Title: In silico analysis of the germin like protein multigene family members of tomato with predicted oxalate oxidase activity Abstract :
Germins and germin like proteins (GLPs) have been reported as plant glycoproteins belonging to the superfamily. They have been documented to possess enzymatic activities leading to the generation of H2O2, a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hence, members of the GLP family have been proposed to play major role in plant disease resistance through ROS-mediated signaling. Interestingly, the functional characterization of GLP(s) in terms of their suitability as a key player in plant disease resistance has remained under-explored in case of tomato (Solanumlycopersicum L.). In the present study, 15 tomato GLPs, predicted to have oxalate oxidase activity, have been investigated in silico. Deduced multiple amino acid sequence alignment-based clustering of these proteins was carried out to classify them into 3 sub-families. All the proteins were found to contain the conserved amino acid stretches, representing the BoxA, B and C, and an inter-motif region of variable length. It was observed through homology modeling and structural alignment that the active sites of all except 3 of these proteins have Mn2+ bound at the active site involving the three conserved histidine and one conserved glutamate residue(s). The active site architecture was analyzed with a comparative view in order to examine the metal binding capacity of tomato GLPs. Thus the present work makes a platform for further genetic, molecular biological and functional genomics studies in the field of tomato GLPs, the possible key players for conferring biotic and/or abiotic stress tolerance, in future.
Title: Biolistic transformation of cry 1Ac gene in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) Abstract :
Among different explants, cotyledon showed highest regeneration and number of buds per explant on all media combinations. However, highest regeneration potential was observed on MS fortified with 3.0 mgl-1 BAP (80.36%), but number of buds per explant were highest (21.76) on MS media supplemented with 2.5 mgl-1 BAP+ 1.0 mgl-1 Kin. Plant regeneration of cotyledons was completely checked with a selection pressure of 15ppm to 25ppm hygromycin for untranformed explants. But the selection efficacy of transformed tissue was 19.56% with 20ppm and 66.66% with 15 ppm hygromycin. GUS gene was expressed in 76.92% bombarded explants with 2 to 7 GUS spots per explant confirming the presence of transformed tissue. GUS gene was also visualized in 66.66% regenerated shoots from bombarded tissue. PCR analysis of putative transgenic eggplant plants with the specific primers confirmed the presence of Cry1Ac gene with 1.2 KB product size (falling between 1KB and 2KB bands of 10KB DNA ladder) in two of the four plants.
Title: Molecular modeling and docking approach to predict the potential interacting partners of AtMAPK3P with the members of bZIP transcription factor family in Arabidopsis Abstract :
Protein-protein interaction plays key role in predicting the protein function of target protein thus the identification of PPIs is of primary importance. The Â in vitro Â and Â in vivo Â methods have their own limitations, thus Â in silico Â methods which include structure-based approaches were developed. In this research work, we endeavor to identify the downstream interaction partners of (AtMAPK3P) in Arabidopsis thaliana using the docking approach. The results of our study revealed that out of 73 bZIP members of Arabidopsis thaliana 47 members are showing interaction with AtMAPK3P. Elucidation of protein interaction networks also contributes greatly to the analysis of signal transduction pathways. Recent developments along with the results obtained essentially enhance our knowledge of the MAPK interacting protein network and provide a valuable research resource for developing a nearly important link between pathogen-activated MAPK signaling pathways and downstream transcriptional programming.
Title: Molecular detection and genetic characterisation of fumonisin producing fusarium isolates from rice cultivars Abstract :
Fusarium species mainly produce fumonisins group of mycotoxins which are classified as Group 2B human carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). In poor storage conditions, Fusarium species producing fumonisins can infect rice or paddy (Oryza sativa L.) which is the highest produced and consumed staple food in India. A rapid molecular method using primer Fum5F and Fum6R detected 85% fumonisin producers among 28 Fusarium isolates from Indian rice cultivars. Genetic variability of the isolates was studied by PCR based RAPD assay using 13 random primers. A total of 169 polymorphic bands were obtained by 13 markers with an average polymorphism information content (PIC) of 0.665 and overall polymorphism of 88%. Primer 3B showed a polymorphism of 96% with PIC value of 0.66 and it amplified 26 scorable fragments hence may be useful for the analysis of genetic variation among Fusarium isolates. Four strains (F47, F90, F92 and F96) in which fum gene wasnâ€™t amplified by Fum5F and Fum6R and supposed to be non producer of fumonisin have been consistently placed in one separate group by RAPD primers. Genetic variation of toxic Fusarium in rice from India is less studied. RAPD proved to be a suitable tool for depicting Polymorphism among the isolates. The high genetic variability among the Fusarium isolates used in the current study is a matter of concern considering the importance of Rice in India.
