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IJAEB - Volume 7 - Issue 1

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Title: Cloning and Molecular Characterization of LECASAI Lectin Gene from Garlic (Allium Sativum L.)
Abstract :
Lectins have always demonstrated their role in bearing insecticidal activity. They are although considered to be toxic for mammals but some studies have reported that the presence of mannose binding region is believed to impart non-toxic nature to lectins against mammals including humans. In the present investigation, the research was conducted to elucidate the relationship of
lectin gene LECASAI with other previously cloned lectins having insecticidal activity and to ensure the presence of the conserved mannose binding region/site in LECASAI. In this study, we report isolation of LECASAI via PCR, Cloning, Characterization & Bioinformatics analysis of LECASAI isolated from Garlic (Allium sativum L.). The full length gene sequence of LECASAI obtained from sequencing consisted of 1029bp which was subjected to In-silico analysis in order to determine its ancestral relationship
and the presence of the conserved mannose binding region within the sequence. Results from In-vitro analysis indicated a higher homology of LECASAI with those of insecticidal lectins and the presence of mannose binding region in LECASAI. This unique approach has not only helped us in understanding the relationship between these genes but may also enable us to obtain an insecticidal lectin carrying insecticidal activity to several insects pests (for which even Bt proteins have been reported to be ineffective), apart from being non-toxic for man, mammals and birds in the future.
Title: Bioinformatics Information of Leguminosae Family in Gujarat State
Abstract :
Bioinformatics is the computational analysis of biological data, consisting of the information stored in the form of DNA, Protein and Genome sequences in various biological databases. Leguminosae family is one of the largest families that contain thousands of species of Plants, Herbs, Shrubs and Trees worldwide. There are more than 250 species of this family which are found in Gujarat state. There are three subfamilies of Leguminosae family which are Fabaceae (Papilionoideae), Caesalpiniaceace and Mimosaceae. Gujarat is a state in north-western India. It has an area of 78,687 sq mi (203,800 km2) with a coastline of 1,600 km; its capital city is Gandhinagar, while its largest city is Ahmedabad. In this paper authors have collected Bioinformatics information available of 148 out of 266 Leguminosae family species like DNA, PROTEIN and Genome information of Leguminosae family from NCBI database.
Title: Chromium (VI) Affected Nutritive Value of Forage Clusterbean (Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba L.)
Abstract :
Hexavalent chromium is highly reactive and shown to be toxic for plants at higher concentrations. In present study, a pot experiment was conducted with important forage crop ‘clusterbean’ to determine the toxic effect of hexavalent chromium on its nutritive value on advancement of plant growth. The plants were grown in soil containing varying chromium concentration ranging from 0.0-4.0 mg Cr (VI) kg-1 soil. Nutritive parameters viz structural carbohydrates, protein content and in vitro dry matter digestibility were studied in different plant parts and growth stages. Toxic effects of hexavalent chromium were reflected by no survival of plants at 4.0 mg Cr (VI) kg-1 soil, upto 28% reduction in protein content and high variation in structural carbohydrates contents. Irrespective of these changes, the in vitro dry matter digestibility largely remains unaffected with very less change (0-6%). The study concludes that hexavalent chromium adversely affected nutritive value of clusterbean at higher concentrations.
Title: Microbiological Quality of Water Stored in Copper, Earthenware and Stainless Steel Vessels
Abstract :
A study was conducted to compare the effect of storage of water in copper, earthenware and stainless steel vessels on coliform count and aerobic plate count. Water samples contaminated with animal excreta was collected from farms and aerobic plate count and coliform count was estimated. The samples were then stored in copper, earthenware and stainless steel vessels for ten days at room temperature and the counts were taken on third, sixth and tenth days. Initial mean aerobic plate count of sample was 9.18±0.38 log10 cfu/ml, which came down to 4.99±0.12 log10 cfu/ml, 5.87±0.47 log10 cfu/ml and 5.21±0.42 log10 cfu/ml respectively, in copper, earthenware and stainless steel vessels on third day of storage. By tenth day of storage of water, copper vessel could eliminate 83 per cent of aerobic bacteria, earthenware vessel could eliminate 77 per cent of aerobic bacteria and stainless steel vessel could eliminate only 70 per cent of aerobic bacteria. Coliforms were completely eliminated from copper vessel by third day of storage. Whereas, earthenware vessel retained 66 percent of initial coliforms on third day of storage, and it took seven to ten days for complete removal of coliforms from earthenware vessel. Stainless steel vessel retained 23.5 per cent of initial coliforms on
tenth day of storage. It could be concluded that use of copper vessels for storing drinking water in households is an effective water purification method.
