Highly significant effects of environment (E), G×E interaction and genotypes (G) were observed by AMMI analysis during 2018–19 and 2019–20 study years for wheat genotypes evaluated at major locations of Peninsular zone of the country. WAASB measure observed suitability of HI 1605, HI 8805 & HI 8802 genotypes. Superiority index while weighting 0.65 and 0.35 for yield & stability found MACS 6695, HI 1605 & NIAW 3170 as of stable performance with high yield. PRVG and MHPRVG measures observed suitability of NIAW 3170, MACS 6695 & MACS 6696 wheat genotypes. Moreover, the average yield of genotypes ranked NIAW 3170, MACS 6695 & MACS 6696 as of order of choice. SI expressed only negative values of correlations most of other stability measures except of MHPRVG, PRVG, yield. WAASB measure exhibited direct relationships with other measures analogous of negative values with MASV, SI, MHPRVG, PRVG, yield. Analytic measures MHPRVG & PRVG had only positive values with SI, and yield remaining stability measures maintained negative values. MP1358, NIDW1149 & NIAW3170 would be suitable genotypes as per WAASB measure during second year of study. Superiority index found MP1358, NIAW3170 & MACS4087 as of stable performance with high yield. PRVG and MHPRVG measures observed suitability of MP1358, HI1605 & MACS4087 wheat genotypes. More over the average yield of genotypes ranked MP1358, MACS4087 & HI1605 as of order of choice. SI expressed mostly negative values other measures except of weak direct relation with MASV1, MASV along with strong with yield, MHPRVG & PRVG measures. WAASB measure exhibited direct relationships with other measures and indirect with only MASV1& SI.

Stability measure WAASB based on all significant interaction principal components observed suitability of wheat genotypes associated with lower values of measure.

Superiority index provided variable weighting mechanism between stability and yield of genotypes under multi environment trials. Assigning 0.65 and 0.35 weights to yield & stability respectively selected wheat genotypes of stable performance with high yield.

Recent analytic measures of stability PRVG and MHPRVG measures expressed strong association with superiority index.

Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model had been most widely used analytic tool to analyse and estimate GxE interaction in multi environmental trials (

Mainly Maharashtra and Karnataka states represents the Peninsular zone of our country. All three species of wheat viz T.

where _{i}. is the weighted average of absolute scores of the i^{th} genotype (or environment); _{k}^{th} genotype (or environment) in the k^{th} _{k}^{th}

where, _{i}^{th} genotype; _{i}^{th} genotype that weights between yield and stability, and θ_{Y} and θ_{S} are the weights for yield and stability assumed to be of order 65 and 35 respectively in this study, AMMI analysis was performed using AMMISOFT version 1.0, available at https://scs.cals.cornell.edu/ people/ hugh-gauch/ and SAS software version 9.3. Stability measures had been compared with recent analytic measures of adaptability calculated as the relative performance of genetic values (PRVG) and harmonic mean based measure of the relative performance of the genotypic values (MHPRVG) for the simultaneous analysis of stability, adaptability and yield (

The AMMI model is comprised of additive main effects of genotype and environment, and the multiplicative effect of GxE interaction, and thus can explain more information compared to other methods (

Low absolute value of IPCA1 expressed by G7, G5, G9 and higher value achieved by G3 (

Stability alone is not a desirable selection criterion as stable genotypes may not be a high yielders, simultaneous use of yield and stability in a single measure is essential (

Loadings of stability measures as per first two significant principal components for evaluated wheat genotypes were reflected in

Measure |
PC1 |
PC2 |
---|---|---|

IPCA1 |
-0.284 |
-0.049 |

MASV1 |
-0.269 |
-0.164 |

MASV |
-0.263 |
0.050 |

ASV1 |
-0.285 |
-0.034 |

ASV |
-0.288 |
-0.058 |

Za |
-0.287 |
-0.190 |

EV |
-0.239 |
0.044 |

SIPC |
-0.287 |
-0.169 |

ASTAB |
-0.275 |
-0.226 |

WAASB |
-0.172 |
-0.637 |

SI |
-0.285 |
0.152 |

MHPRVG |
-0.261 |
0.373 |

PRVG |
-0.261 |
0.373 |

Yield |
-0.261 |
0.373 |

% variance |
79.98 |
11.46 |

Average yield expressed only significant positive correlations with SI, ASTAB, MHPRVG, PRVG & EV (

Biplot analysis of stability measures for wheat genotypes evaluated under MET (2018-19)

Analytic measures MHPRVG & PRVG had only positive values with SI, and yield remaining stability measures maintained negative values. AMMI based measures Za, SIPC, SV, ASV1, MASV1 and ASTAB achieved only positive correlation values among themselves and with others (

Biplot analysis of stability measures for wheat genotypes evaluated under MET (2019-20)

Measure |
PC1 |
PC2 |

IPCA1 |
-0.281 |
-0.044 |

MASV1 |
-0.238 |
0.179 |

MASV |
-0.258 |
-0.008 |

ASV1 |
-0.278 |
-0.142 |

ASV |
-0.280 |
-0.162 |

Za |
-0.285 |
0.174 |

EV |
-0.272 |
-0.082 |

SIPC |
-0.282 |
-0.112 |

ASTAB |
-0.288 |
-0.301 |

WAASB |
-0.117 |
-0.662 |

SI |
-0.292 |
-0.144 |

MHPRVG |
-0.284 |
0.313 |

PRVG |
-0.284 |
0.313 |

Yield |
-0.254 |
0.353 |

% variance |
67.98 |
13.87 |

Highly significant effects of environment (E), G×E interaction and genotypes (G) had been observed by AMMI analysis. Environment explained about significantly 33.7% of the total sum of squares due to treatments indicating that diverse environments caused most of the variations in genotypes yield (

Wheat genotypes G5, G10, G1 expressed least value of IPCA1 and higher value achieved by G3 (

Least ranks of IPCA1 measure considered MP1358, NIAW3170 & NIDW1149 were as stable with high yield, whereas high values suggested as least stable yield for UAS446 (

Loadings of stability measures as per first two significant principal components for evaluated wheat genotypes were reflected in

Mean yield showed mostly positive correlations and only negative values expressed towards Za and IPCA1. Similar behaviour of MHPRVG & PRVG measures seen with other stability measures (

AMMI model is an effective tool to study GxE interaction in multi-environment yield trials. Stability measures by simultaneous use of AMMI model and yield would be more meaning full and useful as compared to measures consider either the AMMI or yield of genotypes only. The stability measures found to be correlated well with each other. Measures MASV, MASV1, WAAB and SI could be used to identify stable high-yielding genotypes. Stability measures by simultaneous use of AMMI model and yield would be more meaning full and useful as compared to measures consider either the AMMI or yield of genotypes only.

The wheat genotypes were evaluated at research fields at coordinated centers of AICW&BIP across the country. First author sincerely acknowledge the hard work of all the staff for field evaluation and data recording of wheat genotypes.