Title: Genetic Divergence of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) Genotypes in India Abstract :
Genetic divergence of 12 Cape gooseberry Indian genotypes for morphological parameters was estimated using Mahanalobis D2-analysis. The genotypes were grouped into four clusters, the cluster-II was the largest with 5 genotypes followed by cluster I and cluster IV with 3 genotypes, and cluster III with 1 genotype. Clustering pattern indicated no association between geographical distribution of genotypes and genetic divergence. The inter-cluster distances were higher than the intra-cluster distance suggesting wider genetic diversity among the genotypes of different groups. The intra-cluster value was maximum in cluster I and II and minimum cluster III and IV. The inter-cluster D2-values indicated maximum distance between cluster I and IV followed by between I and III, and between I and II, showing wide diversity between the groups. Fruit diameters, duration of fruit set to maturity, number of flower per branch, fruit weight and inter-nodal length showed maximum contribution towards total divergence among the genotypes. Thus, the genetically diverged genotypes identified in this study, could be used as parents in hybridization programme for getting desirable segregants.
Title: Gene Action for Yield and Yield Attributes by Generation Mean Analysis in Groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) Abstract :
Genetic studies assist the breeder in understanding the inheritance mechanism and enhance the efficiency of a breeding programme. Knowledge of the way genes act and interact will determine the breeding system that optimizes gene action more efficiently and will elucidate the role of breeding systems in the evolution of crop plants. The generation mean analysis was employed in four crosses viz., CO 7 × GPBD 4, ICGV 03128 × GPBD 4, ICGV 03128 × COG 0437 and ICGV 03128 × VRI Gn 6 of groundnut to partition the genetic variance into additive, dominance and epistasis. Hence F1, F2 and F3 generations of each cross were evaluated along with their parents to assess the nature of gene action involved for various characters which in turn helps in formulating an effective and sound breeding programme in groundnut. In all the vegetative and reproductive characters, additivity, dominance and one or more of the epistatic effects determined the expression. Pedigree method of breeding followed by simple selection in later generation would be a meaningful breeding strategy to be followed in such crosses for the improvement of the characters under evaluation. Considering the kernel yield per plant, pod yield per plant and foliar disease incidence, the cross ICGV 03128 × GPBD 4 was adjudged as the best cross for further selection programme.
Title: Stability Analysis of High Yielding Varieties of Black Gram (Vigna Mungo L. Hepper) Abstract :
Most of the varieties show great degree of genotype x environment interactions for highlydesirable characters. Field experiment was conducted using fourteen genotypes of black gram during kharif season, 2009 and 2010. The data were analyzed according to the stability model as suggested by Eberhart and Russell (1966). The pooled analysis of variance due to genotypes was found highly significant for all the characters indicating genetic variability among the genotypes. Highly significant pooled deviation for all the characters except 100 seed weight was observed in all the genotypes that fluctuated significantly from their respective linear path of response to environments.From the estimated parameters of stability in the present study, genotypes RBU1012 and Pant U-19 were considered to be the most stable genotypes. Environments 6 was the best for yield and its components while environment 1 was the lowest for yield and its components.
Title: Response of Segregating and Non Segregating Generations of Four Tomato Crosses to Environmental Variations for Physiological Attributes Related to Heat Tolerance Abstract :
Six generations obtained from each of the four tomato crosses viz. Cross-I (H7997 x CLN 1621 E), Cross- II (H7997 x BL 337), Cross - III (H7997 x Nagcarlan) and Cross- IV (H7997 x CLN 2366A) were evaluated over four environments. The analysis of variance exhibited significant differences among the genotypes for all the characters except for saturation deficit. The G x E interaction (linear) component was significant for all the characters except for relative stress injury. Pooled deviation was found to be significant for senescence index, membrane stability percentage, relative water content and saturation deficit. From stability analysis it was seen that hybrids H7997 x CLN 1621E, H7997 x Nagcarlan and H7997 x CLN2366A , F2 of cross H7997 x CLN 2366A together with B2 generation of cross H7997 x BL337 exhibited average stability for fruit yield per plant.
