any success. Per vaginal examination revealed complete dilatation of cervix and dry foaling passage. The case was diagnosed as dystocia due to lateral deviation of head and neck and flexion of carpal of both forelimbs. The postural abnormalities of the fetus were corrected by applying repulsion on the brisket region and the head and neck were brought into normal posture by holding the mouth of the fetus in the palm. The fore limbs were brought to normal posture by grasping the hoof of the fetus and straightened one by one. Snares were applied on both the fore limbs at fetlock joint and a blunt eye hook was placed in the right orbit of the fetus. The fetus and the foaling passage were thoroughly lubricated with liquid paraffin and traction is applied. A dead male foal was delivered per vaginally after applying traction. Post operative medication of the jenny was done and healthy recovery was observed

Title: Per Vaginal Delivery of Partially Macerated Fetus in Graded Buffalo: A Case Report
Abstract :

A graded riverine buffalo in second parity was presented to the referral veterinary polyclinic of the ICAR-IVRI with the history of fever, inappetance and around 7 months of gestation. The animal was having foul smelling; muco-purulent vaginal discharge and gynaecological examination confirmed it as a case of fetal maceration. The cervical dilatation therapy was given to the animal and a partially macerated fetus was removed by traction after 20 h. The manuscript presents a rare case of fetal maceration in buffalo and per vaginal delivery of the fetus following successful cervical dilatation therapy.

Title: Dystocia due to Diprospus Parapagus fetus and its Successful Delivery through C- Section in a Non-Descript Goat
Abstract :

The present paper reports the successful delivery of a dicephalus monster fetus through Caesarean section and the features of dicephalic fetus in non-descript goat as recorded.

Title: Studies on Certain Serum Metabolites in non Pregnant and Pregnant Bannur Ewes
Abstract :
A study was undertaken with the objective of making an insight in to the changes with respect to the level of certain metabolites in non pregnant and pregnant Bannur ewes which are indicative of their nutritional status and physiological well being. Eighteen Bannur ewes maintained under identical managemental conditions in a semi-intensive rearing farm which were of two to four years of age are categorized in to three groups, comprising of six animals in each group, such as non pregnant (Group I), early pregnant (Group II, at 20 to 35 days of pregnancy) and late pregnant (Group III, at 105 to 120 days of pregnancy) ewes based upon ultrasound imaging technique. The metabolites such as serum levels of β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, total protein, blood urea nitrogen and lipid
profile components were determined at 0, 7 and 15th day of sample collection.
Title: Studies on Estrual Cervical Mucus of Repeat Breeding Cows with Special Reference to Ovulatory Disturbances and Genital Infection
Abstract :

A total of 100 crossbred Jersey cows comprising of 80 repeat breeder presented for treatment and 20 clinically healthy (control group) animals presented for artificial Insemination at their first service within 60-90 days following calving were selected. Estrual cervical mucus were examined for physical properties and white side test (WST). Effects of ovulatory disturbances and non specific bacterial genital infection on physical properties of cervical mucus were also determined. The volume, colour, consistency, stringiness, fern pattern and spinnbarkeit values of cervical mucus were not affected by ovulatory disturbances, while, colour, consistency and pH showed significant (p < 0.01) changes due to non-specific bacterial genital infection. The results of WST showed significant (p < 0.01) positive correlation (0.484) with bacterial culture. It is concluded that ovulatory disturbances have no impact on altering physical characteristics of estrual cervical mucus; however, colour, consistency and pH of cervical mucus are greatly influenced by nonspecific bacterial genital infection in repeat breeding cattle.

Title: Estimates of Genetic Parameters and Trends of Lactation Performance Traits of Deoni Cattle
Abstract :

Data on 114 Deoni cows maintained at Cattle Cross Breeding Project, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Agriculture University, Parbhani over a period of 25 years were used for the present investigation. The data were subjected to assess the effect of period of calving, season of calving, lactation order and age at first calving on persistency and lactation traits. The records corrected for significance and non-genetic factors were used for estimating genetic parameters of the milk production traits. Least squares means for persistency of milk yield in Deoni cattle by Mahadevan method was 2.98±0.20. The significant effect of period of calving was recorded on 305 DMY, LL, PY and DAPY and non-significant effect, was recorded on persistency of milk yield, lactation milk yield .The non-significant effect of season of calving & lactation order was recorded on persistency of milk yield & all milk production traits. The significant (P<0.05) effect of age at first calving was observed only on lactation length. It showed increasing trend from A1 to A3. Moderate to high estimates of heritability for all lactation traits were observed indicating improvement in these traits, which may probably be brought about by individual selection. Moderately high heritability was observed for persistency of milk yield (0.36 ± 0.23) and LL (0.25 ± 0.23).

Title: Piglet Mortality and its Management
Abstract :

Pigs produce more offspring in each litter but the higher mortality rate among piglets is an issue of concern. Piglets death during the perinatal and lactation period is responsible for reduced production efficiency in swine herds. It has been revealed that majority of the preweaning deaths are due to crushing by the sow. Other causes of death include respiratory problems, Scours, chilling, piglet anaemia and various fatal diseases. Preweaning mortality varies among herds between 12-25% depending on housing system. High mortality rates before weaning not only affect the economy but must also be looked at as both an animal welfare problem and an ethical issue. Understanding the various causes of piglet mortality and timely implementation of suitable operations and strategies helps to reduce piglet mortality.

Title: Contents Vol. 9, No. 1, April 2019
Abstract :
Title: Effect of Vaccination on Performance of Dairy Animals with Special Reference to Bulls: A Review
Abstract :

Vaccination stimulates immune system to generate memory cells responsible for immunity against specific antigen. Milk production decreased by vaccination however milk composition not changes significantly. Bull vaccinated against bacterial and viral diseases increases cellular damage and testicular degeneration leading to enhanced sperm abnormalities and decrease sperm motility, concentration and live cells. Exotic and crossbred bulls are more prone to diseases and vaccination. Offshoot of vaccination includes pain, swelling and redness at site of injection together with high temperature, shivering, fatigue and pain in muscles and joints. Marker vaccine help in differentiation or segregation of infected from vaccinated animals. Aversion of pyrexia to maintain normal body temperature can be a preventive measure against the adverse effects of vaccination. Vitamin E supplementation and pre-vaccination levamisole injection was tried to mitigate vaccination stress, though partial positive effect was observed. Therefore temporary suspension of semen freezing is advisable for 2 to 3 months post vaccination to avoid low fertility rate in herd.

Title: Features of Uterine Involution in Dairy Animals: A Review
Abstract :

Uterine involution is the process of resumption of pregnant uterus to non pregnant state along with restoration of ovarian function which occurs during puerperium/post-partum period. Estrogen and progesterone hormones are responsible for changes in shape and size of uterus during pregnancy whereas, release of fetus, reduced oxytocin and increased PGF2α help uterus to resume normal state. Fast involution of uterus is essential in order to make cow receptive and conceive again. Though rectal palpation is most commonly used technique for assessing uterine involution in cows but it is less accurate than trans-rectal ultrasonography. Annual incidence of uterine infection in herd has been recorded by different scientists to the extent of 10-50% in cows and 20-75% in buffaloes whereas an anatomical, physiological and phagocytic barriers prevents the uterus from getting infection. Purulent discharge and its odour indicate severity of infection due to pathogenic bacteria under field condition. pH of secretions act as first line defense preventing infection through tract. Poor and delayed uterine involution contributes to poor reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle and it is affected by age, nutritional status, suckling by calves and milk yield of the individual cows, respectively. Rate of uterine involution can be accelerated by using PGF2α, methylergometrine maleate, Vitamin E, selenium and cloprostenol injection, respectively. Intrauterine lactobacilli application puts a very positive effect of on involution.

Title: Ultrasonic monitoring and biometry of ovaries and ovarian structures during superovulation following transvagianl follicle ablation in Murrah buffaloes
Abstract :
Five Murrah buffaloes were studied ultrasonographically to record the biometry of the ovarian structures and superovulatory response during superovulation (SOV) following follicle ablation. Transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration / ablation (FA) was done at the middle of the oestrous cycle (day 10) on follicle of over 10 mm diameter, using 5.0 MHz convex-array intravaginal transducer using a B-mode scanner. The animals were simultaneously subjected to superovulation with either FSH
(Folltropin V) or FSH+PMSG. Ovarian size and ovarian structural changes of these five superovulated buffaloes were monitored on a) the 10th day post estrus (Day of Follicle Ablation and start of superovulation protocol,)
b) 3rd day post FA+SOV (the 3rd day of superovulation programme) and c) 6th day post FA+SOV (Day before Flushing).
Title: Heat (Estrus) Detection Techniques in Dairy Farms- A Review
Abstract :

Dairy producers who achieve reasonably good pregnancy rates in dairy animals are always benefited from improved heat detection. Proper heat detection is to know the appropriate timing of insemination is the biggest constraint in attaining high conception rate in a herd. Boosting heat detection rates by 10 to 20 percentage points could be invaluable to increasing your herd’s pregnancy rates. Traditional heat detection methods involve visual observation of sexual behavior displayed by the cows. Accuracy of visual observation varies according to the expertise of farm personnel, frequency of observation, housing and footing conditions, and milk production levels. The challenge of an excellent heat detection program is not only identifying animals in correct estrus (accuracy), but also not missing any heat activity displayed (efficiency). Generally, well trained farm personnel are quite accurate in identifying the cows in heat, but lack of efficiency of observing all possible cows in heat is the limiting factor. Therefore aids/techniques of heat detection along with visual observation for improving efficiency of heat detection in turn it can give better results in the form productivity in the dairy farms.

Title: Mummification of Triplets in a Doe
Abstract :

Fetal mummification is a rare gestational accident in domestic animals which is associated with fetal death, non-involution of corpus luteum, absorption of fetal and placental fluid and other associated changes in uterine environment. The present case report describes per vaginal extraction of three mummified fetuses of different stage of gestation in a four year non descriptive doe.

Title: schistosomus reflexus from a Hholstein –Friesian cow- Case Rreport
Abstract :

A 5-year-old Holstein-Friesian cow was presented with a primary problem of difficult in parturition (Dystocia). This was the third calving for the cow. A disoriented foetus was palpated per rectum, and on vaginal examination the head of the foetus was palpated which was ventral to the body of the foetus. A caesarotomy (caesarean section) was performed which aided in the diagnosis of a shistosomus reflexus. The shistosomus reflexus was examined grossly and the features observed were exposed abdominal organs, malformed skeleton, improperly positioned limbs which were adjacent to the head. Scoliosis (u shaped or curved spine) and this severe spinal inversion resulted in the head lying in close approximation to the sacrum

Title: Role of Micro-nutrients in Bovine Reproduction
Abstract :

Micro-nutrients have critical roles in the key interrelated systems of immune function, oxidative metabolism, and energy metabolism in ruminants. Micro minerals have a great impact on animal's reproductive physiology and its imbalance causes various problems leading to lowered reproductive efficiency and resultant monetary loss to the dairy industry. Reproductive efficiency is a major factor that affects profitability in ruminants. Trace minerals such as Zinc, Copper, Manganese, and Selenium are essential with classically defined roles as components of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins. Adequate micro minerals supplementation is required as most of the roughages, greens, concentrates and even most of commercial feeds available to Indian market are deficient in trace mineral elements. Often correcting an imbalance in mineral levels can sole a troublesome problem by improving reproductive performance and health with little additional cost. Due to diversity of terrain and agro climatic regions of India, so one therapeutic treatment may not be suitable for other regions. Hence there is a need to map of the various nutrient status in soil, fodder and animal, so that accordingly an area specific mineral may be supplemented.

Title: Dystocia due to Monozygotic Twin Monster in Murrah Buffalo
Abstract :

A nine year old full term pregnant fifth parity Murrah buffalo was presented to TVCC with the complication of dystocia due to a conjoined twin monster foetus with dicephalus derodymus Thoracopagus tetrabrachius tetrapus dicaudatus along with scoliosis. It was uncommon case of anterior duplication of foetus in buffalo and it’s per- vaginal delivery by fetotomy was performed successfully.

Title: Contents Vol. 8, No. 3, December 2018
Abstract :
Title: Enzymatic Activities in Fresh Seminal Plasma and Extended Refrigerated Semen in Nari Suvarna Rams
Abstract :

Enzyme activities in the seminal plasma are the good indicators of fertility. A study was conducted to determine the activities of certain enzymes in fresh seminal plasma and extended refrigerated semen in Nari Suvarna rams. Six rams of Nari Suvarna breed were selected and sixteen ejaculates were collected from each ram for a period of eight weeks at the rate of two collections per week by artificial vagina technique. The seminal plasma was separated by centrifugation. Enzyme activities such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were estimated. There was a non-significant (P>0.05) difference between the activities of enzymes in seminal plasma except ALP activity between the rams. The semen was extended using Tris and citrate buffers and the enzymatic activities such as ALP, ALT, AST and LDH were determined after refrigeration for 24 hrs for four Nari Suvarna rams. The numerically increased activities of all the enzymes were observed after extension and refrigeration. It was concluded that the levels of ALP, ALT, AST and LDH enzymes were established in the seminal plasma of Nari Suvarna rams in the present study and the numerical increase in the activities of these enzymes after refrigeration with extension of Tris and citrate buffers for 24 hours could be due to damage to the sperm membrane and leakage of enzymes in to the seminal fluid.

