Title: Role of HD-Zip transcription factors in plant development and stress responses Abstract :
The HD-Zip transcription factors are unique to the plant kingdom. These proteins exhibit both a homeodomain with an adjacent leucine zipper motif in a single combination which is unique in all eukaryotes. They can be divided into four subfamilies, depending on some characteristic features which include their respective DNA-binding specificities, gene structures, presence of additional common motifs and physiological functions. HD-Zip proteins exist in almost all tissues and organs of higher plants. They mainly participated in plants growth, development, morphological formation, regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses and modulate the action of hormones. Here, we make an effort to review recent experimental evidences explored for this family of transcription factors from a wide variety of plant species to unravel their pivotal function in various important aspects related to plant growth, development and adaptation to environment.
Title: Phylogenetic analysis of S1 gene of infectious bronchitis virus reveals emergence of new genotype Abstract :
In India the most common vaccine strain against infectious bronchitis (IB) virus (IBV) is Mass strain (M41). Most of the organized and unorganized poultry farms use Mass strain for vaccination of parent stock. But even after taking all precautions the incidences of IB outbreak are common in poultry population. IBV, a major pathogen of poultry flocks, circulates in the form of several genotypes and serotypes. Only a few amino acid changes in the S1 subunit of wild type proteins may results in mutants unaffected by current vaccine. In the year 2008 one strains of IBV was isolated from vaccinated chicken flocks. The results from sequencing of S1 gene showed that this strain was distinct from classic IBV strains of H120, M41 etc. Compared to H120 and M41 vaccine strain, point mutation occurred at many positions in the S1 protein of this field strain. The homology of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the S1 gene of this isolate was 79.0%-99.6% and 74.5%-98.8%, respectively with relation to major vaccine strains used worldwide. The results from this study indicate that different IBV strains cocirculate in the chicken population in India.
Title: Molecular characterization of six pigeonpea varieties for drought tolerance by using RAPD markers Abstract :
Genetic diversity among six pigeonpea genotypes with the four irrigation level in split plot design analysed by using 26 RAPD primer. The molecular characterization of six pigeonpea varieties showed genetically diverge condition forming four cluster groups i.e., A, B, C and D which showed that GNP-304 and Bharboot local formed the same cluster and they are susceptible varieties showing low seed yield. The varieties AGT-2 and C-11 formed the same cluster showing comparatively higher seed yield and they are drought tolerant variety. The variety GT-102 formed another cluster showing genetically divergence from other varieties. Similarly, the variety GT-1 formed another cluster showing genetically divergence from other varieties.
Title: Variation in total polyamine content in some native rice cultivars of North Kerala, India in response to salinity stress Abstract :
Phytohormone like low molecular weightaliphatic polycationic compounds known as polyamines have an essential role inplant growth and development and they respond to various environmental stress factors. Maintaining crop yields under adverse environmental stresses is a major challenge facing modern agriculture where polyamines play an important role. The total polyamine content in some native rice cultivars of North Kerala under salinity stress has been analysed presently and the results show that the total polyamine content in all the cultivars got increased in relation to the increase in the salt concentration applied. The highest total polyamine content was noted in the cultivar Orkazhama followed by Kuttusan and Kuthiru which were collected from a traditional saline rice tract of North Kerala. The highest percentage of increase in total polyamines was noted in the cultivar Kunhutty followed by Kuttusan and Veliyan. Kunhutty and Veliyan are cultivars collected from a non saline rice tract. In all the cultivars the total polyamine content got increased starting from the 10mM NaCl treatment itself. Among the cultivars studied, Orthadian showed the lowest amount of total polyamine content and Kuthiru showed the lowest percentage of increase in relation to increase in salinity. This result shows that salinity induces the accumulation of polyamines in rice plants and this may be a mechanism to contribute tolerance and resistance to salt stress. The rate of variation is cultivar specific. Identification of suitable genotypes and their improvement can be used as a potential method to evolve salinity resistant rice genotypesfor different geographical zones.