Title: Phosphate solubilizing efficiency of Mycopesticides Abstract :
In the present investigation, plant growth promoting activities of mycopesticides (beneficial mycopesticides or biological control fungi) viz. Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, Beauveria and Metarhizium were assessed. Their efficacy for the growth enhancement of Groundnut was investigated through laboratory as well as by pot studies. Results of In vitro studies have shown their higher potential of P-solubilization these fungi. In the experiment, two native cultures and five fungal isolates (procured from MTCC) were used. P solubilization ability of the test mycopesticides have shown good solubilization zones by the PlA isolate on PKVK agar. Not only this, TvA and ThM has also shown good P solubilizing zone on PKVK medium - supplemented with rose bengal dye. In liquid culture medium, ThM showed the highest P solubilizing ability (309.33 ÂµÎ¼g/ ml). HPLC analysis was carried out to determine the presence of organic acids in the culture supernatant of promising cultures. TvM showed presence of pyruvic acid, formic acid, orotic acid, citric acid and butyric acid. Efficacy of mycopesticides in pots study as PGP has revealed seed treatment as the best one, but recommended fertilizer was found significantly superior than all mycopesticides treatments. Amongst mycopesticides, Trichoderma spp. proved to be the best followed by Paecilomyces. Beauveria in most cases remained at par with Paecilomyces but was inferior to Trichoderma. Metarhizium was better than control but was inferior to other fungal treatments. Efforts clearly indicated that mycopesticides can significantly enhance groundnut growth and production as a plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF) proving their dual ability.
Title: Seroprevalence of brucellosis in buffaloes in North India Abstract :
Brucellosis is an infectious disease characterized by abortion and infertility in several mammalian species including buffaloes, and is one of the most important zoonosis worldwide. The objective of present study was to establish the seroprevalence of brucellosis in buffaloes in North India and to know the exact causal species of Brucella organism. A total of 160 serum samples were analyzed. The seroprevalence of Brucellosis was 4.38% and 7.50% by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT), respectively. Seroprevalence was zero by both RBPT and STAT in organized dairy farm while in unorganized sector, 5.04 and 8.63% by RBPT and STAT, respectively. Age-wise seroprevalence was higher in 4.5 to 6 years old buffaloes than younger. Area-wise seroprevalence was higher in Satwari block of study area. On screening of 20 milk samples from serological positive and doubtful buffaloes by milk ring test, five samples were positive (25%). On isolation of from samples, only one sample yielded Brucella abortus. The results showed that younger buffaloes were less infected than adults. Prevalence of Brucellosis was higher in Satwari block of Jammu province compared to other study area. The presence of Brucellosis in bovine may pose a significant economic loss to the farmer and a public health hazard to the general population.
Title: Verticillium lecani (Zimm.): A potential entomopathogenic fungus Abstract :
Development of insect resistance and risk to the environment due to indiscriminate use of conventional chemical pesticides for insect pest management favored the introduction of one of the new alternatives as biological control. Entomopathogenic fungi are one of the most versatile biological control agents for sustainable management. The most considerable fungal species are Metarhizium spp., Beauveria spp., Nomuraea rileyi, Verticillium lecanii and Hirsutella spp. Out of these fungi, V, lecanii are opportunistic and widely distributed ascomycete fungi that has the ability to cause mycosis in a number of insects of orders Homoptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. V. lecanii are easy to mass produce, store and are effective over a wide range of temperatures and humidity levels. It also provides a rapid kill at optimum doses and the fungus has been recently commercialized as a microbial agent for pest management. It has the additional features to produce extracelullar enzymes, such as chitinases which helps in promoting host colonization. It also shows compatibility with commonly used agrochemicals such as insecticides or fungicides and other biocontrol agents. Because of these numerous advantages, it can be considered as a potential biocontrol agentâ€™s in integrated pest management.
