Title: Water quality index for the assessment of groundwater quality in the Sabour block of Bhagalpur district, Bihar Abstract :
Groundwater samples were collected from the different locations of Sabour block of Bhagalpur district, Bihar to assess the groundwater quality using water quality index (WQI). Based on global positioning system (GPS) 59 groundwater samples were collected from the different sources at different depths. A single mathematical approach was identified using several parameters integrated to represent a single value for evaluating groundwater quality called as WQI. In this study twelve parameters, namely, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolve salt (TDS), Hardness, calcium ion (Ca+2), magnesium ion (Mg+2), sodium ion (Na+), potassium ion (K+), carbonate ion (CO3-2), bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), chloride ion (Cl-) and fluoride ion (F-) were used for calculating WQI. The computed WQI shows that 1.69% of water sample falls in excellent categories and 47.45% falls in the good water category, 27.11% of water samples were found poor as well as approximate 17 % found very poor and remaining 6.77% samples are found unsuitable for drinking purposes as far as drinking standards are concerned.
Title: Environmental health analysis of pollution in a River-source water supply in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria Abstract :
The Edagberi/Betterland Communities have been without a good source of water supply. The local population has lived over the years by drinking water from the Taylor Rivers without the due process of water treatment. However, a surface water scheme has never been favoured and sunken boreholes have never been brought to function. The former is however a surer means since both options require water treatment. Special design implications were the avoidance of all ‘unnecessary’ cost components and to take precautionary steps against possible oil spillage, which is considered as occupying the top layer of an element of flow.
Title: G X E Interaction and stability analysis in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Abstract :
G X E interaction and stability analysis were carried out in four environments comprised of two different dates of sowing with two different locations for 10 diverse genotypes. Analysis of variance for genotype x environment interaction and stability analysis suggested that the variance for G x E interaction was significant for number of pods per plant, seed yield per plant, 100-seed weight, harvest index and protein content. The genotypes IC-269273, IC-269295 and three cultivars i.e., GG-1, GJG-3 and Dahod Yellow were stable across environments. Out of these five genotypes, Dahod Yellow having the highest average seed yield per plant was found most stable over environments. Thus, any of the germplasm entry under study was not found superior with respect to seed yield per plant against the three cultivated varieties.
Title: Assessment of genetic diversity in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) for yield and yellow vein mosaic virus incidence Abstract :
Thirteen diverse genotypes were evaluated to assess the genetic diversity in a randomized block design during 2013-14 for yield and yellow vein mosaic virus (YVMV) incidence in Okra. On the basis of D2 values, the 30 genotypes were clustered into six groups. Cluster II constituted the largest group (11 genotypes) followed by cluster III and cluster VI (5 genotypes each). The cluster IV and V contain 4 genotypes each, whereas only 1 genotypes present in cluster I. The character coefficient of infection alone contributes highest percentage (51%) toward divergence, followed by number of branches per plant (24%), percentage disease incidence (12%). The first six principal components have accounted 84.00% of total variation and percent variation expected were 24.00% (PC1), 19.50% (PC2), 14.30% (PC3), 11.48% (PC4), 7.97% (PC5) and 6.80% (PC6), respectively. The PC1 has positive association with days to first picking, followed by days to first flowering and days to 50% flowering. However, PC1 has negative association for fruits per plant and fruit weight. Therefore, the traits viz., days to first picking, first flowering node and days to first flowering should be given top priority in diverse parent selection for attempting high yielding along with YVMV tolerant hybrids in okra.
Title: Genetic diversity associated with nutritive and grain quality traits using microsatellite markers in traditional land races and improved cultivars in rice (Oryza sativa L.) Abstract :
Genetic diversity underlies the improvement of crops by plant breeding. Land races of rice (Oryza sativa L.)
can contain some valuable alleles not common in modern germplasm. The aim here was to measure genetic diversity and its effect on nutritive and grain quality traits among rice land-race genotypes grown in Tamil nadu and Kerala. The experimental material consists of six high yielding ruling rice varieties viz., IR 72, ADT 43, ADT 45, ASD 16, TPS 4 and ADT 39 were utilized as female parent. Four nutritive and medicinal landraces in rice consumed by the people in different parts of Tamil Nadu and Kerala viz., Veeradangan, Kavuni, Kathanellu and Navara were collected and used as male parents. In molecular marker diversity analysis using SSR markers, the similarity indices for all the pair wise combinations among the 10 parents were computed. The similarity index was highest (0.93) between ADT 39 and ADT 43 along with TPS 4 and IR 72. The least similarity index (0.37) was observed between Kavuni and Veeradangan. On the basis of cluster analysis the 10 parents were grouped in to 5 clusters at 71 per cent similarity levels. Cluster 1 was constituted by Navara, Kathanellu, ADT 39 and ADT 43. Cluster 2 was constituted by IR 72, ASD 16 and TPS 4. Cluster 3, cluster 4 and cluster 5 consisted of single genotype viz., Veeradangan, ADT 45 and Kavuni respectively. It inferred that landraces have diverse genetic bases and can be utilized in future breeding programs. The results showed the potential of SSR markers for genetic diversity assessment.
