Title: Molecular Characterization and virulence pattern studies of rice (Oryza Sativa) blast (Magnaporthe Oryzae) disease Abstract :
Rice blast, major fungal pathogen attacking rice limits the yield in all major rice growing regions of the world, especially in warm, high humid and dry upland environments. The population genetics of M.oryza were analyzed in three locations i.e. Mandya (Southern dry zone), Ponnampet (Hilly zone) and Bangalore for (pathogenicity test). Disease was evaluated for their pathogenic virulence and genetic characterization using Avr gene specific markers. Isolates were classified into three groups based on pathogenicity viz., seven- severely pathogenic (isolates), 11 moderately pathogenic and three mildly pathogenic isolates. Study revealed, among 21 isolates collected, Avr genes were found in 18 isolates for gene Avr Pita, 15 for Avr-Pitz, four for Avr- Co-39, 12 in Avr-Pia and 8 in Avr- Pik gene. The isolates of Mandya were highly variable than Ponnampet (through cluster analysis). This study helps in understanding the response of different rice accessions to blast in different locations, the distribution and contribution of Avr genes for host plant resistance.
Title: Molecular characterization of mannose specific lectin gene, ASAL1 from Garlic leaf (Allium sativum L.) Abstract :
Plant lectins, especially monocot mannose-binding lectins (MMBLs) play significant roles in plant defense against sap sucking insects. In the present study, lectin gene (ASAL1) from garlic leaves (Allium sativum L. leaf agglutinin) was isolated, sequenced and characterized using various bioinformatics tools. Full-length cDNA of naturally occurring MMBLs was synthesized from garlic leaf RNA (leaf agglutinin, ASAL1) using RT-PCR and was amplified with gene specific primers designed corresponding to the conserved regions of the nucleotide sequences of garlic lectin sequences already available at NCBI. The amplified cDNA was sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed 369bp ORF including C- terminal stop codon, encoding a putative polypeptide of 122 amino acids (13kD) in ASAL1. The candidate gene sequence (ASAL1) was 33 nucleotides more and showed eight nucleotide changes than the previously reported garlic leaf lectin gene sequence of 339bp with accession number EU252577. ASAL1 gene sequence showed maximum (98%) identity with Allium sativum lectin mRNA complete cds having accession number DQ525625.1. In ASAL1 nine amino acid residues were glycosylated (both N and O linked). A putative conserved domain (4-113) was detected in the deduced amino acid sequence. ASAL1 gene is bulb type mannose binding lectin (Î²- lectin). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ASAL1 falls in close relation with ACA.
Title: Molecular characterization for salinity tolerance in rice using microsatellite markers Abstract :
A set of six rice cultivars including salt tolerant Narendra Usar Dhan-3 and CSR-30, moderately salt tolerant BPT-5204 and MTU-7029 and salt sensitive Rajendra Bhagwati and Pusa Basmati-1 along with their controlled callus and salt-stressed callus were characterized using a panel of fourteen salt tolerance related microsatellite markers distributed amongst seven chromosomes of rice. The largest amplicon was produced by marker RM242 and the smallest by RM253. A total of 100 allelic products were generated at 22 microsatellite loci with an average of 4.54 alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content values varied from 0.376 (RM4) to 0.827 (RM242) with an average 0.677. A similarity coefficient based dendrogram was constructed using un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) for entries classification. The first cluster accommodated salt tolerant cultivars CSR-30, Narendra Usar Dhan-3 and moderately tolerant cultivar MTU-7029, the second salt sensitive cultivar Rajendra Bhagwati, whereas the third moderately salt tolerant cultivar BPT-5204 and salt sensitive cultivar Pusa Basmati-1. Molecular marker based analysis confirmed the induction of salt tolerant calluses in three cultivars MTU-7029, Rajendra Bhagwati and BPT-5204. The work showed the utility of microsatellite markers in ascertaining the status of rice plants with respect to salinity stress tolerance.
