Title: Identification of SSR markers for hybrid purity testing in newly released rice hybrid KRH-4 Abstract :
Microsatellite markers were used for fingerprinting of hybrid, assessing variation within parental lines and testing the hybrid purity of hybrid seed rice. In this study 25 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were employed for fingerprinting for newly release rice hybrid (KRH- 4) and their parental lines. Polymorphic primers viz., RM202, RM204, RM219, RM216, RM1385, RM21, RM336, RM209, RM7279 and RM206 could clearly distinguish KRH-4 from its parental lines. The polymorphic primer RM216 amplified an allele size of 160bp in CRMS32A (A) and 150bp in MSN36 (R). Similarly RM204 amplified an allele size of 110bp in CRMS-32A (A) and 120bp in MSN36 (R). RM7279 amplified an allele size of 190bp in CRMS32A (A) and 1800bp in MSN36 (R). Since the bands of RM204, RM216, and RM7279 of KRH-4 hybrid rice were complement type of their parents, clear and distinct that can be utilized for purity assessment of hybrid rice KRH-4.
Title: Molecular characterisation in tomato (solanum lycopersicum L.)
- A review Abstract :
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is most important fruit vegetable grown worldwide for its high nutritive value. Traditional genetic markers and breeding methods have several defects that reduce the ability to estimate genetic diversity in plants as it highly dependent on the environment for expression. Among the available genetic rnarkers viz., morphological, cytological, biochemical and molecular (DNA), Molecular markers are an effective tool for efficient selection of desired agronomic traits because they are based on the plant genotypes and also are independent of environmental variations. Researchers have been calculated genetic variation in tomato landrace and cultivar collections using several molecular techniques including AFLP, RAPD, ISSR, SSR and SNP. An overview is conducted considering some useful above mentioned molecular markers to initiate systematic breeding programme on tomato improvement.
Title: Estimating the efficiency of different explants for direct in Vitro multiple shoots development in chrysanthemum Abstract :
Different explants of local chrysanthemum cultivars available in West Bengal including leaf, shoot tip and ray floret were employed to compare their efficiency for direct in vitro regeneration system. The explants were inoculated in Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with varied combinations of indole acetic acid (IAA), benzylaminopurine (BAP). The auxins indole -3-butyric acid (IBA) was used to induce rooting. Maximum multiple shoots production occurred at 1.0 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L NAA for leaf explants, 2.0 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA combination for shoot tip explants and BAP (4.0 mg/L) + NAA (0.1 mg/l) for ray floret explants. Among the treatments, IBA 1.0 mg /L for both leaf and shoot tip regenerated plants and 0.5 mg /L for ray floret regenerates proved to be the best for promoting root regeneration as compared to the other treatments tried. Among the various carrier substrates tested for acclimatization, soil + sand + FYM (1:2:1) fortified with ½ strength MS plant salt mixture proved to be ideal substrate as maximum plant survived and a maximum of 82.3 % survivability was obtained from shoot tip derived plantlets. Therefore, shoot tip explants are the most suitable type of explants for plant regeneration of chrysanthemum through direct somatic embryogenesis. However, direct plant regeneration through ray floret explants will also be useful to recover the flower colour mutants.
