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IJAEB - volume 6 - Issue 2

[<<< GO BACK ][ VOLUME 6 - ISSUE 2 ]

Title: Profiling of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Jaunpuri Giant Raddish Rhizosphere
Abstract :Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to influence plant growth by various direct or indirect mechanisms. Jaunpuri Giant Newar variety of radish was selected to study the PGPR profiling due to its peculiar growth features.The analysis of PGPR was based on their plant growth promotion (PGP) attributes, requirement of carbon substrates, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and 16S rDNA homology. In search of efficient PGPR strains associated with radish cv. Jaunpuri Giant Newar rhizosphere, a total 115 isolates were randomly selected and screened for PGP attributes, out of which twenty isolates showing multifarious PGP traits were selected for detailed study. Metabolic characterization of representative strains revealed a large versatility with respect to carbon utilization. ARDRA revealed ten clusters composed of 1–5 strains. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the isolates were identiûed as Micrococcus luteus, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas sp., Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Leifsonia sp., P. aeruginosa, B. cereus, B. licheniformis, Nesterenkonia terrae. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report from India as far as systematic, genetic and functional diversity of PGPR in radish rhizosphere region is concerned. Additionally, the generated information may serve as a baseline data for developing effective bio-inoculants to improve plant growth and biotic stress management of radish in an eco-compatible manner. Highlights • A total of 115 isolates were obtained from rhizospheric region of Radish cv. Jaunpuri Giant Newar. • Among115, 20 isolates showing multiple PGP traits were characterized by BIOLOG, RFLP and ARDRA. • Representative isolates from each group resulted from ARDRA were identified by 16S rDNA sequence homology. • Most of the identified isolates were related to genera Bacillus followed by Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Agrobacterium, Micrococcus, Leifsonia and Nesterenkonia.
Title: Effect of Sr2+ on Mitotic Activity and Chromosomal Behavior in Root Meristem of Allium cepa L.
Abstract :The effect of Strontium chloride ranging from 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm on the mitotic activity and chromosomal behavior in root meristem of Allium cepa for 24h, 48h and 72h was studied. Accumulation of Sr2+ in the root meristem reduced the root growth of Allium cepa which was determined using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer) using strontium lamp-68 at 460 nm.Concentrations higher than 20 ppm of Sr2+ applied for 24h were toxic for Allium cepa. The non-lethal concentrations of Sr2+ showed an inhibitory effect on cell division in root tips of Allium cepa and caused a decrease in their mitotic index values. All treatments changed the frequency of mitotic phases as compared with the control values. Sr2+ treatments produced a number of mitotic abnormalities in dividing cells in root tips of plants resulting from its action on the spindle apparatus such as C-metaphases, lagging chromosomes and multipolar anaphases and Binucleate. The induction of chromosomal stickiness and chromosomal aberrations such as bridges and breaks indicates its action on the chromosome. These abnormalities (chromosome breaks and chromosomal bridges at ana–telophases) indicate true clastogenic potential of the ions tested.
Title: In-silico Interaction Studies of Alternaria brassicae Toxin Destruxin B and Potential Partners of MAPK4 Cascade
Abstract :Alternaria blight is one of the important fungal diseases of Brassica plant which leads to major yield losses as well as deterioration in quality. Plant responds toward fungal attack through intricate signal transduction pathways involving MAPKs. In the present study an effort was taken to delineate the MAP kinase pathway involving MAPK4 through in-silico interaction studies. Here we have reported that destruxin B has strong interaction with Lys M receptor kinase and Lys M receptor and toxin interaction was differential with different host. Lys M receptor kinase showed strong interaction with MAPKKK19. Out of ten MAPKKs known four MAPKK viz. MAPKK3, MAPKK5, MAPKK8 and MAPKK9 showed good interaction with MAPK4. Among these four interacting MAPKKs, MAPKK9 showed best interaction with MAPKKK19. At the downstream of the cascade MAPK4 showed strong interaction with WRKY 25 and WRKY 40.The results of the present study clearly indicate the role of MAPK4 in plant defense against Alternaria blight.