Title: Seasonal Flactuations of Butterfly Population: A Study in Butterfly Garden at Peechi, Kerala, India
Abstract :
Seasonal abundance and diversity of butterfly population in the Butterfly Garden of KFRI at Peechi was examined. A total of 11,104 individuals belonging to 50 butterfly species from five families and 37 genera were recorded. Nymphalidae was the most dominant family with 21species followed by Papilionidae (11species), Lycaenidae (7 species), Hesperiidae (6 species) and Pieridae (5 species). By pooling the generated data, the overall butterfly population showing an increasing trend from January to December
with many butterfly population had an average sightings in January, minimum in April and maximum in November. Data generated in this study shows that butterflies requires appropriate climatic conditions and they respond quickly to even subtle changes in temperature and humidity. It has been observed that the pupal period of certain Papilionids may be extended from the normal days
in November and December months. The lifecycle of butterflies is directly depends on temperature and humidity. A steady increase in the butterfly population count among all families shows the importance of such gardens in attracting and sustaining the butterfly population. Butterfly gardens help in caring wild butterfly population and to maintain the biodiversity in natural
ecosystems, which in turn, may increase the existence of human beings.
Title: Characterization of Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus Strain CKMV1 as a Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria
Abstract :
A bacterial collection of approximately thirty native strains were isolated from rhizosphere soil associated with the seedlings of Valeriana jatamansi grown in moist temperate forest located in and around Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh. The strain CKMV1 showed PGP traits like, phosphate solubilization (257.0 mg l-1), indole acetic acid (7.0 µ gml-1) and siderophore production
(53.43%) at 35±2ºC. Besides, the strain also exhibited growth on nitrogen free medium, hydrogen cyanide production and antifungal activity against different fungal pathogens. Significant growth inhibition of fungal pathogens occurred in the order as S. rolfsii > R. solani > D. necatrix > Alternaria spp.> F. oxysporum. The results suggested that the rhizosphere of native V.
jatamansi growing in their natural habitat of Chamba district of H.P. is a rich source of Bacillus sp., which have potential to be used in the future as PGP inoculants to improve crop productivity. Morphological, biochemical and molecular based characterization of a selected isolate CKMV1, based on sequence homology of a partial 1375-bp fragment of 16S rDNA amplicon with the ribosomal database sequence valiated the strain as Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus. Therefore, these results suggested that out of 30 isolates, Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus strain CKMV1 possessed multiple PGP traits thus can be further explored for its efficacy as effective PGPR.
Title: Microencapsulation of Probiotic Bacteria and its Potential Application in Food Technology
Abstract :
Today the use of probiotic bacteria in food is of increasing interest to provide beneficial health effects in the food industry. Microencapsulation technology can be used to maintain the viability of probiotic bacteria during food product processing and storage. However, it is unknown to consumers how these beneficial bacteria sustain viability in food products and in our bodies.
These microcapsules are artificially created to support the growth of the probiotic and provide protection from harsh external environments. Polysaccharides like alginate, gelan, carrageenan, chitosan and starch are the most commonly used materials in microencapsulation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Techniques commonly applied for probiotic microencapsulation are emulsion, extrusion, spray drying, and adhesion to starch. It is done on bakery products, ready to eat cereals, dairy products etc. Now a days aseptic microencapsulation is introduced to biodegradable material. New creation and future progress will be carried by double microencapsulation, improving strain & culture.