Title: Evaluation of Genetic Variation, Heritability and Genetic Advance for Various Traits in Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] under north Gangetic Plains of Uttar Pradesh Abstract :
An experiment was undertaken on twenty genotypes and fifteen characters of Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] to evaluate variability, genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV), phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV), heritability and genetic advance in all genotypes. The wide range of variability was observedamong fifteen characters of all genotypes. The (PCV) were generally higher than their respective genotypic coefficient of variance, thus revealing the role of environmental factors. High PCV was exhibited by plant height (14.92 %), first branching node (37.38 %), number of branches per plant (36.06 %), number of seeds per fruit (22.43 %), first fruiting node (19.07 %), first flowering node (18.03 %) and yield (16.65 %) per hectare. High GCV were observed for number of branches per plant (29.80 %), first branching node(29.75 %), number of seeds per fruit(17.30 %), first fruiting node (15.27 %) and plant height (14.51 %). High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for plant height (94.0 and 29.05 %), stem diameter (94.0 and 27.81 %), fruit weight (94.0 and 21.64 %), number of branches per plant (68.0 and 50.74) and first branching node (63.0 and 48.76 %).
Title: Genetic analysis over environments in rice (Oryza Sativa L.) under temperate agroecology Abstract :
Rice is one of the crucial staple food crops and holds two third of world population. In order improve its production and productivity a diallel study was carried out over two diverse environments in 2012 by generating 36 F1hybrids using 9 parents. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the genotypes together with significant G x E interaction for most of the characters studied. Estimates of 2ˆg and 2ˆs revealed that, the latter component of variance wasgreater in maginitude for most of the traits for pooled data obver environments. The maginitude of 2ˆD was higher than corresponding, 2ˆA indicating non- additive gene action was of greater importance. Significant and positive estimates of GCA over pooled data for grain yield/plant identified the parents, SKAU-389, Jhelum, SKAU-382, and SR-1as promising. Likewise 15 potential hybrid combinations for grain yield/plant were observed on the basis of high and significant SCA effects. The hybrids, Jhelum x K-08-60, SKAU-389 x K-08-60, SR-1 x K-08-60, K-08-59 x PS-5 and China-988 x SR-1 were prospective combinations for grain yield/plant and other desirable characters. Results would indicate that the parental lines are genetically diverse and could contribute to the improvement of hybrid rice productivity.
Title: Gibberellins production by fluorescent Pseudomonas isolated from Rhizospheric soil of Malus and Pyrus Abstract :
Little is known about the gibberellins producing fluorescent Pseudomonas (FP) diversity associated with rhizosphere of Malus (apple) and Pyrus (pear). Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate gibberellins production by Pseudomonas sp., a major component of rhizobacteria with multiform and diverse activities, which alter the structure or life processes of plants to improve quality, increase yields and facilitate harvesting. In the present investigations, thirty Pseudomonas isolates were isolated from the rhizosphere of Pyrus and Malus and were screened for gibberellins production (25-60 µg/ml). Four strains viz PN-4-SAN, PN-10-SAN, AN-2-NAG and AN-4-NAG were selected on the basis of their higher gibberellins production. The maximum production of gibberellins was observed at 72 h incubation period in nutrient broth at pH 7.0 under shaken condition at 28oC. Gibberellins were extracted, purified and evaluated by thin layer chromatography and specific bioassay method.
Title: Enhanced antioxidant system reprogrammes oxidative stress through hypersensitive response in leaves of rice plant challenged with Aspergillus species Abstract :
Nitric Oxide (NO) is involved in diverse physiological processes in plants. As a developmental regulator, it promotes germination, leaf extension and root growth, and also delays leaf senescence and fruit maturation. As modulator of disease resistance, it triggers hypersensitive cell death or Hypersensitivity Response (HR) and activates the expression of several defense genes. This wide variety of effects reflects the basic signaling mechanisms that are utilized by virtually all living organisms. The ubiquity of NO reactions as well as the finding that the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying many physiological processes are well conserved between diverse species has opened the exploration of NO chemistry in different organisms. Experiments were conducted in Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University to study the NO mediated HR during interaction of Aspergillus sp. with rice plants. The pathogen (Aspergillus sp) was infiltrated in leaves of rice plants (Oryza sativa), and the responses were observed after 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of infection. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Complete Randomized Design which consisted of 8 treatments, 3 replications. Different biochemical parameters like Nitrite content, Proline, H2O2, SOD, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX), Total Phenol Content (TPC), Phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL) were measured. PAL and TPC measures the quantity of Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) developed in plants against pathogen attack. Among the above mentioned parameters except nitrite, proline and H2O2, all other parameters showed maximum activity at 48 h treatment. The results indicate that HR was developed during rice-Aspergillus interaction through enhanced anti-oxidant system, possibly mediated through NO, thereby restricting pathogen’s spread after 12 to 48 h of infection of rice leaves with Aspergillus sp.
