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IJAEB - Volume 6 - Issue 4s

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Title: Low Cost Tissue Culture Technology for the Regeneration of Some Economically Important Plants for Developing Countries
Abstract :
Plant tissue culture, an ecofriendly technology includes micropropagation which leads to mass propagation of true to type, high quality planting material of ornamentals, medicinal crops plantation crops, fruit and forest trees etc within a limited period . It has provided challenging opportunities in global trading of tissue culture saplings as well as cut flowers for export as well as for domestic use in developing countries like India. This area has created new avenues for entreprenureurs. But the main bottleneck is the high cost of tissue culture planting materials compared to the conventionally propagated saplings. It is a capital-intensive industry, and in some cases the unit cost per plant becomes unaffordable. Hence, it is necessary to adopt strategies to reduce
production cost and lower the cost per plant. This paper deals with various low cost tissue culture techniques which can be adopted by small scale entreprenures in Indian conditions Bioreactors provide more precise control of the plant growth gaseous exchange, illumination, medium agitation, temperature and pH than the conventional culture vessels. However, to be costeffective, use of bioreactors requires indexed plant cultures, and attention to aseptic procedures during handling of plant material otherwise culture contamination leads to massive economic loss. Plants hardened under natural light are sturdy, and withstand transplantation better in the field. Careful planning of a facility can make large savings both in the construction costs and day-to day operations in the facility. The primary application of micropropagation has been to produce elite planting material irrespective
of season or crop, which in turn leads to increased productivity in agriculture as well as better economy to developing nations like India.
Title: Photodynamic Potential Of Curcumin Nanoparticle With Chitosan On Adherent Canine Tumour Cell Line A72
Abstract :
Cancer is a highly incomprehensible and complex disease. Current treatment strategies are associated with adverse toxicities like multidrug resistance by cancer cells, destruction of normal cells, hair loss etc. The present work was aimed to use the natural photo sensitizer curcumin from C. longa and C.aromatica in nanoscale along with chitosan for the Photo Dynamic Therapy of cancer using adherent canine tumour cell line A72.Curcumin was extracted from C. longa and C.aromatica with water, acetone and ethanol. Light Source used for PDT was 12V Philips Endura LED 7W MR16 dimmable lamp. Photo sensitizers and nano materials were characterized by AFM and UV-Vis spectrum. Photosensitizers from 50µg/50µl to 0.393µg/50µl was used for toxicity assay . Toxicity of all photosensitizers were evaluated in darkness and light by MTT assay. Acetone extraction of C.longa yielded comparatively more curcumin than ethanol and water. Yield of curcumin was 0.25%, 0.16and 0.05% in acetone, ethanol and water respectively . UV-Vis absorption spectrum of curcumin showed peak at 425 nm. In darkness the toxicity of curcumin to A72 was 9% and curcumin nano particle was 11% at a concentration of 50 µg/50µl .Cellular toxicity by light alone was found to be 2%.
Title: Rapid in vitro Multiplication of Eulophia Cullenii (Wight) Blume - a Rare, Endemic and Exquisite Orchid of Southern Western Ghats
Abstract :
As part of a conservation programme to multiply Western Ghats orchids, green pod culture of Eulophia cullenii, a rare, endemic exquisite and therapeutically important orchid of Western Ghats was attempted. Green pod culture of E. cullenii, was tested in three different culture media viz. Mitra et al., Knudson C, and Wimber media. Mature seeds released from a three month old the green pod of E. cullenii were cultured in the above mentioned liquid nutrient media supplemented with different organic additives
like casein acid hydrolysate (CH), peptone (P), yeast extract (YE) and coconut water (CW). Mitra nutrient medium supplemented with 0.05% CH (w/v) supported highest percentage (70%) seed germination. CW was found be inhibitory for seed germination in all the media tried. Protocorm after 60 days in liquid medium were transferred to solid Mitra medium containing same additives. Protocorm proliferation was noticed in Mitra basal and organic supplemented medium and maximum of an average of 15 daughter protocorms within 8 weeks of culture in solid basal Mitra medium. Proliferated protocorm when transferred to Mitra basal medium within 8 weeks leafy shoots with root initials and initiation of in vitro rhizome were obtained. These seedling again transferred to fresh basal medium healthy seedling with in vitro derived rhizome were formed within 8 weeks of culture. After the third subculture in solid medium, the healthy rooted seedlings with in vitro developed rhizome obtained were transferred to community pots
containing sand and farmyard manure (1:1) and 79% survival rate was obtained after one year of establishment.