Title: Genetic study in URD bean (Vigna Mungo (L.) Hepper) for inheritance of mungbean yellow mosaic virus resistance Abstract :
Goodness of fit test pertaining to MYMV resistance confirmed that all the F1cross combinations viz., MDU 1 x Mash-114, MDU 1 x VBN (Bg) 6, MDU x PU 31, MDU 1 x Uttara, LPG- 752 x Mash-114, LPG – 752 x VBN (Bg) 6 and CO 6 x VBN (Bg) 6 and BC2 were resistance to MYMV, showed that YMV resistance were controlled by dominant gene. Resistance nature of F1 of all the crosses indicated clearly the resistance was dominant over susceptibility. Goodness of fit test pertaining to test the deviation of observed ratio to Mendelian segregation ratio for MYMV (resistance: susceptible) in the segregating population shows that, except ‘MDU 1 x PU 31’, F2 of all crosses fitted well with 15: 1 (resistance: susceptible), exhibited the presence of duplicate dominant gene interaction. Whereas ‘MDU 1 x PU 31; was confined well with 9:7 (resistance: susceptible), showed that the presence of complementary or duplicate recessive type of epistatic gene interaction. The inheritance ratio of 3:1(resistance: susceptible) in BC1 and all resistance in BC2 showed that the male parents taken for crossing were resistance, while female parents susceptible. The putative gene symbol for MYMV resistance assigned for female parents are r1r1r2r2, whereas for male parents viz., Uttara, VBN (Bg) 6 Mash-114 and PU 31 the symbol is R1R1R2R2. Hence, presence of complex nature of inheritance, it may appropriate to suggest the recombination breeding accompanied with one or two cycles of recurrent selection should be effective to enhance the YMV resistance in blackgram.
Title: A Simple and efficient protocol for isolation of RNA from different tissues of chickpea and pea Abstract :
A simple and efficient protocol is developed for isolation of high quality RNA from roots and leaves of chickpea and pea. The procedure is based on use of SDS, sodium acetate and EDTA in an extraction buffer in order to eliminate polysaccharides and prevent oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current method is modification of a method described for RNA isolation from pea leaves only, and yields excess amount of high-quality RNA suitable for cDNA based gene expression analysis. The protocol requires only three disposable micro centrifuge tubes during extraction, single phenol extraction step and a single precipitation step to yield high-quality RNA. RNA extracted with this method was free from protein and phenolic contaminants as evident from gel electrophoresis analysis. This method is applicable not only for leaves but also for roots and shoots and equally applicable to both chickpea and pea. cDNA is prepared and PCR amplification have been done with universal ubiqutin primer to check the integrity of RNA and absence of inhibitory compounds in RNA samples, which proves the suitability of samples towards qRTPCR.
Title: Molecular marker based genetic diversity analysis in rice (Oryza sativa L.) using SSR markers Abstract :
Assessment of genetic diversity is very important in rice breeding from the standpoint of selection, conservation and proper utilization. The role of a broad genetic base and systematically characterized germplasm in the crop improvement of cultivated plants has been well recognized. To meet the continuously expanding needs of varietal improvements, the evaluation and characterization of all existing germplasm are required. Genetic variability studies are important in selection of parents for hybridization as sound crop improvement depends upon the magnitude of variability in the base population. In the present investigation 36 rice genotypes were studied for diversity studies using polymorphic SSR markers. These rice genotypes were grouped into two main clusters that is cluster I and II with similarity coefficient (0.00). Cluster I can be sub divided into two minor sub-groups IA, IB, and with similarity coefficient (0.15). Cluster IA consisted of 12 genotypes, whereas cluster IB consisted of 13 genotypes. The second main cluster can be also sub divided into two minor sub-groups that is IIA and IIB (0.25). This indicated presence of considerable diversity in the genotypes studied. Through diversity analysis, highest similarity was observed between cultivar URG-5 and URG-8 followed by NDR-359 and Pusa-6-B. The most diverse cultivars were Akshaya dhan and URG-24.