Title: Detection of genetic diversity in Lathyrus sativus L. using RAPD marker system Abstract :
Lathyrus sativus L. (Grasspea) is a protein rich pulse crop. Enough information about genetic diversity of Lathyrus germplasm is needed to improve this crop. Molecular characterization is one of the tools to identify the hidden genetic diversity. The present study was undertaken to reveal the genetic diversity in a set of 20 grasspea genotypes using RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) marker system. For the 15 primers, various efficiency parameters that include Polymorphism Information Content (PIC), Marker Index (MI), Resolving Power (RP) and Diversity Index (DI) were studied. Finally Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and dendrogram was perfomed to find out the genetic diversity among the germplasm. The screened RAPD markers will facilitate further studies in population genetics and utilization of this crop.
Title: Use of proximal hypocotyl segment for high-through put transgenic development of tomato Abstract :
Achieving high-throughput and efficientregenerationare the top priorities of any Agrobacterium mediated plant transformation experiments to develop large numbers of in vitrotransformants. The type of explant plays a critical role in shoot regeneration efficiency. In the present investigation, an attempt was made tostudy the effect of various segments of hypocotyl and abaxial/adaxial orientation of cotyledon explants on regeneration efficiency in tomato.A plant transformation vector,pGRNAi-harboringdsRNAexpressing constructstargeted totwo genes of Helicoverpaarmigera,serine proteaseand chymotrypsinindependently wereused totransformtomato.Of the three segments of hypocotylsobtained from 12 day old seedlings, the proximal (closest to shoot apex) segment hadyielded highest regeneration (28.65%)compared to the middle (11.86%)and the distal segments (11.20%).In cotyledon explants,those incubated with their abaxial surface in contact with media exhibited highest regeneration (20.83%) compared to adaxially placed cotyledon explants. However, of the two-explant types, hypocotyls had higher regeneration compared to cotyledons. The molecular characterization of putative transformants through PCR and Southern blot analysis revealed the presence of the transgene. Thus, these results will aid in obtaining high-throughput regeneration in transformation of tomato in particular and other crops in general.
Title: Influence of ethylene inhibitor on shoot organogenesis and regeneration in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) Abstract :
Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone (phytohormone) that play an important role on in vitro shoot morphogenesis in many plant species. The aim of the present investigation was to critically analyse the role of an ethylene inhibitor i.e. silver nitrate (AgNO3) on shoot organogenesis in sugarcanecvs.CoJ 83 and CoH 119. Different concentrations of silver nitrate were tested in the medium: 1 mgl-1, 3 mgl-1, 5 mgl-1 and 10 mgl-1. Genotypic dependence was observed between cvs. CoJ 83 and CoH 119 with different concentrations of AgNO3 tested in the medium. Among the varying concentrations (1â€“10 mgl-1) of silver nitrate tested, percentage of leaf roll segments responding were improved giving highest number of shoots per explant on MS medium + Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA; 5 mgl-1) + Kinetin (Kin; 0.5 mgl-1) + AgNO3 (3 mgl-1) in cv. CoJ 83 and on MS medium + NAA (5.5 mgl-1) + Kin (0.5 mgl-1) + AgNO3 (5 mg-1). The number of shoots formed per explant increased to two-fold and the shoot length was also increased as compared to control. Data recorded on the number of roots and root length also showed a significant increase over the control in both the varieties.
Title: In vitro evaluation of plant growth regulators on tissue culture bioassay produced by Pseudomonas species Abstract :
Fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. is emerging as largest and potentially most promising group of PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) that are involved in plant growth enhancement. Plant growth regulators viz., auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins help in plant growth and development. In present study, fluorescent Pseudomonas strains isolated from rhizospheric soil from temperate fruit zone of Himachal Pradesh were investigated for plant growth regulator production i.e. auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins in nutrient broth. All the strains tested produced plant growth regulators in concentrations auxins (1.83-21Î¼g/ml), gibberellins (116.1-485.8Î¼g/ml) and cytokinins (45.4-295.4Î¼g/ml). Two strains (An-1-kul and An-13-kul) were selected on the basis of over all PGPR activities for production of growth regulators. Molecular characterization of best selected Pseudomonas strains were done by 16S-rRNA technique. Plant growth regulators produced by best isolates were further studied to observe their effect on growth of callus formation, shoot formation of broccoli and root elongation of cabbage
Title: Polymerase chain reaction based detection of banana bunchy top virus using coat protein based primers Abstract :
Banana Bunchy Top virus (BBTV) is a virus seriously affecting banana cultivation. Primers were designed for the amplification of coat protein gene for the diagnosis of BBTV in the commonly grown banana cultivars of Kerala, India, viz., Red Banana (AAA), Palayankodan (AAB), Dwarf Cavendish (AAA), Motta Poovan (AAB) and Ney Poovan (AB). PCR detection using these primers at an early stage can aid in disease free planting material production.