Title: Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) Mapping and its Applications in Animal Traits
Abstract :

Many genes responsible for polygenic inheritance of particular characteristics are scattered around the genome. Their position is known as quantitative trait loci (QTL). It is the chromosome site at which a gene / group of genes affecting a quantitative trait is located. In case of disease susceptibility, it is useful to identify the individual genes to understand their normal function and to design accurate medical treatments. In case of animal and plant breeding it would be useful to identify young individuals with favourable alleles without waiting for their expression at maturity. Those with favourable genotype could be removed earlier from selective breeding programs, while potentially high quality types could be cloned immediately. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are becoming increasingly popular in genetic research, and they are an excellent complement to QTL mapping. Whereas, QTL contain many linked genes, which are challenging to separate. GWAS produce many unlinked individual genes or even nucleotides, but these studies are riddled with large expected numbers of false positives. Moreover, GWAS remain limited to organisms with genomic resources. Combination of these two techniques may provide the ultimate deliverable: individual genes or even nucleotides that contribute to the phenotype of interest.

Title: Oxytocin, Functions, Uses and Abuses: A Brief Review
Abstract :

Oxytocin a peptide hormone has the distinction of being the first among the peptide hormones to be sequenced and biochemically synthesized. Oxytocin is secreted from neural as well as non-neural sources inside the body. Among the neural sources supra-optic and paraventricular nuclei of the brain are major sources of secretion, the arcuate nucleus being a minor source. There are many non-neural sources from which synthesis of Oxytocin has been reported. The important ones include interstitial cells of Leydig in testis, epididymis, prostate glands, corpus luteum inside ovary, uterus, oviduct, placenta and adrenal glands. Oxytocin directly acts on the smooth muscle cells and causes muscle contraction. Indirectly it stimulates synthesis of PGF2α inside the female genital tract. As such the Oxytocin is involved in a wide spectrum of activities from milk letdown, parturition, penile erection and ejaculation to social, sexual and maternal behavior. Because of the spectrum of its functions it has since been used therapeutically for conditions like facilitating parturition in uterine inertia, prevent bleeding after parturition and abortion, management of incomplete abortion, milk letdown, retention of placenta etc., although the success has not been predictable. However, Oxytocin is also being misused under the false impression that its use in dairy animals increases the milk yield. Oxytocin abuse is also rampant in fruits and vegetables. This article is an attempt to explore the body of knowledge with respect to functions, uses and most importantly the abuses of this wonderful hormone.

Title: Effect of diluent supplementation with garlic extract on semen quality of cocks during liquid storage
Abstract :
This experiment was designed to examine whether garlic extract (GE) supplementation could improve rooster sperm motility, viability, and morphology during in vitro storage for different periods (24, 48 or72 h). A total of 42 White Leghorn roosters, 22 – wk old randomly divided into 6 experimental pens (7 roosters each) were used in this study. The experimental
groups were as follows: T1 = fresh , undiluted semen ( control ); T2 = semen diluted 1:1 with Lake diluent ( LD ) alone; T3 = semen diluted 1:1 with GE alone, while T4, T5 and T6 represented semen samples diluted 1:1 with
LD and supplemented with 1, 2 and 4 ml GE / 100 ml of diluent, respectively. Results denoted that semen incubation for 24, 48 or 72 h at the refrigerator temperature in the absence of GE(T1) was associated with a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the mass activity and individual motility, and significant (p<0.05) increase in the percentages of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa and acrosomal abnormalities.
Title: Effect of amla powder supplementation on haematological parameters, ceruloplasmin and transferrin levels in summer stressed murrah buffaloes
Abstract :

The effect of amla powder supplementation was investigated on oxidative stress, metaloproteins viz; plasma ceruloplasmin and transferrin levels and haematological parameters i.e. packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) levels of summer stressed buffaloes. The study was carried out with 24 apparently healthy Murrah buffaloes during pre-summer and summer seasons. The animals were divided into 3 groups of 8 each viz. Pre-Summer group (Group I); Summer Control group (Group II); Summer Treatment group (Group III). Group III animals were supplemented with amla powder @ 200 mg/Kg body wt. /day for 30 days. In summer stressed buffaloes (Group II), a significant rise was observed in the erythrocytic lipid peroxidation level and ceruloplasmin whereas decrease in plasma transferring, PCV and Hb was observed. Supplementation of amla powder to summer stressed buffaloes was able to lower lipid peroxidation levels and superoxide dismutase activity coupled with the increase in transferrin, PCV and Hb levels coupled with decrease in ceruloplasmin concentration. It was concluded that amla powder supplementation can ameliorate the adverse effects of summer stress in Murrah buffaloes.

Title: Management of Total Uterine prolapse in Jaffarabadi She Buffalo: A case report
Abstract :

Prolapsed of the uterus is a common complication of the third stage of labour in the cow and the ewe (Arthur, et al. 2009). A case of total uterine prolpse in a pluriparous Jaffarabadi buffalo was reported. It was successfully managed at early discussed.

Title: Dystocia in Murrah Buffalo with Fetal Limb Anomaly: A Case Report
Abstract :

Caessarean section in buffaloes is an emergency operative procedure, used as a last remedy to treat the cases of dystocia and for the delivery of fetal monsters or for delievery of fetuses with anomalies. A full-term dystocia affected buffalo in its third parity was brought to the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, at the International Institute of Veterinary Education and Research (IIVER), Rohtak Haryana for treatment. Anamnestic data revealed normal body vitals including temperature of 101.4oC and pulse of 75/minute. On per vaginal examination, it was revealed that fetus was presented in normal anterior presentation with dorso-sacral position. It was also found that there was malformation of forelimbs (abnormally bent limbs) and which were retained beneath the body of fetus, while as hind limbs of fetus were not accessible. The extension of limbs was difficult due to their malformation & abnormal curvature. Hence, it was diagnosed as a case of dystocia due to malformed fetal limbs and a decision to relieve it through an emergency cesarean section was undertaken.

Title: Fetus as an Allograft: A Review
Abstract :

Allograft is a tissue or organ obtained from one member of a species and grafted to a genetically dissimilar member of the same species. Pregnant mother nourishing within itself a fetus acts as an antigenically foreign body. The foreign nature of conceptus, caused by inheritance of genes from its father that encode for proteins foreign to its mother, poses a unique problem for species that are viviparous in which mothers immune system can potentially destroy the conceptus. It requires modulation of the maternal immune system which limits fetal allograft rejection without compromising the ability of the mother to fend off infection. While as tissue (other than fetus) grafted inside uterus is instantaneously rejected by mother/dam. Host T cells responds to peptide epitopes of MHC molecules of grafted cells.

Title: Succesfull Management of Dystocia due to Foetal Anasarca in Holstein Friesian Crossbred Cows
Abstract :

Fetalanasarca is a condition characterized by excessive accumulation of fluid in the tissue and body that causes subcutaneous edema of the foetus. Attempt to deliver the foetus by a practicing veterinarian, but it was futile and referred to TVCC. Per-vaginal examination revealed that the cervix was fully dilated and the foetus was in posterior longitudinal presentation (P1), Dorso-pubic position (P2) with both the hind limbs were extended into the vaginal passage and limbs look like a short stumpy legs, one of the right side hind limbs was broken at the level of hock joint (P3). No clear-cut demarcation of fetal body parts noticed. Traction on both the hind limbs of the foetus failed to deliver the foetus due to ruptured of fetal part along with over weight of the foetus. Hence, the case was diagnosed as fetal anomalies. Dystocia due to fetalanomalies along with ascites in a Holstein Friesian crossbred cow was successfully relieved by following a Caesarean section.

Title: Effect of soya-milk based extender on the physico-morphological parameters of Murrah bull semen during cryopreservation
Abstract :

Present investigation was undertaken on three buffalo bulls (Murrah) to study the effect of cryopreservation using Soya-milk extender. A total of 18 collections from three bulls (six collections per bull) were utilized for the study. After initial evaluation, each semen sample was diluted in two different extenders viz. Tris egg yolk extender which acted as control and Soya-milk extender as experimental. Various sperm parameters were studied at equilibration and post-thaw stages. There was no significant difference for percent head abnormalities, percent mid-piece abnormalities and acrosome integrity of spermatozoa among extenders at different stages of freezing. The progressive motility and live sperm percentage was significantly higher for Tris egg yolk extender at dilution, equilibration and post-thaw stages, but the values for Soya-Milk were also within acceptable limits at all stages of freezing as compared to Tris egg yolk extender. Furthermore the percent tail abnormalities and total sperm abnormalities were significantly higher for soya-milk extender at post thaw. In conclusion the experimental extender could be used as an alternate plant based extender in the cryopreservation of bubaline semen.

Title: Effect of a Graded Levels of Probiotic Feed Supplementation on the Performance in Commercial Broiler Chicken
Abstract :

The study was conducted to assess the probiotic supplementation, fed to a total of 240 day old commercial broiler chicks from day 1 to 42 days of age and to evaluate the body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio. The trial results revealed that, the overall gain at 42 days with dietary supplementation of probiotic and antibiotic (300+100g/ton) yielded significantly (P<0.05) highest body weight gain (1700g) followed by commercial probiotic (200g/ton) (1691g) and probiotic (1685g) compared to control (1514g) during the overall period. The feed consumption during the period is significantly (P<0.05) higher with supplementation of probiotics or a combination of probiotic and antibiotic compared to control. The differences in the feed efficiency (kg of feed/kg gain) were significant among the probiotic (1.856) probiotic and antibiotic (1.694), commercial probiotic (1.715) and control (1.803) during over all experimental period. All dietary supplements did not have significant (P>0.05) effect on various carcasses parameters, except breast yield. The breast yield was significantly (P<0.05) lower in probiotic, at 42 days, while the rest of the treatment groups did not differ from control. Mortality was more in commercial probiotic added group. However, the mortality rate was within the limits and no specific disease was recorded. It can be concluded that, supplementation of probiotics as alternative to antibiotic can be used for improving performance of broiler chicken.

Title: Polydactylism along with Uterine Torsion in a Cow: A Case Report
Abstract :

A full term non-descript pluriparous cow aged six years was presented to Referral Veterinary Polyclinic (Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics wing) of the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar with the history of intermittent abdominal straining but unable to calve. Clinical observation revealed that cow was restlessness, exhibiting other imminent signs of parturition such as teat engorgement along with udder enlargement, relaxation of sacro-sciatic ligaments and vulvar oedema. Per-vaginal examination revealed mild degree of torsion < 180o where fetal part and cervix was palpable. Animal was restrained and torsion was corrected by simple rolling method without the application of plank. After one roll, uterus was detorted and per-vaginal mutation was performed to correct fetal maldisposition, then, three point tractions were applied and live female fetus was extracted out. Gross examination of fetus revealed polydactylism i.e. accessory/duplication of phalanges in all the four limbs and this duplication was more pronounced in hind limbs. Further detail history revealed that the bull to which cow was bred had similar condition that relates it to be genetically linked disease. The animal was discharged on same day with administration of systemic antibiotic, anti-inflammatory along with herbal ecbolic and recovered uneventfully within three days of treatment.

Title: Dystocia due to Unilateral Shoulder Flexion with Downward Deviation of Head in Ewe - A Case Report
Abstract :
The present paper puts on record a case of dystocia in ewe attributable to fetal maldisposition and its successful per-vaginal delivery through obstetrical maneuvers has been reported.
Title: Impact of Mastitis on Reproductive Performance in Dairy Animals:A Review
Abstract :

In present scenario the two most common diseases complexes affecting the dairy cattle worldwide are mastitis and infertility, since both are multifactorial in origin, they increase the culling rate and loss in the profitability of a farm. Other than being a trending animal welfare issue, it has a grave effect on quantity and quality of milk. The reproductive performance of dairy animals is influenced by several factors, and various evidences indicate that mastitis is one of the determinants. The multifaceted nature of both mastitis and reproduction makes it difficult to understand their relationship in detail, thus only a retrospective approach is appraised rather than a controlled clinical study. Thus in this review, information regarding the effects of clinical mastitis on reproductive function and the most probable mechanisms by which mastitis affects reproduction in dairy animals is explained.