Title: Screening of Endophytic Bacterial Isolates of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Roots for their Multiple Plant Growth Promoting Activities
Abstract :A total of eighteen endophytic bacterial isolates from tea roots were screened for their multiple plant growth promoting activities including indole acetic acid production (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, ammonia production and siderophore production. All the isolates subjected for characterization were IAA producers Production of IAA was found to be remarkable in ER7 (10.45 µg/ml), ER14 (11.80 µg/ml), ER15 (11.40 µg/ml) and ER17 (16.22µg/ml). Among the isolates, seven were siderophore producers, five were phosphate solubilizers and twelve were found to be ammonia producers. Proper implementation of these plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria will open a new area in organic tea cultivation.
Title: Micropropagation Study of Jatropha curcas for Enhancing Shoot Induction Frequency
Abstract :Jatropha curcas, is an upcoming energy source, which promises to mitigate energy crisis and environmental pollution. Jatropha seeds (0.4-12 tons/ha/yr) contain oil (30-40%) which is non edible due to the toxins such as phorbol esters, trypsin inhibitors,lectins and phylates. Various combinations of auxins with cytokinins were used for regeneration study. The best shoot regeneration (80%) was observed in MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.125ppm) and BAP (1.5ppm). Root induction was successfully obtained in plane MS/MS with auxins. Acclimatization and hardening was quite successful with survival rate of 60%.
Title: Biotechnological Tools for Conservation of Bioresources
Abstract :The rate of loss of natural habitants including forest and bioresources are not only a serious but a complex issue due to several reasons viz. deforestation, agricultural land degradation, ignorance of people, escalating population density, immigration of people toward urban areas etc. On the other hand forest and bioresources offer a variety of habitants for plants, animals and microorganisms. Therefore, conservation and sustainable use of bioresources is the need of the hour. The preference of conservation methods and technologies depends upon the prevailing objective, conservation efforts, breeding methods, adoption and behaviour of the species in question as well as available resources including funds, infrastructure, trained personal, and technologies. The biotechnology implies an approach of creation, invention and innovation. Biotechnological tools can be used to improve and conserve agriculture, horticulture, animals, medicine and environment. In the present article, conservation of bioresources has been highlighted covering multifaceted tools of biotechnology viz. plant genetic resources, micropropagation, in vitro conservation, cryopreservation, tissue culture, molecular markers, somatic hybridization and genetic engineering.
Title: CO2, CH4 and N2O production potential of paddy soil after biogas byproducts application under waterlogged condition
Abstract :The increase in the biofuel production has generated a lot of byproducts. These are rich in various plant nutrients. The laboratory incubation can provide an idea of their effects on soil and environment, and fertilizer applicability before field application. In the present study, two types of biogas byproducts were selected as biochar and digested liquid. Two concentrations of each was applied to the paddy soil (Regosol), and incubated under the submerged conditions. Biochar treated soil produced the highest methane and carbon dioxide than the untreated soil due to high carbon content. Digested liquid treated soil produced the lowest concentration of both gases even lower than the control. It may be because of toxic effects of ammonium-N on methanogens. Digested liquid treated soil produced the highest nitrous oxide; whereas difference was not significantly different for the control and biochar treated soil. However, cumulative production of each gas showed that production of nitrous oxide was negligible in each treated soil due to the waterlogged condition. As expected, each treated soil produced little nitrate under this experimental set up.