Title: Screening of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates Recovered from Diverse Habitats in India for the Presence of Insect and Nematode-active cry Genes
Abstract :
Novel cry genes with different structure and mode of action are potential candidates for resistant management strategies. Isolation of novel genes needs thorough screening of large number of native Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates collected from diverse habitats and ecotypes. In the present study, 63 Bt isolates recovered from different habitats in India have been investigated
for their insecticidal and nematicidal cry gene content. Bt isolates were screened through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using degenerate primers for the presence of cry1, cry1A and nematode-active cry genes. Among the collection of 63 Bt isolates 21 were found positive for the presence of cry1-type genes, 49 for cry1A-type genes and 20 for nematode-active cry genes. Nine Bt isolates were found positive for all three types of cry genes. The study also show that PCR based screening method is rapid and
highly useful for characterization of Bt isolates to reveal their insecticidal spectrum.
Title: Isolation and Assessment of Plant Growth Promoting Activity of Siderophore Producing Pseudomonas fluorescens in Crops
Abstract :
The Pseudomonas fluorescens a major Rhizobacteria encourage the plant growth through producing yellowish green fluroscent siderophore involve in high affinity transport of iron into the cell. The P. fluorescens isolates grow in iron deficient media because of production capacity of siderophore depends on iron content. Fifty nine Pseudomonas fluorescens were isolated in King’s B
media under 260 nm wavelengths from the rhizosphere and non-rhizospheric soil of cave, forest, fellow land and agriculture field in Chhattisgarh region. The amounts of siderophore produce by P. fluorescens isolates were screen in iron deficient succinate media and most of them were found positive for the production of much siderophores. One of the isolate from Pakhanjore area
“P3” produce highest siderophore, which further assessed for plant growth promotion activities of crops rice, urd, mung and arhar. The study showed significantly higher increase in root length over control plants was observed in Rice (68.45%) followed by Urd (40.1%), Mung (33.71%) and Arhar (29.53%). Similarly, significantly higher increase in shoot length over control plants was observed in Rice (68.925%) followed by Urd (43.42%), Mung (39.96%) and Arhar (19.45%). It has been shown that these bacteria competively colonize plant roots and cause the plant statistically significant root and shoot increases by stimulating plant growth and reduce the incidence of plant disease of above mention crops under green house of tray culture conditions.
Title: Optimization of Culture Condition and Influence of Mediators on Degradation of Reactive Magenta-HB Dye Using Ganoderma cupreum AG-1
Abstract :
Reactive dyes are important chemical pollutants from the textile industries. Utilization of microbes including white rot fungi for decolorization of synthetic dyes is one promising strategy of an environmental friendly and cost-competitive alternative to physico-chemical decomposition processes for the treatment of industrial effluents. The present study investigates the
biodegradation and decolorization of reactive dyes using white rot fungi Ganoderma cupreum AG-1. Physico-chemical parameters including carbon and nitrogen sources, initial glucose and yeast extract concentration, pH, temperature, initial dye concentration, along with the effect of various metal ions and mediators were studied for the decolorization of Reactive Magenta-HB dye. The fungal isolate efficiently decolorized Reactive Magenta HB within 48 h at 28°C, at pH 5.0 and under optimized conditions 94.20
±1% dye decolorization was obtained within 48 h. The effect of mediators on laccase, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and manganese independent peroxidase (MnIP) were also studied. The decolorization of Reactive Magenta-HB dye was monitored by UV–Visible spectroscopy while dye degradation was studied by HPTLC and FTIR spectroscopy.
Title: Management of Damping off (Pythium aphanidermatum ) in chilli (Capsicum annum cv VNS-4 ) by Pseudomonas fluorescens
Abstract :
Pseudomonas fluorescens 0.5% W.P. formulation applied as seed and furrow (soil application) in Chilli significantly reduced the damping off disease of chilli caused by P. aphanidermatum. The yield of chilli was also significantly enhanced. The formulation did not have any phyto-toxic effect on chilli plants at all the dosage levels tested for bioefficacy. The Pseudomonas fluorescens
0.5% W.P. application had no adverse effect on the beneficial rhizospheric microbes, like Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (Glomus spp.) in chilli rhizosphere at all dosages which were confirmed by microscopic observations. Based on the above findings, the Pseudomonas fluorescens 0.5% W.P. formulation is found safe and effective and may be used as an efficient & eco-safe alternative
of synthetic fungicides for the management of damping off disease of chilli and for obtaining higher yields.