Title: Genetics of marker assisted backcross progenies of the cross HUR-105 X Swarna-SUB1 Abstract :
The Marker Assisted backcross progenies of the cross HUR-105 x Swarna-Sub1 along with their parental lines were evaluated under submergence condition for 14 days at 35 days after sowing. Total 53 BC2F1 progenies were subjected to complete submergence out of which twenty lines recovered after desubmergence. The survival percentages of BC2F1 plants was observed to be 47.62 per cent. Mean performance for BC2F1 generation in submerged condition was found lower for most of the yield traits viz., productive tiller per plants, length of panicle, weight of panicle, spikelet per panicle, test weight, yield per plant, in comparison to all six generations in normal irrigated condition. Amylose content and gel consistency was found comparable to normal irrigated condition for segregating generations. Under submerged condition BC2F1 generation showed reduced height and medium to late maturity. The yield of the BC2F1 plants under submergence varied from 4.64 g to 14.32 g per plant. On the basis of field test under submergence condition the four lines namely HUR-105-Sub1-6, HUR-105-Sub1-23, HUR-105-Sub1-25 and HUR-105-Sub1-28 were found better in respect to grain yield and other related traits. The level of submergence tolerance in backcross progenies were similar as tolerant parent Swarna Sub-1, revealed that submergence tolerance in HUR 105-Sub-1 is governed by single dominant gene.
Title: Inheritance of sheath blight disease resistance in submergence rice (Oryza sativa L.) Abstract :
Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn is one of the important diseases of rice, resulting in heavy yield loss in rice every year. Genetic nature of sheath blight has been found to be complex and controversial issue in the earlier studies. There were some reports about the major gene conferring resistance to sheath blight. Non allelic dominant major resistance gene was also reported in resistant cultivars. A total of 50 QTL associated with sheath blight resistance located on all 12 rice chromosomes have been reported, with 10 of these co-localizing with QTL for morphological attributes, especially plant height, or for heading date. The objective of this paper was to see inheritance pattern of sheaath blight. All the plant in the F1 shown resistant reaction with 22.25% disease severity, and in F2 population the resistant or moderately resistant, and susceptible in the ratio of 3R / MR: 1S which is mainly due to presence of dominant effects of resistant QTL/genes qSBR11-1. The F3 populations were classified into resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible in the ratio of 3:2:3. Further, the F3 populations were classified in only two groups as resistant and susceptible then their ratio was 5Resistance/Moderatily Resistance: 3Susceptible.
Title: Molecular diversity study on dessert banana genotypes (Musa spp.) from Odisha using ISSR markers Abstract :
Banana is an important fruit of India and in Odisha it is also a highly demanded fruit. Banana improvement programme mainly depends on genetic variability present in the population. The present investigation was done to assess the molecular diversity present amongst the local dessert banana genotypes of Odisha along with some national released cultivars based on Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) markers. For the present study ten ISSR primers were used to differentiate 22 banana genotypes. Total seventy six scorable fragments were obtained, out of which 36 (47.4%) were polymorphic and 39 (51.3%) were monomorphic. Similarity index were estimated using the Dice coefficient of similarity (Nei and Li 1979). The genetic similarity values ranged from 0.71 to 0.96. At 90 % phenon level 22 genotypes were distributed in fourteen clusters. The results revealed twenty five percent variability at genetic level based on ten ISSR markers which could be utilised for further banana improvement programme.