Title: Putative endophytic fungi from taro (Colocasia Esculenta), greater yam (Dioscorea Alata) and elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus Paeoniifolius) Abstract :
Endophytic microorganisms which remain asymptomatically inside plants have the potential to be used widely in agricultural field and valuable for agriculture as a tool to improve crop performance. Tuber crops are the second most important group of crop plants and among them tropical root and tuber crops which include cassava, sweet potato, yams and aroids, are essential as staple food and are utmost important for world food security. Research on these crops has been neglected and regarding endophytic colonisation, some of these tuber crops have been examined. Healthy asymptomatic leaves of three tropical tuber crops viz. taro (Colocasia esculenta), greater yam (Dioscorea alata) and elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius) were inoculated on potato dextrose agar media to detect endophytic colonisation. Total six different putative endophytic fungi were isolated from these crops which were found to be non-sporulating when observed under microscope. Further works are being carried out for the identification and utilisation of these organisms in tuber crops improvement. This communication is to report the presence of putative endophytic fungi in taro, yam and elephant foot yam for the first time.
Title: Distribution of different forms of potassium under temperature conditions of Kashmir Abstract :
A study was conducted in temperate conditions of Kashmir valley to study the distribution of different form of potassium. Surface soil samples were collected from two different agro-climatic zones of district Anantnag i.e. High altitude zone (1965-1850 msl) and low altitude zone ( 1540-1695 msl). Surface soils were fine textured ranging from clay loam to silty clay loam with organic carbon content varying from 0.61-1.73%. Water soluble K ranged from 0.010-0.038 [cmol(p+)kg-1], available K ranged from 0.134-0.313 [cmol(p+)kg-1], Exchangeable K ranged from 0.124-0.275 [cmol(p+)kg-1], Boiling HNO3 K ranged from 1.568-2.938 [cmol(p+)kg-1], Non exchangeable K ranged from 1.434-2.625 [cmol(p+)kg-1] and Lattice K ranged from 29.730-51.859 [cmol(p+)kg-1]. The total potassium content in these soils varied from 31.60-54.50 [cmol(p+)kg-1]. Available potassium was positively and significantly correlated with organic carbon (r=0.960)*, cation exchangeable capacity (r=0.874)* and clay (r=0.642**) and was negatively correlated with CaCo3 (r=0.740*), sand (r=-0.365*) and silt (r=-0.734*).
Title: Effect of foliar application of micronutrients on yield and economics of guava (Psidium Guajava L.) CV. L-49 Abstract :
A field study was carried out at the Fruit Research Station, Himayatbagh, Aurangabad, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani, during 2014-2015. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 12 treatments and three replications. Observations were recorded on growth, physical and quality characters of guava. The maximum number of fruits per plant and B : C ratio were recorded under treatment T10 (boric acid @ 0.3% + ferrous sulphate @ 0.4% + magnesium sulphate @ 0.7% + manganese sulphate @ 0.5% + zinc sulphate @ 0.5%) while highest yield/tree kg and yield /ha (Mt), highest GMR, NMR and EIOC (`./ha), were recorded under treatment T11 (boric acid @ 0.3% + ferrous sulphate @ 0.4% + magnesium sulphate @ 0.7% + manganese sulphate @ 0.5% + zinc sulphate @ 0.5% + copper sulphate @ 0.4%).
Title: Comparative analysis of various organic amendments on tree growth and nut yield of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Abstract :
An experimentwas carried out on “Comparative analysis of various organic amendments on tree growth and nut yield of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)” var. BPP8 (H 2/16) at Cashew Research Station under AICRP on Cashew,Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar during 2013-14 and 2014-15 adapting randomized block design (RBD) having eight treatments replicated thrice. The treatments wereT1-100 per cent N as FYM, T2 -100 per cent N as FYM + Biofertilizers (Azotobacter + Azospirillum + PSB) 200 g, T3-50 per cent N as FYM + Biofertilizers (200g), T4-100 per cent N as Vermicompost + Biofertilizers (200g), T5- Recycling of organic residue with the addition of 20 per cent cow dung slurry, T6- In situ green manuring to meet 100 per cent N, T7 - 25 per cent N as FYM + recycling of organic residue + in situ green manuring/green leaf manuring + Biofertilizers (200g) and T8- RDF + 10 kg FYM (Control).Biometrical observations on vegetative characters, were recorded during 2013-14 and 2014-15. Application of RDF along with 10 kg FYM recorded maximum value in plant height (5.05 m), canopy spread (7.88 m), production of laterals (26.91) and flowering laterals (22.48) and nut yield (14.06 q/ha). The recommended dose of fertilizer and an addition of 10 kg FYM is most beneficial and economical, but 25 per cent N as FYM, recycling of organic residue, in situ green manuring/green leaf manuring and biofertilizers must be recommended from the view point of environmental sustainability and equity.
