Title: Leaching behavior of Kresoxim-Methyl and Acid Metabolite in normal and sludge amended inceptisol soil Abstract :
Kresoxim-methyl, a strobilurin fungicide, is a broad spectrum, foliar fungicide. Leaching studies conducted with kresoxim methyl and acid metabolite separately revealed that in column soil >90% of the kresoxim methyl undergo hydrolysis and changed into acid metabolite. Acid metabolite showed more leaching potential than the parent molecule. Residues moved to the lower soil depth with increasing amount of rainfall. Increasing the organic matter content of the soil by sludge amendment (5%) reduced the leaching potential of both the compounds. With the same amount of rainfall, leaching was found to be more under discontinuous flow than continuous flow treatment.
Title: Optimal design of flow rate in drip irrigation system to enhance the tomato cultivation Abstract :
Tomato is the second most important vegetable crop next to potato. As far as conservation of soil and water is concerned, drip irrigation offers the most practical and effective alternative to regular surface irrigation among all the irrigation technique known today in the world. Researchers throughout the world are kin to obtain the optimal flow rate through drip irrigation for overall development of crop. In this study, attempt has been made to analysis the growth rate and yield of tomato plant at various flow rate of drip irrigation, and to determine the effect of fertigation through drip irrigation on growth and yield of tomato. In this study “Samartha F1 hybrid” variety of tomato seed was selected and cultivated over the farm size of 6×5 m2. The selected farm area was divided into two sections i.e. fertigation section and non-fertigation section. Three rows having ten plants in each row was transplanted in both sections. Growth of tomato plants in term of height and canopy was measured and compared with different flow rates. The average increment in the height of tomato plants at flow rate of 2 L/hr, 4 L/hr and 8 L/hr were estimated as 68%, 60% and 52% respectively. Yield of tomato in terms of fruits was estimated for three different flow rates of 2 L/hr, 4 L/hr and 8 L/hr. The yield of tomato is optimal when drip irrigation with 2 litres per second has been used for irrigating the farm land. Significant effect of fertigation through drip irrigation has been found on growth and yield of tomato plants.
Title: Temperature dependent electrical conductivities of ginger paste during ohmic heating Abstract :
Ohmic heating is now regarded as highly attractive advanced technique for food processing wherein electric current is passed through the liquid particulates foods with primary purpose of heating them. The success of ohmic heating depends on the rate of heat generation in the system, the electrical conductivity of the food, method by which the food flows through the system and composition of the food. In this study, the ginger paste at different salt treatment (0-2% w/w) was heated in a laboratory scale ohmic heater by applying voltage gradients (5–13 V/cm). The temperature dependent electrical conductivity was obtained at different time interval of 0, 5 and 10 minute at different temperatures (30-60˚C). Bubbling was observed above 70˚C especially at high voltage gradients. The electrical conductivity measured in terms of point and bulk electrical conductivity. Point electrical conductivity was greater than bulk electrical conductivity. The point and bulk electrical conductivity values were in the range of 4.41 to 6.63 and 3.75 to 5.87 mS/cm respectively.
Title: Geomorphometric analysis of a hilly watershed in north east India Abstract :
Morphometric analysis of a hilly watershed was carried out using GIS. The drainage map generated from the Survey of India toposheets was used for morphometric analysis of the watershed in terms of stream order, stream length, bifurcation ratio, relief ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, drainage texture, form factor, circulatory ratio, elongation ratio, infiltration number and ruggedness number. The Um Shipra watershed is a fifth order watershed having dendritic drainage pattern with high drainage density (6.22 km.km-2). The logarithmic plot of the stream length versus stream order showed a linear relationship indicating the watershed has developed over a homogeneous rock material. The mean bifurcation ratio of 1.71 indicated absence of strong structural control on the drainage pattern and that the watershed was structurally less disturbed. The number of streams belonging to the order I, II, III, IV and V were found to be 327, 147, 78, 45 and 46 respectively. Lower values of form factor (0.19), circularity ratio (0.29) and elongation ratio (0.49) suggested that the watershed has elongated shape with lower peak flows for longer duration. The ruggedness number having relatively higher value implied that the area has rugged topography which is prone to soil erosion. Higher values of stream frequency and drainage density indicated that the watershed has high runoff potential despite having lower peak flow creating a good scope for surface water resource development. The results obtained can serve as a useful input for developing soil and water resources conservation and management plan on a watershed basis.