Title: Composting of organic wastes using newly developed cellulolytic microbial consortium Abstract :
Experiment under glass house conditions was conducted to see the efficacy of newly developed microbial consortium for composting different organic substrates. During experiment period, in all the treatments, increase in temperature was recorded from the first week of composting. In majority of the substrates temperature increase was recorded upto fourth week of composting, and thereafter a gradual decline was recorded. Within 30 days there was steep increase in the bacterial and fungal population in all the treatments which continued to increase upto 120 days and thereafter a gradual decrease was recorded. While the population of actinomycetes increased in later stage and reached at peak between 120 and 150 days of composting. Test consortium was found significantly superior in reducing the decomposition time of substrates over other treatments. The reduction in composting time over control ranged from 9.65 to 23.36% in different substrates. Vegetable waste decomposed at the fastest rate (48.7 to 59.3 days) while saw dust required maximum time (179.7 to 214.3 days) for decomposition. Reduction in C:N ratio over initial was recorded in all the treatments at maturity while pH of all substrates shifted towards normal. The treatment with test consortium on different substrates recorded numerically higher mineral content over MPKV consortium and uninoculated control. Results indicated that the use of test consortium reduced the overall time required for composting besides producing the nutrient enriched compost product.
Title: Prevalence of Campylobacter species in raw meat samples sold in open markets of Kolkata city Abstract :
Campylobacteriosis is a zoonosis, caused by the infection with Campylobacter. Raw meat contaminated by Campylobacter from faeces of animals during evisceration and by spillage of intestinal content. In recent times, Campylobacter has emerged as an important food borne pathogen of both human and animals, and regarded as one of the most important zoonotic pathogen worldwide. Chicken and mutton meat have repeatedly been implicated as a source of food borne infections for humans, as both these meat are amongst most consumed meat in India. In this study, four Campylobacter spp. viz C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus were isolated from raw meat samples. This study was therefore conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. from raw meat samples in Kolkata, India. A total of 200 raw meat samples, chicken (n = 100) & Mutton (n = 100) were collected randomly from open meat markets in Kolkata, India and were tested for the presence of Campylobacter. Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 136 of 200 (68%) raw meat samples examined. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in Chicken meat (72%), followed by mutton meat (64%). The most prevalence Campylobacter species isolated from raw meat samples were Campylobacter jejuni (58.82%), followed by Campylobacter coli (26.47%), Campylobacter lari (8.82%) & Campylobacter fetus (5.89%). It was concluded that a high proportion of raw meat sold in open market in Kolkata, India, was contaminated by Campylobacter spp. and the consumption of undercooked meat possess a possible health risk for consumers.
Title: Evaluation of Physico-chemical and organoleptic quality of Papaya Cv. Taiwan and Banana Cv. Grand naine based mixed fruit bar during storage Abstract :
The experiment was conducted at Dept. of Post-Harvest Technology, Navsari Agriculture University, Navsari in the year 2012-13 and comprised seven treatments of fruit bar prepared from different pulp ratio of papaya cv. Taiwan and banana cv. Grand Naine viz., 0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 80:20 and 100:0 in the storage condition at room temperature in polyethylene bag was laid out in completely randomized design along with three repetitions. The physico-chemical parameters viz., TSS (°B), acidity, total sugars (per cent), ascorbic acid (mg/100g) and organoleptic quality (9 point Hedonic) with respect to colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability were evaluated at initial and up to 6 months of storage. TSS, total sugars and ascorbic acid content of fruit bar was found decrease while acidity increased during storage period of six months in all treatments. Considering the organoleptic evaluation of fruit bar with respect to colour, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability the treatment T4 (50:50, papaya:banana) was found higher organoleptic score with better consumer acceptability during storage.
Title: Analysis of anthocyanins and carotenoids in two varieties of calendula officinalis L. flowers Abstract :
Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) is an annual erect herb with hispidly pubescent, corymbosely branched stem cultivated in lawns. The present investigation was carried out to study the dye yielding potential of the two varieties of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L. var. Gitana Orange and Gitana Yellow) of Kashmir valley. The stability and color quality of pigments (anthocyanins and carotenoids) were assessed by quantifying the pigments and recording their color quality at 10 days interval at 0, 10, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 days after collection under ambient and refrigerated storage conditions. Results revealed that Pot marigold (var. Gitana Orange) had higher carotenoid content (288.33 mg/100g) than the Pot marigold (var. Gitana Yellow) (205.50 mg/100g). Highest pigment content was recorded during 0 days of storage in both the varieties. With increase in days of storage pigment content decreased in both plant material as well as extract under both storage conditions. Pigments in the plant material and extract stored under refrigerated conditions lasted longer than those stored under ambient conditions. Pigment degradation was more in the plant material as compared to the plant extract. Color quality of the plant species changed with increase in days of storage. From the present study it was concluded that both varieties of Pot Marigold have good levels of total carotenoids, thus petals of both varieties can be used as a raw material for extraction of yellow to orange natural dyes.