Title: Differential Response of Trifloxystrobin in Combination with Tebuconazole on Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Yield of Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)
Abstract :
The present investigation was carried out at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University to evaluate the influence of trifloxystrobin in combination with tebuconazole (Nativo) on the nutrient uptake, yield attributes and yield of rice. Foliar spray of Nativo was taken up at 50-55 days after sowing (DAS) and 70-75 DAS and observations were recorded at panicle initiation (60-65 DAS), flowering
(80-85 DAS) and maturity (100-105 DAS) stages. The result indicated that Nativo significantly improved the root length, total dry matter production (TDMP) and nutrient uptake, but inhibited the shoot length. Among the different concentrations, Nativo @ 400 g ha-1 performed better by increasing the fertility co-efficient, 1000 grain weight, panicle length and the grain yield in rice.
Title: Studies on Heterosis for yield and its Attributing Traits in Tomato (Solanumlycopersicum L.)
Abstract :
Twenty eight hybrids of tomato developed using eight parents (PusaRohini, PusaGaurav, Roma, Cherry Orange, Selection-1, Taiwan, N-5 and C-10-15-27-3) in half diallelfashion were studied for estimation of heterosis for yield and its attributing traits. Hybrids PusaGaurav x Taiwan, PusaRohini x PusaGaurav and PusaRohini x Roma were found most promising for yield and its
contributing traits. These hybrid exhibited heterosis to the tune of 48.14%, 44.47% and 73.41% over better parents and 83.43%, 76.78% and 74.24%, respectively over the check cultivar for fruit yield per plant. The cross combination PusaGaurav x Taiwan expressed highest significant standard parent heterosis and SCA estimates
Title: Character Association and Path Coefficient Analysis in Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.)
Abstract :
Twenty-two genotypes of amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) were evaluated for 12 quantitative traits for two years and the pooled data was analyzed. The mean, range, genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation, heritability in broad sense and genetic advance were calculated. Path coefficient analysis was carried out using correlation coefficients to know the yield-contributing
traits having true associations with seed yield. The low differences between the phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variations indicated low environmental influences on the expression of the traits studied. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance for yield/day to maturity, yield/day to seed fill, harvest index, panicle girth and seed yield/plant was observed. All the traits except days to seed fill possessed positive association with grain yield. Harvest index was positively correlated with days to maturity. Harvest index, aerial biomass/plant and days to maturity also ad high phenotypic and genotypic direct effects on seed yield/plant, revealing that indirect selection for these traits would be effective in improving seed yield.
Title: Role of Pulse Sprouts Extract Foliar Spray in Seed Yield of Paddy Cultivars
Abstract :
To evaluate the performance pulse sprout extract foliar spray, SRI method of cultivation and their interaction effect on seed yield attributes in different rice cultivars, the field experiment was conducted with split split plot design. The experiment consisted of planting method as main plot treatment [SRI (P1) with 25x25 cm spacing and Conventional (P2) with 25 x 15 cm spacing]; short duration cultivars as sub plot treatment [ADT 43 (V1), ADT 47 (V2) and IR 50 (V3)] and foliar spray as sub sub plot treatment [Pulse sprout extract (2% cowpea) spray (T1) and Micronutrients mixture spray (Zinc, Iron, Boron) (T2)]. The results revealed that all the cultivars performed better under SRI method (P1) of planting and registered maximum growth, physiological and yield attributes such as number of tillers per hill, number of leaves per hill, leaf length and breadth, dry matter production per hill, leaf
area index, number of productive tillers per hill, panicle length, single ear head weight, number of seeds per panicle and 21.66 per cent increase in seed yield over the conventional method of planting. Among the foliar spray treatments, the pulse sprout extract (T1) registered 21.88 per cent increase in seed yield over foliar spray of micronutrients mixture (T2). Hence, the SRI method of
planting and foliar spray of pulse sprout (2% cowpea) extract (T1) can be recommended for seed production of paddy short duration cultivars.