Title: Optimization and Validation of LLE/HPLC-DAD Method to Determine the Residues of Selected PAHs in Surface Water
Abstract :A rapid precise and accurate method was optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of 6 PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthrene, anthracene and pyrene) in water by HPLC and their distribution in surface water (water from Yamuna river in Wazirabad and Okhla region and Aakulam lake, Kerala) were undertaken. The High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) separation of 6 PAHs was carried out by C-18 column with gradient elution of acetonitrile and water with diode-array detection (DAD). The method was optimized by using liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) with different solvent like hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate and extract cleaned by adsorption column cleanup using different adsorbent like silica gel, alumina and florisil. Among the three solvents used for LLE, dichloromethane gave maximum extraction efficiency (70.27- 91.09%). For the cleanup of water extract, a florisil column using 20:80 acetone:hexane as the eluting solvent gave recovery of 91.2- 97.2 µg and 8.9-9.6 µg at 100 µg and 10 µg of PAHs loaded in the column, respectively. The total method recovery using dichloromethane as the extracting solvent and 20:80 acetone: hexane as the eluting solvent for florisil column clean up varied from 71.02-89.74%. Limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantiûcation (LOQ), and correlation coefficients were found in the range of 0.1 to 1.5 ìg L-1, 0.5 to 4 ìg L-1 and 0.994 to 0.999, respectively. No residues of PAHs were detected in any of the water samples other than the Okhla water samples. The PAHs detected in Okhla water sample were phenanthrene (3.51 µg L-1) and fluoranthrene (4.61 µg L-1).
Title: Fungal Diversity in the Rhizosphere of Tropical Homestead and Plantation Crops of Kerala
Abstract :A study was conducted on the fungal diversity in the home gardens of three important districts of Kerala. The rhizosphere and rhizoplane samples were collected from different homestead crops representing diverse and distinct areas of coastal region (Ernakulum district), High range (Wayanad) and Dry region (Palakkad district) districts of Kerala. Fungal population was highest (82 x103 cfu g-1 of soil) in black pepper (Wayanad) followed by coconut (70 x 103 cfu g-1 of soil) in Ernakulam and 22 x103 cfu g-1 of soil in banana (Palakkad). There was greater diversity of fungi in the homesteads of Ernakulam, Wayanad and Palakkad districts. In all the three districts surveyed, Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were predominant fungi in most of the crops and or locations, even though other fungi were also recorded. However, there functional diversity needs to be studied and harnessed in order to assess the beneficial effects and relative efficiency on the host plants.
Title: Co-inoculated Biopriming with Trichoderma,Pseudomonas and Rhizobium Improves Crop Growth in Cicer arietinum and Phaseolus vulgaris
Abstract :A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of three rhizosphere competent microbial strains, viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens OKC, Trichoderma asperellum T42 and Rhizobium sp. RH4, individually and in combination in bioprimed seeds of chickpea and rajma. Seeds were sown in pots and fields and the results demonstrated that bioprimed seeds showed higher germination percentage, and better plant growth in both the crops compared to non-bioprimed control plants. It was also observed that the combined application of the microbes enhanced seed germination and plant growth better than their individual application.Among the combinations all combinations comprising of Trichoderma showed better results compared to the others and the triple microbial combination demonstrated best results in terms of seed germination and seedling growth in both chickpea and rajma.
Title: Soil Test Based Fertilizer Recommendation of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulphur in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in an Alluvial Soil
Abstract :Soil test crop response correlation involving integrated plant nutrition system (STCR-IPNS) studies on nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) in wheat on an Inceptisol, New Delhi, India were carried out following Ramamoorthy’s ‘inductive cum targeted yield model’. After establishment of marked fertility gradient with respect to soil available N, P and S, four levels of fertilizer N, P, S and three levels of farmyard manure (FYM) were randomized in three fertility strips each having twenty four plots. Soil and plant analysis data were further used to compute basic parameters required for development of nutrient prescription equation. The nutrient requirement for producing one quintal of wheat grain yield was worked out as 2.26 kg of N, 0.40 kg of P and 0.54 kg of S.Soil available pool contributed 26.15, 50.06 and 52.55 % to total N, P and S uptake, respectively; contribution from applied fertilizer were 42.31, 25.12 and 46.39% and contribution from applied FYM were 27.95, 11.21 and 17.66% to total N, P and S uptake by wheat.Using basic data, fertilizer prescription equations and ready reckoner were developed for range of soil test values and desired yield targets for NPS alone and IPNS (NPS with FYM).