Title: Progeny analysis of transgenic rice variety transformed with Glyoxalase I gene Abstract :
Salinity is one of the major yields limiting factor that limit the worldwide productivity and distribution of cereal crops and the development of genetically engineered plants with enhanced tolerance to salt presents an important tool to increase the productivity. We introduced glyI (glyoxalase I) gene from Brassica Juncea into rice variety PR116 through particle bombardment for salt tolerance. Integration and expression analysis in T0 and T1 generations were confirmed through Polymerase chain reaction and in vitro screening for salt tolerance. In this study we confirmed the integration and expression of gene (glyI) in next two generation (T2, T3) through Polymerase Chain Reaction and methylglyoxal experiment. Expression of glyoxalase I gene was induced by different concentrations of methylglyoxal treatment and most of the transgenic lines were highly tolerant to methylglyoxal and showed high chlorophyll content after 72 h of treatment.
Title: Inheritance of resistance in indica rice cultivar HUR 4-3 against bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) Abstract :
The mode of inheritance of resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strain BXO1 and BX043 wild type of bacterial leaf blight disease of rice was studied in six generations of crosses of cultivars HUR 4-3 into PB-1460. The resistance cultivars PB-1460 showed 4.54% disease severity, while susceptible cultivar HUR 4-3 showed 53.01% disease severity against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) of resistance cultivar was 65.61 which are significantly less than the susceptible cultivar 649.90. The F1 plants were observed to be resistant with an average disease severity 08.87% and AUDPC 110.26. The F2 populations were classified in to four distinct classes on their genotypic ratio of 9:3:3:1 and phenotypically these populations were grouped in two distinct classes resistant and susceptible with their ratio of 13:3, respectively. However, B1 and B2 populations were classified in to two distinct classes as resistant (Resistant/ moderately resistant) and susceptible (moderately susceptible/ susceptible) in the ratio of genotypic 1:1:1:1 and 1:1 and phenotypically 1:1 and 1:0, respectively. The disease resistance occurs in the population is mainly due to cumulative effects of dominant and recessive two resistant genes i.e., Xa21 and xa13. Chi-square analysis of the population was confirm the inheritance of resistance with their value are 1.24 and 0.66 indicating that the observed data are in line with expected ratio and follow Mendelian pattern of inheritance of resistance to bacterial leaf blight in B1 and B2 generations and modification in the Mendelian ratio of inheritance in the F2 populations, it showed inhibitory gene action i.e., 13:3 that means dominant gene have cumulative effect of recessive gene.
Title: Soil risk assessment of heavy metal contamination near Oil Refinery area, Northeastern India Abstract :
The present paper aims to maps Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb concentration and assess the hazard in the soils of surrounding agricultural fields affected by oil refinery drainage of Digboi refinery of Tinsukia district, Assam using statistics, geostatistics and GIS techniques. The amounts of Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb were determined from 97 samples collected within the contaminated area. Among the heavy metals studied, the mean concentration of Pb was high. The greatest and the smallest standard deviation were observed in the Ni (44.1) and pH (0.47), respectively. Analysis of the isotropic variogram indicated that the Cr and Cd semivariograms were well described with the circular model, with the distance of spatial dependence being 1240 and 1022 m, respectively, while the Pb and Ni were well describe with Gaussain model, with the distance of spatial dependence being 1930 and 2321 m, respectively. The ordinary kriging maps of Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb showed that high concentrations of heavy metals were located in the low lying area. Indicator kriged probability maps of soil Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb were prepared based on the concentrations to exceed the respective Food and Agriculture Organization maximum permissible limit (MPL) value of 100, 3, 30 and 50 mg kgâˆ’1, respectively. It was seen that whole studied area had a higher than 0.99% probability to exceed the MPL value of Pb. About 10% area of the study site was having higher concentration than MPL value of Cd and Ni concentrated at the centre and north-west corner of the study area, respectively.