Title: Temporal variation of rainfall trends in parambikulam aliyar sub basin, Tamil Nadu Abstract :
Identification of temporal variation of rainfall trends provides useful information for sustainable planning and management of water resources in a river basin particularly during flood and drought periods. The present study was conducted to determine trends in the annual and seasonal total rainfall over Parambikulam Aliyar sub basin of Tamil Nadu using 30 years (1982-2012) monthly rainfall data at eight rain-gauge stations. The procedure is based on the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test for the trend and the nonparametric Sen’s method for the magnitude of the trend. The maximum increase in rainfall was found at Chinnakallar with an annual rainfall of 90.51 mm/year and the maximum reduction in rainfall of -8.60 mm/year was found at Topslip during South West monsoon. Significant positive trend were observed at Weaverly station during North East monsoon rainfall series and significant negative trend has been noticed in the South West monsoon of Topslip.
Title: Quality assessment of probiotic weaning mix from fermented cereal-legume blends Abstract :
Weaning mix was developed from underutilized crops of Uttarakhand (finger millet, barnyard millet, black soybean, amaranth grain). Malting and fermentation were adopted as ways of improving cereal protein quality and decreasing anti-nutritional property and probiotic weaning mix was produced using probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum. Box-benkhen design of response surface methodology was used to design the experiments design for three variables with three levels [blend ratio (cereals : legume:: 50:50, 60:40, 70:30), fermentation time (12 h, 24 h, 36 h), inoculums concentration (1%, 3%, 5%] and four responses (protein, tannin, water absorption capacity, water absorption index). The probiotic fermentation resulted in favourable changes in nutritionl profile of weaning mix resulting 48.2% increase in protein and 92.3% decrease in tannin content. The optimized set of independent variables (cereals (FM+BM): legume: 70:30 fermented for 25 h with 2.9% inoculum concentration) obtained after statistical analysis, was used to develop final probiotic weaning mix.
Title: Effect of iron and zinc on growth, flowering and bulb yield in lilium Abstract :
Lilium is a bulbous plant having non-tunicate bulbs. They are popular throughout the world for their exotic colours and fragrance, making them ideal cut flowers. A trial was conducted to study the effect of foliar spray of iron and zinc in form of sulphate to see their effect on growth, flowering and bulb yield attributes in lilium. Bulbs of lilium cv. Tresor were planted under polyhouse condition and different combinations of iron sulphate and zinc sulphate at 0.2% and 0.4% were applied as foliar spray at 30 and 45 days after planting. Experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with 3 replications. Foliar application of FeSO4 0.2% promoted length of flower stalk and diameter of 1st flower, while its higher dose (FeSO4 at 0.4%) increased the number of buds plant-1 and weight of bulbs plant-1. Foliar treatment of ZnSO4 at 0.4% significantly enhanced the number of bulblets plant-1, number of scales bulb-1, diameter of 1st flower and diameter of bulb. Different treatment combinations of iron sulphate and zinc sulphate also affected various characters like number of leaves plant-1, diameter of stem, days to colour show and days to opening of 1st bud.
Title: Effect of precooling and chemical preservatives on post harvest longevity of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) florets Abstract :
Investigations were carried out to study the effect of precooling and preservative chemicals on post harvest longevity of the florets of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) cv. Prajwal. The effect of precooling of tuberose florets in combination with four chemical treatments were studied and observations were recorded based on quality parameters like freshness of the florets, colour retention, physiological loss in weight and days to fifty per cent wilting. Pre-cooling of flower buds was found to improve the longevity (shelf life) of flower buds. Soaking of florets in 4 % Boric acid solution for two hours and air drying them before packing increased the shelf life up to six days.