Title: Facts around Mitochondrial Shape,Reorganization and Oocyte Maturation
Abstract :
Mitochondria are a membrane-enclosed organelles found in most eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria are sometimes described as “energy house” because they generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is used as a source of chemical energy. In addition, they are involved in cell signaling, cellular differentiation, cell growth, cell cycle and cell death. However, the exact role of mitochondria
during in vitro embryo production technology wasn’t fully understood; especially the repositioning of active mitochondria during oocyte maturation, fertilization, and culturing. So, this study aimed to clarify the relationship
between oocyte maturation and the repositioning of active mitochondria. It has
been found and in contrast to previous reports that repositioning of active mitochondria isn’t an utter sign to completion of oocyte maturation. In addition, oocyte mitochondria have fine crystal shape, other than, coarse
particles in previous reports.
Title: Sperm DNA Damage Causes, Assessment and Relationship with Fertility: A Review
Abstract :

Evaluation of sperm quality has been mainly based on subjective parameters included in the spermiogram. Results of these parameters have been correlated with fertility but this relationship is not always true. Recently, for bull fertility assessment, sperm DNA integrity assessment has been proposed as an important index. Sperm DNA integrity has got an important role in success of fertilization process and fetal and offspring development. DNA integrity assessment has got a pivotal role in assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), besides sperm quality assessment and putative fertility predictor. Various techniques for assessment of sperm DNA integrity have been proposed. Using various sperm DNA integrity assays for detection and characterization of DNA fragmentation will aid in improving semen storage procedures by identification of various protocols which are less likely to be associated with DNA damage. Moreover, sperm DNA assays may help in screening bulls that produce good freezable semen with reasonable fertility.

Title: Serum biochemical profiles and body condition score in crossbred cows affected with postpartum anestrum
Abstract :
A total number of 80 postpartum anestrus crossbred Frieswal crossbred cows were evaluated for body condition score (BCS). The moderate (2-2.5); good (3-3.5) and fat (4-4.5) BCS were 10.00, 82.50 and 7.50 per cent,
respectively in Military Dairy farm, Hyderabad. The serum calcium, phosphorus,
cholesterol and glucose profile in cyclic vs. postpartum anestrus cows were 14.53 vs.9.78;7.88 vs.6.20; 140.58 vs.94.35 and 70.25 vs.52.25, respectively. The serum biochemical profiles were significantly lower in postpartum
anestrus cows.
Title: Ultrasonographic and Clinical Studies on Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Dogs
Abstract :

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is prostate gland enlargement in which squamous metaplasia or glandular hyperplasia, or together, result from hormone imbalance in intact male dogs. Seventy five clinical cases of different ages and breeds, presented to ultrasonographic unit Veterinary college hospital, Hebbal, Bengaluru were utilized for the present investigation. The most common clinical findings in BPH were urinary retention, constipation, dysuria, cystitis, and haematuria. Clinical signs were evident in six dogs and in three dogs BPH was an incidental finding. Ultrasonography examination revealed enlarged prostate with normal to increased echogenicity, and with homogeneous or inhomogeneous echotexture. On transverse image, the two lobes were usually symmetrical. Benign prostatic hyperplasia with intraprostatic cysts was observed in two dogs one in mongrel and the other boxer aged 9 and 8 years respectively. Studies towards early diagnosis of this condition are crucial for effective treatment and improvement of quality of life of affected animals.

Title: Studies on Body Condition Score and its Relationship with Service Period in Frieswal Cows
Abstract :

The study was carried out at Military Dairy Farm on twenty one milch Frieswal cows. The cows were freshly calved. The study was done on Body Condition Score and its relation with service period in animals. The Study established the significant relation between BCS and days open. Study showed that the cow with moderate BCS had shorter days open in compare to lean (≤2.75) and obese (≥4.00) cows.

Title: Management of urinary bladder eversion and perineal laceration in a mare: A case report
Abstract :A 9 year old Arabian mare was referred to Al Qattara Veterinary Hospital Al Ain, United Arab Emirates with a complaint of hanging of an unusual large mass from the vulva. This mare had unassisted foaling 17 days earlier and a first degree perineal laceration that occurred at foaling was repaired surgically. The mare showed several bouts of colic during the past 10 days and urine was dribbling from the everted mass. The case was diagnosed as eversion of urinary bladder with first degree perineal laceration. The everted mass was replaced back under mild sedation with xylazine and epidural anesthesia. The 1st degree laceration was repaired surgically. The mare had an uneventful recovery.
Title: Profile of Endometrial Secretory Proteins in Repeat Breeder Jersey Crossbred Cows
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to evaluate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the endometrial secretory proteins in uterine flushing collected on day 12 of estrous cycle in 10 normal and 10 repeat breeder Jersey crossbred cows. In the estrous cycle preceding the one in which uterine flushing were to be collected, all the repeat breeder cows were evaluated by phenolsulphonphthalene dye test to exclude the possibility of ovarobursal adhesions and fallopian tube blockade, both of which are established reasons of repeat breeding. The total protein content in the uterine flushing was higher in normal than repeat breeder cows (9.9 ± 1.6 mg/ml vs. 7.6 ± 0.5 mg/ml). On SDS-PAGE analysis, six protein bands of molecular weight 41, 53, 63, 69, 85 and 91 kDa were recorded in all the normal, but only in 8 of the 10 repeat breeder cows. The remaining 2 repeat breeder cows revealed an absence of three proteins of 63, 69 and 91 kDa. In conclusion, a lower total protein content and/or absence of specific proteins could be a potential reason of repeat breeding.

Title: Fetotomy a resolution to dystocia in a mare — A case report
Abstract :
Dystocia in mare is perhaps one of the most challenging conditions faced by
equine practitioners. Malposture of long foetal extremities is a major cause of
dystocia in mare (Frazer, 2001). Incidence of dystocia was 4% in thoroughbred mares; percentage of anterior, posterior and transversepresentations was 99, 0.9 and 0.1, respectively. Procedure of Fetotomy is not easy as in cow due to longer equine birth canal impediment poses by rapidly detaching foetal membranes (Fraser, 1997). Incidence of dystocia in mare has been much less documented than cattle.
Title: Superovulatory Response Following Transvaginal Follicle Ablation in Murrah Buffalo: Effect of FSH or PMSG+FSH
Abstract :
The current experiment was conducted to reduce the cost of superovulation by reducing the dose of FSH by partial replacement with PMSG. Five elite, multiparous, Murrah buffaloes, 80 to 120 days postpartum, were included in multiple-ovulation embryo transfer (MOET) schedule. The estrus was synchronized with one injection of prostaglandin. Superovulatory treatment was started from day 10 of induced estrus after ablation of dominant follicle of over 10 mm diameter, using 5.0 MHz convex-array intravaginal transducer using a B-mode scanner with aspiration assembly. Study was undertaken in two groups. For FSH treated group, Folltropin was administered in a twice daily descending dose schedule (0–5, 5–4, 4–3, 3–2, 2–2 ml; 20 mg/ml, total dose 600 mg of FSH. For PMSG+FSH treated group, an injection of PMSG (1000 IU) was given in the evening of day 10 followed by dose 400 mg
FSH and schedule as of FSH treated group from the evening of day 11.
Title: Milk Urea Nitrogen as an Indicator of Nitrogen Metabolism Efficiency in Dairy Cows: A Review
Abstract :

The milk urea nitrogen concentration can be used as a tool management of the nutritional strategies in dairy farm and of improving proteins utilization efficiency by dairy cows. The level of dietary crude protein is the most nutritional factor that influence the milk urea nitrogen concentrations in lactating cows. Recent researches suggest that the milk urea nitrogen content depends mainly on the nitrogen/energy ratio in the diet, but other many factors may affect ureogenesis. Level and quality of protein contents, milk yield, season effects or lactation stage, parity and lactation number, weight and breed, feeding frequency and water intake are factors associated with the variation of milk urea concentration. Several studies have suggested that measuring milk urea nitrogen may serve as indicator to monitor nitrogen efficiency in dairy cows and to improve milk nitrogen production. However, the targeted milk urea nitrogen values for optimizing the nitrogen utilization efficiency are different from those required for milk protein production. Thus, an increase in milk protein production can be expected at milk urea nitrogen levels >11 mg/dL, while protein utilization efficiency is below this level (<11 mg/dL). Normal MUN values range from 10 to 14 mg/dL, but for many countries, the recommended milk urea nitrogen values for cow’s milk are ideally ranged from 10 to 16 mg/dL of milk. Finally, to ensure a balance between milk protein production and reducing urea nitrogen excretion in urine and milk, recent studies suggest to include 16.5% of crude protein supply in dairy cows diets.

Title: Effect of Vitamin E on the Quality of Frozen Ram Semen
Abstract :

The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of vitamin E on the quality of frozen-thawed Chhotanagpuri ram semen. A total of 36 ejaculates were collected from six healthy Chhotanagpuri rams with the help of a standard artificial vagina using a restrained ewe as a mount. Two false mounts were allowed before semen was collected. Each semen sample was diluted in Tris extender and divided into three fractions for supplementation of vitamin E at the concentration of 1mM, 2mM and no antioxidant. All the samples immediately after equilibration and 24 hours after freezing and thawing were evaluated for various microscopic parameters viz. sperm motility, live sperm percentage, plasma membrane integrity percentage, acrosomal integrity percentage, DNA integrity and lipid peroxidation assay was evaluated only in freeze thawed semen. Both the doses of vitamin E significantly (PË‚0.05) inhibited lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) production and improved significantly (PË‚0.05) the values of different seminal characters such as sperm motility, live sperm, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity and DNA integrity as compared to control Tris dilutor. However, 2 mM vitamin E was most effective as compared to 1mM vitamin E or control Tris dilutor. The percentage of sperm motility, live sperm, plasma membrane, acrosomal and DNA integrity in Tris dilutor containing vitamin E 2mM were found to be 77.83±0.23, 85.86±0.19,¬ 73.03±0.11, 73.81±0.16 and 85.78±0.19, and 56.81±0.41, 65.19±0.18, 54.36±0.17, 55.53±0.27 and 77.97±0.18 after equilibration and freezing, respectively. From the results of the present study, it could be concluded that the addition of vitamin E to Tris freezing medium could reverse the free radical- mediated oxidative damage and improve the quality of frozen thawed Chhotanagpuri ram semen.

Title: Contents- Theriogenology Insight- An International Journal of Reproduction in all Animals
Abstract :

Contents- Theriogenology Insight- An International Journal of Reproduction in all Animals

Title: Effect of estrus synchronization by progesterone sponge along with PMSG on estrus response and fertility in Nellore Jodipi ewe lambs
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of synchronization by intra vaginal sponges containing 350 mg of progesterone for 12 days along with either 200 (Group I) or 300 (Group II) IU of PMSG at the time of sponge removal on estrus response and fertility in Nellore Jodipi ewe lambs. The percentage of exhibition of estrus, time of onset of estrus, duration of estrus and intensity of estrus were 80 and 85; 32.00±2.14 and 30.65±1.75 h; 23.19±1.50 and 23.59±1.28 h and 7.38±0.33 and 7.47±0.40 in Group I and II, respectively. All ewe lambs irrespective of estrus symptoms exhibition were inseminated twice intra cervically with fresh diluted semen at 48 and 54 h after sponge removal. The fertility rate based on 25 d non return rate was 75 and 80 % with an overall lambing rate of 50 and 65 % in Group I and II, respectively but the difference between the groups was not significant (P≥0.05).

Title: Hysterocele along with False or Secondary Extrauterine Pregnancy in a Goat: A rare Case Presentation
Abstract :

A full term non-descript pluriparous doe aged three and half years was presented to Referral veterinary polyclinic (Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics section) of the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar with the history of ventral abdominal enlargement for the past one month. Animal was healthy and no abnormal genital discharge was seen. Previous history of trauma or accident was unclear as per owner. Ultrasonographic examination revealed more than one live fetuses. Caesarean section was conducted which revealed two fully developed intra-uterine live fetuses and one ill developed abdominal (extra uterine) dead fetus adhered to omentum. Fetus, abdominal in location was sterile and no sign of peritonitis was seen in goat. Uterine rupture was found to be chronic as site of rupture was scarred or fibrosed. As per the owner, one of those two live fetuses died later after 1-2 days and abdominal swelling took one month to regain its original shape and size.

Title: Role of Leptin in Reproduction
Abstract :

Leptin, an adipocyte hormone plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis by inhibiting hunger, interacts with the reproductive axis of mammals at multiple sites with stimulatory effect at the hypothalamus and pituitary and its high dose has inhibitory action on steroidogenesis. As a marker whether nutrition stores are adequate, leptin may act in concert with gonadotrophins and growth hormone axis for the initiation of complex phenomenon of puberty. The expression and secretion of leptin are correlated with body fat mass and are acutely affected by feed intake. Moreover, circulating leptin increases during pubertal development in rodents and domestic animals. Effects of leptin are mediated mainly via receptor activation of the JAK-STAT pathway; however, activation of alternative pathways, such as MAP kinase, has also been reported. Leptin helps in oocyte development and maturation .It also has angiogenic, immuno-modulatory and anti inflammatory activities helps in implantation and prevents embryo rejection by the maternal immune system, invasion of trophoblast and cause mammary growth development.