Title: Kinetics of mitrogen mineralization in sewage amended soil Abstract :
A laboratory experiment was carried out at, Jaunpur (25Â°18â€™ N, 83Â°03â€™ S) to study the kinetics of N mineralization in sewage amended soils. Four different agricultural fields viz., A, B, C and D which has been receiving sewage for irrigation since last five or more years were selected for study. The three replicate of each treatment were incubated at room temperature (25Â°C) for 7 weeks. The soils were brought to field capacity by addition of distilled water. The subsamples (10g) were withdrawn from each sample after every week interval and extracted immediately with 100 ml of 2 M KC1 solution and N was determined. The fitness of the model for mineralization study was tested by least square method and the mineralization rate constant (K) and half-life (t1/2) were calculated from fitted model. It was observed that, the highest mineralized N (121.20 mg/kg) was observed in soil receiving sewage continuously while lowest in N mineralized 112.80 mg/kg was observed in soil receiving less amount of sewage. Estimated mineralization rate content â€˜Kâ€™ in four soils was 0.44, 0.38, 0.10 and 0.43 and correlation coefficient were 0.99, 0.98, 0.99 and 0.99, respectively. The study revealed that, nitrogen mineralization was increased with increasing period of incubation with rapid increase during 2-4 weeks of incubation. First order model of kinetics was best suited for nitrogen mineralization in sewage amended soil under study.
Title: Screening of Weed Competitive Cultivars of Summer Green-gram in Lateritic Soil of West Bengal Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted in two consecutive summer seasons of 2008 and 2009 at the Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, West Bengal to screen out the weed competitive Green-gram cultivars. Experimental plots were infested with grassy, broadleaved and sedge weeds. Digitaria sanguinalis among grasses, Croton bonplandianum among broad leaved and Cyperus rotundus among sedges were most predominant throughout crop season. Losses in seed yield of green-gram due to weed infestation ranged from 7 to 37%. Among the cultivars, the plots of â€˜WBM 34-1-1â€™, â€˜WBM 04-5â€™ and â€˜PDM 54â€™ registered lower number as well as dry weight of grasses, broadleaved, sedges and total weeds at 45 days after sowing (DAS) under both weedy and one hand weeding situations. These cultivars also recorded higher values of yield attributes and seed yields. Yield components viz. number of pods/plant, seeds/pod, test weight as well as seed yield were significantly reduced in weedy situation, compared with one hand weeding at 30 DAS in all the cultivars excepting â€˜PDM 54â€™ and â€˜WBM 04-5â€™, where no significant reduction due to weed competition was recorded, indicating higher weed competitive abilities of both the cultivars. The cultivars â€˜WBM 34-1-1â€™, â€˜WBM 04-5â€™ and â€˜PDM 54â€™ appeared to be promising towards suppressing weeds and producing higher seed yields in lateritic soil of West Bengal.
Title: Nutrient composition, uptake by weeds and rice under different crop establishment and weed management practices Abstract :
Field study was conducted during the kharif, 2011 at Agronomy Research Farm, Central Research Station, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar to assess the nutrient concentration and uptake by weeds and crops under different crop establishment methods. Weedy check recorded highest nutrient content of weeds. Weedy check plot recorded the maximum N, P and K content of 0.83, 0.13 and 1.3% respectively. The removal of N,P and K (82.45,13.42 and 127.74 kg ha-1 ) was the highest in the same treatment and the lowest nutrient uptake by conoweeding N,P and K was 0.73 , 0.13 and 1.25% and removal of N,P and K (kg ha-1) was 17.34, 3.11 and 29.44 respectively. The nutrient content of grain and straw of rice in conoweeding was maximum recording N, P and K of grain are 1.33, 0.37 and 1.26% respectively. The corresponding values for straw were 0.44, 0.10 and 1.82% respectively. The weedy check recorded the lower values of N, P and K content as compared with weed control treatments. Nutrient uptake of rice crop showed that maximum uptake of nutrient was recorded in SRI (62.72 and 25.13 kg ha-1 of N, 17.06 and 5.26 kg ha-1 of P and 13.04 and 101.11 kg h-1a of K in grain and straw respectively) it was followed by transplanting, drum seeding and line sowing. Minimum depletion of 47.34 kg of N, 11.18 kg ha-1 of P and 67.54 kg ha-1 of K was observed in weedy check taking the total values of grain and straw. The highest benefit: cost ratio were recorded in the SRI supplemented with conoweeder.