Title: Standardization of dehydration techniques of some ornamental foliages Abstract :
The eco-friendly dehydrated foliages and plant parts secured much popularity among users and becoming key components in floriculture industry. Foliages with highly variable keeping quality are used as filler element in flower-vase. Dehydration of foliages has not been studied at large. This investigation was carried out with ornamental foliage’s of three species viz. Araucaria cunninghamii, Thuja orientalis and Juniperus chinensis. White sand, silica gel and boric acid were used as embedding materials and two drying conditions of microwave oven and room drying were adopted for three durational treatments of viz. 10, 20 and 30 seconds and 4, 8 and 16 days respectively. In both Araucaria and Thuja orientalis, silica gel + microwave oven combination for 30 and 20 seconds respectively exhibited best results in respect of moisture loss (49.23 and 58.33 per cent) and quality concern. White sand + room condition also caused 61.41per cent moisture loss in Thuja orientalis while treated for 16 days. In Juniperus chinensis, white sand + microwave oven and silica gel + room condition for 20 seconds and 16 days respectively showed moisture loss of 44.26 and 50.16 per cent respectively. Boric acid as embedding materials also found effective in dehydration of these species. All the three species were treated with glycerin : water solution of 1:1 and 1:3 (vol/vol) for 24, 48 and 96 hours followed by drying with aid of hot air oven at 70-80o C for 5 hours and open air of room condition for 24 hours. Significant moisture loss of 60.56 to 62.56 per cent was recorded in Thuja orientalis while dehydrated in hot-air-oven for 96 hours.
Title: Studies on effect of various levels of ethephon on ripening of sapodilla fruits (Manilkara achras (Mill) Fosberg Abstract :
Studies on the effect of various levels of ethephon on ripening of sapodilla (Manilkara achras (Mill) Fosberg) fruits under north Indian conditions was carried out on cultivars Kalipatti and Cricket Ball. The fruits were dipped in solution of ethephon @500ppm, 750ppm and 1000ppm for two minutes to induce ripening of fruits followed by drying and packing of fruits in corrugated fiber board boxes at ambient temperature. It was observed that fruits dipped in ethephon 1000ppm resulted in better ripening of fruits after three days with pleasant flavor, high TSS, lower acidity and acceptable sensory quality as compared to other treatments. The control fruits showed uneven ripening and were hard in texture with poor quality attributes
Title: Impact of integrated nutrient management on tomato yield under farmers field conditions Abstract :
Field trials were conducted in farmer’s field of Kandhamal district of Odisha, India to assess the impact of integrated nutrient management (INM) on the performance of tomato crop during rabi (2014) and kharif (2015) season. Before conducting trials technological gap between actual and potential productivity were analyzed by interviewing growers to find out the major causes for low yield. Overall gap in use of fertilizers was recorded 64.90% whereas overall mean gap in technology was 43.83%. On farm experiments on INM were conducted by applying FYM (10t ha–1) (NPK) (150:80:60 kg ha-2) followed by dipping seedling roots in 1% Azotobacter solution for 15 min and foliar spray with 20 ppm ferrous ammonium sulphate after 30, 45 and 75 days of transplantation. The plant height, root length, number of primary branches, average fruit weight increased in INM plots as compared to farm practice. The increment in yield was found to be 28.84 and 33.86 % during rabi and kharif season respectively. The maximum marketable yield obtained in INM plot during kharif and rabl seasons was 1025 q ha–1 and 955 q ha–1 respectively, whereas as farm practice yielded 740 q ha–1 and 713 q ha–1 during the same seasons. The percent loss from total production was recorded 8.5% and 8.8% in control plot and only 4.9% and 5.7% in INM plot durmg rabi and kharif season respectively. The higher fruit weight and lower incidence of disease and pest were observed in INM field in comparison to farm practice. The benefit cost ratio with INM treatment was recorded 4.39 and 4.29 in rabi and kharif season respectively against the benefit cost ratio of 3.10 and 2.94 in control plot during the same respective seasons.