Title: Genetic Variability Studies in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) for Yield and Quality Traits Abstract :
The present study was carried out to investigate yield and quality traits in tomato, in order to generate information regarding the extent of genetic variability, heritability and genetic gain. The experiment was laid out during 2014-2015 in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) at an experimental farm of the Department of Vegetable Science, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan. Genetic variability was estimated among 56 genotypes of tomato which were replicated thrice. Analysis of coefficient of variation revealed that, the magnitude of phenotypic coefficient of variation was slightly higher than the genotypic coefficient of variation for all the studied traits. Further, high estimates of heritability and genetic gain were recorded for number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, fruit yield per plant, locular wall thickness and lycopene content. Thereby, suggesting that straight selection for these traits may bring worthwhile improvement in identifying superior genotypes in tomato.
Title: Stability analysis in bush type Rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris l.) under temperate Kashmir conditions Abstract :
Present investigation was undertaken during 2012-2014 to generate information through evaluation of a set of material at the farmers’ field along with the farmers’ variety as a check through stability using Eberhart and Russel model. The yield and yield attributing traits of all genotypes was recorded on ten competitive plants of both grandmother and mother trial. The genotypes were evaluated for stability analysis and revealed divergence across locations. The mean squares of all the traits were significant reflecting that the material was genetically divergent. The pooled deviation was significant and the variance due to variety × environment was significant for various traits indicating that the variation in the performance of the genotypes is both unpredictable and predictable. Most of the genotypes were having higher mean than the average, bi less than unity indicating that the varieties were more specifically adapted to the unfavorable environments than favourable ones. Some of the genotypes having higher mean yield, bi > 1 and Sdi2 tending to zero were specifically adapted to favourable environments. On the basis of stability parameters genotypes WB-185, WB-195, WB-966 and Shalimar Rajmash-1 were identified as the most stable genotypes for seed yield per plot across all locations on the basis of high mean performance and non-significant estimates of bi and Sdi2 from unit and zero respectively, however latter genotype showed sensitivity to better environments for biological yield on the basis of significant bi estimates. Similarly these genotypes were identified as consistent for early flowering for all the locations
Title: In Vitro Regeneration Studies in Brassica Napus with Response to Callus Induction Frequency and Regeneration Frequency Abstract :
The present study entitled “In vitro Regeneration Studies in Brassica napus, variety GSL- 1 and DGS-1 was carried out in the Biotechnology Laboratory, Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding SKUAST-J. Brassica napus, variety GSL 1 and DGS-1 were cultured on MS Media supplemented with different concentrations of growth regulators. The sterilization treatment with HgCl2 (0.1%) for 3 minutes resulted in highest per cent of aseptic seeds and survival of seedlings. Highest callus induction was observed in GSL-1. MS medium augmented with 2,4-D at 2-2.5 mg/l. Different concentrations of growth regulators in media showed a significant difference in the callus induction frequency (CIF) and regeneration frequency (RF) for both the genotypes tested. MS medium supplemented with BAP (5.0 mg/l) and 2, 4-D (0.5 mg/l) showed highest shoot regeneration frequency in GSL-1.
Title: Combining ability and heterosis in maize (Zea mays L.) for grain yield and yield components Abstract :
An investigation was carried out to assess the combibing ability and heterosis for nine characters viz., days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking, days to maturity, plant height, cob length, kernel rows per cob, 100-seed weight, protein content and grain yield per plant in 29 genotypes (twenty one hybrids, their seven parents along with a check). Combining ability studies revealed that, the line DHK-12-2091 found to be good combiner for the traits, grain yield per plant, kernel rows per cob, 100-seed weight and protein content while another line DHK-12-2003 also found to be good combiner for 100-seed weight, protein content, days to 50% tasseling and days to 50% silking. Therefore these lines can be utilized in improvement of the respective traits in any breeding programme where hybridization is involved. Among all the crosses, based on average heterosis, heterobeltiosis, standard heterosis, sca effects and per se performance, the cross DHK-12-2141 × DHK-12-2047 was identified as a promising hybrid for majority of characters studied. However it has not recorded significant standard heterosis for grain yield per plant.