Title: Effect of Ethanol on Membrane Stability in Oreochromis Mossambicus (Peters)
Abstract :
Excess production and usage of ethanol as an alternative fuel has resulted in frequent ethanol spillage, which brings about massive fish kills arising due to depletion in oxygen content by ethanol, and data available so far on the impact of ethanol on aquatic ecosystems are scarce. The present investigates the alterations in the membrane stability after in vitro and in vivo exposure of fish erythrocytes and lysosomes to ethanol at different sub lethal concentrations. Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) was selected as an animal model and the LC50 value of ethanol was found to be 13.01 g/l. Ethanol brings about considerable damage to the RBCs when subjected to in vitro and in vivo conditions of different ethanol concentrations and it was
found to be highly significant at 0.1% level. Similarly a significant decrease (P<0.001) in lysosomal fraction of â-glucuronidase and acid phosphatase activities were observed both in in vitro and in vivo studies. Ethanol induced mutilations to the membrane of RBCs and lysosomes when subjected to different concentrations of ethanol both in in-vivo and in vitro conditions are found to be very momentous.
Title: Photocatalytic Activity of Zinc Sulphate Nano Material on Phytopathogens
Abstract :
Phytopathogens cause both qualitative and quantitative loss in all areas of agricultural practices. Phytopathogens are controlled by pesticides but it is associated with side effects. Most organisms develop resistance to pesticides and high concentration of pesticide is phyto toxic. Hence the present study is aimed to assess the potential application of nano dimensional zinc sulphate
as a photo catalyst to control Xanthomonas campestris, X.malvacearum, Pseudomonas solanacearum and P.syringae. Nano material of zinc sulphate was produced by ball milling method. It was characterized by SEM and XRD. Antimicrobial activity of Zinc sulphate was evaluated by well diffusion method. 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1% and 1.0% of zinc sulphate nano material was used to study its influence on growth and death kinetics of all phytopathogens. Size of zinc sulphatenano material was 100 nm and it showed sharp peaks in XRDcorresponding to zinc sulphate. Zinc sulphate at a concentration of 100 µg/100 µl exhibited microbicidal activity with an inhibition zone of 18mm, 14mm, 12mm, 10 mm against P.solanacearum, P.syringae, X.malvacearum and X.campestris respectively.In growth kinetics study, P.solanacearum without any photocatalyst had a lag phase up to 30 minutes and the
presence of photocatalyst extended it upto 90 minutes. At 90min the cfu/ml was 38.5 x 108, 11.7 x 108, 10.73 x 108,10.22 x 108 ,1.93 x
108 in control,0.01%,0.05%,0.1% and 1.0 % respectively.1% of Zinc sulphatenano material was very effective in controlling and destroying all phytopathogens from one hour onwards. Hence the present study explores the possibility of applying zinc nano material as a photo catalyst to control phytopathogens.