Title: Comparative efficacy of eighteen essential Oil against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) Abstract :
Plants are known to be a potential source of chemicals affecting feeding, breeding and survival of insects. Present study was conducted to study the fumigant toxicity of essential oils against major insect pest of stored grain Rhizopertha dominica. The bio-efficacy of essential oils extracted from eighteen plants, namely, Aegle marmelos, Cinnamomum camphora, Citrus sp., Eucalyptus globules, Psidium guajava, Thuja orientalis, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Bidens pilosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Saraca asoca, Cannabis sativa, Murraya koenigii, Tagetes erecta, Citrus limetta, Artemisia annua, Callistemon citrinus, Ocimum gratissimum and Citrus limon was studied against R. domanica at 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.012 % concentration (v/w).The study revealed that most of the essential oils inhibited the development of the test insect. However, the level of inhibition was highly correlated with the dose at which oils were used for treatment. Among eighteen essential oils, A. marmelos, C. camphora E. globulus and T. orientalis were most effective against R. dominica because no insect developed from the grain treated with it even at lower concentration of 0.05 %. All the essential oils were found highly effective at 0.2 and 0.1 % concentration except A. conyzoides, S. asoca, C. sativa, O. gratissimum and Citrus sp, which permitted adult emergence during test. None of the oil was found highly effective against R. domanica at 0.025 and 0.012 % concentration. The essential oil of E. globulus and T. orientalis were found moderately effective at 0.025% concentrations at which they caused 83.92 and 87.17 % inhibition, respectively. Rests of the treatments were found less effective against R. dominica due to less than 70 % inhibition of progeny production
Title: Seed bio-priming with Trichoderma asperellum effectively modulate plant growth promotion in pea Abstract :
Seed biopriming is an advance technique of seed treatment that involves application of beneficial microorganism on seed surface followed by seed hydration. Seed bioprimig is a ecological to control the many seed and soil-borne pathogens which provide an alternative to chemical treatment. Seed biopriming enhance the initial step of plant development by increased seed germination and provide protection before seedling emergence. Trichoderma spp. is widely used for biocontrol agent that enhance plant growth as well as inhibits phytopathogen. In the present study, effectiveness of biopriming with T. asperellum BHUT8 evaluated for plant growth promotion effect in pea. The results showed enhancement in plant growth in the treated plants as compared to control. There was increase in shoot length, root length, number of leaves, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight and root dry weight by 35.29, 96.49, 28.13, 36.10, 146.26, 30.17 and 77.20 %, respectively, as compared to the control.
Title: Survey for purple blotch of onion (Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cif.) in northern parts of Karnataka Abstract :
Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the important bulb crop and most important commercial vegetable crops cultivated extensively in India and it accounts for 90 per cent of the exported vegetables from India in terms of value. The production ofbulbs and seeds is limited by certain diseases. The most serious one is the purple blotch caused by Alternariaporri (Ellis) Cif. The disease causes extensive damage to bulbs as well as seed crop and also a major limiting factor in cultivation of onion. In view of the destructive nature of purple blotch of onion the present investigation was conducted through survey to know the disease incidence or severity and collection of infected samples. A survey was conducted during kharif 2013-2014 in onion growing areas of Northern Karnataka viz., Bijapur, Bagalkot, Gadag and Dharwad districts. The highest per cent disease index was noticed in Ilkal village of Bagalkot district. While, the lowest per cent disease index was noticed in kerur village of Bagalkot district. Among the districts, severity of disease was more in Bijapur and less in Gadag.Isolation was made from onion leaves showing typical purple blotch symptoms. Pure culture of A. porri was obtained and its pathogenicity to onion plants was proved. On the basis of isolation and morphological studies, the pathogen was identified as Alternariaporri (Ellis) Cif.
Title: Rootstock breeding for abiotic stress tolerance in fruit crops Abstract :
In the present era of climate change, drastically increasing or decreasing temperature, irregular or heavy rainfall, increasing level of CO2, soil degradation etc. limiting the crop production in different parts of the world. Due to their rapid and unpredictable effects, it became very difficult for agricultural scientists and farmers to respond to challenges posed by biotic and abiotic stresses. The use of rootstocks tolerant to different abiotic stresses like drought, salinity, temperature abnormality etc. may be an alternative approach to face these challenges. Fruit crops are perennial in nature and mostly propagated through vegetative means to meet the early and quality production requirements. The use of desirable scion and rootstock not only meet the requirement of early and quality production but also provides an alternative approach to face the challenges posed by biotic and abiotic stresses. Keeping in mind challenges of environmental stresses and quality fruit production in stress prone areas, the present need before researchers and growers is to fight with the era of changing climate. So, implication of rootstock breeding in fruit production technology is really instrumental for farmers.