Title: Physiological Responses of Drought stress in Tomato:A Review Abstract :
Tomato has important role in food and commercial utilization in the whole world. It is an undetached part of food due to its taste and nutritional value. It is full of minerals, vitamin and antibiotic characteristics. Climate change produces so many natural hazards such as abiotic and biotic stress in the plant. Drought is an important natural phenomenon which affects morphological, physiological, biochemical and yield attributes of plants leading to death. During water stress many physiological and molecular processes are disturbed such as root-shoot growth, water relation, mineral absorption, leaf expansion and orientation, stometal behavior, transpiration rate, photosynthesis and respiration rate, solute translocation, etc. Toxic elements such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during stress period create oxidative damage to the cellular organization. Plants have its antioxidant system to scavenge such harmful element and accumulate osmoprotectants such as proline, glycien betaine, etc to maintain osmotic adjustment. All these and many more aspects have been discussed in case of tomato plants in this review.
Title: Evaluation of some soil test methods in acid soils for available phosphorus for pea of Senapati district of Manipur (India) Abstract :
In an field experiment conducted on pea (Pisum sativum L.) during rabi season of 2013-14 in acid soil of Senapati district, Manipur, India phosphorus was given in the form of single super phosphate and levels of P2O5 kg ha-1 (0, 40 and 60) had significant influence on total dry matter yield, phosphorus concentration in plants and phosphorus uptake by plant. Six extractants were tried viz. Bray 1, Bray 2, Mehlich 1, Mehlich 3, Troug and Olsen to assess the available phosphorus status of the acid soils. The suitability of these extractants was in the descending order: Bray 1> Troug> Bray 2> Mehlich 3> Olsen (pH-8.5)> Mehlich 1. Bray’s P 1 extractable phosphorus showed the highest and positive correlations with dry matter yield (control) phosphorus content (control), phosphorus uptake (control), Bray’s percent yield and uptake. Therefore this extractant may be used as an index of available phosphorus for pea (Arkel) grown on acid soils of Senapati district, Manipur, the critical level being 14 ppm (mg /kg). The critical limit of phosphorus concentration in plant at 40 days of planting was 0.42% according to the graphical procedure of Cate and Nelson (1965) using a scattered diagram.
Title: Management interventions to enhance water productivity in dry-seeded rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Abstract :
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is grown in alluvial irrigated tract of north-west India due to high productivity and profitability. Rice is the major source of calories for half the world’spopulation as well as in our country (Roy and Bisht, 2012).However, large amount of water input in rice culture has led to over-exploitation of groundwater as indicated by alarming fall in water table. Average fall in water table in Punjab and Haryana state has been more than 0.75 m year-1 in the last decade (Minhas et al. and Humphreys et al. 2010). Thus, there is a need to explore alternate techniques that can sustain rice production and are resource conservative. On the face of global water scarcity and escalating labour rates, when the future of rice production is under threat, direct seeded rice offers an attractive alternative. In this regard, dry-seeded rice (DSR) is one option that can help in saving water, energy, labor and time. Management interventions that reduce irrigation water and increase water productivity (WP) are required in dry-seeded rice. Irrigation scheduling, tillage and short duration cultivars are some of the interventions in this regard. Irrigation scheduling aimed at eliminating over or under irrigation and ensures optimum yields with high water productivity. Tillage affects crop growth by altering soil edaphic environment. Rice plants are unable to utilize soil water in the deeper layers because of shallow root system. Deep tillage has emerged as a better option to improve deep root growth (advantageous for water extraction during drought in upland rice) of rice cultivars. Based on the existing evidence, present paper reviews the management interventions to enhance water productivity in dry-seeded rice.
Title: Influence of combined use of organic, inorganic and biological sources of nutrients on fruit quality in lemon Abstract :
The use of high analysis chemical fertilizers results in the deficiency of nutrients other than the applied. Chemical fertilizers besides being costly are also injurious to plants, ground water and environment. However, in recent years organic sources have emerged as promising components of nutrient supply system. These organic sources when used along with inorganic sources under the concept of integrated nutrient management are known to improve nutrient status of plants either by way of fixation or by making fixed nutrients available to plants. To obtain superior quality of fruit, thus it is a pre-requisite to study the integrated nutrient management in lemon. An experiment was conducted at “Punjab Government Progeny Orchard & Nursery, Attari, Amritsar” during the fruiting years 2005 and 2006 with a view to harvest good quality lemon fruit. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with five treatments replicated four times. Different treatments involved application of FYM, inorganic fertilizer and biofertilizer (Azotobacter) in various combinations. The present experiment shows that the substantial improvement in fruit quality could be achieved with the combined application of these three classes of nutrient sources.