Title: Growth, yield components and yield of hybrid rice as influenced by nitrogen levels and time of Homo-Brassinolide application Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted on hybrid rice during the kharif season of 2011 at the farm of Palli Siksha Bhavana (Institute of Agriculture), Visva Bharati, Sriniketan, West Bengal to study the effect of nitrogen and homo-brassionlide on growth and productivity of hybrid rice. The experiment was laid out in FRBD with five levels of nitrogen viz. N0, N60, N120, N180 and 240 kg ha-1 and three levels spraying of homo-brassionlide viz. active tillering (AT), active tillering +panicle initiation (PI) and active tillering +panicle initiation + flowering (FL). The results showed that hybrid rice responded well to fertilizer application. Application of 180 kg N improved all the growth attributes such as plant height, number of tillers m-2 and dry matter accumulation and increased the yield attributes like number of panicles m-2, panicle length, number of grains panicle-1, percentage of filled grain and test weight that ultimately led to high crop productivity. The spray of homo-brassinolide has a significant effect on plant height, number of tillers m-2 and dry matter accumulation and increased the yield attributes like number of panicles m-2, panicle length, number of grains panicle-1, percentage of filled grain and test weight that ultimately led to high crop productivity. Among the spraying, thrice spraying of homo-brassinolide i.e. at AT+PI + FL recorded significantly higher yield parameters and yield as compared to AT, MT+PI. The study advocated cultivating hybrid rice 180 kg N with for its high productivity.
Title: Response of land configurations, IW/CPE ratios and integrated nutrient supply systems on growth function, yield and water use efficiency of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. PDR-14) Abstract :
Field experiments were conducted during two consecutive years of 2010-11 and 2011-12 at Agronomy Research Farm of NDUA&T, Faizabad (UP.) India to study the response of land configurations, IW/CPE ratios and integrated supply systems on growth function, yield and nutrient study of french bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under indo-gangetic eastern plains zone of Uttar Pradesh. Significant increase was observed for plant height, number of branches and dry matter accumulation per plant at 60 and 90 days after sowing and at harvest under 1.0 IW/CPE moisture regime nourished with 75% RDF through chemical fertilizers + 25% N through biocompost at raised bed configuration. Higher growth attributes resulted maximum yield and yield attributes of French bean with sowing at raised beds, application of 75% RDF+25% N through biocompost and IW/CPE ratio of 1.0 as compared to rest of the treatments. Increasing moisture regimes decreased the water use efficiency and it was highest under sowing on raised beds, moisture regime at 0.6 IW/CPE ratio and 75 % RDF through chemical fertilizers + 25 % N through biocompost nutrient supply system. Higher yields of French bean was obtained with treatment combinations of sowing on raised beds, moisture regime at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio and 75 % RDF through chemical fertilizers + 25 % N through biocompost and it was most remunerative and sustainable under Indo-gangetic plains of UP.
Title: Germination profile of babul (Acacia Nilotica) under different salinity conditions Abstract :
Babul (Acacia nilotica) is an important multipurpose, leguminous tree species, grown widely under agroforestry systems in India, Middle-East Asia, and Africa. It is an important source of fodder, fuel, timber, gum and medicines. The salinity tolerance ability of Babul in 15 provenances (Sagar, Jabalpur, Raipur, Nagpur, Akola, Khandwa, Ujjain, Shajapur, Bhopal, Guna, Jhansi, Bharatpur, Jaipur, Rewari, Karnal) were investigated using petri dishes and poly bags. The solutions of different compound like sodium chloride, sodium bi-cardonate, calcium chioride, magnesium sulphate and calcium sulphate was prepared with five level of salinity concentration, which have electrical conductivity of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 dSm-1, respectively. Among the five doses of salinity, the highest does EC 15 dSm-1 was found most deleterious to the seed germination of Babul in all the provenances. Out of 15, ten provenances had more than 50% reduction in germination at EC 9.0 dSm-1. Akola, Khandawa, Guna and Jaipur provenances were least affected by the increased level of salinity under both the test i.e., petri dishes and poly bags and hence these provenances may be called as most tolerant to salinity.