Title: Effect of plant growth regulators and chemicals on yield and quality of acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) under foothill condition of Arunachal Pradesh Abstract :
An experiment to study the effect of plant growth regulators and chemicals on acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) was carried out in the year 2014 in the Experimental Farm, Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with eight treatments and three replications. The treatments were T1 (control – water spray), T2 (GA 50 ppm), T3 (GA 100 ppm), T4 (Cycocel 1000 ppm), T5 (KNO3 one percent), T6 (GA3 50 ppm + Cycocel 1000ppm), T7 (GA3 100 ppm + Cycocel 1000 ppm), T8 (GA3 100 + Cycocel 1000ppm +KNO3 1 per cent. The experimental results indicate that the acid lime trees sprayed with GA3 100 ppm + Cycocel 1000ppm + KNO3 1 per cent showed better performance in delaying of flowering, increase the number of flower/shoot (6.62), number of fruits /tree (149) and average fruit yield (4.64 kg / tree) of the crop. Effect of growth regulators and chemicals on quality characters however was not found significant for most of the parameters except TSS, ascorbic acid and titrable acidity. The higher results were obtained in T8 i.e. GA3 100 ppm + Cycocel 1000ppm + KNO3 1 per cent (8.27%) for titrable acidity and ascorbic acid (41.21 mg). Control with water spray alone registered the lowest values for both quantitative and qualititative parameters.
Title: Removal of a cationic dye, methylene blue, from water by cotton stem ash as a novel adsorbent Abstract :
In search of an efficient and no-cost adsorbent for removal of methylene blue (MB) from water, cotton stem ash (CSA) was evaluated. The effect of process variables, namely, contact time, solution pH and adsorbent dose on adsorption of MB onto CSA were investigated. The adsorption kinetics and mechanism were tested with pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order model, and with intraparticle diffusion model, respectively. Based on error analysis (chi-square and percent sum of error) the suitability order of adsorption isotherms was Langmuir>Temkin>Freundlich>Jovanoic. The maximum adsorption capacity of CSA was 20.42 mg g-1. The feasibility parameter and free energy change were also calculated. The present study demonstrated that the CSA could be used as a potential, efficient, low-cost, and easily available adsorbent for the treatment of MB containing industrial wastewater.
Title: Carbon footprinting: a tool for environmental management Abstract :
The term ‘carbon footprint’ has become tremendously popular over the last few years and is now widely used in educational institutes, government, business and the media. Although the term has been extensively used in the public domain, there is an apparent lack of academic definitions of what exactly a ‘carbon footprint’ is meant to be. Considering the fact of climate change, the term carbon footprint is in strong demand. It is concerned with a less rigorous, consumer oriented, popularised concept of greenhouse gas reductions for the purpose of marketing the benefits of less emission intensive products and services to the public. Numerous approaches have been proposed to provide estimates, ranging from basic online calculators to sophisticated life-cycle analysis or input-output-based methods and tools. By the time elapse, there has been growing concern for issues related to climate change by describing interpretation of greenhouse gas measurement and reduction. The purpose of this paper is to define “carbon footprint” and to provide an insight into the terminologies and approaches included within this concept.
Title: Season wise analysis of productivity of maize hybrid COHM (5) with the influence of seed and crop management techniques Abstract :
The Studies were initiated to evaluate the influence of seed priming technique (15 per cent Azospirillum + 15 per cent phosphobacteria, 10per cent P. fluorescens + 20per cent Humic acid, 15 per cent Azophos + 10 per cent P. fluorescens and hydro priming technique) in conjunction with crop management techniques viz., nutrient supplementation as basal (humic acid @ 10kg ha-1, micronutrient 5kg ha-1) and foliar (diammonium phosphate 2 per cent, humic acid 0.1per cent, sea weed extract 0.5per cent) along with NPK application. The results revealed that seeds primed with 20 per cent humic acid + 10 per cent P. flurescense, applied with humic acid @ 10 kg ha-1 as basal application and sprayed with 0.5% sea weed extract improved the productivity of maize and the grain recovery. On comparison of seed and crop management techniques the contribution of seed management technique was higher than crop management techniques. The evaluated seed and crop management techniques were further test verified at Bhavanisagar both during Kharif and Rabi season, which confirmed the influence of identified seed and crop management techniques on enhanced productivity and nutrient status of the grain, recommending it as package for commercial hybrid production irrespective of season and location.