Title: Impact of nitrate salt hardened seeds and sowing dates on seedling stand, growth, yield attributes, nitrogen and stress metabolism of rice Abstract :
Impact of seed hardening (hydration followed by dehydration-a kind of seed priming) with water and nitrate salts were evaluated in the present piece of work in timely and late sown rice variety HUBR 2-1. Crops raised from distilled water(hydro)/Mg(NO3)2 and KNO3(osmo)hardened seeds showed an increment in fresh and dry weights, RWC(%),plant height, no of leaves ,LA,LAI,CGR,RGR,NAR, effective tillers, nitrogen, proline and chlorophyll contents, nitrate reductase and super oxide dismutase activities in leaves over control set(representing non-hardened seeds). The hardening treatments resulted a reduction in membrane leakage, shortened the days from sowing to 50% flowering , increased days to plant maturity after sowing and flowering and improved the yield attributes. Best performance was resulted from Mg (NO3)2 hardened set and that was followed by KNO3 and distilled water hardened sets but control was always found inferior in timely and late sown crops.a
Title: Effects of Salicylic acid (SA) and Azospirillum on growth and bulb yield of Onion (Allium cepa L.) cv. Agrifound L Abstract :
The present investigation was carried out during Rabi season of 2014-2015 and laid out in a Randomized Block Design with three replications at Vegetable Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, J.N. Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh).The experimental material for the study was comprised of 18 novel treatments combination of Salicylic acid (SA) and Azospirillum to estimate the best treatment combination in Rabi onion under particular region. The growth parameters under present investigation noted under T17 recorded maximum plant height (cm) at 30, 60, 90,120 DAT (33.28 cm), (37.58 cm), (45.22 cm) and (48.46 cm) respectively, length of leaves (cm) at 30 DAT (32.57 cm), 60 DAT (36.29 cm) under (T17) and T11 (41.75 cm) at 60 DAT and T12 (44.15 cm) at 120 DAT respectively, maximum number of leaf at 30 DAT (8.09) in T14, 60,90 DAT (12.99,17.92) in T17 and at 120 DAT (19.37) in T11respectively, neck thickness (mm) at 120 DAT (13.71 mm) under T11, dry weight of leaf (g) at 120 DAT (3.92 g). The yield parameters also reported best under T17 as average weight of bulb (88.07g), equatorial diameter (67.38mm), polar diameter (60.37mm), double bulb(2.38%)T11, bolting per cent lowest (1.18%), A, B and C grade bulb (on weight basis) (37.22%)T5, (65.09%) and (34.19%) respectively, bulb yield polt 1(14.77kg), marketable bulb yield (26.28t/ha.) T13, total bulb yield estimated in T16 (30.47 t/ha). T11 recorded highest gross monitory return (` 450705/ha), net return (` 385020/ha) and benefit cost ratio 5.86.
Title: Manipulation of source sink relationship for management of fruit drop in kinnow mandarin Abstract :
A field experiment to study the effect of plant growth regulators and mineral nutrients as foliar application on source-sink relationship during fruit drop was carried out in Kinnow mandarin during 2013-2014. The plant growth regulators viz., 2,4 - D and gibberellic acid (@ 20µg/ml each) and mineral nutrients viz., FeSO4, MnSO4, ZnSO4 (@ 3.0 % each), CaSO4, MgSO4 (@ 0.6 % each), combination of FeSO4 +MnSO4 + ZnSO4 (@ 0.3 % each), MnSO4 + ZnSO4( @ 0.1 % each), KNO3 +2,4-D ( @ 2.5 % + 20µg/ml), KNO3 + 2,4- D (@ 5 % + 20µg/ml ) were tested as foliar application on eight year old Kinnow fruit plants at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. The results revealed that there was a significant reduction in fruit drop and increase in fruit yield with the tested plant growth regulators and mineral nutrients by strengthening the sink capacity. The metabolites viz. total soluble proteins, free amino acids, total soluble sugars and starch were more in the leaves as compared to fruits at both the stages of fruit drop, ie., May and August. KNO3 +2,4D ( @ 2.5 % + 20µg/ml) application resulted in maximum metabolic content in the fruits at the two diagnostic stages.