Title: Bioactive Metabolite from Aphyllophorales sp. an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Breguiera Cylindrica
Abstract :
The significance of natural products in the drug discovery and development has been reported extensively. The natural products from mangrove fungi, which are known to be a rich source of bioactive metabolites, are of biotechnological interest. As most of these fungi grow in a unique and extreme habitat, they certainly will play a crucial role in meeting the demand for screening novel bioactive compounds. This is the first report on isolation of basidiomycete endophytic fungus, Aphyllophorales sp. (JQ34006)
from mangrove plants, Breguiera cylindrica. Among the 44 strains isolated, the ethyl acetate extract of Aphyllophorales sp. exhibited pronounced activity in preliminary antimicrobial screening. The isolated bioactive compound showed an Rf value of 1.5 in Thin layer chromatograpy (TLC) analysis. In high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) a prominent peak was detected at retention time 2.314 minutes. The FT-IR analysis showed the presence of a benzene ring in the compound represented by characteristic functional group vibrations. The isolate exhibited protease activity. The results indicated that further investigations are still needed to discover other potential of this isolate.
Title: In silico Target Deconvolution of Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane) Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Abstract :
In relation to its antiviral properties, curcumin at higher concentrations is found to lower the growth of Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) infected with RSV. However the mechanism of action curcumin in RSV remains unknown. This analysis unlocks the ways to increase the killing of RSV even at lower concentrations of
curcumin, also preventing apoptosis of the host cells when concentration of curcumin is increased (if a higher concentration is needed). The study has identified the viral proteins RNA polymerase L and Ribonucleoprotein N to be susceptible targets in RSV for binding of curcumin or curcumin bioconjugates to combat the virus
Title: Importance of Plants in the Restoration and Environment Development – A Case Study
Abstract :
St. Francis Assisi called sun “My brother sun” and moon “My sister moon”. This Fransican thought has come to the present day world more amplified. Now we know that we, human beings are not isolated beings. We are related to grass, trees, birds, spiders, animals, earth, air and water. Everyone is a part of universal web.
Title: Characterization of Sugar Binding Lectins Isolated from Different Parts of Eudrilus Eugeniae
Abstract :
Lectins occur widely in animal and plant kingdom. In animals there is wide range of reports of presence of lectin in vertebrates and invertebrates, but their function is not fully understood in invertebrates. It may either have a role in the developmental stages or in the defense mechanism by providing immunity. In earthworm species like Eudrilus eugeniae presence of lectin like proteins, were reported. The aim of this study is to isolate the sugar binding lectin like proteins from Coelomocytes (CC), muscles (MC), gut/whole body (WE) & vermicompost (VC) of earthworms and characterize them. Partially purified lectins were estimated for their protein content by Biuret method and it was observed that lectins isolated from CC have more protein content of 0.178 mg/ml as compared to any other source. Their sugar binding specificity was checked by DNS method and it was observed that CC lectins
and VC lectins have more affinity for glucose (CC glu & VC glu) while MC lectin and WE lectins have more affinity for galactose (MC gal & WE gal).
Title: Influence of Calcium Phosphate Nano Gel Fertilizer Composite on Enzymes, Biomolecules and Yield of Abelmoschus Esculentus
Abstract :
Increase in population accompanied by decrease in the availability of cultivable lands and limited supply of water resources necessitates the urge to improve agricultural productivity in the available land. In the present study, the influence of Calcium Phosphate Nano Gel (CAPNG), urea, diammonium phosphate and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (FC) and Calcium Phosphate Nano Gel Fertilizer Composite (CAPNGFC) on germination, specific activity of amylase, protease, nitrate reductase, carbohydrates,
proteins, free aminoacids and yield performance of Abelmoschus esculentus was evaluated. CAPNG was prepared by coprecipatation method. CAPNG was characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD. Enzyme activities were assessed by the micromoles of product formed/min/mg protein and expressed in Units/mg protein. Aggregated network of CAPNG was observed with the size of 100 nm. The most intense peaks in XRD were in the range of 30 to 35°, which coincides with the peak of the amorphous nature. FTIR
spectra showed peaks at 603.68 cm-1 corresponding to phosphate.