Title: Testing of catchment module of integrated reservoir-based canal irrigation model for kangsabati irrigation project Abstract :
Bhadra, (2007) developed Integrated reservoir based canal irrigation model (IRCIM). It consist of catchment, reservoir, crop water demand modules. In this study, IRCIM was applied on Kangsabati irrigation project, West Bengal, India for period of 1998 to 2003. Runoff was predicted using two techniques namely, Distributed SCS Curve Number (CN) with Muskingum routing and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Backpropogation techniques available in catchment module. Distributed SCS CN method requires subbasin information, land cover characteristics, overland and channel information and daily rainfall on subbasin, whereas ANN method requires daily rainfall and runoff values. Catchment module was calibrated and validated using performance criteria modelling efficiency (ME) and coefficient of residual mass (CRM). ANN technique of runoff prediction involves extensive training of the network, where the unpredictable correlation of rainfall and runoff is also been taken into consideration which is not possible for conceptual model such as SCS CN method. Thus, results showed that for Kangsabati reservoir catchment, runoff values, predicted using ANN result in better match with observed runoff values compared to semi-distributed conceptual SCS CN method.
Title: Characteristics of spray dried dahi powder with maltodextrin as an adjunct Abstract :
This study investigated the effect of adding as a complementary drying aid of maltodextrin (MD) on spray drying of dahi powder. Dahi powders were prepared by curd adding with maltodextrin (MD) drying aid at 5%, 7.5%, 10, and 12.5% level before spray drying by maintaining with outlet air temperature and blower speed being 70oC and 2200 rpm, respectively. The survival rate of lactobacilli during spray drying of dahi powder were investigated such as 0.62% shows maximum at 7.5% maltodextrin (MD) drying aid. Tests were conducted to evaluate the powder properties relevant to physical, chemical and reconstituted properties of the spry dried dahi powder. Results showed addition of 7.5% maltodextrin (MD) aid could significantly increases the product yield for the spry drying process of dahi powder and the consumer acceptable also. At the same time values of lightness, wet ability, water solubility index, viscosity, bulk density, dispersibility and total solids increases with increasing the maltodextrin (MD) aid. Moisture content, acidity and hygroscopicity decreases with increasing maltodextrin (MD) aid in spry dried dahi powder but the values of pH and acidity remain constant during spry drying process by increasing maltodextrin (MD) aid. The flavour of reconstituted dahi samples improves as the maltodextrin content increases may be due to more acetaldehyde retention in the samples. Addition of maltodextrin (MD) aid also improves the sensory properties and overall acceptability of reconstituted spry dried dahi powder.
Title: Development and optimization of pyrolysis unit for producing charcoal Abstract :
The Developed system is designed to produce the charcoal from biomass samples like Jatropha seed husk, Melia Dubia and Prosopis juliflora. The technology adopted is hybrid by combining both direct and indirect method of heating the biomass based on pyrolysis. The temperature is in the range of 300 Â°C to 500 Â°C. In results of the proximate analysis showed the fixed carbon content is increased in this pyrolysis unit charcoal whereas biomass sample and existing pyrolysis unit charcoal showed lower fixed carbon content. The charcoal yield efficiency is 34.84% whereas in conventional method of charcoal making the charcoal yield efficiency is about 20%. The mass and energy closure were found to be 72.72% and 80.30%.
Title: Non-linear optimization model for border irrigation system for wheat crop (Triticum aestivum) Abstract :
Nonlinear optimization design models were developed for field conditions to design and manage border irrigation system using Lewis-Kostiakov infiltration equation. The design criterion used in the models was the depth of irrigation and basic infiltration rate of the soil. The objective function of the nonlinear model was constructed on the basis of a relationship between net returns and water application efficiency. The design variables of the models were the inflow rate, length of run, cutoff time, number of borders per set and number of sets. The nonlinear model gives a better representation of the design parameters and is more flexible because it permits easy changes in the objective function.
Title: Biology of the papaya mealybug, paracoccus marginatus williams and granara de willink (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae) Abstract :
The mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink completed 11generation in a year, 8 during March to October and 3 during November to February. The female and male nymphs completed development in 12.02 Â± 4.44 to 17.92Â± 3.49 and 17.2 Â± 3.00 to 21.25Â± 3.12 days respectively at during March to October, 21.59 Â± 3.32 to 22.60 Â± 4.49 and 22.81Â± 3.41 to 30.77 Â± 2.38 days respectively during winter. The male and female ratio ranged from 1:1.20 to 1:3.41. Maximum oviposition period, minimum fecundity and maximum incubation period are 9 to 18, 108-154 and 9 days respectively in winter. Their mode of reproduction is entirely sexually. Life cycle is completed in 41 (maximum) and 27 (minimum) days during December- January and May respectively.