Title: Factors affecting sperm abnormalities and breeding soundness classification of bulls kept on commercial farms in Zambia
Abstract :

A total of 441 eosin-nigrosin bull breeding soundness examination (BBSE) data was obtained from Matobo Veterinary centre and analysed. 82 bulls were classified as unsound for breeding representing 18.6% of the entire bull population studied. The breeds studied were the Bonsmara, Sussex, Brahman, Boran, Afrikander × Tuli and the Tuli. Breed and scrotal circumference (SC) were the significant predictors of BBSE classification. The Bonsmara and the Sussex breeds were not significantly different in predicting sperm abnormalities (p>0.05). The Brahman breed had odds of 0.358 less likely to be classified as sound, Boran breed had odds of 0.206 less likely to be classified as sound and the Afrikander × Tuli breed had odds of 0.097 less likely to be classified as sound while the Tuli breed had odds of 0.214 less likely to be classified as sound. Therefore, the Afrikander × Tuli breed had the highest probability of being classified as unsound for breeding. Bulls with a SC of <36 cm had odds of 0.235 less likely to be classified as sound while those of 39 to <42cm had odds of 0.384 less likely to be classified as sound compared to bulls with SC of ≥42cm. Body condition score (BCS) had an effect on mass motility (p<0.05). Bulls in month category (cat) 1 (September, October and November) had odds of 2.29 more likely to have fair mass motility relative to very good mass motility compared to bulls examined in June-July (cat 2) and month category 1 bulls had odds of 2.46 more likely to have good mass motility relative to very good mass motility compared to month category 2 bulls. Bulls in SC category 1 (≤39 centimetres (cm)) had odds of 1.81 more likely to have fair mass motility relative to very good mass motility compared to bulls in category 2 (>39cm) and bulls in BCS category 1 (2.5 and 3.0) had odds of 2.71 more likely to have fair mass motility relative to very good mass motility compared to bulls in category 3 (4.0)

Title: Different Approaches to Diagnose Uterine Pathology in Mares: A Review
Abstract :
Uterine infections and associated endometritis is the most common cause of reduced fertility and infertility in broodmares. Uterine infections are inevitable during natural service, artificial insemination, foaling and reproductive tract examination. Mares affected by such conditions are usually the best performing mares with a proven record of fertility. These pathological conditions are therefore responsible for major economic losses in equine industry, as huge effort, money and manpower are required to manage and treat such conditions year after year. Several methods have been evolved to confirm the uterine pathology in mare. Not a single diagnostic method per se is sufficient to diagnose uterine pathology accurately. Rectal palpation and ultrasound examinations identify fluid in the uterus, suggestive of endometritis. Microscopic analysis of an endometrial swab or endometrial biopsy has great importance to detect the etiological agent of the uterine pathology. This review therefore, is an attempt to discuss different approaches to diagnose the uterine pathology along with their merits and demerits. The ultimate aim being prompt identification and treatment of affected mares so that the problem of infertility in mare can be reduced.
Title: Body Condition Score with Relation to Various Physiological Blood Parameters for Postpartum Cyclicity of Crossbred Cows
Abstract :

A total of ten numbers of apparently healthy crossbred cows of 1st to 4th parity with normal calving history and free from any immediate post-parturient complications were selected to study the body condition score with relation to certain blood biochemical parameters for establishment of cyclicity during postpartum periods. Body condition score of all of the selected numbers of cows were evaluated on every fortnightly interval from the day of parturition upto eight (8) weeks on the basis of Body Condition Scoring System (5 scale) and 50 numbers of blood samples were collected from 10 numbers of cows for estimation of blood biochemical profile. The study revealed that the BCS, level of serum total protein, cholesterol, BUN, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium differed significantly (P<0.01) at different days of postpartum i.e., day 0, 15, 30, 45, 60. In conclusion, it was observed that the level of serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, BUN, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium had a positive relation with BCS and postpartum cyclicity of the crossbred cows.

Title: The Possible Role of Certain Glycosidase on Cow Reproduction
Abstract :

Glycosidase are associated with cumulus cells expansion, sperm capacitation, sperm oviductal epithelial cells interaction, sperm zona pellucida binding and polyspermy block. The aim of this review is to summarize the role of certain glycosidase (α-mannosidase - α-ΜΑΝ, β-N-acetyloglucosaminidase – β-NAGASE and β-galactosidase - β-GAL) on cow reproduction. The activity of certain glycosidase in: i) the cervical mucus after spontaneous or induced estrous and its relation to cow fertility, ii) the uterine luminal fluid after superovulation, iii) the follicular fluid and the maturation, fertilization or culture medium during IVM-IVF is presented in this review. Furthermore, it is mentioned if: a) the endometrium or oocytes or embryos release or use glycosidase during their development, b) the addition of certain glycosidase in culture medium affects embryo development, and c) glycosidase could be used as markers of embryo quality or superovulatory response (SR). Glycosidase activity was significantly lower in the cervical mucus of spontaneous estrous compared to induced estrous cows. A high superovulatory response is related to low β-NAGASE, probably because of the poor quality of embryos. The β-ΝAGASE affects negatively embryonic development when added to culture medium. COCs release β-NAGASE and use β-GAL during maturation. Embryos release β-NAGASE and α-MAN during their development, but they use only α-MAN. Degenerated embryos release less β-ΝAGASE and α-MAN compared to good embryos, whereas β-ΝAGASE seems to be related to retarded morulae. Glycosidase affects the developmental competence of oocytes collected from different sized follicles during IVF.

Title: Management of Post Partum Cevico-Vaginal Prolapse in a Non-Descript Cow: A Case Report
Abstract :

The present case study reports successful management of post partum cevico-vaginal prolapse in a cow without any complications

Title: Hysteroscopic Visualization of Bubaline Uterus
Abstract :
Hysteroscopic visualization of buffalo uteri (n=20) was performed using a rigid endoscope. The genitals from estrus buffaloes (20.0%) revealed the presence of uterine wall folding and presence of mucus whereas; haemorrhages on the uterine wall could be visualized in 5% of the genitalia. It was concluded that
hysteroscopic visualization of bubaline uterus can provide additional information on the internal uterine structures.
Title: HBP Concentration Affects in vitro Acrosome Reaction and Conception Rate in Murrah Buffalo Bulls: Interrelationship among Sperm function tests
Abstract :

The aim of this study was to identify relationship between heparin binding proteins (HBP) concentration and in vitro acrosome reaction / conception rate / sperm function tests in murrah buffalo bulls. Frozen-thawed semen of 31 bulls was analyzed for HBP concentration, in vitro acrosome reaction, acrosome integrity, DNA integrity and lipid peroxidation. Conception rate of 10 bulls (21-30) was also obtained. Relationship between HBP and in vitro acrosome reaction / conception rate was evaluated. Inter-relationship among sperm function tests was also observed. A considerable variation in motility (PTM), DNA integrity, acrosome damage (fully damaged: FDA, partially damaged: PDA), in vitro capacitation / acrosome reaction and LPO was observed among 31 tested buffalo bulls after thawing during the present study. A significant positive correlation was observed among various sperm parameters. Thirty one bulls were divided into G-1 (> 40 % AR) and G-II (≤ 40 % AR). There was no difference in HBP concentration, PTM and DNA damaged sperms among the two groups. Percentage of spermatozoa with partially, fully damaged and acrosome reacted spermatozoa was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in G- I as compared to G-II. MDA level (μmoles / 109 spermatozoa) was non-significantly (p ≥ 0.05) higher in G-II as compared to G-I. Ten bulls (22-31) were divided into two groups; G-I (> 35 % conception rate) and G-II (< 35 % conception rate). Concentration of HBPs was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in G-I as compared to G-II. Percentage of acrosome reacted spermatozoa was also significantly (P ≤0.05) higher in G-I than G-II. Therefore, HBP concentration in spermatozoa may be useful in predicting the fertility of buffalo bull semen.

Title: Post-Partum Hemoglobinuria (PPH) in Bovine
Abstract :

Postpartum hemoglobinuria is a non-infectious haemolytic syndrome of adult cattle and buffaloes, a potent thread to these animals in India and Pakistan affecting considerable number of animals every year during advance pregnancy and early lactation. It is characterized by intra venous hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, severe anemia and death due to anemia and anoxia. The exact pathogenesis of this problem is not fully understood. The exhaustive studies have been undertaken and are still in progress to elucidate the exact cause of intravascular hemolysis which is the cause of hemoglobinuria in this disease. However, phosphorus deficiency in high yielding animals during early stage of lactation is widely believed to be associated with postpartum hemoglobinuria. A variety of risk factors have been reported to be associated with this disease in different part of world. Hematology and urinalysis are most commonly adopted diagnostic tools for the PPH. Moreover, Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity may be used a more specific diagnostic indicator of PPH. Various studies have been suggested that administration of sodium acid phosphate along with supportive therapy with anti-oxidants and other important minsrals, can be used as a therapeutic protocol for management of PPH.

Title: Effects of Age, Breed and Scrotal Circumference Interactions on Sperm Morphology of Bulls Raised on Commercial Farms in Zambia
Abstract :

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of interaction of age, breed and scrotal circumference (SC) on the sperm morphological characteristics of bulls raised on commercial farms in Zambia. A total of 365 bulls comprising of 164 Boran, 139 Bonsmara, 35 Tuli, 12 Santagetrudis, 5 Holstein Friesian (HF) and 10 Sussex bulls were studied. Semen was collected once using an electro-ejaculator after which eosin-nigrosin stained semen smears were made. Thereafter, the eosin-nigrosin stained semen smears were examined under a microscope for abnormal spermatozoa. The interaction between age categories and the Boran bulls did not differ from the interaction of Sussex bulls older than 72 months (mo) of age in predicting sperm abnormalities (P>0.05). However, Bonsmara and Sussex bulls older than 72 mo of age had lower percentages of sperm abnormalities (P<0.05). Interaction of age and Tuli bulls showed high midpiece and tail defects (dag defects and simple coiled tails), total abnormal sperm, major defects and the Proximal cytoplasmic droplets (PCD), (P<0.05). Santagetrudis bulls between 48 and 60 mo of age showed an increase in the midpiece defects, total abnormal sperm, major defects and the PCD, (P<0.05), but lower than those of the interaction between age and the Tuli bulls. Higher coiled tails were found due to the interaction between age and HF bulls compared to age and the Tuli bulls (P<0.05). The interaction between age and SC had an effect on sperm abnormalities, (P<0.05). The study suggested that the interactions of age, breed and SC are important sources of variation in sperm morphology. However, further research is needed to determine the effect of minor nutritional differences on the sperm morphological characteristics on the farms.

Title: Congenital Rectovaginal Fistula with Atresia Ani Et Recti in a Calf
Abstract :

The present paper deals with technique of correction of congenital anomaly of rectovaginal fistula with atresia ani et recti in a calf. Epidural anaesthesia was given with 2% lignocaine hcl @ 2 mg/ kg body weight. In the present case rectovaginal fistula was identified too cranially along with peripheral adhesions and laparatomy was choosen to approach rectal end. Laparatomy was done on left flank and the caudal alimentary tract was identified. The rectum was fixed to artificial opening of anus. The rectovaginal fistula was repaired by placing interrupted sutures in roof of vagina.

Title: Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita from a Holstein Friesian Cow
Abstract :

A 3 year old artificially inseminated Holstein Friesian (HF) cow was presented with dystocia on 1st May, 2017 after 273 days of gestation. Rectal examination revealed a calf in transverse presentation with its dorsum towards the cervix. The head was in right ilial position with stiff and fixed flexed forelimbs and hind-limbs. Forced traction of the foetus was unsuccessful and a caesarean section was conducted which led to the exteriorisation of a small foetus with severe contraction of the limb joints, torticolis and lack of muscle development. The calf died shortly after birth and post-mortem revealed a cleft palate. To our knowledge, this was the first reported case of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita in Zambia.

Title: Rupture of Uterus in a Bitch Leading to Pyoabdomen and its Surgical Management: A Case Report
Abstract :

The successful surgical management of pyoabdomen due to uterine rupture at whelping in a bitch is reported here.

Title: A Rare Case of Dicephalus Derodymus Monster in a Primiparous Murrah Buffalo: A Case Report
Abstract :

Current case report describes successful per-vaginal delivery of a dicephalic derodymus monster in a primiparous Murrah buffalo after fetotomy.