Title: Physical and biochemical changes in guava (Psidium Guajava L.) during various stages of fruit growth and development Abstract :
Physiological and biochemical changes during fruit growth, development and maturity of eleven genotypes of guava fruit were studied at 30, 60, 90, 105, 120 and 127 days after fruit set (DAFS). Fruit weight, length and diameter of guava fruit increased continuously from the initial stage of fruit development till maturity and ripening in all the genotypes. The increases in fruit weight and diameter were comparatively more between 30 to 60 DAFS and 90 to 127 DAFS than 60 to 90 DAFS where the increase in fruit weight and diameter was slow in most of the genotypes. However, RCG-1, RCG-2 and RCG-3 showed the continued rapid increase in fruit weight upto 120 days and thereafter the rate of increase was quite slow. A gradual increase in total soluble solids (TSS) was observed in all the genotypes throughout development and ripening stage of the fruits. However, the amount of total titratable acidity increased steadily in the beginning upto 105 days after fruit set in most of the genotypes except RCG-1, RCG-2 and RCG-3 which showed upto 90 days only and afterwards there was a continuous reduction till ripening. The fruits showed continuous and progressive increase in TSS: acid ratio from 30 DAFS till maturity and ripening in all the genotypes except RCG-11, RCGH-1 and RCGH-7 that showed from 60 DAFS. Based on the present findings, days taken from flowering to harvest maturity (>105 days), TSS (>9.50%) and TSS: acid ratio (>15.00) were some of the parameters for judging the maturity indices of genotypes like RCG-1, RCG-2 and RCG-3. Similarly, days taken from flowering to harvest maturity (>110 days), TSS (>10.50%), TSS: acid ratio (>21.00) and fruit skin colour (whitish green) for RCGH-1 were some of the parameters for judging the maturity indices. Whereas, other genotypes were also exhibited the variation for days taken from flowering to harvest maturity (>120 days), skin colours, TSS (9.20-11.00%) and TSS: acid ratio (13.50-23.50.
Title: Seasonal variations in peel colour in relation to fruit development of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) Abstract :
The studies on seasonal variations in peel colour of grapefruit cv. Star Ruby were carried out in order to explain the relationship between fruit growth and colour development. The fruit diameter of the grapefruit increased from 90 days after fruit set to the maturity of fruit. The seasonal variation in fruit diameter was recorded 12.83% during fruit development. The increase in a* coordinate, which represented the gradual loss of greenness, continued until mid-November at 210 DAFS. Calorimetric coordinate b* values always remained positive and increased until the fruit maturity and showed yellow tinge. The hue angle values decreased continuously from start of sampling to the harvest of fruit with appearance of pinkish-yellow tone. Seasonal variation in the hue angle was recorded 26.80%. The negative correlation was observed between hue angle and the fruit development with the advancement of fruit maturity. However, studies have reported positive correlation was recorded between colour space values (L*, a*, b* and C*) with fruit development. The maximum seasonal variation was noted in colour parameter a* (CV = 189.99%) and minimum seasonal variation was noted in L* (CV = 9.42%).
Title: Field evaluation of fungicides against Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cif., causing purple blotch of onion (Allium cepaL.) Abstract :
Field evaluation of several fungicides including new molecules was undertaken for the management of purple blotch disease of onion caused by Alternaria porri(Ellis) Cif. The experiments were conducted during kharif of 2012 and 2013 using susceptible variety Arka Nikethan.Cymoxanil 8% + Mancozeb 64% WP @ 2500 ppm and Mancozeb 70% WP @ 2500 ppm were effective in reducing the disease severity by 54.86 and 52.88 % over untreated control. However, Mancozeb 70% WP and Cymoxanil 8% + Mancozeb 64% WP recorded the maximum yield of 39.71 and 37.06 t/ha and obtained benefit cost ratio of 33.85 and 20.67. Thus these two fungicides can be recommended for the effective and economical management of the disease
Title: Changes in fruit colour of Dusehari mangoes during ethephon induced ripening Abstract :
The effect of ethephon on colour changes of Dusehari mango (Mangifera indica) fruits during ripening was examined. Physiological mature fruits were given post harvest dip of ethephon solution @ 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm for five minutes. Treated fruits were packed in CFB boxes placed at ambient conditions for ripening. Fruit peel and pulp colour was determined after 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h after ripening treatments using Hunter Lab scale. Results revealed that all ethephon treatments enhanced colour development as compared to control. The luminosity of peel increased with increase in concentration of ethephon as well as with ripening period. The greenness of peel as reflected by ‘a’ values decreased with ripening treatments and period. However ‘a’ value for pulp increased with development of redness of tissue. The fruit peel developed yellowish colour with ethephon treatments as evidenced by increase in values of ‘b’. The effect of ethephon on colour changes at higher doses (800 ppm and 1000 ppm) was non-significant after 120 h of ripening period.