Title: Mitigation of the influence of PEG-6000 imposed water stress on germination of halo primed rice seeds Abstract :
In the present investigation studies were made to see the effect of water stress, induced with the help of different concentrations (150 to 225 g/kg PEG-6000 equivalent to osmotic potential of -0.30 to -0.60MPa) of PEG-6000 in germinating rice varieties viz., HUR-3022 and Sahabhagi dhan. The results showed that osmotic potential from -0.30 to -0.49MPa, the inhibition in germination percentage was started as compared to control set but at -0.60MPa osmotic potential no germination was observed. When the Mg(NO3)2 and K2SO4 primed seeds were used with the osmotic potential of -0.30 to -0.49MPa the inhibitory effect of stress was found to overcome by the germinating seeds of rice. In the primed seeds the percentage of germination, vigor index, germination index and absolute water content (%) were increased in presence of imposed stress in respect to non-primed seeds germinating under the same situation except mean time germination.
Title: Performance of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes in Kolhapur Region Abstract :
The mean performance and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was studied in a set of 40 genotypes on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with three replications during Rabi 2013-14 at Post Graduate Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Kolhapur. It is of great interest to consider the per se performance of different genotypes in respect of different quantitative characters of economic importance particularly earliness, number of secondary branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and grain yield. The genotype IC-83429 and IC-83327 were found to be the earliest to flower. For secondary branches per plant IC-83340, Vijay, IC-83465 and Vishal had the maximum number of branches. The genotypes which had born the maximum number of pods per plant were IC-83429, IC-83321, Vishal and IC-83348. Highest yielding genotypes were Vijay, Vishal, IC-83429, IC-83348 and IC-83391. The analysis of variance for all the characters of forty genotypes revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes studied, indicating sufficient amount of variability present among the material genotypes tested.
Title: An economic analysis of mulberry cultivation and cocoon production in non-traditional area Abstract :
Sericulture is a farm based, labor intensive and economic activity supporting farm families and cottage and small scale sector. Being one of the important sector in Indian economy it checks poverty and migration. Sericulture involves a series of activities like mulberry cultivation, cocoon production, silk reeling and the products in different forms. Sericulture is not only limited to the few areas where it is been intensively practiced called traditional areas but also for non-traditional areas. This study aims to know the profitability of mulberry cultivation and cocoon production by using primary data collected from 120 farmers of North Karnataka, India. The cost of mulberry cultivation per acre worked out to be ` 12699.82/- for rearing 300 Disease Free Laying (DFL’s) of which 77.95 per cent is composed of variable component mainly human labour and the rest is fixed component. The gross returns on selling of mulberry leaves and stalks amounts ` 9472.91/-. So it is not profitable to cultivate mulberry for selling leaves instead one could rear the silkworm by purchasing leaves, but availability of mulberry leaves during all times is not assured. The cost of rearing 100 DFL’s is worked out to be ` 33738.84/- and returns amounts ` 38604.96/- with a marginal net returns of ` 4866.12/-. The lower net returns attributed to lower prices due to poor established markets in non-traditional areas and low productivity (cocoon yield per 100 DFL’s) i.e. 59.02 kg compared to traditional areas i.e. 90.00 kg.
Title: Cost of cultivation and price spread of chillies in guntur district of Andhra Pradesh Abstract :
The per hectare cost of cultivation of chillies for the period from 2005 -06 to 2010-11 for Andhra Pradesh indicated that the operational costs ranged from ` 93, 332 in 2005-06 to ` 1, 84,391 in 2010-11. Similarly, the total costs varied from ` 1, 09,597 to ` 2, 21,656 for the corresponding periods. Among the operational costs the percentage of labour component in the total costs increased from 35.13 in 2005-06 to 40.00 in 2010-11. Analogously, among fixed costs, rental value of owned land as a percent of total cost rose from 12.77 in 2005-06 to 15.79 in 2010-11. During the corresponding period, net returns increased from ` 66, 403 to ` 1, 63,430 per hectare. The price spread analysis for the selected channel indicated that the producer received 64.45 per cent of consumer’s price. The share of the wholesaler and the retailer worked out to 9.85 and 8.21 per cent respectively.