Title: New Emerging Androgenic Actions in the Regulation of Sperm Production and Function
Abstract :
Androgenic actions are determinant for sperm production and function and, thus, for male fertility. Androgens exert their effects by
interaction with the androgen receptor (AR), a transcription factor that modulates gene expression in target-cells and tissues. Variants of AR protein have been identified in the testis, revealing a new complexity in androgen signaling pathways. In addition, androgens may evoke responses by controlling intracellular calcium (Ca2+) levels and/or activating Ca2+-dependent pathways. However, until recently the knowledge about the role of androgens controlling testicular expression and activity of membrane and intracellular Ca2+ regulatory proteins was very limited or inexistent. Also the function of Ca2+ in sperm maturation in the epididymis only recently started to be known. This review describes recent advances identifying new AR isoforms in the testis, as well as the novel actions of androgens as modulators of Ca2+ homeostasis
in reproductive tract discussing the consequent impact for male fertility.
Title: Male Pseudohermaphroditism in a Bitch: A Case Report
Abstract :

An eight months old Cocker Spaniel bitch, weighing 11kg, was presented to the Department of Surgery and Radiology, College of Veterinary Sciences & A.H., CAU, Selesih, Mizoram, with the complaint of dsyuria. On physical examination of the external genitalia revealed that the bitch possessed the vulva with enlarged clitoris protruding from the vulvar juncture and both testes remained undescended. Laparotomy revealed persistent Mullerian duct (PMD) with abdominally located testicles. Thus the congenital defects were diagnosed as male pseudohermaphrodititism (MPH) with PMD.

Title: Occurrence of Prostatic Diseases in Intact Adult Dogs
Abstract :

Retrospective studies showed an overall occurrence of 1.48 per cent of prostatic diseases among male dogs aged more than two years. The highest occurrence of 2.89 per cent was noticed in German Shepherds, followed by 2.61 per cent in Labrador Retrievers, 2.50 per cent in Belgian Shepherds and 2.40 per cent in St. Bernards. Occurrence progressively increased with the advancing age and 4.48 per cent occurrence of prostatic diseases was recorded in dogs aged more than eight years. The most common prostatic disease recorded was BPH (74.21%), followed by prostatitis (18.42%), prostatic cyst (3.16%) and prostatic neoplasia (4.21%).

Title: The Effect of Cock: Hen Ratio on Reproduction Performance of Koekoek Chickens in the Lowlands of Lesotho
Abstract :

The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of cock: hen ratio on the reproductive performance of Koekoek chickens. Fifty seven hens and nine cocks were randomly allocated to three cock: hen ratio treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The cock: hen treatments were 1:3, 1:6 and 1:10 at 37 weeks of age. The birds were allocated into nine pens and each treatment was replicated three times. Thirty eggs were incubated from each replicate hence 270 eggs were used. Data was collected and analyzed using SPSS (17.00). The results revealed that the chickens that were assigned to cock: ratio of 1:10 performed similar to the ones in the sex ratios of 1:3 and 1:6 in terms of fertility. Cock: hen ratio did not have any effect on hatching percentage and embryo mortality. Therefore, when looking at the cost of raising cocks and the level of infighting among the cocks, it would be advisable for the farmers to rear one cock for every ten hens. Koekoek chickens, egg size, fertility rate, hatchability, embryo mortality

Title: Contents
Abstract :

Contents 

Title: Incidence of Fetal Monstrosities in India:A Review
Abstract :
Dystocia may be defined as process of delayed or prolonged calving resulting from severe assisted extraction or any fetal abnormalities. Injudicious handling of dystocia cases usually leads to large economic loss in terms of decreased productivity, increased morbidity and mortality. It has a considerable impact on production and future reproduction of dairy and beef animals. There are many fetal abnormalities like monsters, fetal ascitis and fetal maldispositions which are alone responsible for 5-10% of dystocia cases in bovines. Fetal monstrosities has long been recognized as a cause of dystocia in animals and humans. This is incompatible with life. This review focuses on the cases of different types of fetal monsters, its incidence and treatment done in bovines. It becomes difficult to deliver such fetuses because of their altered shape. These monsters are rare in cattle, but a large number of monstrosities have been reported in river buffalo; overall incidence is low.
Title: Oestrus Induction and Fertility Response in Post Partum Anoestrus Buffaloes using CIDR Alone or in Combination with Antioxidants
Abstract :

The present study was carried out to study the effect of ControlledInternal Drug Releasing Device (CIDR-B) with and without antioxidants (vitamin E & selenium) on oestrus induction response and oxidative stress parameters in postpartum anoestrus buffaloes located in different villages of R. S. Pura areas of Jammu district. A total of 18 postpartum anoestrus buffaloes were equally divided into three groups with 6 buffaloes in each group. Group I animals were kept as control, Group II animals were treated with CIDR protocol and Group III animals were treated with CIDR protocol and were given two intramuscular injection of vit. E-Care-Se (50 mg α-tocopherol acetate and 1.5 mg selenium per ml, Vetcare, Banglore) at the dose rate of 1ml/50 kg BWT. on day 0 and day 7, respectively. Oestrus induction response was 100% in treated animals and onset of oestrus occured within 70.50±6.38 h and 68.33±3.12 h and mean duration of oestrus was 22.33±1.14 h and 20.75±1.30 h in Group II and III, respectively. The pregnancy rate was 0.00%, 50% and 83.33% in Group I, II and III respectively. Among the oxidative stress parameter, a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) level along with significant increase in catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) level was observed by treating post partum anoestrus buffaloes with CIDR protocol either alone or in combination with vitamin E and Selenium.

Title: Effect of Age, Month and Season on Testosterone Levels in Farm Raised Ostrich (Struthio camelus)
Abstract :

A study was carried out to assess the effect of age, month and season on blood and seminal plasma teststerone of individual ostrich aged four to nine years for a period of 12 months in tropical climate of India. The birds were grouped into two categories viz., four to six and seven to nine years-old. Highly significant (P<0.01) differences were observed in blood plasma testosterone level in individual birds with a mean value of 9.17 ± 0.28 ng/ml. Similarly, seminal plasma testosterone level also showed significant difference (P<0.05) among individual birds and the mean value was 7.26 ± 0.31 ng/ml. Between age groups (four to six and seven to nine year-old ostrich), there was no significance difference in the levels of blood plasma (9.28 ± 0.71 vs. 9.10 ± 0.29 ng/ml) and in seminal plasma testosterone (7.21±0.29 vs. 7.28 ± 0.54 ng/ml). The blood plasma and seminal plasma testosterone levels showed highly significant differences (P<0.01) among seasons.

Title: Retention of Placenta in a Female Camel: A Case Report
Abstract :

A case of successful removal of retained fetal membranes from a female camel is reported.

Title: Effect of different extenders on the quality of boar semen during preservation at 15°C and 5°C
Abstract :

The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of three extenders viz. GEPS, BTS and Modena on quality of boar semen during preservation at 15°C and 5°C up to 96 hours. A total of 24 ejaculates were included for the study. The semen quality was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Modena followed by BTS and GEPS extended semen irrespective of preservation temperature and preservation period. Sperm motility, live sperm, live intact sperm and HOST-reacted sperm was significantly higher (P<0.05) at 15°C than 5°C. The sperm quality reduced gradually during different preservation periods. In conclusion, Modena extender was found to be superior to BTS and GEPS extenders for preservation of Hampshire boar semen.

Title: Contents Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2018
Abstract :

Contents Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2018

Title: Successful Treatment of Fetal Mummification in a Bitch by Caesarean Section: A Case Report
Abstract :

A four year old Labrador bitch was presented with a history full term gestation and non-progessive signs of labor with uterine discharge. Per vaginal examination showed dilated birth canal without any fetus. Plain radiography revealed presence of bony structures in the uterus. Induction of labor with oxytocin and calcium was futile. Upon C-section, mummified (n=5), was removed along with normal fetus. The bitch recovered uneventfully following normal post-operative management.

Title: Comparison of Sperm Attributes in two Indigenous Layer Breeds and their Relationship with Fertility
Abstract :

To compare Aseel and Kadaknath breeds, 50 roosters per breed were evaluated for colour, volume, pH, motility, viability, membrane and acrosome integrity. Ten roosters / breed were also evaluated for fertility rate. There was no significant difference in colour, pH, volume and motility of semen among both breeds. However, percentage of viable spermatozoa and spermatozoa with intact membrane was non-significantly (P > 0.05) higher in ejaculates of Kadaknath (82.04 ± 4.47, 44.17 ± 3.96 than Aseel (78.35 ± 5.37, 30.98 ± 9.02) roosters. Significant positive correlation was observed among different sperm attributes, but correlation between motility / viability and membrane integrity / acrosome damage was higher in Aseel breed (0.86 and 0.60) as compared to Kadaknath (0.40 and 0.05). A very weak positive correlation was also observed between fertility rate and sperm traits in both breeds. Although, viability, membrane integrity and acrosome integrity were higher in semen of Kadaknath than Aseel breed, but both breed were almost equivalent in their fertility. Selection of roosters on the basis of sperm attributes may be useful in AI practices aimed at genetic improvement for breeds.

Title: Contents Vol. 8, No. 2, August 2018
Abstract :
Title: Bilateral Diffuse Leydig Cell Tumour of Testicles in a Golden Retriever Dog
Abstract :

A seven year old male Golden Retriever dog was presented with a history of unilateral scrotal swelling noticed for the last 20 days. The animal was obese and without any clinical signs. Physical examination revealed hard, freely movable enlarged and painless right testicle and hard and nodular left testicle. Ultrasonography revealed circumscribed, hypoechoic and irregular masses within the parenchyma of both testicles suggesting tumour of the testicle. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed as per standard surgical procedure under general anaesthesia. The animal had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology of tumour mass revealed diffuse Leydig cell tumour of both testicles.

Title: Conception Rates after Cervical Insemination of Freshly Diluted Semen and Chilled Semen in Nellore Sheep (Jodipi)
Abstract :

This study was undertaken to evaluate the conception rate in Nellore sheep (Jodipi) with fresh diluted semen and chilled semen at 24 and 48h (stored at 5°C). Semen was collected, diluted with Tris Citric acid Fructose Yolk diluent and stored at 5°C for 24 and 48h to undertake cervical artificial insemination in 63 ewes at natural estrus. Conception rates were 61.90, 47.62 and 42.86% with diluted semen and chilled semen stored for 24 and 48h, respectively based on 25 day non return rates. Therefore, it was concluded that Artificial Insemination with both freshly diluted semen and chilled semen stored up to 48 h can used with good conception rates.

Title: Assessment of Sperm Viability in Extended Boar Semen during Long Term Storage at 15ËšC
Abstract :

A total of 24 ejaculates comprising 6 ejaculates from each of four trained healthy crossbred Hampshire boars of one to two years of age were selected for the present study. Semen was collected by Simple fist method to study the effect of Modena extender on quality of semen during preservation at 15ËšC up to 120 hours. The results revealed that the sperm motility, live intact acrosome, HOST-reacted spermatozoa, sperm membrane protein, sperm cholesterol level decreased significantly (PË‚0.01) with increase in hour of preservation. The highest conception rate (93.33%) was observed at immediately after extension and lowest conception (40%) was observed at 120 hours of preservation. In conclusion, the boar spermatozoa undergo several changes including diminished motility, viability and alterations in membrane permeability during long term storage at 15°C with Modena extender.

Title: Ovulatory Failure in Dairy Cows: A Review
Abstract :
A syndrome associated with conditions leading to anovular follicles or to cystic ovaries is that of ovulation failure. Condition is obviously
multicausal, with some findings supporting the theory that is hereditary, and affected by the season of the year. However, most evidence is consistent with the lack of an LH surge being the critical underlying physiological change that leads to anovulatory condition. Diagnosis of anovulation can only be made retrospectively, by noting that a follicle persists longer than expected. It was reported that cows can spontaneously recover from ovulatory failure by mechanisms that still remain unclear. Improvement in energy status can reduce the period of anovulation. In the various hormonal treatments responses are not uniform, since they appear to be dependent on factors influencing the prevalence of ovulation failure.
Title: Effect of Low dose Chronic Exposure to Deltamethrin and Lindane on Reproductive System of Male Mice
Abstract :

In the present study, 198 Swiss albino male mice were exposed to daily oral doses of deltamethrin and lindane to study the effect of low dose chronic exposure to reproductive organs of male mice. Mice were exposed for 15, 30 and 60 days Doses of pesticides were selected on the basis of maximum residual limits (MRL) as well as the residues of pesticides found in various food commodities in the previous studies. Thus the three doses used in the study were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg bwt/day for deltamethrin and 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg bwt/day for lindane. The highest dose of deltamethrin and lindane used in this study was 1/40th and 1/200th of the LD50 of these two pesticides, respectively. After the completion of experimental trial, the mice were sacrificed and testicular tissues were collected and preserved in neutral buffered formalin till analysis. The sections of tissues (testes) were taken and stained with haematoxylin and eosin to visualize the histopathological changes caused due to exposure of mice to the pesticides. The histological examination revealed the degenerative changes i.e. vacuolar degeneration of the spermatogenic cells, presence of necrotic cells and edema inside the seminiferous tubule and aspermatogenesis at all the dose and duration of exposure to each of the pesticide. The changes were more or less dependent upon the dose of pesticide as well as the duration of exposure to these pesticides. This was further confirmed by the residues of pesticides detected in these vital tissues through gas chromatography (GC) and confirmation with gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS).