Title: Assessment of Phytotoxic Proclivities of Jatropha curcas L. on Germination and Seedling Establishment of Some Field Crops
Abstract :
To elucidate the phytotoxic response of Jatropha curcas L. on performance of some economical crops under nursery, present investigation was undertaken. Three test crops viz. Zea mays, Vigna radiata and Brassica campestries were evaluated for various germination and growth parameters. Different soil media has treatment combinations of field soil and soil beneath Jatropha monoculture fields significantly influenced the germination, seedling growth and vigour of all test crops. Highest germination capacity was noted in control and a gradual suppression trend was seen thereafter. Growth measurements (shoot and
root length, collar diameter, vigour index) and phytomass (fresh shoot and root weight, dry shoot and root weight) exerts maximum increment when supplied to 50 % field soil and 50 % Jatropha rhizosphere soil (JRS). Maximum inhibition in all parameters was pronounced at 100 % Jatropha rhizosphere soil for each of considered parameters. Highest germination % (82) was traced in mustard followed by maize (77) seeds. Best germination and dry biomass (7.57 gm) extent was eminent in Brassica campestries
but seedling growth (66.24 cm) and fresh biomass (14.62 gm) concern were higher in Zea mays. Vigna radiata adversely affected in germination (64 %), seedling growth (17.24 cm), vigour (965.44), fresh biomass (1.2 gm) and dry biomass (0.24 gm) respectively. Higher concentration of Jatropha rhizosphere soil (JRS) gives suppretory behavior in survival and development of examined
crops. The allelopathic perspective within test crops can be arranged as a Vigna radiata > Brassica campestries > Zea mays.
Title: Assessment of Rainwater Harvesting Capacity of Check Dam Reservoirs in Barkachha, a Part of Central Vindhyan Plateau of Mirzapur District, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract :
Barkachha, a part of central Vindhyan plateau is rocky and undulating land having many small rivulets and channels which quickly drain away the bounties of rainwater along with the fine crust of the top fertile soil. To overcome this situation, two check dam were constructed by the Uttar Pradesh Irrigation Department, during 2001. The present study was under taken to evaluate the
rainwater harvesting capacity of these reservoirs for supplementary irrigation of the cultivated crops, viz cereal, pulses and oil seeds. The runoff water accumulated from July and remains up to February/March. Maximum volume of the harvested rainwater in both the reservoirs was during September with a capacity 22550 m3 and 121170 m3 in reservoir No. 1 and reservoir No. 2,
respectively. There was no water during the month of April to June in both the reservoirs. The crop producing area under these reservoirs through supplementary irrigation for the last one decade varied from 17.5 to 26.1 ha.
Title: Influence of Soil and Foliar Applied Boron on Green Gram in Calcareous Soils
Abstract :
A greenhouse experiment with green gram grown on boron (B) deficient calcareous soils was conducted for two years in Northwest India to study the influence of soil and foliar applied boron on green gram. Three soils with calcium carbonate content 0.75 (Soil I), 2.1 (Soil II) and 4.56 (Soil III) percent were collected from different sites of Ludhiana and Bhatinda districts, Punjab, India. The treatments comprised of four levels of soil applied boron viz. 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 mg B kg-1 and two levels of foliar applied boron viz. 0.1 and 0.2 per cent borax solution with common control. Soil applied boron has more influence on mean dry matter yield while foliar applied boron has on mean grain yield. Among all soil applied boron 0.5 mg kg-1 is best treatment while 0.1% is best foliar treatment. Soil applied boron was at the par with foliar applied boron. Among all three calcareous soils, Soil I with lower calcium carbonate was best soil in respect of mean yield and yield components in comparison to Soil II and Soil III. Combined effect of boron level and soils had a significant effect on yield and yield attributing characters. Total seed weight and leaf boron content are highly correlated with one another.