Title: Identification of prediction model on population build up of Singhiella pallida Singh on Piper betle L. for timely intervention Abstract :
Whitefly Singhiella pallida Singh is an important pest of betelvine, Piper betle L. infesting the crop throughout the year. The temperature played a crucial role in the population build up of the pest. The moderate temperature falling between 16Â°C to 20Â°C was found very much conducive for pest population development. However, relative humidity had a little role in population build up of the pest as compared to temperature. In contrary, rainfall was found detrimental to it. Prajneshu growth model was found to be most suitable non-linear growth model for prediction of the pest population build up. The 48th standard week was identified as the optimum time for intervention through insecticidal application as a prophylactic measures to check the peak pest population; supposed to be attained at the 52nd standard week as evidenced from pattern of population growth.
Title: In vitro multiplication of madhunashini (Gymnema sylvestre Retz.) Abstract :
Study was conducted for the in vitro multiplication of madhunashini by using immature seeds as explants. Immature seeds were cultured directly on to media containing different concentrations and combinations of auxin and cytokinin. Germination of seeds into plantlets was observed in the media containing cytokinins, however, the seeds cultured on media containing auxins at the expense of plantlet formation produced callus. Cent per cent of the explants responded when inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media containing Benzylaminopurine (BAP - 1.0 mg l-1), Kinetin (Kn - 0.5 mg l-1, 1.0 mg l-1 and 2.0 mg l-1) and BAP + Kn (1.0+1.0 mg l-1). Height of plantlet (19.74 mm) was significantly higher in MS media supplemented with BAP 0.5 mg l-1. Maximum number of leaves (3.12) were produced on MS media supplemented with Kn 2.0 mg l-1. Nodal explants obtained from in vitro seedlings when cultured on the media containing cytokinins induced proliferation of shoots. Number of shoots (5.50) produced and length of shoot (18.53 mm) was found to be maximum at lower concentrations of BAP 1.0 mg l-1 and Kn 0.5 mg l-1. Leaves from in vitro seedlings when used as explants and cultured on media with cytokinins did not show any response.
Title: Qualities of lemongrass (Cymbopogan citratus) essential oil at different drying conditions Abstract :
Cymbopogon citratus is widely used in nutraceutical industries due to its strong lemony odor for its high content of the aldehyde citral and small quantities of geraniol, geranyl acetate and monoterpene olefins. Present studies were conducted to estimate the essential oil at different drying condition viz., sun-drying, shade-drying and oven-drying and analyzed for physicochemical properties (acid value, saponification value and iodine value). The maximum essential oil (3.05%) recovered in oven drying method while, the minimum saponification value (142.59 mgKOH/g) was recorded in sun drying method, however, the minimum acid value (4.14 mgKOH/g) and iodine value (114.31gI 2/100g) were recorded in shade drying method. The essential oils were analyzed by GC/MS instruments and identified eleven different components. Among the components identified, geranial (citral-a), neral (citral-b), caryophellene and limonene were found major components in the lemongrass essential oils.
Title: Response of baramasi lemon to various post-harvest treatments Abstract :
Baramasi lemon is an attractive fruit for its unique flavor and acidity. Harvesting period of winter crop of Baramasi lemon coincides with the cooler part of the year and there is low consumption of lemon fruits during winters, which leads to the glut in the market. Baramasi lemons are sensitive to chilling injury and it is difficult to store in the commercial cold stores. So, there is a need to enhance the shelf-life of Baramasi lemon fruits at ambient conditions. Keeping this in view, an experiment was conducted during 2014 to study the effect of chemicals and modified atmosphere packaging on the storage life and quality of Baramasi lemon fruits. Mature green Baramasi lemon fruits of uniform size and colour were harvested and treated with gibberellic acid (25, 50 &75 ppm), boric acid (1, 2 and 3%) and sodium benzoate (2, 3 and 4%) and packed in low density polyethylene (LDPE) bags. Fruit were analyzed for various physico-chemical characteristics after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of storage. Results revealed that minimum spoilage and total soluble solids (TSS) and maximum physiological weight loss reduction, palatability rating, acidity were recorded in gibberellic acid @ 75 ppm + LDPE packaging during the entire storage period. It can be concluded that gibberellic acid @ 75 ppm along with LDPE packaging was found to be most effective in extending the post-harvest life of Baramasi lemon fruits at ambient conditions for 60 days.