Title: Prevalence of Uterine Torsion and Its Management in Buffaloes
Abstract :
This case study discussed the successful method of management of buffalo uterine torsion. A number of 25 buffaloes with showing colic were taken suspected for uterine torsion at the Clinics of veterinary gynaecology and obstetrics, CVAS, Bikaner. Uterine torsion was diagnosed by per rectal and per vaginal examinations. Priorly, we used plank method for manage torsion in buffaloes. Eighty percent buffaloes were successfully corrected by this method. 1-2 rolls
were sufficient to detort in 60% buffaloes. After detorsion most cases were accompanied with closed or insufficient dilated (48%) than dilated or open cervix (32%) which were altered after drug therapy into opened (64%) and indilated cervix (16%). Caesarean section
was needed in 36% cases including failed cases of detorsion by rolling (20%) and indilated cervix (16%) after successful rolling. After long-term follow-up, the study reported 88% and 4% survival rate for buffaloes and fetus, respectively in uterine torsion cases. On the basis of this study it was concluded that rolling with plank method is a satisfactory technique to detort the uterus.
Title: In Vitro Maturation of Bubaline Oocytes in Three Different Culture Media (TCM 199, Ham’s F 10 and Way mouth MB medium)
Abstract :

In order to evaluate the effect of media on in vitro maturation, culturable grade buffalo oocytes were matured in vitro in three different media (Ham’s F-10, Waymouth MB and TCM-199) with same supplements (5µg/ml FSH, 5µg/ml LH, 1µg/ml estradiol, 25 mM Hepes, 0.25 mM pyruvate and antibiotics). The overall mean culturable grade oocyte recovery was 3.12±0.20. At the end of experiment all oocytes in all groups were fixed and stained to evaluate the nuclear status. Oocytes were considered mature if they were at metaphase II. Significantly higher (P<0.01) proportion of oocytes were matured in vitro in Waymouth medium compared to Ham’s F-10. In TCM-199, IVM rates were non-significantly higher compared to Ham’s F-10 and non-significantly lower compared to Waymouth MB medium. It was concluded that Way mouth MB medium is the most appropriate medium for in vitro maturation of buffalo oocytes followed by TCM-199 and Ham’s F 10.

Title: Fetotomy a Resolution to Dystocia in a Mare — A Case Report
Abstract :
A case of dystocia in an Arabian more with transverse presentation of the fetals that was resolved by pastial fetotomy and careful mutation is reposted. With sufficient care after fetal delivers the more recovered without any complication.
Title: Pathomorphological Studies on Natural Cases of Marek’s Disease in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
Abstract :

The incidence of natural outbreaks of Marek’s disease in a Japanese quail flock was investigated on the basis of mortality rate, clinical signs, cytology, PCR, gross and histopathology. The mortality rate was 2 percent over a period of 20 weeks. The death started from 16 weeks onwards and continued upto 35 weeks with the highest incidence was recorded during 25–30 weeks. Cytology smears prepared from feather follicles, livers and kidneys showed infiltration of pleomorphic lymphocytes. Grossly, there was severe diffuse enlargement of organs like hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, nephromegaly along with ovarian lesions. Focal lymphomas in these organs were also noticed in few cases. Microscopically, there were pleomorphic lymphoblastic infiltration in liver, spleen, kidney, ovary and sciatic nerve tissues noticed. The final confirmation was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This is the first report on Marek’s disease in Japanese quails in Namakkal region which is the hub of laying chicken in Tamil Nadu.

Title: Superovulatory Responses and Embryo Recoveries in Rathi (Bos indicus) Cattle with Different Doses of Folltropin-V
Abstract :
The superovulatory responses and embryo recoveries in Rathi cows superovulated with different doses of Folltropin-V were tested. Post-partum cows were superovulated 60 days post-partum using 400, 300, 200 or 240 mg of Folltropin-V administered in 8 descending doses 12 h IM starting from day 8-10 of a CIDR-B. Cows were induced to estrus by IM administration of a prostaglandin (Inj Cyclix) and withdrawal of CIDR-B at the time of last
injection of FSH. Cows were inseminated thrice at 12 h interval using frozen semen. Embryos were recovered by non-surgical means on day seven of insemination. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed on the day of embryo recovery to record the number of unovulated follicles and the number of corpora lutea. Estrus expression was poor in superovulated donors which posed a difficulty in precise timing of insemination.
Title: Relationship between Estrus Signs and Subsequent Fertility Rates in Buffaloes Subjected to Estradiol based Synchronization Treatments
Abstract :

The study was carried out on 60 postpartum cyclic buffaloes subjected to Presynch-Heatsynch (n=30) and Heatsynch (n=30) synchronization treatments. In Presynch-Heatsynch group, two injections of PGF2α analogue were administered at 12 days apart (Day -14 and -2) with last injection two days before GnRH administration (Day 0). A third PGF2α alpha was given on day 7 followed by estradiol benzoate injection on day 8 and fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI) on day 10. In Heatsynch group, first two PGF2 alpha injections were not given; however, rest of the treatment was same. Frequent urination, vulvar swelling and bellowing were prominent estrus signs observed in all buffaloes of both groups at the time of FTAI. The study revealed significantly pronounced (p<0.01) cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) discharge and high uterine tonicity in buffaloes that became pregnant (100.00 and 70.00 %) than those failed to become pregnant (60.00 and 20.00 %) in group I and II, respectively. Further, it was observed that none of the buffaloes that became pregnant had low uterine tonicity, whereas 40.00 and 55.55% buffaloes which failed to become pregnant showed low uterine tonicity on rectal examination. In conclusion, appearance of CVM at vulva and rectal finding of high uterine tonicity at the time of AI had positive influence on the pregnancy rates in buffaloes subjected to estradiol based synchronization protocols. Thus, successful pregnancy may be predicted if a buffalo shows above two estrus signs at the time of FTAI.

Title: Successful Management of Dystocia in Jaffarabadi Buffaloe
Abstract :

A case of fetal lateral deviation of head in a pluriparous Jaffarabadi she buffalo was reported. It was successfully managed and a live male calf was delivered per vaginally discussed.

Title: Prevalence of Hydatid Cysts among Buffaloes Slaughtered in Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract :

This descriptive-analytic study was carried out in Bareilly (Uttar Pradesh) slaughter house during 12 months period from Feb. 2014 to Jan. 2015. The 1175 carcasses were observed and inspected. The overall prevalence of hydatid cyst was (40%). Among which the carcass contaminated with hydatid cyst in liver is (56%), while (81%) cyst found in lung. The prevalence was highest (52%) and lowest (30%) in winter and autumn season respectively.

Title: Effect of pre-treatment follicular size on reproductive response of dairy heifers after PG2&#945; induced estrus and GnRH administration on the day of artificial insemination
Abstract :The present study was designed to investigate the influence of pre-treatment follicular size on the reproductive response of dairy heifers after PGF2á injection and GnRH administration on the day of artificial insemination (AI). After transrectal ultrasound examination, fifty-two dairy heifers bearing corpus luteum (CL) were selected and divided into three groups: Group I (n=19) with small follicles (2-5 mm); Group II (n=18) with medium follicles (6-9 mm) and Group III (n=15) with dominant follicle (10-12 mm). <br><br>Each group was administered 500 mg PGF2 &#945; immediately after ultrasound examination (Day 0) and 100 µg GnRH at the time of AI,performed 80 hours after PGF2&#945; injection. A second ultrasound examination was done early morning on Day 3 (72 h) after prostaglandin treatment and presence of a pre-ovulatory follicle and clinical estrus signs were recorded.
Title: Amorphous Globosus in a Cow: A Case Report
Abstract :

A Holstein Friesian cow in its third parity was presented with complaints of severe straining and complete anorexia since last 24 hours. The water bag had been ruptured 24 hours before albeit the term was of seven and half month. As evident from the history and symptoms, it was a case of dystocia associated with premature delivery. After delivery of one male fetus by manual traction, another fetus was delivered which was found to be a case of Amorphous globosus and had only insufficient digestive tract developed. The detailed handling of the case, obstetrical correction and post-delivery care and management is discussed.

Title: Ovarian follicular dynamics during estrous cycle and its aberrations during certain reproductive disorders in buffalo
Abstract :Ovarian follicular development in the species follows a wave dynamics involving mostly 2-wave or 3-wave cycles. Although there are still large gaps in our understanding of the etiopathogenic mechanisms underlying reproductive disorders in buffalo, available literature suggests alterations in ovarian dynamics at one or more stages of follicular development. This article gives a brief account of the ovarian follicular dynamics during estrous cycle and aberrations associated with certain reproductive disorders in buffalo.
Title: Effects of Breed and Prostaglandin Administration on Reproductive Performance and Profitability of Egyptian Ewes
Abstract :
The object of this study was to investigate the influence of breeds, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2α) administration on reproductive performance in Egyptian ewes in relation to
the economic efficiency of these hormonal treatments. For the estrus cycle control, the ewes received on Day 0 an intravaginal implant with 40 mg of Flugestone acetate. On 12th day the intravaginal implants were removed and
animals were divided into other two groups: Group 1) 36 ewes received only 400 IU eCG at the time of removal of the sponges (Ossami, n = 15; Rahmani, n= 12; Crossbred, n = 9). Group 2) 32 ewes received 400 IU eCG plus 0.5 ml PGF2á at the time of removal of the sponges (Ossami, n = 10; Rahmani, n= 12; Crossbred, n = 10). Estrus response, onset of estrus, pregnancy rate, lambing rate, litter size and multiple births were recorded.
Title: ovarian Antral Follicular Dynamics and Follicular Fluid Composition in Non-descript Goats of Karnataka
Abstract :

A study was carried out to elucidate the ovarian antral follicular dynamics and the profile of certain biochemical components in ovarian antral follicular fluid of non-descript goats of Karnataka. Three hundred ovaries were collected from two to five year old healthy non-descript goats slaughtered at Civil Meat Processing and Production Centre, Bangalore during the months of September to December, 2012. The surface ovarian antral follicles were categorized into three groups based on the diameter as Group I (small, 1 to 2.9 mm), Group II (medium, 3 to 5 mm) and Group III (large, >5 mm) follicles. The follicular fluid was collected and pooled as per the different groups of follicles and it was analysed for the levels of glucose, total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, estradiol-17β, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activities. The results of the present study revealed that the number of medium sized follicles were significantly (P<0.05) higher compared to small and large sized follicles. The glucose content and acid phosphatase activities were significantly (P<0.05) higher in small follicles compared to medium and large follicles. Total cholesterol and estradiol-17β levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in large follicles compared to small and medium follicles. The total protein, albumin levels and alkaline phosphatase activities did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between various groups of follicles. It was concluded that the findings of the present study on ovarian antral follicular dynamics and biochemical profile of follicular fluid could be useful for the scientists working on in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization in goats.

Title: Biochemical Status During Oestrus Cycle in Regular and Repeat Breeding Cows
Abstract :
The present study was undertaken at cattle breeding farm of Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur. Serum biochemical profile of repeat breeding cross bred (jersey x Sahiwal) cows was evaluated and compared with that of regular breeding cows. The average total serum total protein, serum calcium and serum inorganic phosphorus values in repeat breeding cows were significantly (P>0.01) lower than the values in regular breeding cows. The average serum
cholesterol in repeat breeding cows was significantly (P>0.05) lower than the value of regular breeding cows. The difference in the values of serum total protein, serum cholesterol and serum inorganic phosphorus on 0, 7th, and 15th days of oestrus cycle in regular and repeat breeding cows was found to be non-significant. However, significantly (P>0.05) higher values of serum calcium were recorded in regular and repeat breeding cows on 0 day, which significantly decreased on 7th and slightly increased on 15th day of oestrus cycle.
Title: Domestication of Anemone Fishes with High Fecundity and Spawning Efficiency under Captive Condition for Indian Scenario
Abstract :
This present study is developed to understand the fecundity rate of seven different anemone fishes cultured in captivity.The efficiency of
quality eggs of anemone fishand their developments aremuch important in marine ornamental aquaculture to enhance the production value.Hence, the experiment states that good feeding habitsof the brooders with mixed diets would increases thequantity and quality of eggs.In addition, the ideal water quality parameters like temperature-27±20C, salinity-28±1ppt, NH-4-0.001ppm, dissolved oxygen 4.0±1 ppm, pH-7.7±0.2, light intensity 2500 to 3000 lux, with photoperiod (12L:12D). The feeding time was maintained thrice a day (07:00, 11:00 and 16:00 hrs)and organic wasteswere removed daily whilewater exchanged 30-40% per week.The sufficient quantity of oyster, musselsand shrimp consumed by the brooders(A.  percula, A. clarkii,  A.  sebae,  A.  sandaracinos,  A. melanopus, A. frenatus, and A. ocellaris) were
0.470g, 1.390g, 1.650g, 0.300g, 0.380g.
Title: Efficacy Evaluation of Herbal Teat Dip “Mastidip Liquid” in Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Crossbred Cows
Abstract :
The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of herbal teat dip Mastidip Liquid (supplied by m/s Ayurvet Ltd, Baddi, India) in subclinical mastitic cows on the basis of restoration of altered milk pH and somatic cells count (SCC). Twenty crossbred cows screened positive for subclinical mastitis were selected and divided into two equal groups. Herbal teat dip Mastidip Liquidwas applied post milking in 1:1 dilution (one part concentrated solution + one part clean water) twice daily immediately after milking for a
period of30 days in one group (II) and for 45 days in other group (III). One additional group of 10 intact cows were taken as normal control group (I). Milk samples were collected for SCC and pH examination before initiation of teat dipping and on 7,14,21,28, 35 and 49th day post application of teat dip. The pH and SCC was normalized and milk yield improved after treatment with Mastidip Liquid. In conclusion, post milking teat dipping withMastidip
Liquidis found to be effective teat sanitizer in prevention of new intramammary infection in dairy cows and reducing the incidence of subclinical mastitis.
Title: Identification of bacterial and fungal agents of clinical endometritis in dairy heifers and treatment by metronidazole or cephapirin
Abstract :

This study was aimed to identify fungal and bacterial causes of clinical endometritis as the first study in one hundred thirty dairy heifers by culture and PCR methods, and also to evaluate intrauterine cephapirin and/or metronidazole treatments. Although there were no growth of bacteria and fungi agents in all samples but PCR results showed the presence of E.coli and Trueperella pyogenes in six heifers. Conception rate of the treated heifers with metronidazole and cephapirin was significantly higher than that of untreated heifers. Heifers in metronidazole-treated group had higher conception rate compared to cephapirin group but the difference was not significant. A greater conception rate was observed in heifers that had clear discharge at time of insemination, compared to heifers with mucopurulent or opaque discharges. The results of this study showed that the pregnancy rate of treated heifers was significantly higher than that of untreated heifers. It could be concluded that treatment of affected heifers and the clear discharges at the time of AI could improve conception rate.