Title: Forms of Sulphur and Evaluation to the Sulphur Test Methods for Moongbean in Some terai Soils of Eastern India
Abstract :
Surface soil samples of some terai soils of Eastern India were collected and analysed to evaluate different forms of sulphur status and soil test methods for predicting response of moong bean crop to sulphur application. The range of water soluble, sulphate, adsorbed, organic form and total sulphur were 6.91 to 26.23 (mean 16.69), 13.73 to 30.38 (mean 20.67), 3.19 to 42.91 (mean 18.37), 150.27 to 372.73 (mean 229.57) and 178.57 to 433.09 (mean 264.63) ppm, respectively. Soil pH, organic carbon, cation exchange
capacity and total N content in soil were positively correlated to the all forms of sulphur. Although clay content was negatively correlated to water soluble and sulphate sulphur, but silt+clay content in soil was positively correlated to water soluble sulphur and negatively correlated to adsorbed sulphur content in these soils. Amongst the five chemical extractants employed, relative
suitability of the extractants for predicting available sulphur status for these soils with reference to moong bean crop were in the order: Morgan > monocalcium phosphate 500ppm P > 0.15% CaCl2 > 1 N NH4OAc > 1% NaCl. Therefore, Morgan’s extractant may be used as an index of available sulphur for moong bean (B1, Sonali) grown on acid soils of terai tract of Eastern India, the critical level being 18.0 mg kg-1.
Title: Impact of Climate Change on Vegetable Cultivation - A Review
Abstract :
Vegetables are an important component of human diet as they are the only source of nutrients, vitamins and minerals. They are also good remunerative to the farmer as they fetch higher price in the market. Likewise other crops, they are also being hit by the consequences of climate change such as global warming, changes in seasonal and monsoon pattern and biotic and abiotic
factors. Under changing climatic situations crop failures, shortage of yields, reduction in quality and increasing pest and disease problems are common and they render the vegetable cultivation unprofitable. As many physiological processes and enzymatic activities are temperature dependent, they are going to be largely effected. Drought and salinity are the two important consequences of increase in temperature worsening vegetable cultivation. Increase in CO2 may increase crop yields due to increased CO2
fertilization, but decreases after some extent. Anthropogenic air pollutants such as CO2, CH4 and CFC’s are contributing to the global warming and dioxides of nitrogen and sulphur are causing depletion of ozone layer and permitting the entry of harmful UV rays. These affects of climate change also influence the pest and disease occurrences, host-pathogen interactions, distribution and ecology of insects, time of appearance, migration to new places and their overwintering capacity, there by becoming major
setback to vegetable cultivation. Potato, among the all vegetables, is most vulnerable to climate change due to its exact climatic requirement for various physiological processes.
Title: Traditional medicinal plants used by the Adi, Idu and Khamba tribes of Dehang-Debang Biosphere Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh
Abstract :
Arunachal Pradesh is the largest state in North Eastern India and is a centre of rich biological diversity. It is the home of tribal people belonging to 26 major tribes and over 110 sub-tribes of the Indo-Mongoloid racial stock. The Adis the Idus and Khambas are some of the dominant tribes among them. Most of these communities are ethnically similar but their geographical isolation
from each other has brought amongst them certain distinctive characteristics in language, dress, and customs. They use the diverse flora in their daily life. These tribes are well versed with knowledge of edible greens, vegetables, fruits, seeds and other materials. They have good knowledge of treatment of many ailments by the local plants. 55 plant species belonging to 49 genera
and 36 families were found used for medicinal purpose by the Adis and the Idus of Dehang-Debang Biosphere Reserve (DDBR). About 93 formulations were prepared from 55 plant species. Some formulations were made from single plant; while others were of more plants and were categorized into different types as per curative properties with which they were associated. These medicinal plants have been used traditionally either by eating them as raw drugs, as vegetable or apply it directly to the affected area. The
manner in which the plants are used for the treatment of animal bite, cut, wounds, swellings, skin diseases, dental diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, pain, fever and headache, jaundice, leprosy, cholera, cancer, cough and cold, malaria, ostiological problems and others are presented in this paper.