Title: Effect of Different Form of Phosphorous Nutrition on Growth and Yield of Cauliflower (Brassica Olaracea Var. Botrytis L.)
Abstract :A field experiment was conducted at Naggar Farm of I.A.R.I., Regional Station Katrain, (Kullu Valley) H.P. during 2005-06 and 2006- 07 with cauliflower var. Pusa Snowball K-1. The experiment was laid out laid out in a randomized block design with 3 replications. There were ten treatments comprising of different sources of phosphorous. These were T-1 100% phosphorous ( Single Super Phosphate), T-2 100% Phosphorous (Rock Phosphate), T-3 50% phosphorous (Rock Phosphate) + Psolubiliser + Vascular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM), T-4 VAM, T-5 P solubiliser, T-6 100% Phosphorous (Rock Phosphate) + 15 t/ha Farm Yard Mannure, T-7 Liming + 50% phosphorous(Single Super Phosphate), T-8 15 t/ha Pine needle compost, T-9 15 t/ha Rice straw compost and T-10 control. The maximum curd yield were recorded with 50% P (R.P.) + P solubiliser + VAM (415.30 q/ha) followed by liming + 50% P (SSP 387.22 q/ha) and maximum growth were recorded with 50% P (R.P.) + P solubiliser + VAM 1339.73 cm2)followed by 100% P (R.P.) + 15t/ha FYM (1097.57 cm2).
Title: Sustainable Land Resource Management Practices for Jute Cultivation through the Identification of Production Factors and Soil Nutrient Mapping
Abstract :
Jute is the second most important fibre crop in India after cotton. There is a problem of non-uniform productivity over 87 jute
growing districts located in varying agro-climatic regions of the country including 17 jute growing districts of West Bengal. In
West Bengal relatively higher productivity is observed in South Bengal than in North Bengal., Factors of production were identified through field survey and interaction with the farmers in a participatory mode. The experiment was conducted during 2007 to 2009 at Dakshin Dinajpur district of North Bengal with the aim of determining critical production factors of jute and also
to overcome the productivity constraints through soil mapping followed by soil fertility management. The results revealed that fertilizer management is the most critical factor of production followed by weed management. The soil resource mapping indicated that the experimental soils were having acute acidity problem followed by deficiency in some macro and micro nutrients which are certainly responsible for yield decline of jute in these areas.
Title: Effect of Putrescine and Calcium on Colour Changes of Stored Peach Fruits
Abstract :
Peach is a climacteric and highly perishable fruit and it losses its quality in a short time after harvesting. During storage browning of fruits deteriorates its quality. Pre-harvest sprays of putrescine (PUT) and calcium nitrate at three concentrations each viz. 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mmol L-1 and 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% respectively were done 10 and 20 days before harvesting to maintain the quality during 40 days of storage. Physiologically mature peach fruits were harvested from treated plants, packed in CFB boxes and stored at 0 to
1° C and 90-95 % RH. Results revealed that all the treatments significantly effected the fruit colour development during storage. The maximum colour development was observed in control fruits, followed by calcium nitrate @ 0.5% (sprayed 20 days before harvesting) treatment. Fruits treated with putrescine @ 3 mmol L-1 showed mean minimum values of “a” and “b”, followed by putrescine @ 2 mmol L-1 and calcium nitrate @ 2% (sprayed 10 days before harvesting). It can be concluded that putrescine and
calcium nitrate treatments slowed the colour development process during storage.