Title: Interrelationship between fruit quality and pre-harvest calcium chloride treatment on peach Cv. ‘Shan-I-Punjab’ Abstract :
The effectiveness of pre-harvest calcium, chloride on post-harvest life and quality of peach fruits were studied. Calcium chloride viz. 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% was sprayed to peach plants at pit hardening stage, 10 and 20 days after pit hardening. Peach fruits harvested at physiological mature stage were sorted, washed, air dried and packed in CFB boxes before placing in cold store (temperature 0-10 and RH 85-90%). Changes in PLW, fruit firmness, sensory quality, pulp: stone, total sugars, total phenolics and calcium content were studied. Calcium chloride @ 1.5% (three sprays) resulted in minimum PLW, total sugars and maximum fruit firmness, sensory quality score, pulp: stone, total phenolics and calcium content during the stipulated storage period.
Title: Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis G-1 in suppression of stem rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii and growth promotion of groundnut Abstract :
A total of seven biocontrol agents with known antifungal activity against other soilborne fungal pathogens were screened for their antagonistic potential against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc, the causal agent of stem rot disease of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by dual culture assay. Among the various biocontrol agents tested Bacillus subtilis strain G-1 was the most effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of S. rolfsii and recorded an inhibition of 28%. Groundnut seeds when treated with B. subtilis G-1 showed significant increases in root length, shoot length and seedling vigour. A talc-based powder formulation of the highly effective strain, B. subtilis G-1, was developed and its efficacy in controlling groundnut stem rot was determined under greenhouse conditions. The results indicated that seed treatment with the powder formulation of B. subtilis G-1 alone effectively reduced the incidence of stem rot and increased the pod yield; but combined application through seed and soil increased the efficacy. Seed treatment and soil application with B. subtilis G-1 reduced the stem rot incidence from 80 per cent (with non-bacterized seeds) to 5 per cent. When the treated seeds were sown in soil, the antagonist moved to the rhizosphere and multiplied well in it. These results suggest that B. subtilis G-1 is an effective bioagent against stem rot of groundnut. Further studies are required to assess its efficacy in controlling stem rot of groundnut under field conditions.
Title: Characterization of mungbean genotypes against mungbean yellow mosaic virus and cercospora leaf spot diseases under north east plain zone Abstract :
Mungbean is an important legume crop due to its short behavior, nutritious and green mannuring nature. But it is highly affected by several diseases and other factors, which reduces the yield and seed quality. Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) and Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) are the major disease of mungbean. Therefore, the present study was conducted to characterize the 34 genotypes of mungbean against MYMV and CLS disease during Kharif 2012 under two different date of sowing. The present study indicated that the none of the genotype was found immune, resistant to MYMV and CLS, whereas five genotypes namely DMS 03-17-2, IPM 2K-14-9, P 1131, DMS 02-11-4 and IPM 99-1-6 were found with moderately resistant reaction. These genotypes may be added in breeding program for improvement of mungbean.