Title: Growth, Export Performance and Competitiveness of Basmati and Non-Basmati Rice of India-an Markov Chain Approach Abstract :
Rice is one of the most important staple food crops of more than 60 per cent of the world population with a significant contribution to Agriculture. India is the one of the largest producer of rice and emerged as major player in the worlds rice exports. Factors like introduction of high yielding and quality varieties along with suitable rice production technologies during the Green Revolution period has enhanced the Indian rice production and also trade liberalization is positively influenced the Indian rice export. The value of exports of basmati rice has increased from ` 3.30 Crores to ` 51.29 Crores between 2003-04 to 2013-14, meanwhile the value of exports of non basmati rice has increased from ` 3.28 Crores ` 25.19 Crores. In this paper, the trend and stability of rice production, dynamics of changes in terms of value of exports of basmati and non basmati rice from India to different export markets have been measured by employing the Markov-Chain model. The results revealed that the rice area, production and productivity have seen a significant improvement during study period (1955-2014). Iran and Saudi Arab are found to be stable destinations for Indian basmati rice exports from Markov-Chain results. Whereas, Benin, Bangladesh and Senegal are found to be major destinations for non basmati rice exports. The most unstable markets among the non basmati rice importing countries were South Africa and Liberia with the zero per cent retention. So the policies should aim at developing good trade relations with the stable destinations to benefit from it.
Title: Livelihood security of farm households under different farming systems in Kolar district of Karnataka – An economic analysis Abstract :
The study was undertaken in Kolar district of Karnataka state to assess the outcomes of livelihood security like Economic security, Food security, Educational security, Health security, Habitat security and Social network security. Four farming systems viz. Crop+Dairy, Crop+Sericulture, Crop+Dairy+Sericulture and Crop+Sheep were identified as major farming systems based on preliminary survey and previous studies in the area. The study based on the primary data from 120 farmers covering equal samples under major farming systems was elicited through survey method for the period 2010-11. The data was analyzed using Garrett ranking technique, Gini co-efficient and Conventional economic and simple statistical tools like ratios, percentage and indices etc. The result revealed that net annual income realized by a household was highest in C+D+S (` 3,58,880/-) farming system of which 43.78 per cent was from sericulture enterprise alone and least in C+Sh (` 46,281/-) farming system of which 59.95 per cent was from non-farm activities. When compared to Farm households of rainfed based farming systems (Crop+Sheep) irrigation based farming system (Crop+Dairy, Crop+Sericulture, Crop+Dairy+Sericulture) households are on par with Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) norms in cereal consumption. Public Distribution System (PDS) playing an important role in food security of farm households of rainfed farming systems through supplying food grains at cheaper prices. The overall livelihood security is high in case of C+D+S farm households.
Title: Present status of production and marketing of papaya for unripe consumption in Northeastern Thailand Abstract :
A questionnaire-based survey was made of 800 papaya growers in 8 provinces in northeastern Thailand in January to December 2014. The results showed that most of the growers were female, aged over 30, and educated to primary school level. They had an average of 11-15 years experience growing papaya. Most (72%) grew papaya on mixed plantations. Larger monocrop plantations were found mainly in Kalasin and Mukdahan Provinces. Both household and hired labor was used. The most popular cultivars were ‘Khaeg Nuan’ and ‘Yellow Krang.’ Most farmers saved their own seed and propagated papaya by seed, starting in plastic bag containers. A planting space of 1.7 x 1.7 m was commonly used on large plantations while on some of the mixed farms a wider planting space of 2 x 2 to 3 x 3 m was used. Most farmers used both chemical and organic fertilizer and over 75% relied on rain water for irrigation. They used both mechanical and chemical methods for weed control and pest control. The pest problems reported were red spider mites, aphids, mealy bugs, coccids, worms and snails. The most serious disease problem was Papaya Ring Spot Virus. As for production costs, in the pre-harvest period land rental accounted for the greatest proportion of costs for small-scale farmers and labor accounted for the least proportion of costs. During the harvest period, the highest costs for small-scale farmers were for the irrigation system, and the lowest were for chemical fertilizer. The large-scale farmers had the highest overall costs for chemical fertilizer. In all 8 provinces surveyed, the majority of growers (88%) sold their papaya in unripe form and none of them sold papaya to factories for processing. The prices paid to farmers for papaya were the highest in January, April and November and the lowest in July, February and August. Farm gate prices were higher in Kalasin and Nakhon Ratchasima than in the other provinces.