Title: Transrectal Ultrasonographic Monitoring of Early Pregnancy in Graded Murrah Buffalo Cows (Bubalus bubalis)
Abstract :
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of transrectal ultrasonography as a method of pregnancy diagnosis at an early stage in graded murrah buffaloes. 30 inseminated buffaloes were utilized and pregnancy diagnosis was commenced on day 20, 25 and 30 post breeding. Positive diagnosis of pregnancy was based on the presence of an anechoic round area of varying size in the lumen of an echogenic uterine lumen representing the fluid filled allantoic cavity termed as the embryonic vesicle. The presence of an embryo within the embryonic vesicle was confirmed by observing an echogenic area with rhythmic pulsation representing heartbeats. The average lengths of embryonic vesicle on day 20, 25 and 30 were 0.415 ± 0.05, 1.116 ± 0.107 and 1.85 ± 0.068 cm, respectively and the average lengths of
embryo on day 25 and 30 were 0.45 ± 0.064 and 1.05 ± 0.086 cm, respectively. Sensitivity was lower on day 20 and 25 being 50 and 75%, respectively when compared to day 30 which was 100%. The overall accuracy increased as the pregnancy advances and was observed to be 100% from day 30 onwards. It was confirmed that early pregnancy diagnosis using ultrasonography can be done effectively from day 25 post insemination. 
Title: Twinning from a Simmental Cow-Case Report
Abstract :

A 5 year old Simmental cow was presented with a primary problem of difficult in parturition (Dystocia). This was the second calving for the cow. One foetal hind limb was seen protruding from the vulva and three limbs were palpated in the cervix on vaginal exploration. Vulval discharges were observed visually. A caesarotomy was performed on the standing animal from the left flank which led to the exteriorisation of live male twin calves. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of twinning in the Simmental cow in Zambia.

Title: Gross Anatomical Studies on Femur of Hoary-Bellied Himalayan Squirrel (Callosciurus pygerythrus)
Abstract :

The present study was conducted on the femur of an adult Hoary-Bellied Himalayan Squirrel (Callosciurus pygerythrus) which died due to road accident in the campus of College of veterinary sciences, Khanapara, Guwahati. The animal was collected immediately after death, and processed and then femur was removed, and a gross anatomical study was made on it. It was the longest bone of the skeleton. The head of the femur bent medially of the Hoary-Bellied Himalayan Squirrel (Callosciurus pygerythrus). It was situated in between the greater trochanter and lesser trochanter. The head of the femur was spherical and smooth with a shallow fovea capitis. The greater trochanter, the lesser trochanter and trochanter tertius were prominent. The greater trochanter had a small point on the lateral surface of the cranial part for muscles to originate. The trochanteric fossa was deep. The distal extremity was divided into two portions, namely the medial and lateral condyles through a intercondyloid fossa. The medial and lateral epicondyles had roughened surfaces. The supracondyloid fossa was not evident.

Title: Dystocia due to Dog Sitting Posture with Lateral Deviation of Head in a Mare
Abstract :

A case of dystocia due to dog sitting posture with lateral deviation of head in a mare and its successful management through fetotomy is reported here.

Title: Serum Cortisol Concentrations in Response to Ovario-hysterectomy and Following Post-operative Analgesia with Carprofen and Meloxicam in Dogs
Abstract :

Serum cortisol levels following ovario-hysterectomy and post-operative analgesia with carprofen and meloxicam were studied in twelve dogs randomly assigned to Group A and Group B. In Group A, carprofen was administered @ 4 mg/kg i.v, whereas in Group B, meloxicam was administered @ 0.2 mg/ kg i.v, immediately after completion of surgery. Study revealed that the cortisol levels increased up to 6 to 7 fold immediately after ovariohysterectomy. Induction of analgesia with carprofen and meloxicam significantly reduced the level of cortisol. Carprofen was found to be a better analgesic than meloxicam in terms of its role in reducing the cortisol levels post-operatively.

Title: Male Iinfertility: Rrole of Cellular, Biochemical and Molecular Eevents
Abstract :

Infertility is a unique category of human functional disability, where the fertility disturbances of one partner may only become evident through the other partner’s problem, while optimal reproductive function in one partner may compensate for impaired function in the other. It is estimated that approximately 15% of married couples are infertile. Male factor infertility contributes to about 50% manifested as quantitative abnormality (azoospermia, cryptozoospermia and oligozoospermia), or as qualitative abnormality (asthenospermia, teratozoospermia and necrospermia) or both. Investigation of apoptosis in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids in the testis has been done extensively and many apoptotic factors have been identified. Testicular apoptosis has been reported in human specimens, but its correlation with serum gonadotropins and testosterone levels is not clear. It is assumed that somatic cells can die in the apoptotic, the autophagic, or the necrotic way but the mechanisms involved in the sperm death are obscure and the biological significance of apoptosis in ejaculated sperm is yet to be elucidated. Thus the goal of this article is to identify and discuss common themes in mitochondrial function and the apoptotic pathway related to mammalian reproduction. Apart from this finding the correlation of apoptosis with serum gonadotropins and testosterone levels will also help in correlating the processes taking place in spermatozoa responsible for male infertility.

Title: Histomorphology of Thyroid Gland and Thyroid Hormonal Changes in Pati ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) of Assam with Age
Abstract :

The study was conducted on 36 number of Assam Pati ducks divided into 6 groups to study the histomorphological characteristics of thyroid gland and Thyroid hormones from 2 weeks to 40 weeks of age. The thyroid glands were collected from 6 birds in each group. After recording the gross parameter values the material was fixed and processed for histological studies. Blood samples of about 2-3 ml were collected from the wing veins of each bird before sacrifice of each age group and immediately transferred into blood collection tubes without adding any anticoagulant for biochemical study. The paired thyroid glands in the Pati ducks were located on either side of the trachea close to the vascular angle formed by the subclavian artery and common carotid artery. The microscopic structure of thyroid glands of Pati ducks revealed primarily the capsule enclosing the follicles that contained colloid in the H & E sections. The interfollicular area contained the parafollicular cells. A homogenous translucent colloidal mass filled the thyroid follicles in all age groups. C cells were present in the interfollicular zone of the thyroid gland. The average serum triiodothyronine level in 2 weeks old ducks was 2.706 ± 0.049 nmol/L. The mean serum level of thyroxine in 2 weeks old ducklings was 53.981 ± 0.590 nmol/L and in 40 weeks ducks was 71.198 ± 2.337 nmol/L.

Title: Comparative Efficacy of the Therapeutics of Recurrent Genital Prolapse in Indigenous Cows
Abstract :

The indigenous cattle breeds are considered much more resistant to various ailments, and therefore, possibly requiring lesser medication compared to exotic or crossbreeds. The objective of the present study was to compare efficacy of the general therapeutics of uterine prolapse in indigenous breeds. The present study reports six cases of recurrent prolapse in non-pregnant indigenous cows with multiple parity. The treatment included epidural anaesthesia, cleaning and reposing of prolapsed mass, setting followed by progesterone injection and supportive therapy inclusive of antibiotics, analgesics, antihistaminic and I/V fluid. Incidence of recurrence of uterine until 72 hour and period of recovery from the day of administration of treatment till at least 50% involution of the organs, ascertained by rectal examination,we re recorded. It was concluded that general therapeutics of uterine prolapse is equally successful in indigenous cows as well with recovery period and incidence of recurrence being much less than crossbreeds.

Title: Macro Anatomical Study on the Heart, Lung, Trachea, Kidney and Liver of Common Rat Snake (Ptyas mucosa)
Abstract :

The Common rat snakes (Ptyas mucosa) control the rat in paddy field so it is also called farmer’s friend. The present study was conducted on the heart, lung, trachea, kidney and liver of Common rat snake (Ptyas mucosa) of about 2.5 years of age. The heart was found secured in the pericardial sac and two aortas originated cranially consisting of left and the right. Lung consisted of highly vascular anterior portion and avascular posterior portion called air sac. Both the kidneys were highly lobulated and elongated. Right kidney was closer to the head than the left one. The trachea had complete ring. The liver was elongated and no distinct separate lobes were present instead the surface of the liver appeared lobulated. These studies will be helpful to wildlife veterinarians in disease control regimes.

Title: Per-vaginal successful management of a rare case of dystocia in murrah buffalo due to dicephalus thoracophagus tetrabrachius tetrapus and dicaudatus monster: A case report
Abstract :

First report a case of conjoined twin monster (Dicephalus Thoracophagus Tetrabrachius Tetrapus and Dicaudatus) was delivered by per vaginum without fetotomy in a pluriparous Murrah buffalo. The twin monster consist of two male fetus which were possessed separate set of structure two head, two pairs of forelimb and hindlimbs.

Title: Benchmark to Reach Precocious Puberty in Replacement Heifers: A Review
Abstract :

To achieve precocious puberty in heifers, female calf should be selected with their birth earlier in calving season i.e., heifers born in the first 21 days of calving season. Essential points for successful heifer raising include colostrum feeding to produce best start in the life, monitoring growth rate regularly, accommodation in spacious ventilated barn, body capacity and frame improved by quality forage supplementation. Proper disease control along with maintenance of health and welfare as well as use of sire selected for calving ease. Monitoring of nutrition and pre-weaning growth to achieve early weaning. Standardized target weight is essential to achiev optimum pregnancy at early age. Ionophores and hormones may be used, for achieving precocious puberty provided stair step gain in body weight along with vaccination and de-worming. Feeds with high phytoestrogen may be avoided. Scoring for Body condition, frame and reproductive tract is essential steps at interval for all heifers. Estrus synchronization together with on time estrus detection may be utilized to achieve better conception and pregnancy after early puberty.

Title: Effect of certain additives on the quality of boar semen during preservation at 15°C and 5°C
Abstract :

The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of four additives viz. KMnO4, Vitamin E, Butylatedhydroxytoluene and trehalose on quality of boar semen during preservation at 15°C and 5°C up to 96 hours. 24 ejaculates were utilized for the study. Sperm motility was significantly higher with BHT irrespective of preservation temperature and period. However, the mean sperm motility was significantly higher (P<0.05) in semen preserved at 15°C than 5°C. Live sperm was significantly (P<0.05) lower in Trehalose than KMNO4, Vitamin E and BHT. The mean percentage of live intact acrosome irrespective of temperature and preservation period was significantly higher (P<0.05) with BHT than others additives. Semen in Modena extender with BHT had significantly higher (P<0.05) percentage of HOST-reacted sperm at different preservation periods irrespective of different temperature. In conclusion, Butylatedhydroxyltoluene (BHT) was found to be superior to KMNO4, Vitamin E and Trehalose for preservation of Hampshire boar semen.

Title: Contents
Abstract :

Contents

Title: A Rare Case of Foetal Maceration in Bitch and its Successful Management
Abstract :

A seven years old bitch was presented with the history of whelping signs that appeared five days ago followed by abnormal brownish vaginal discharge since last three days. The body temperature and pulsation was normal without any signs of septicaemia or toxaemia. Per vaginal examination revealed foetal bones in the birth canal but the birth canal was not fully patent. Therapeutic treatment to dilate the birth canal for expulsion of the foetal masses was carried out. After treatment, the foetal masses of three puppies were recovered by applying slight traction with the help of fingers per vaginum. X-ray imaging of pelvic region was done to ensure the complete evacuation of the uterus from foetal bones.