Title: Evaluation of suitable antagonists in the management of early blight of tomato cultivar CO-3 Abstract :
Early blight of tomato is one of the most destructive diseases caused by Alternaria solani causing considerable loss to quality and quantity of fruits. To avoid chemical fungicides in the management of this menace, soil borne rhizospheric organisms were isolated and evaluated against the pathogen. Different antagonists i.e Aspergillus sp. Trichoderma sp. Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. were used against most virulent isolates of A. solani under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Maximum in vitro inhibition of mycelial growth of Alternaria solani was observed in case of Trichoderma sp. (87.69%) followed by Aspergillus sp. (84.23%) as compared to control. Under glass house conditions Trichoderma sp. exhibited a similar efficacy with a percent disease control ranging from 82.6-91.3.
Title: Study of genetic variation among soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merrill] accessions in CID values Abstract :
A set of 91 diverse soybean accessions were analysed for 10 morphological traits with special reference to water use efficiency using carbon isotope discrimination (CID) technique. The coefficient of variation for CID values was found to be 3.36%. There is negative correlation between Δ13C values (CID values) and WUE. The genotypes which registered lower values of Δ13C are more water efficient than the genotypes with higher Δ13C values. The range of Δ13C values observed in this experiment are slightly lower than that reported in sugar beet (Δ13C 17.66‰ to 22.96‰), (Rajabi et al., 2009). Genotype UPSL309 has highest CID value (22.91‰) indicating low WUE and genotype DS9813 has lowest CID value (19.95 ‰) with high WUE. In present study randomly classified genotypes as high WUE (CID less than 20.5 ‰), medium WUE (CID between 20.6 to 22.4 ‰) and low WUE (CID above 22.5 ‰). There were 7 genotypes which were found to show high WUE, and 13 exhibited low WUE whereas, rests of the 71 genotypes were medium in WUE.
Title: Genetic diversity studies in rice (Oryza Sativa L.) using microsatellite markers Abstract :
The objective of present study was to evaluate the genetic polymorphism and identification of diverse parents among the 76 rice accessions using simple sequences repeat (SSR) markers. The accessions showed significant phenotypic variation for all the characters analyzed. The SSR Markers were highly polymorphic across all accessions and altogether 79 alleles were detected. The overall Polymorphic information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.26 to 0.65 with an average of 2.82 per locus indicting high level of genetic variation. The cluster analysis showed the rice germplasm accessions grouped in to two major groups and 14 subgroups. The pair-wise genetic dissimilarity co-efficient indicated that the highest dissimilarity was obtained between cultivar B.3688-TB and IR.67017-1(0.1935) followed by cultivar Badi Kodi and Changhat (0.3333). These grmplasms were showing wide genetic divergence among the constituent in it and may be directly utilized in hybridization programme for improvement of yield related traits. The markers RM 413, RM 481, RM 206 and RM 20 produced a maximum of four alleles. These microsatellite markers could serve as a powerful tool in selecting genetically diverse germplasm accessions, to execute efficient selection in highly segregating generations.
Title: Exploitation of heterosis and combining ability for earliness and vegetative traits in ridge gourd [luffa acutangula (roxb.)L.] Abstract :
Eight parental lines and 28 F1 hybrids of ridge gourd obtained from half-diallel were studied to investigate the extent of combining ability and heterosis for earliness and vegetative characters. Appreciable heterosis in desirable direction was found over better parent and check parent for the characters viz. days to first female flower, node number to first female flower, vine length (m), number of primary branches and days taken to Ist fruit harvesting. Crosses PCPGR 7256 X PRG 142, PRG 117 X PRG 142, PRG 117 X PRG 131, PRG 117 X PRG 132 and PRG 117 X PRG 120 were found promising for earliness. Crosses PCPGR 7256 X PRG 117, PCPGR 7256 X PRG 131 and PRG 132 X PRG 120 were recorded promising for vegetative traits. Regarding general combining ability the parents PRG 117 and PRG 142 found best for earliness and for vegetative growth PRG 131 stood in top. The crosses PRG 131 X PRG 132 and PCPGR 7256 X PRG 142 showed highest specific combining ability for earliness and both the crosses PCPGR 7256 X PRG 117 and PRG 132 X PRG 120 found best for different vegetative traits.