Title: Effect of packaging on quality of enriched fruit bars from aonla (Emblicaofficinalis G.) during storage Abstract :
The main objective of the study was to evaluate the packaging materials to maintain quality of enriched fruit bars during storage. The experiment was laid out in CRD with 10 treatments. Blending of aonla pulp with pulp of provitaminA rich fruits viz. mango, papaya and jackfruit in different ratios was carried out and its effect on the quality of resultant fruit bars in different packaging materials was evaluated during storage for a period of 6 months. A declining trend in moisture, acidity, non-reducing sugars and ascorbic acid and total carotenoids was observed whereas Total Soluble Solids, total sugars, reducing sugars and non-enzymatic browning showed an upward trend. Enrichment of aonla pulp with fruit pulp of provitaminA rich fruits like mango, papaya and jackfruit showed a rise in total carotenoids and reduced astringency and acidity, thereby resulting in fruit bars with altered palatability and enhanced nutrition. Packaging materials did not reveal any significant variation in sugar retention of fruit bars during storage. High Impact Polystyrene boxes were found to be more effective in reduction of non-enzymatic browning as compared to LDPE and areca plate overwrapped with cling film. Enriched fruit bars contained three vital antioxidants viz. Vitamin C, carotenoids and polyphenols.
Title: Recent advances in naga king chilli (capsicum chinense JACQ.) research Abstract :
The Naga King Chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq) is one of the hottest chillies in the world. This chilli is native to the north eastern region of India and subsequently the geographical indication (GI) of goods tag for this chilli has been obtained by the Nagaland State Government. The chilli was recorded to be the hottest chilli in the world in 2006 with a Scoville heat unit (SHU) rating of 1,001,304. Currently it occupies the fifth position among the hottest chillies in the world. Due to its high potential commercial value, many studies has been carried out in this crop including scientific cultivation, in vitro regeneration, diversity and evolution studies and its diseases and their management etc. This review is an attempt to bring into account the various research work carried out so far in the crop including the traditional and ethno-medicinal uses.
Title: Impact of integrated farming system in ramanagara district: An analysis Abstract :
An attempt was made to assess the impact of technological interventions initiated by KVK, Ramanagara under Integrated Farming System (IFS) among farmers. A great majority of the stakeholders lacked knowledge about improved varieties of ragi, redgram, horse gram, cowpea & foxtail millet. In order to increase the yield and productivity of these crops, improved varieties were inducted to farmers. Farmers were stimulated to go for cultivation of different vegetables in their backyards primarily for house consumption through introduction of nutrition kit developed by Indian Institute of Horticulture Research, Bangalore. Farmers expressed that this intervention reduced the drudgery of going out and buying the vegetables to the extent of 20 % and on an average each family produced about 80 kg of vegetables generating average revenue of ` 1026 per season. Improved giriraja chicks were introduced to farmers wherein there was 67 % increase in the number of birds after three years while each family could earn on an average of ` 6200/- from chicken. Considering egg production, each family could earn average net income of ` 6800/- at the end of three years. Out of one sheep inducted, it is worthy to note that each family could maintain an average of 5 sheep’s per family after three years. At this rate it could be articulated that ` 13,750/- was the average net income gained by each family from the sheep meat. The wilt incidence in redgram could be controlled to the extent of 75 % through introduction of trichoderma subsequent to which there was additional increase in income of ` 4300/- per ha. Promotion of improved fodder crops namely CO-3 & CO-4 resulted in 6.6 % increase in milk yield.