Title: Contents for April 2017
Abstract :

Contents for April 2017

Title: Effect of Serum Progesterone Levels at Estrus on Conception in Graded Murrah Buffaloes under Field Conditions
Abstract :

The present study was taken up to access the effect of serum progesterone at estrus on conception in Graded Murrah buffaloes under field conditions for which 70 parous buffaloes maintained under village system of rearing, free from apparent pathological abnormalities of the reproductive tract presented in the first postpartum AI were utilized. Serum samples were collected on day 0 and 10 for estimation of progesterone by RIA. The animals were re-examined using ultrasound on day 10 following insemination for determining the CL size and day 30 for pregnancy diagnosis which is confirmed per rectally by day 60 post AI. The mean values of serum progesterone at AI and on day 10 post AI were calculated and the relation was analyzed. Serum progesterone concentration at the time of AI and pregnancy status was negatively correlated indicating that when progesterone level drops < 0.3 ng/ml (basal level) at the time of AI, the chances of the animal becoming pregnant were more.

Title: Atypical Schistosoma Reflexus with Multiple Congenital Abnormalities in Hariana Cow
Abstract :

The present manuscript reports an unusual case of schistosomus reflexus in a Hariana cow. The clinical findings include free floating viscera, mandibular prognathism, unilateral Amelia, mild hydrocephalus but lacking the typical ventral curvature of spine.

Title: Schistosomus Reflexus in a Goat – A Case Report
Abstract :

A rare case of dystocia due to schistosomus reflexus in a goat and its successful management.

Title: Hair Histology and Ultrastructure of Few Wild and Semi-Wild Mammals: A Forensic Approach
Abstract :

Hair is physiologically an important structure as it protects the mammalian body from external injury, insect bite and electromagnetic rays. In modern days hair is considered as important tool of study in forensic science to solve the complicated vetero-legal cases. Forensic science deals with the exposition of those medical problems which by their nature have to come before the court of law. The examinations of hair from the scene of crime is extremely important in the criminal investigation as hair is an appendage of the skin and resist putrefaction; thus, is of an evidential value when other evidences are not available. The present investigation was undertaken to study the hair of few species of wild and semi wild mammals e.g. Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris), Indian one horn Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), Mithun (Bos frontalis), Barking deer (Cervulus muntjac) and Yak (Bos grunniens), to find out the specificity of the hair to the animal based on indices like colour, length, average diameter of the hair- shaft, cortico-medullary index and cuticular scale pattern to develop a base line information to solve the vetero-legal cases. Present study revealed that the cuticular scale pattern of tiger was coronal simple, imbricate crenate in rhinoceros, imbricate flattened in elephant, imbricate crenate in mithun, imbricate flattened in barking deer, and imbricate crenate in yak. Again, the mean diameter of their shafts (in μm) were found to be tiger 140 ± 0.417, rhinoceros 160 ± 1.199, elephant 200 ± 1.958, mithun 150 ± 2.665, barking deer 135 ± 1.864 and yak 150 ± 3.670. Therefore, a cumulative data derived from these indices are helpful to determine the species of animal they belong to.

Title: Effect of Pre-insemination Intrauterine Antibiotics on Conception Rate in Crossbred Cows
Abstract :
The repeat breeder crossbred endometritic cows (N = 30) were divided into three groups (n= 10, each), as Group I (Gentamicin IU given 6 hrs before AI) Group II (Cephapirin given 6 hrs before AI) and Group III (control cows, no IU antibiotic treatment). The cows in estrus were inseminated twice (12 hours apart, if not conceived at first, again inseminated at second heat) with good quality frozen thawed semen. Cervico- vaginal mucus and blood sample was collected and physic-biochemical properties (appearance, consistency, Whiteside test, pH, Total bacterial load) and Serum amyloid- A, were evaluated respectively. The overall conception rate of different groups (I to III) of cows were 60, 20 and 10 %, respectively. On the basis of recovery rate as well as conception rate Gentamicin found to be the best when compared to Cephapirin.
Title: Mechanisms Linking Heat Stress to Poor Reproductive Performance of Nigerian Indigenous Zebu Cows
Abstract :

Study was conducted to evaluate how heat stress affects follicular size, reproductive hormones, oestrus expression in different seasons. Twelve (n=12) zebu cows were utilized over a year. Ambient temperature, relative humidity was collected and THI value determined, rectal temperatures were also collected. Cows were synchronized for oestrus. Ultrasonic follicular studies were carried out until ovulation. Blood was collected to assayserum concentration of progesterone, oestradiol and Luteinizing hormones using Enzyme -Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique. Oestrus activities were monitored; follicular diameters at 42 hr were shorter P< 0.05 in cold dry season than hot dry and raining season. At 72 hr follicular diameters were longer P< 0.05 in hot dry season than cold dry and raining season. Time to peak of oestradiol was shorter P< 0.05 in cold dry season than hot dry and raining seasons. Amplitude of oestradiol was higher P< 0.05 in cold dry season than hot dry and raining seasons. Time to peak of LH surge was shorter P< 0.05 in cold dry season, than hot dry and raining season. Amplitude of LH surge was higher P< 0.05 in raining season than cold dry and hot dry season. Duration of LH surge was longer P< 0.05 in cold dry season, than hot dry and raining season. Mounting was higher P< 0.05 in cold dry season than raining and hot dry season. Conclusion: Heat stress has increased follicular size without increasing oestradiol concentration, reduced mounting, increased LH surge and progesterone concentration.

Title: Contents Vol. 10, No. 3, December 2020
Abstract :
Title: Subfertility in Buffaloes and the Association of Detected Milk Microbes
Abstract :
Lactogenesis is a complex physiology and an outcome of a successful reproductive cycle in mammalians. The purpose itself is to nourish the newborn with the nutrients necessary for its protection and growth a continuation from the in utero survival strategy. Thus, mammary development and physiology are intriguingly linked to the uterine changes that happen in a normal reproductive individual. Milk is a highly nutritious food that also favours the growth of microorganisms that can enter through the bloodstream or the discharge system. Briefly, the mastitis-induced release of inflammation mediators such as cytokines, interleukins, and prostaglandin F2α are established to be associated with infertility. Before breeding, mastitis can disrupt hormonal patterns (depression of estradiol production, delayed surge of luteinizing hormone) and delay ovulation. The issue of clinical mastitis is obvious but when subclinical mastitis persists for long the problem gets compounded. Thus, microbes get easily established in the mammary glands of buffaloes whose udder and teat anatomy, love for dirt, and swamp to wallow makes them more vulnerable exposing them to various kinds of pathogenic and opportunistic microbes. Buffaloes, by nature, have issues with silent heat, seasonal anestrus, more sensitive to direct radiation heat stress when faced with a pathological attack of infectious microbes in the milk chamber compromises their fertility.
Title: Successful C-section of a Non-descriptive Goat to Relieve from Dystocia
Abstract :
Present case study was associated with successful management of a pregnant doe from dystocia by caesarean section. A 1.5 years old pregnant non-descriptive doe was admitted in the TVCC, C.V.A.Sc., Pantnagar, Uttarakhand with a history of complete gestation period and prolonged labor (more than 12 hours). There was protrusion of both fetal forelimbs from the vaginal opening. Gynaecological examination revealed that the fetus was in Nape presentation. The case was diagnosed as dystocia due to abnormal fetal disposition. The animal was subjected to caesarean operation. The operation was performed under light sedation with 0.1 ml of xylazine and regional inverted L- block was also done with 2% Lignocaine. An oblique incision was given at left flank and recovery of one dead male fetus occurred. Post-operative treatment was done with Inj. Amoxicillin-sulbactum @10 mg/kg intramuscularly, Inj. Tribivet® 5 ml intramuscularly, Inj. Chlorpheniramine maleate @0.5 mg/kg intramuscularly, Meloxicum@0.5 mg/kg intramuscularly and NS 250 ml for five days. Local antiseptic dressing and fly repellant spray was advised for every alternative day. The skin suture was removed on 10th day post-surgery.
Title: Per-vaginal Management of a Fetal Ascites Intended Dystocia in a Cross Breed Cow: A Case Study
Abstract :

This article discussed about a case of per-vaginal management of dystocia in a cross breed cow due to fetal ascites cause. A 3.5 years old cross breed cow was presented at Mobile Veterinary Clinic, Gosaba Block, South 24 Paragans, West Bengal with a history of prolonged labor. The water bag was ruptured but there was no progression of parturition. Per-vaginal examination revealed that the cervix was completely dilated and the fetus was in anterior longitudinal presentation with an extremely distended abdomen. The case was diagnosed as dystocia due to fetal ascites. After epidural anesthesia, the abdominal wall of fetus was punctured with a fetotomy knife and about 5-7 liters of clear straw colored ascitic fluid was evacuated. Finally fetus was removed by gentle traction. Post operative therapy with antibiotics, analgesic, intravenous fluid and multivitamin successfully cured the animal.

Title: Contents Vol. 11, No. 1, April 2021
Abstract :
Title: A Study on Different Diagnostic Approach for Early Recognition of Canine Pyometra
Abstract :

The study aimed to evaluate ultrasonographic findings, radiography, and blood profile in 24 bitches presented for treatment of pyometra. Clinical symptoms such as anorexia, vaginal discharge, depression, polyuria/polydipsia, vomiting, and abdominal distension were seen. Among these various types of diagnostic approaches, ultrasonography a powerful tool for the early detection of uterine abnormalities. Before any clinical alterations could be noticed, ultrasonography allowed the diagnosis of pathologic abnormalities. Pyometra must be identified, diagnosed, and treated as soon as possible to achieve a successful outcome.

Title: Dystocia due to Twin Fetus in Bovine: A case report
Abstract :

A nondescript cattle was reported to dystocia with twin foetus that cause the impaction of maternal pelvis, after lubrication and obstetrical procedure per vaginal both fetus was expelled live with no complication.

Title: Successful Uterine Detorsion and its Therapeutic Management in a Doe
Abstract :

The present case describes successful uterine detorsion and its therapeutic management in a non-descript goat.

Title: Comparing the Clinical Efficacy of Mifepristone and Misoprostol Treatment Protocol for Induction of Parturition in Bitches
Abstract :

Successful management of parturition induction is a challenging task in canine. This study made to assess the efficacy of antiprogestagen mifepristone and prostaglandin misoprostol in induction of parturition in bitches. Total of 11 pregnant bitches with gestational age of more than 62 days confirmed by ultrasound scanning and not showing any sings of initiation of parturition were selected. Induction of parturition was initiated by mifepristone (3 mg/ kg b wt PO) twice a day or a combination of mifepristone (3 mg/kg b wt PO) and misoprostol (200 μg for < 20 kg, 400 μg for > 20 kg b wt, i/vg) 12 h after second dose of mifepristone. The combination of both drugs mifepristone and misoprostol was more effective for parturition induction.

Title: Studies on Haemto-biochemical and Physiological Parameters in Canine Pyometra
Abstract :

Canine pyometra is an acute or chronic polysystemic diestrual disorder mainly of mature nulliparous bitches. In this retrospective study, an attempt was made to analyse the physiological and haemato-biochemical parameters of a total of 22 affected bitches attended at Sneh Vet lab and Clinic Bhadra, Bhiwani, (Haryana). The findings revealed pyrexia and tachycardia with normal respiration rate in most of the pyometra affected bitches. Amongst the haemato-biochemical parameters, there were reduced levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte count, along with severe leucocytosis, neutrophilia with shift to left, lymphopenia, eosinophilia and elevated BUN and serum creatinine in the bitches affected with pyometra suggesting bone marrow and renal damage. However, the mean values of mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin as well as serum ALT and AST were within the normal range, confirming normocytic normochromic anaemia without liver dysfunction.

Title: Contents Vol. 11, No. 2, December 2021
Abstract :
Title: Therapeutic Management of Prolonged Postpartum Anoestrus in a Crossbred Jersey Cattle without Hormonal Intervention: A Case Report
Abstract :

The present case study discuss about the therapeutic management of prolonged postpartum anoestrus in a crossbred Jersey cattle without any hormonal intervention. A three and half years old cattle having approximate 250 kg body weight was presented to an animal health camp held on Burdhaman district in West Bengal state (India) with a history of postpartum anoestrus. According to the cattle owner the animal hasn’t shown any symptoms of estrus cycle even after five months of first calving. On per-rectal examination the animal failed to reveal distinctly palpable corpus luteum in the ovaries with apparently normal uterus. In this case, at first the cattle was dewormed then managed with supportive therapy by giving vitamins and minerals supplements. For better result ovarian massage was given also. The owner informed that animal came to heat after one month of treatment and now the animal is three months pregnant after conceiving through artificial insemination.