Title: Khasi mandarin: its importance, problems and prospects of cultivation in North-eastern Himalayan region Abstract :
Northeast India is recognized as an important part of the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. It is one of the 25 global biodiversity hotspots accepted at present. This is also considered as the richest and one of the most endangered places for plant survival in the world. This area is known as one of the centers of origin of various Citrus species. Among the Citrus crops available in northeastern region, Khasi mandarin is the most economically important one and plays a vital role in the socio-economic development of the people in this region. Khasi mandarin is well known for its quality, fruit colour, unique sugar-acid blend and shelf life which make it the most popular citrus cultivar in northeastern region of the country. It covers the largest area in the region due to its commercial value. Assam and Meghalaya have the maximum area and production of Khasi mandarin. The health benefits of oranges have been well known for centuries, but it has therapeutic values that have long been utilized in conventional herbal medicine. Experimental studies shows that its bioactive compounds have tremendous pharmaceutical activity like, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, cancer preventing etc. which clearly indicate the potential of the crop for the pharmaceutical industry. Although India is fourth largest producer of orange in the world but due to the problem of citrus decline the average yield of orange in India is alarmingly low as compared to other countries. This review thereby summarizes the medicinal and nutritional value of mandarin, their economic importance, problems and prospects of cultivation in northeastern region.
Title: Study of cutting management on proximate analysis in wheat, oat and barley crops Abstract :
An experiment were conducted in rabi season during 2012-2013 to find out the effect of cereal crops (Wheat, Oat, Barley) and cutting schedule on forage and grain yield. The study revealed the maximum chlorophyll accumulation in Barley and wheat during the initial stage at 95 DAS and wheat and barley during reproductive stage at 30 DAS. Cutting at 50 DAS is proved beneficial on chlorophyll accumulation. Photosynthetic rate were maximum in wheat at 90 DAS. However cutting did not affect photosynthesis rate stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Barley gave maximum fodder yield (fresh/day). Cutting at 50 DAS was beneficial in producing maximum fodder yield without sacrificing grain yield of cereal crops.
Title: Growth and instability in area, production and productivity of different crops in Bengaluru division Abstract :
Karnataka State has a typical composition having a large share of its area under highly diversified agricultural crops, higher growth in agriculture assumes great importance and is a matter of concern for policy planners and research scholars in recent times. In view of this the present study was aimed to analyse the growth and instability in area, production and productivity of different crops in Bengaluru Division. The results revealed that Bengaluru urban had the highest CAGR which was 24.26% in productivity in avare was significant at 5% level. In Bengaluru Rural the highest CAGR was 22.26% in productivity of avare (significant at 1%). Production of chrysanthemum had growth of 22.36% was the highest annual growth and 4% (area of tamarind) was found to be lowest instability for selected crops in Chitradurga, In Davanagere the highest CAGR was observed in productivity of tomato (9.12%). In Kolar district, 19.65% instability observed in production of avare & was significant at one %. In Shivamogga district highest CAGR observed in production of sunflower to an extent 29.57%. In Tumkuru area under green chillies was growing at rate of 34.46% per annum.
Title: Analysis of factors affecting the performance of exports in India Abstract :
Exports is the engine of economic growth of the country that introduce new technologies, stimulate demand, encourage savings and accumulates capital. Further the performance of this sector it depends on factors both in domestic and international. Hence both domestic and international economic policies have a bearing on the overall export performance of India. In this regard, present study has carried out to determine the factors which influence the export performance of India. The outcomes of the study are the Inflation Rate, Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) were negative related with value of Export.
Title: Financial feasibility of drip irrigation system in grape cultivation Abstract :
This study was undertaken to assess the financial feasibility of drip irrigation system in grape cultivation in Bijapur district of Karnataka. Primary data were collected from 120 grape cultivators in Bijapur and Indi taluks. The Total investment on drip irrigation system amounted to ` 61,050/ha and annual working cost was worked at ` 17,141/ha. Total cost in production of grape under drip and furrow irrigation was ` 5,01,297/ha and ` 5,48,708/ha, respectively. Additional returns in drip irrigation over furrow irrigation method were worked out at ` 56,829/ha. At 11.75 per cent discount rate, the NPV of investment on drip irrigation system was ` 1,15,433.10, BC ratio, IRR and Pay Back Period were 1.89, 46.87 per cent and 1.07 years, respectively. Other than these there was savings in labour and material costs. These indicators showed the financial feasibility of the drip irrigation system. Delay in sanctioning of loans and approval of subsidy; improper disbursement of subsidy, lack of technical support were some problems faced by farmers in adoption of drip irrigation system. Since there are high dividends from micro irrigation, there is a need for larger quantum of subsidy especially for the small and marginal farmers. Procedures for approval and subsidy disbursement need to be simplified in terms of number of documents, number of days required for approval etc with the help of modern information and communication technology tools.