Title: Effect of Plant Biostimulants on Growth, Chlorophyll Content, Flower Drop and Fruit Set of Pomegranate Cv. Kandhari Kabuli
Abstract :
The experiment was laid out in the pomegranate experimental block of the Department of Fruit Science, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh. The experiment consisted of 19 treatments with three replications. The pomegranate trees under investigation were subjected to different concentrations of biostimulants viz. Vipul (TRIA) (5 ml/l, 10 ml/l, 15 ml/l), Spic cytozyme (1 ml/l, 2 ml/l, 4 ml/l), Homobrassinolides (Godrej Double) (0.5 ml/l, 1 ml/l, 1.5 ml/l),Biozyme Crop Plus (1 ml/l, 2 ml/l, 3 ml/l) and Vipul + Homobrassinolides (0.5 + 5 ml/l, 1 + 5 ml/l, 1.5 + 5 ml/l, 5 + 0.5 ml/l, 5 + 1 ml/l, 5 + 1.5 ml/l). The results revealed that the highest tree growth was recorded in trees treated with Spic cytozyme at 4 ml/l. The highest total chlorophyll content was observed with the application of Vipul 15ml/l, whereas the highest fruit set and minimum flower drop was recorded with the application of Vipul + Homobrassinolides (1.5 + 5 ml/l).
Title: Comparison of Neuro-Fuzzy and Regression Models for Prediction of Outflow of on-farm Reservoir
Abstract :
Neuro-fuzzy and regression models predicting of outflow of an on farm reservoir of 300 m3 capacity, located at Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi site of India, were developed and validated using crop water requirement, evaporation losses and farm pond inflow data. The outflow predicted by these two models was compared with each other. It is raveled that Neuro-Fuzzy model predicted the outflow with high coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.98, model efficiency (E) of 0.97 and absolute average deviation (AAD) of 0.002. The regression model was found to be inferior with R2 = 0.940.78, E = 0.72 and AAD = 0.031. MATLAB software was used for development of Neuro-Fuzzy and regression model.
Title: Present Status of Renewable Energy Sources in Punjab
Abstract :
The present energy generating systems in developing countries depend largely on local resources: wood, straw, dung for burning, hydraulic power for water wheels and electric power generation and whatever fossil fuel supplies are locally available. A country’s energy requirements often are not fully met by these local resources and foreign-currency resources must be expended to import the needed fossil fuel. In most developing countries, the economic base and the majority of the population are still rural and machinery that requires energy (especially fossil fuel) is not heavily utilized. However, the lack of cheap and adequate energy often hampers rural development plans and retards improvement in the quality of rural life. As on March, 2007, the cumulative grid-interactive power-generating capacity from renewable energy sources was about 9372 MW (6315 MW – wind energy, 1905 MW – small hydro power, 1152 MW – bio power), contributing about 7% of the total installed power-generating capacity in the country. In addition to power generation, renewable energy is being used for a variety of other applications in the country such as cooking, heating domestic water, drying crops, heating in industrial process, and so on. Status of Renewable Energy Sources in Punjab as on March 31, 2012 was studied in details in the fields of biogas technology (1, 30,000 family size and 45 power generation plants), biomass power plants (42 projects of 375 MW capacity), 23 projects of solar energy (10 MW power generations and other applications of solar energy) and hydro power (56 projects of 72 MW capacity).
Title: Forecasting of Productivity and Pod Damage by Helicoverpa armigera using Artificial Neural Network Model in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)
Abstract :
Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is one of the most important food legume, making it an ideal supplement to traditional cereals, which are generally protein-deficient. So, due to its high nutritional value and enormous losses caused by insect pests, it is very important to forecast the damage caused by major insect-pests and the yield of this crop. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed to forecast productivity (Kg/ha) and percent pod damage by a key insect pest Helicoverpa armigera of long duration pigeonpea in North East Plain Zone (NEPZ) of India. The forecasted values of percent pod damage by
this pest and productivity of Pigeonpea during 2012-13 were obtained as 26.29% and 1137.40 kg/ha, respectively. The performance of the model was assessed by values of the mean squared error, and the model was found suitable for the problem under study.