Title: Effect of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Growth and Development of Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) Abstract :
The present investigation was undertaken with the objective to evaluate the potential of different medicinal plants to explore their effect on growth and development of S. litura. Five medicinal plants species viz., Tulsi, O. sanctum; Tejpatra, C. tamala; Dalchini, C. zeylanicum; Eucalyptus, E. citriodora; Karanj, P. pinnata were tested at the conc. of 15 mg of acetone powder/ml of water. Preference index calculations at 15 mg/ml indicated that, C. tamala, C. zeylanicum and P. pinnata extracts exhibited ‘extreme antifeedant’ reaction while O. sanctum and E. citrodora extracts exhibited ‘strong antifeedant’ reaction. The acetone powder of O. sanctum at this concentration had no significant impact on the larval weight however C. tamala, C. zeylanicum, E. citrodora and P. pinnata could significantly reduce the weight gain in the larvae of S.litura. All the plant extracts caused a significant reduction in pupal weight over control. O.sanctum (15 mg/ml) could favour growth and development parameters of S.litura non significantly over control whereas other plant extracts C. tamala, C. zeylanicum, E. citriodora and P. pinnata proved detrimental to the larvae showing lethal effects at later developmental stages. Maximum larval mortality, lowest pupation and lowest adult emergence were observed in P. Pinnata
Title: Synthetic resins and their properties in respect of development of jute based composite boards Abstract :
Synthetic resins play an important role for preparation and sustenance of composite industry. Preparation of synthetic resins in standard protocol is readily available in literature. However, the standardization and stability of both urea formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde resins has the paramount importance to develop suitable composite board. An attempt therefore made to synthesis these resins through a rational approach. The developed resins were subjected to preparation of medium density particle board and it has been revealed that higher resin viscosity causes ball formation with fibrous mass at the time of blending; however resin viscosity of 250 – 300(cP) is found suitable for making fibreboard. 0.75 board density can meet the BIS specification for fiberboards (IS 12406). In this experiment the fibreboards need to have a density of 0.74 g/cc and a resin content of about 12% to produce boards conforming to BIS specification. It is also observed that the dry process generated fibres have a better l/b ratio compared to wet-process generated fibres.
Title: Study of population dynamics and impact of abiotic factors on thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis of chilli, Capsicum annuum and comparative bio-efficacy of few novel pesticides against it Abstract :
Field experiment to study the population dynamics and bio-efficacy of some newer pesticides at various test concentrations against chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, on chilli crop was tested in field conditions. The highest incidence of thrips was observed during first week of October. The population of thrips showed significant positive correlation with maximum temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall, relative humidity. The bio-efficacy results revealed that the mean per cent reduction in thrips population over the untreated-control in Pyridaben 20% WP 125g a.i/ha was significantly superior over other treatments; with highest per cent reduction of 74.47%; closely followed by Fenpyroximate 5% EC 20g a.i/ha (70.58%). Pyridaben 20% WP 100g a.i/ha and Propargite 57% EC both were less effective than previous two treatments and were at par with a reduction of 68.08% and 65.45% respectively. However, the lower doses of Pyridaben 20% WP 50g a.i/ha and 75g a.i/ha gave the lowest performance with a mean percent reduction of 56.66% and 59.85% respectively against control. Such studies are helpful in developing prediction models against thrips for its efficient management with combining both conventional and newer pesticides.
Title: Comparative study on ecofriendly management of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis hood in mungbean by using different bio- and chemicals pesticides Abstract :
Effect of certain ecofriendly insecticides against thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood) was studied at Varansi, Uttar Pradesh on mungbean. Ten different treatments (including control) of microbial and chemical insecticides were taken in different combinations and used at different crop stages. Among various insecticidal treatments, the combination of seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens and spraying of Beuvaria bassiana gave better responses and was found most effective against thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis) followed by seed treatment of P. florescens was found effective to minimise the infestation of thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood).
Title: Effects of diseases on milk production and body weight of cattle in Uttar Pradesh Abstract :
To analyze the effects of various diseases on productive traits of cattle a study has been undertaken by using data collected from 504 livestock owners in Agra division of Uttar Pradesh, India. The analysis of the data (ANOVA) on milk reduction revealed the significant difference (p<0.01) in milk reduction due to various diseases. Over all milk reduction due to different diseases was 46.56%. Among all the diseases, FMD caused significantly higher milk reduction (63.40 %) followed by Milk fever (52.65%) and H.S. (52.22%). But the effect of blot/tympani was lowest (23.61%) as compared to other diseases. The analysis of the data (ANOVA) on weight reduction also revealed the significant difference (p<0.05) in weight reduction due to diseases. Over all weight reduction (%) in cattle due to both diseases diarrhea and pneumonia was (8.70%). Diarrhea had higher effect on weight reduction ((11.78%) as compared to weight reduction due to pneumonia (5.12%).