Title: Studies on the effect of foliar application of calcium on post-harvest, corm and cormel production in gladiolus CV. summer sunshine Abstract :
The experiment was conducted during the year 2011-2013 in Mondouri Horticultural research farm, BCKVV, Mohanpur, West Bengal to study the role of calcium and to identify its effective source and application time on the post-harvest, corm and cormel parameters of gladiolus with foliar application of calcium nitrate and calcium carbonate at different days (3-4, 6 leaf and spike emergence) after plantingand was conducted in Randomized Block Design with three replications.Analysis of variance study indicated that most of the treatments differed significantly among themselves except for days taken for basal floret open, no of corms per plot, corm weight and no of cormels per corm in both the years. The results obtained revealed that foliar spray of calcium favored most of the post-harvest, corm and cormel characters. Calcium nitrate was found superior to calcium carbonate in promoting various post-harvest, corm and cormelcharacters under study. Spraying of calcium nitrate at 6 leaves stage and spike emergence stage to gladiolus plant was most effective to influence the post-harvest, corm and cormelparameters and was found on par with calcium nitrate 300 ppm at 6 leaves stage for maximum characters like vase life, cumulative water uptake, days to incipient senescence, fresh weight of spike, days to senescence, corm diameter, corm thickness and cormel weight per plot.
Title: Predatory potential of Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi (Esben-Peterson) against Planococcus citri Risso and Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara De Willink Infesting Cocoa, Theobroma Cacao Linnaeus Abstract :
Laboratory experiment was conducted to record predatory potential of different larval stages of Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi against first, second, third instar nymphs of Planococcus citri and ovisacs, second instar nymphs and adults of Paracoccus marginatus. The larvae of C. zastrowi sillemi fed 709.80±84.56, 220.40±40.76 and 162±38.57 first, second and third instar nymphs of P. citri to complete their life stages, respectively. The first instar larvae of C. zastrowi sillemi fed 158.00±5.24, 35.00±2.73 and 23.60±2.87 first, second and third instar nymphs of P. citri, respectively. Among various instars of the predator, second and third instars were voracious feeder than other stages. Larvae of C. zastrowi sillemi fed 7.20±1.11, 410±73.14 and 58.60±7.80 ovisacs, nymphs and adults of P. marginatus to complete their life stages. Consumption by the first instar larvae of C. zastrowi sillemi was 1.40±0.55, 68.20±3.11 and 11.80±1.79 ovisacs, nymphs and adults, respectively. Among various instars of C. z. sillemi, second and third instars were voracious feeders. There is a greater scope for utilization of this macro entomophage in the development of integrated pest management module against sucking pests of cocoa.
Title: Productivity, agronomic efficiency and quality of bread wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] cultivars in relation to nitrogen Abstract :
Nitrogen (N) occupies a conspicuous place in plant metabolism because adequate supply of this nutrient associated with high photosynthetic activity, vigorous vegetative growth and a dark green color among cereal crops. In view of this, the field experiments were conducted during 2011-12 and 2012-13 to evaluate the effect of nitrogen with different wheat cultivars on growth and productivity. The soil was low in organic carbon and available nitrogen. The leaf area index and photo synthetically active radiation interception was higher in variety PBW 621. The 1000-grain weight and grains per ear were significantly higher in variety PBW 550 than other varieties. The variety DBW 17 had significantly higher tiller density. The variety PBW 550 gave significantly higher grain yield but statistically on par with variety PBW 621. The yield attributes, grain yield and quality parameters were highest under 150 kg N/ha. With increase in nitrogen level upto 120 kg N/ha, there was significantly increase in grain yield which was statistically on par with 150 kg N/ha. Agronomic use efficiency was significantly similar at 120 and 150 kg N/ha than other nitrogen levels. Therefore, there is need to save nitrogen fertilizers on soils low in nitrogen availability for wheat cultivars.