Title: Effects of social computing on students of agricultural sciences Abstract :
With the advance of internet and web technologies, the increasing accessibility of computing resources and mobile devices, the prevalence of rich media contents, and the ensuing social, economic, and cultural changes, computing technology and applications have evolved quickly over the past decade. They now go beyond personal computing, facilitating collaboration and social interactions in general. As such, social computing, a new paradigm of computing and technology development, has become a central theme across a number of information and communication technology (ICT) fields. It has become a hot topic attracting broad interest from not only researchers but also technologists, software and online game vendors, web entrepreneurs, business strategists, political analysis, and digital government practitioners, to name a few. This research study explores the aftereffects or consequences of using the Internet sources of information as perceived by the students in their academic as well as social life. To answer the question, ‘What are the aftereffects of social computing on the students?’ a study was conducted with the specific objective to analyze the effects of social computing as perceived by the students of agricultural sciences. The study was conducted in Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh. One university, two colleges and 210 agricultural students, pursuing UG, PG and PhD, doing social computing formed the sample of the study. It was found that the students made new contacts, learnt new study techniques and had more reliance on self-study through social computing without having less contact with teachers or offline friends and less time for physical exercises.
Title: An overview of bacterial blight disease: A serious threat to pomegranate production Abstract :
Bacterial blight of pomegranate is among the most devastating natural calamity that inflicted huge losses to pomegranate crop productivity especially in India during the last 24 years. The dilemma of bacterial blight is still under discussion among the researchers since its appearance in 1952. Symptoms of the disease manifested as numerous, small, segregated, depressed, discoloured and typically water-soaked spots. The epidemiology of the disease remains prevalent in mild to moderate form throughout the year at higher temperature ranged between 20.0-43.0o C during April-July and become severe under highly humid conditions (>80 %) and moderate temperature (25-35o C) during rainy season. None of the genotypes exhibited resistant against bacterial blight. Some genotypes found moderately susceptible against bacterial blight of pomegranate. Management of the disease is only by various chemicals.
Title: Molecular characterization of Aspergillus niger isolates inciting black mould rot of onion through RAPD Abstract :
Genetic diversity in black mould rot pathogen (Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem) was analyzed using ten isolates collected from different regions of India. The genomic DNA extracted from each isolates of Aspergillus niger was subjected to polymerase chain reaction using 40 random decamer primers from OPA and OPC series. Only six primers showed amplifications and selected for the analysis. Out of these, all six primers showed 100 per cent polymorphism. The total number of amplified fragments was 159, with a range of 10 to 38 fragments per primer. Dendrogram generated by pooled molecular data of six RAPD primers formed two clusters namely ‘A’ and ‘B’. The cluster ‘A’ was divided into AN-1 and AN-4 isolates, Cluster B was divided into two sub-clusters B1 and B2. Sub-cluster B1 included B11 and B12 cluster. Cluster B11 included isolates viz., AN-02, AN-03, AN-05 and AN-06. Cluster B12 included isolate AN-09. Sub-cluster B2 included B21 and B22 cluster. B21 cluster included isolate AN-07 and B22 cluster included isolates AN-08 and AN-10. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.037 to 0.56 with all the six primers. Highest similarity (0.56) was observed between AN-5 and AN-6 isolates, while lowest similarity (0.037) was observed between AN-1 and AN-2 isolates. Thus, the molecular characterization of ten isolates of A. niger by RAPD revealed existence of variations.
Title: Biochemical mechanisms of resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum Abstract :
Data of the experiments revealed the status of winter wheat genotypes with respect to resistance against stripe rust at adult stage. Among the twenty five genotypes evaluated, China 84-40022, Drina, Drina NS 720, Joss Cambier, Mega, Saptadhara and WW-27 were resistant; Bolal, Centruck, Golden valley, WW-23, WW-24 and WW-25 were moderately resistant and PBW-343 and Agra local were highly susceptible to stripe rust under field conditions. The proline content and total phenols maintained a highly significant negative correlation with final rust severity (FRS) in field across the wheat genotypes. Proline content and total phenols were found maximum in Mega followed by Bolal whereas minimum values for these traits were found in PBW-343 followed by Agra local.