Title: A Novel Approach for Enhancement of Lovastatin Production using Aspergillus Species
Abstract :
Submerged cultures (SmF) of filamentous fungi (Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavus) are widely used to produce commercially important metabolite lovastatin. Limited investigations have been made on optimization of the different nutrients and process parameters using standard optimization methods. No previous work has used statistical analysis in documenting the interactions between nutritional and process parameters in lovastatin production. With this lacunae, Plackett-Burman experimental design
was used for the first time to screen and investigate the effects of the nine factors —i.e. Source (lactose, glycerol and honey) and concentrations of carbon (40–80 g/L), source (mycological peptone and yeast extract) and concentrations of Nitrogen (5–25 g/L); pH of the fermentation process (6.0-7.6); Temperature of the fermentation process (24 oC –32 oC) ; Agitation (120 – 200 rpm) and Fermentation time (5–13 days) —on the concentrations of lovastatin produced in batch cultures (SmF) of Aspergillus terreus
(newly discovered strains (nhceup) MTCC-11045, Aspergillus terreus (NHCEUPBT) MTCC-11395, Aspergillus flavus (NHCEUPBTE) MTCC-11396 and Aspergillus terreus MTCC-1782. Lovastatin in the sample was confirmed and estimated by UV Spectrophotometry, HPLC and FTIR analysis; Plackett-Burman design identified the “source and concentrations of C, N, pH and incubation period” were the principal factor influencing the production of lovastatin.
Title: An Efficient Protocol for Large-Scale Plantlet Production from the Apical Meristem of Musa Paradisiaca L. cv ‘Nendran
Abstract :
Banana is the most popular commercial fruit crop grown in more than 132 countries throughout the world. India is the most productive, producing 26.2 million tons of fruits in 2008, with a yield of 3,698 kg/ha . In vitro micropropagation has played a key role in clonal propagation of banana for obtaining large numbers of homogenous plants and breeding of plantains and bananas . Regeneration via a callus phase is a less desirable for in vitro plant recovery due to high frequencies of genetic aberrations .Plant multiplication from meristems, shoot tips, and other tissues without intermediate callus formations is therefore more desirable, enabling higher frequencies of plants which are genetically stable and homogenous. Among several varieties of banana cultivated in Kerala, the Nendran variety occupies the first choice among Keralites as the fruit is in good demand in the State. The present
study was carried out to develop a rapid multiple shoot production for large scale cultivation of this variety.
Title: Cellulase from Cashew Shell Cake using Aspergillus niger Production, Purification and Potential Applications
Abstract :
The Cellulose content in the Cashew Shell Cake was utilized for the production of enzyme Cellulase CEPC-C11; induced by Aspergillus niger (MTCC- 1344) using the Solid-State Fermentation (SSF). Optimised conditions by SSF for Cellulase production were at 30ºC, pH 7.0 and 216 hours of incubation. The enzyme activity of Cellulase was found through C1 and Cx Cellulase Combined Assay. Partially Purified Cellulase was concentrated and powdered by acetone precipitation method. Purified Cellulase showed a maximum specific enzyme activity of 15.322 U/mg of protein at 50ºC, pH 5.0 and on 30 minutes of incubation. Thus cellulase enzyme yield of 20% /Kg of substrate showing Km and Vmax of 1.786 and 19.45 U/mg respectively was obtained. This enzyme which is capable of hydrolyzing native cellulose; that has functional temperature ranging from 25ºC to 70ºC and pH ranging from 3.5 to 8.0 respectively; could find various industrial applications
Title: Screening of Trichoderma spp and Pseudomonas spp. for their Biocontrol Potential against Phytopathogens of Vanilla
Abstract :
Fungal pathogens of vanilla such as Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii were isolated from naturally infected vanilla plants and an attempt were made to minimize the damage caused by the pathogen using biocontrol agents Trichoderma harzianum, and Pseudomonas fluorescens isolated from soil. The combined inoculation of of Trichoderma harzianum
with Pseudomonas fluorescens treatment showed maximum disease suppression followed by the single inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas putida, Trichoderma virens, respectively in decreasing order. The results clearly indicated that these bio-control agents suppressing the disease incidence. Concerning the interaction effect between used antagonistic microorganisms and method of treatments, there was a highly significant effect. These results suggested that
using of Trichoderma harzianum with Pseudomonas fluorescens through soil mixing plus root dipping treatment could be provided not only additional protection against crop loss due to Fusarium diseases but also significantly increased vegetative growth of vanilla. The mechanism of biocontrol involved the production of volatile and non volatile organic acids, siderophore,
chitinase, peroxidise and salicylic acid. Application of biocontrol agents for crop protection is very significant as it has several advantages such as possibility of multiple pathogen suppression, low cost and promotion of soil fertility.