Title: Elemental analysis of chelant induced phytoextraction by pteris vittata using WD-XRF spectrometry Abstract :
Soil pollution due to heavy metals derived from anthropogenic activities is one of the major global issues of our times. Detrimental effects of the heavy metals to the environment and human health are well understood now. Direct and multi-elemental quantitative analysis of soil and plant samples in chelant induced phytoaccumulation in Pteris vittata with the application of XRF spectrometry is the main aim of the present study. The chelant treatment of EDTA was effective for enhancing the arsenic (As) absorption in the pot experiments. Bioaccumulation factor for primary macronutrients P and K slightly decreased in roots but it increased considerably in fronds after the treatment. High increase in the bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor was recorded for As. At the end of this work, it can be clearly concluded that Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WD-XRF) spectrometry can be successfully used in phytoremediation studies for getting good results in less time.
Title: Effectiveness index of expert system applications in agriculture Abstract :
This research paper focuses on the assessment of the effectiveness index of expert system applications in agriculture with special reference to ‘KAU-Fertulator’ and ‘e-Crop doctor’, developed by Kerala Agricultural University. A survey was conducted among three targeted segments of Kerala extension professionals with a total of 100 respondents who were actively involved in the field of agriculture. Based on the relevant review of literature and discussion with experts effectiveness index of agri-expert system was developed and standardized using the applications such as quick availability and opportunity of the expert system to programme itself, expert systems ability to exploit a considerable amount of knowledge, reliability, scalability, pedagogy, expert systems ability on preservation and improvement of knowledge and expert systems ability to address the new areas neglected by conventional computing. These applications were ranked based on their mean scores in decreasing order of importance and effectiveness index was calculated to distribute the respondents in different categories. Results showed that the effectiveness index of expert system application in agriculture was generally medium. In order to improve the effectiveness index of agri-expert system applications in agriculture, it is necessary to augment the attributes of expert systems such as accuracy, timeliness, format clarity and relevancy of the information from agri-expert systems.
Title: Probability analysis of rainfall and crop water requirement using CROPWAT model for crop planning in a canal command of upper Bhima Basin of Maharashtra Abstract :
Rainfall is the most important climatic parameters influencing agriculture in Pune district of Maharashtra. Rainfall of this region is highly variable with respect to space and time and about 80-90% of precipitation falls in monsoon period from June to October resulting in drought and flood situation in the upper Bhima basin of Maharashtra. Therefore, for efficient water resources management, optimal crop planning and also for better understanding of rainfall behavior (i.e., distribution and minimum expected amount during crop growing period) probability analysis of rainfall was conducted. Probability analysis (at 50% and 80%) of monthly rainfall data of 13 raingauge stations of the left bank canal of upper Bhima basin viz., Urali, Loni Karbol, Kasurdi, Tajuproject, Yewat, Dahitane, Bhigwan, Madanwadi, Pondewadi, Kedgaon, Patas, Pimplegaon and Daund for the period from 1975 to 2002 was conducted. Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) has been calculated using climatic parameters like sun shine hour, wind speed, maximum & minimum temperature and rainfall humidity for the period from years 1993-2005 by CROPWAT model. It was found that ETo is maximum (7.72 mm/day) during April and low in December (3.10 mm/day). Effective rainfall of existing rain gauge stations falling in different sub-basins, BM48, BM49, BM50, BM51 and BM68 have been estimated using the CROPWAT model. Finally net irrigation requirement of crops Kharif Cotton, Summer Cotton, Sugarcane and Rabi Sorghum have been find out for all the sub-basin. From this study it has been concluded that, the crop planning in the area, represented by Pimplegoan and Urali stations should be done keeping in mind maximum deficit of 187 mm and 113 mm of water respectively during July. Similarly in other stations maximum deficit of water was observed during September which indicate that while selection of crops for the areas represented by these stations the crops requiring less water during September should be selected.
Title: Development and performance evaluation of rotary drum grader for tomato Abstract :
Grading is one of the most important unit operations in packing houses by which it enables to obtain a good and appealing packing system. To standardize the tomatoes for export or marketing in local markets the rotary drum grader was developed in Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. It consists of a drum in which the holes are made based on the standard size of tomatoes. It is manually operated using a handle fitted to the shaft which is mounted on the main frame using a wooden block. The performance evaluation was done to optimizing the peripheral speed, inclination angle and feed rate. As the tomatoes are fed through the hopper into the rotating drum, it gets separated according to size. It is portable and can be used in the field. By conducting different study the efficiency of grader was found to be 80% at 16º inclination angle, 175 kg.h–1 feed rate and 15 rpm peripheral speed.