Title: Genotypic Variations in Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.) for Acquired Thermotolerance to Temperature Induction Response Abstract :
Thirty genotypes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were evaluated for acquired thermotolerance in seedlings based on temperature induction response (TIR) technique. The study showed that all the genotypes exhibited better growth and survival after temperature induction treatment. Out of thirty on exposure to direct challenging temperature nineteen genotypes were found to be susceptible, five moderately tolerant, three tolerant and four dead whereas after induction five were found to be susceptible, eight were found to be moderately tolerant and seventeen genotypes found to be tolerant with better seedling survival percentages. Growth during recovery was also found to be increased in maximum number of genotypes under induction treatment. Genotype GT showed 25.3% of survival when exposed directly to challenging temperature whereas it showed 100% of survival after induction treatment. The GDR of genotype EC-520061 was found to be maximum (4.15 cm) but with lower survival percentage (27.6%) after challenging treatment. SDS-PAGE leaf protein profiling confirmed the presence of additional protein bands as a result of induction. Hence, TIR serves to be a better tool to identify tolerant and susceptible genotypes for acquired thermotolerance even at seedling stage.
Title: Regeneration of plantlets from in vitro Root and Leaf culture of Vandaceous orchid, Ascocentrum ampullaceum (Roxb.) Schl Abstract :
The paper describes in vitro culture protocol of commercially important Vandaceous orchid from North East India, Ascocentrum ampullaceum using leaves and roots as explants. Leaves and roots of in vitro raised 5-6 months old Ascocentrum ampullaceum were inoculated in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with additive growth hormone (15%) Coconut milk and growth regulators such as NAA, IAA, BAP and Kn (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5 mgl-1), both singly and in combination. Leaf culture produced highest protocorm like bodies (Plbs) (40%) in the medium supplemented with 0.5 mgl-1 BAP, followed by 30% Plbs supplemented with 15% CM and BAP 2.0 mgl-1, whereas the highest (60%) multiple shoot bud formation was noticed in MS medium supplemented with 15% CM and 0.5 mgl-1 BAP, followed by 30% in ½MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mgl-1 Kn; Callus formation (30%) was observed in ½MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mgl-1 NAA. Roots when cultured in ½ MS, only elongation was observed, but in full strength MS medium, it produced both Plbs and shoot buds. The highest Plbs and shoot buds (40%) was observed in the media supplemented in combination of CM (15%) + BAP (0.5 mgl-1) followed by 25% in CM (15%) + BAP (1.0 mgl-1).
Title: Field screening of different rice entries against different insect-pests of rice during kharif season Abstract :
The different rice entries were screened out against stem borer, leaf folder and whorl maggot of rice during kharif, 2014 at Rice Research Station, Chinsurah, Hooghly, West Bengal. The experiment was carried out to note the reaction of promising advanced cultures with four check varieties viz. DRRH 2, Surakha, IR 64 and Taichung Native 1 (TN 1) against insect-pests of rice with a view to identify multiple resistant varieties. The lowest dead heart infestation was recorded in RP 5163-200-5-4-2 (0.70%) followed by RNT 14-1-1-2-2 (0.83%), IR 64 (0.49%) and RP 5588-B-B-B-B-76 (1.08%). Lowest white heads was observed in CR 1898-32-69-CN-12-2 (0.90%) followed by RP Bio 4918-142 (1.45%) and RP 2068-18-3-5 (1.60%). The lowest leaf folder infestation was noticed in RP 5588 (0.57%) followed by DRRH 2 (0.76%), CR 2274-2-3-3-1 (0.88%) and RP 5588-B-B-B-B-116 (0.93%). The minimum whorl maggot incidence was observed in RP 5587-B-B-B-267-1 (4.78%) followed by RP 5588-B-B-B-B-76 (5.09%), RP 5588-B-B-B-258-1 (5.16%) and RP 5588-B-B-B-133 (5.29%) entries. This experiment resulted that CN 2008-3-2, CN 2017-3-2 and W 1263 are the multiple resistant entries against all the test insect-pests, CR 2274-2-3-3-1, RP 5587-B-B-B-305-13, CN 2015-5-4, IET 23148 and CN 1233-33-9 against stem borer and leaf folder and RP 2068-18-3-5, RP 5588-B-B-B-B-76 and RNT 14-1-1-2-2 against stem borer and whorl maggot.