Title: Risk analysis of profenofos on tomato in poly house and open fields and risk mitigation methods for removal of profenofos residues from tomato for food safety. Abstract :
Profenofos is a broad spectrum foliar insecticide and acaricide with contact and systemic action, widely used on tomato in India for the management of sap sucking insects and mites. Profenofos is not registered for use in India on tomato, and hence Maximum Residue Limits are not available as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India. However, use of profenofos in poly house and open fields is very common, and hence profenofos residues are found in market samples. A research project was taken to study dissipation pattern of profenophos 50% EC in both open fields and poly houses, when applied twice @ 500 g a.i. ha-1, first spray at fruit initiation followed by second spray at 10 days interval as per the farmers practice. Profenofos residues were quantified through regular sampling till the residues are below determination level (BDL) of 0.05 mg kg-1 following the validated QuEChERS method. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of profenofos was performed on GC-FPD and GC-MSMS (TQD). Initial deposits of 3.25 mg kg-1 were detected in tomato samples collected from poly house, which dissipated to BDL by 15th day with half-life of 2.43 days. In open fields, deposits of 1.51 mg kg-1 dissipated to BDL by 7th day with half-life of 1.55 days, indicates that dissipation is slow in poly house compared to open fields due to various factors, and in both situations initial deposits are lower than the MRL (10 mg kg-1) of Codex Alimentarius Commission hence a pre-harvest interval of 1 day is recommended. MRL of 7 mg kg-1 in poly house tomato and 3 mg kg-1 in open field tomato is recommended based on the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) calculator and chronic hazard exposure assessment taking into consideration of average body weight, national per capita tomato consumption and acceptable daily intake (ADI) of profenofos. Among various decontamination methods tested, veggy wash found to be very effective in removing profenofos residues to an extent of 75.84% which can be recommended as risk mitigation method for food safety, followed by 4% acetic acid solution (71.22%) and tap water wash was least effective (37.60%) in removing profenofos residues from tomato.
Title: Seed and oil quality characteristics of some castor (Ricinus Communis L.) inbred lines Abstract :
Castor (Ricinus communis L) is an important non-edible oilseed crop with diversified industrial usage. India is dominating in the production and productivity of castor. Thirteen inbred lines were studied for seed physical characteristics, oil quality, as well as fatty acid profile. Among the inbred studied, the maximum weight of 100 seed was 34.2 g, in JC-26, and maximum oil content was 51.3% in SKI-333. One hundred seed wt showed a positive correlation with % of kernel (r=0.472*) and seed oil content has positive correlation with kernel oil content (r=0.803**). Important oil characteristics for industrial use like specific gravity (g/cc) varied from 0.954 to 0.958 while the viscosity (cp) ranged from 604 to 626. The free Fatty acid as oleic acid was ranging between 4.33 to 6.02%. Among the fatty acid, the ricinolic acid was ranging from 83.93 to 87.02%, the minimum value was in 48-1 while the maximum value of ricinolic acid was recorded in DCS-9 inbred.
Title: Yield sustainability and chemical fertilizer economy through IPNS in capsicum (Capsicum Annum L. Var. grossum) under dry temperate condition of Himachal Pradesh Abstract :
A field experiment to evaluate the effect of five organic sources of plant nutrients and three fertility levels on productivity and economics of tomato was conducted during Kharif seasons of 2006 and 2007 under dry temperate region of HAREC, Kukumseri (L&S), Himachal Pradesh. Among organic sources, application of FYM @ 5 t/ha has recorded the higher values for all yield attributes except No. of branches/plant and was followed by FYM @ 2.5 t/ha + Azotobacter. However both these treatments were significantly at par with each other in recording significantly more No. of branches/plant, higher yield and productivity. Significantly higher economic efficiency of Rs. 1567.6 was achieved with the application of FYM @ 2.5 t/ha + Azotobacter and was followed by FYM @ 5 t/ha (1567.6 Rs./ha/day). Increase in the level of NPK has significant influence on yield, productivity and economic efficiency. Significantly higher values of different yield attributes were recorded with the application of 150% NPK which was reflected in getting significantly higher capsicum yield (190.0 q/ha) and productivity (1.04 q/ha/day) with greater economic efficiency of 1766.7 Rs./ha/day.