Title: Study of Effective Implementation of Agricultural Technology Management Agency through Case Studies in Bihar
Abstract :
The present study was formulated to document the successful and  nsuccessful cases of implementation of Strategic Research and Extension Plan under ATMA in Bihar to identify the important lessons in terms of facilitating and hindering factors for success in agri-entrepreneurship. Study was undertaken in Patna and Muzaffarpur districts of Bihar. From these districts, two
Farmers Interest Groups and two individual farmers were purposively selected as per discussion with ATMA officials for in-depth study. The data were collected from selected farmers and farm women through personal interview and focused group discussion. Three successful and one unsuccessful case were documented. After analyzing the successful cases it was found that ‘formation of commodity specific farmers group’, ‘providing training and exposure visit to these farmers on new enterprises such as
cultivation of high value vegetable crops, mushroom cultivation and bee keeping’, ‘providing them technical as well as financial support through banks’ and ‘helping them market their produce’ were the major factors which contributed to the success of individual or farmer’s group. It was also found that linkage of farmers with KVK scientists, BTT members, ATMA officials at district level and officers of agriculture/horticulture departments were crucial to the success of individual farmers/farmers group.
Title: Moisture Dependent Engineering Properties of Wild Apricot ( prunus armeniaca L.) Pits
Abstract :
The physical and mechanical properties of apricot pit are the most important parameters for designing and development of handling, grading, sizing, processing, decorticating, oil expression and packaging equipments. Such as dimensions, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, bulk density, true density, porosity, thousand pit volume, thousand pit weights, angle of repose, angle
of internal friction and cracking strength at two conditions of moisture content (wb) of wild apricot pits at 12 % and 16 %. The mean length, width and thickness at moisture content of 12 % (wb) and 16 % (wb) were found to be 22.60 mm, 17.71 mm, 10.55 mm and 22.61 mm, 17.73 mm, and 10.58 mm, respectively. Similarly, equivalent diameter 16.16 mm, 16.18 mm, spherisity 0.71 and 0.72, angle of repose 32.98º and 33.23º, angle of internal friction 30.25º and 30.35º, bulk density 0.5512g/mm3 and 0.5389 mm3, true density
1.0282 g/mm3 and 1.169 g/mm3, porosity 46.34 % and 48.23 %, thousand pit volume 2534 mm3 and 2957 mm3, thousand pit weight 1572.5 g and 1594 g, cracking strength 594.78 N and 568.96 N, respectively at 12 % (wb) M.C and 16 % (wb) M.C of pit. ANOVA indicated that length, width, thickness, equivalent diameter, sphericity, angle of repose and angle of internal friction of wild apricot pit were not significantly dependent on moisture content. But true density, bulk density, thousand kernel weight, thousand kernel volume and cracking strength varied significantly with moisture content at 5% level of significance.
Title: Bio-efficacy of chemical Insecticides against Spotted Pod Borer, Maruca testulalis (Geyer) on Cowpea
Abstract :
Studies were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi during Kharif 2010 and 2011 to know the efficacy of some new molecule insecticides (azadirachtin, Bt, endosulfan 35% EC, thiodicarb 75% WP, spinosad 45% SC, lambda cyhalothrin 5% EC, indoxacarb 14.5% SC, profenophos 50% EC and acetamiprid 20% SP) against spotted pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) on mungbean. The spinosad 45% SC and indoxacarb 14.5 % SC were the most effective treatments and significantly superior to other treatments with 80.7 and 79.2 per cent larval reduction over control. The least effective treatment
was acetamiprid 20%SP, followed by azadirachtin with 38.8 and 44.9 per cent reduction in larval population over control. The maximum yield was recorded in treatment indoxacarb 14.5%SC (11.8q/ha) followed by spinosad 45%SC (11.1q/ha) which were at par with each other. While lowest yield was recorded in azadirachtin (9.7q/ha).