Title: Population dynamics of major insect pest of blackgram [Vigna Mungo (L.) Hepper] in relation to weather parameters Abstract :
The experiment was conducted during the kharif season of 2014. Population dynamics of major insect pests of blackgram highly affected by weather parameters like; temperature (maximum and minimum), relative humidity (maximum and minimum), rainfall, and sunshine hours. The result revealed that the highest population of whiteflies 8.07 adult/cage/plant and jassids 1.43 nymph and adult/ cage/ plant was recorded during 37th standard week. The population of whitefly and jassid showed non significant negatively correlation with maximum and minimum temperature and sunshine hours while significant positively correlation with maximum humidity whereas non significant positively correlation showed with total rainfall and minimum humidity. The highest population of spotted pod borer 2.13 larvae/plant was record during 38th standard week and flower thrips 3.47 nymph and adult/10 flowers was record during 37th standard week and spotted pod borer population showed significant positively correlation with sunshine hours while flower thrips and spotted pod borer population showed non significant positively correlation with maximum and minimum relative humidity and non significant negatively correlation with maximum and minimum temperature whereas population of spotted pod borer showed non significant negatively correlation with total rainfall, while population of thrips showed non significant positively correlation with total rainfall while sunshine hours showed non significant negatively correlation.
Title: Study of various characteristics of composite flour prepared from the blend of wheat flour and gorgon nut flour Abstract :
The composite flour was prepared by mixing wheat flour and popped gorgon nut flour in different ratios. The composite flour was evaluated for different properties i.e. physical, functional, pasting and thermal properties. Bulk density and true density decreased wherever water absorption index and water solubility index increased with increase in percentage of popped gorgon nut flour in composite flour. In functional properties, water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity increased but foaming capacity decreased with increase in blending proportion of popped gorgon nut flour in composite flour. Pasting temperature of composite flour ranged from 67.75°C to 67.85°C. Final viscosity of different composite flour samples ranged between 3042 to 3651 cp. Peak temperature and conclusion temperature of composite flour decreased with increase in proportion of popped gorgon nut flour.
Title: Profile distribution of micronutrient cations in citrus orchard of Ukhrul district, Manipur (India) Abstract :
Profile distribution of DTPA-extractable micronutrient cations (Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) and their relationship with various soil properties were studied in eighteen profiles of citrus orchard of Ukhrul district of Manipur. The content of DTPA-extractable Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn were higher in surface horizons and decreased with depth in most of the profiles and ranged from 0.08 to 0.76, 0.01 to 0.34, 8.0 to 54.0 and 1.6 to 20.4 mg Kg-1, respectively. Surface horizons contain sufficient amount of DTPA-extractable micronutrient cations except Zn. Distribution of Mn was influenced positively with EC in the first (0-20 cm) and second layer (20-40 cm), Cu was influenced inversely by organic carbon and positively by EC, Zn was influenced positively with CEC and Fe was influenced by clay content of the soils. Multiple regression analysis indicated that DTPA-extractable Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn were influenced by CEC, EC, clay and EC to the level of 0.25, 0.63, 0.25 and 0.41, respectively. However, only clay and EC contributed significantly towards these nutrient cations.
Title: Response of Drip Irrigation and Plastic Mulch on Quality of Sapota (Achras Zapota) Fruits Abstract :
The field experiment was conducted to study the response of sapota (Achras zapota) crop under drip irrigation and plastic mulch. Different amounts of irrigation water application through drip and ring basin irrigation methods along with plastic mulch treatments were experimented with five replications. The Sapota crop water requirement was estimated using reference evapotranspiration data and crop co-efficient for different crop growth stages. Reference evapotranspiration was estimated using FAO-56 Penman Monteith approach. The irrigation water was applied at 60%, 80%, and 100% of the crop water requirement using drip and ring basin irrigation system. The quality analysis of sapota fruit was performed to investigate the effect of different treatments. Economic analysis was carried out to study the economic feasibility of using drip irrigation and plastic mulch for sapota cultivation. The water requirement of sapota crop varies between 10.71 L per day per plant in winter and 34.43 L in summer for the treatment of 100% water requirement of the sapota plant. The physical properties like fruit weight, volume, dimension, peel-pulp ratio was found to be increased due to increase in amount of irrigation water application from 60% to 100% using drip irrigation. A small decrease in true density of fruit was observed with the increase of size of fruit. The pH of fruit increased with decrease in irrigation water application through drip system. The TSS, total sugar and reducing sugar were estimated to increase with reduced irrigation water application. Sweetness of the fruit increased with reduced irrigation water application. Increase in Sapota fruit yield varied from 7.62% to 41% in mulched treatments. Increase in fruit yield by 21.05% for the drip treated plants was over ring basin. Based on the water use efficiency, benefit-cost analysis and fruit quality analysis 80% irrigation requirement supplied through drip system along with plastic mulch treatment can be recommended for Sapota irrigation.