Title: Arsenic distribution in environment and its bioremediation: A review Abstract :
Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring toxic metalloid which is introduced into the environment through natural geochemical processes and several anthropogenic actions. Since it is a carcinogen, there is an urgent need to efficiently remove As from contaminated soil and water. This review elaborates the chemistry and environmental distribution of As along with several bioremediation approaches to alleviate As pollution.
Title: An overview and assessment of two wetlands in Eastern Thailand: Kung krabaen bay and welu wetlands in chanthaburi province Abstract :
Climate change as occasioned by environmental degradation has led to innovative thought on how to preserve natural resources while also deriving benefits. Mangrove destruction, saline water intrusion, decline in fish stock and reduced livelihoods were factors that led to the establishment of Kung Krabaen Bay development study centre and the Welu wetland both in Chanthaburi province. The two wetlands provide important benefits to the people that live around it as well as tourists. Through the absorption and processing of wastes, these wetlands help maintain environmental quality and safety while also maintaining a biological balance of carbon IV oxide and other green house gases. Shrimp farm waste is treated in Kung Krabaen bay. A synthesis of Provisioning, Regulating, Cultural and Supportive benefits of the two wetlands is presented. Management regime involves integrated approach (Kung Krabaen Bay) and a co-management approach (Welu wetland). Direct and indirect drivers of change are analysed with management capacity to effectively manage these drivers being examined. The rational use of the resources provided by wetlands is a key factor in their conservation. Recovery from overexploitation may take time but these wetlands are showing resilience and there is need to improve management regimes via international cooperation.
Title: Comparative evaluation of IPM module and farmer’s practices in Mungbean, Vigna Radiata (L.) Wilczek against major insect pests Abstract :
Results indicated that IPM module proved comparatively economical against major insect pests of mungbean over farmer’s practices. The results revealed that, IPM module i.e., Mungbean with seed treatment of Imidacloprid 600 FS (5ml kg-1) followed by one spray of NSKE (5%) at 30 days after sowing (DAS) and chemical insecticide Triazophos 40 EC 0.04 per cent of the crop, were effective in reducing the incidence of White fly, MYMV, Jassids and Thrips and gave higher grain yield than farmer’s practices. Present study indicates that IPM is definitely better over non-IPM practices under different pest population numbers. IPM implies the rational integration of various methods of insect pests control to suppress the pest population below ETL. Therefore, farmers should be made aware of its benefits and motivated to critically analyze and make decisions regarding pest management practices.
Title: Measurement of employment, unemployment and underemployment of agricultural labour in tarai regions of Uttaranchal State and Uttar Pradesh Abstract :
In rural areas, both unemployment and underemployment exist side by side, the distinction between them is by no means sharp. The various sophistications and refinements brought about in the concepts and measurement of employment and unemployment, have not fully succeeded even in properly quantifying the above problems. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt has been made to measures the unemployment and under employment of agricultural labour in Tarai regions of uttaranchal state and Uttar Pradesh according to time and income criterion. In each state one district was selected randomly viz. Sidharth Nagar in Uttar Pradesh and U.S. Nagar in Uttaranchal state. From each of these two selected district, the Birdpur block in Sidharth Nagar district and Rudrapur block in U.S. Nagar district was selected randomly. The study is based on the 55 households in Birdpur block and 66 households in Rudrapur block. Thus, total sample consists of 121 agricultural labour households. The study pertained to the year 1999-2000. In order to achieve the objective simple averages and percentages were used. The findings of the study reveals that the unemployment and under employment measured by time and income criteria for agricultural labour household as well as agricultural labour was higher in Uttar Pradesh as compared to Uttaranchal state. It is, therefore, suggested that more avenues of employment must be provided at the village level, including provision of loans for the purchase of inputs, cross bred cattle, and land distribution among agricultural labourers.