Title: Chemopreventive Potential of Methanolic Extract of Leucas aspera Against N-Nitrosodiethyl Amine (NDEA) Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
Abstract :
N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), a chemical carcinogen present in many environmental factors. It induces oxidative stress and celluar injury due to enhanced generaion of reactive oxygen species. Free radical scavangers protect the membranes from NDEAinduced damage. Objectives:The present study was designed to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of methanolc extract of Leucas aspera (MELA) against NDEA induced liver toxicity in male wistar rats. Methods:NDEA was administered for 20 weeks.
Daily doses of (MELA) at doses 100 and 200mg and standard drug Silymarin at a dose of 50 mg/kg bodyweight were administered
one week before the onset of NDEA intoxication and continued for 20 weeks. Results:Rats intoxicated with NDEA had elevated levels of serum alpha-fetoprotin((AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA), aspartate amino tranferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GGT), bilirubin, tissue lipid peroxides (TBARS & CD) and decreased levels of serum total protein, albumin & uric acid levels whereas MELA and Silymarin treatment showed decreased
levels of AFP, CEA, uric acid, hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxide levels, protein and albumin to near normal. Histopathological observation also substantiated NEDA-induced hepatoxicity and the effect was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by Leucas aspera extract and Silymarin treatment. Conclusions:The study reveals that (MELA) at a dose of 200mg/kg effectively reversed the hepatotoxicity induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine in rats. Histopathological studies also confirmed that MELA reduced tumor
incidence and reversed the damaged hepatocytes to near normal.
Title: Effect of Herbal Extract on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Drug Resistant Burn Wound Isolates
Abstract :
Major problems of wound management and therapy are bacterial infection and wound sepsis, which in worst case may lead to mortality. The status of infection determines the class of wound. Invasive infection is injurious to host cells. Wound healing is becoming challenging due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant microbes. The present study evaluates the use of neem,
turmeric, kuppaimeni, aleovera along with penicillin, ciprofloxacin, metrogel, cefadroxil, , gentamycin, and neomycin against pathogens isolated from burn wound. Among the isolates the predominant pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E.coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Sensitivity of the isolates to antibiotics and herbal formulations were performed by agar well
diffusion and disk diffusion method. All P. aeruginosa isolates were resistant to penicillin, metrogel, cefadroxil,, gentamycin,and neomycin but sensitive to ciprofloxacin and bacitracin. E.coli isolates were resistant to vancomycin, penicillin, metrogel and cefadroxil.
Title: Characterization of Pectinase from Cashew Shell Cake Using Aspergillus niger with Unique Kinetic Properties
Abstract :
The main purpose of the study was to provide a value addition; to a cashew industry by-product:- Cashew Shell. Production of newly Pectinase enzyme by Solid State Fermentation and the enzyme has been optimized by using Cashew Shell as substrate has been standardized. Strain has been selected by assessing the fungal strains having the better survival capacity in CNSL and
based on the Pectinase production studies (MTCC 1344). Optimum Pectinase production by SSF was obtained when incubated for 96 hours at 45ºC and pH 5.The enzyme activity of Pectinase (Polygalactouronase) was determined by measuring the release of reducing groups from polygalactouronic acid. Partially Purified Pectinase powder was obtained by acetone precipitation; followed by filtering the enzyme through Whatman No: 1 filter paper using a vacuum pump.