Title: PCR amplification and bioinformatics assessment of promoters of PBF-DOF (DNA binding with one finger) genes of finger millet Abstract :
The Dof (DNA binding with one finger) family is a plant specific transcription factor known to be involved with regulating diverse functions in plants and have been extensively studied in many crops. The Dof transcription factor regulating gene expression by interacting with Cis-regulatory elements namely prolamin box (P box), GCN4, AACA and ACGT motifs present in the promoters of seed storage protein genes is known as PBF (Prolamin-box Binding Factor) Dof transcription factor. A set of 15 primers were designed by considering approximately 1.5 kb upstream and 500bp downstream sequences of full length Dof genes from TSS of cereals like rice, wheat and sorghum available in databases. These primers were used for PCR amplification of putative promoters of Dof genes of finger millet along with few cereals and millets. Furthermore, based on the presence of expected size amplicon with different sets of primers tested, a total of 6 bands of expected size representing putative promoters of PBF-Dof genes of rice, sorghum, barnyard, finger millets (PRM-1 PRM-801, PRM-701) were eluted, sequenced and subjected to in silico investigation. The bioinformatics based characterization revealed uniform presence TSS and numerous seed storage protein specific motifs like DPBF motif, RY element, SKN1 motif, GCN4 motif, E-Box confirming the promoters of respective PBF-Dof genes of cereals and millets. Further, validation by cloning in promoter probe vector is required for confirmation of temporal and spatial expression associated with seed storage protein genes.
Title: Soil microbial biomass dynamics in grassland and agroecosystem receiving varying resource quality soil inputs in dry tropics Abstract :
A two year field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of land use conversion and management strategies variation through addition of varying resource quality soil inputs on soil microbial biomass dynamics, under rice-wheat-summer fallow crop sequence in tropical dryland agroecosystem. The treatments involved addition of equivalent amount of N through chemical fertilizer (CF) and three organic inputs, viz. Sesbania shoot (high quality resource, HQR), wheat straw (low quality resource, LQR) and Sesbania+wheat straw (mixed quality, MQR) besides control (CO) and grassland (GF). On annual mean basis, cultivation of grassland decreased the MBC (-51%) and MBN (-52%) level in soil. Relative to control, application of WS+SS considerably increased the level of MBC (+77%) and MBN (+87%) in soil, instead of SS, WS and CF. In all cultivated plots, a distinct seasonal and temporal variation in microbial biomass C and N were found contrary to GF. Both soil MBC and MBN level increased from rice to wheat period and reached maximum during summer fallow; during rice, the pattern in decreasing order was HQR>MQR>LQR>CF>CO; wheat period, MQR>LQR>HQR>CF>CO; summer fallow, MQR>LQR>HQR>CF>CO. It is concluded that cultivation exerts negative effects on the concentration of soil microbial biomass. Application of varying resource quality exogenous soil inputs maintains the microbial biomass level in soil, differentially. Addition of MOR was most effective for sustained build-up of microbial biomass in soil throughout the cycle, rather than HQR, LQR or CF. The fertility of soil in term of soil microbial biomass can be maintained by regulating the resource quality of exogenous inputs, and these results will help in designing the management strategies for sustaining long-term soil fertility in these tropical dryland agroecosystem.
Title: Effect of soil-test-based long-term fertilization on soil health and performance of rice crop in Vertisols of central Ind Abstract :
The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of soil-test-based long-term fertilization on soil health and performance of rice crop in Vertisols of Central India. The experiment was started in 2007-08 consisting six treatments viz. Control (No fertilizers), General Recommended Dose (GRD) (120-60-40), STCR based for 4 t ha-1 target, STCR based for 5.5 t ha-1 target, STCR based for 4 t ha-1 target + 5 t FYM ha-1 and STCR based for 5.5 t ha-1 target + 5t FYM ha-1 and with four replications. The crop cultivar of rice MR-219 was grown with different treatments and performance in terms of grain yield and straw yield were recorded at harvest of the crop. The soil chemical and biological properties were assessed by analyzing the soil samples after harvest of the crop collected from 0-15 cm depth. Experimental data was statistically analyzed by the standard analysis of variance technique appropriate to randomized block design to test the significance of treatment effects. The results of the study revealed that, balanced fertilization based on soil test recorded higher yield of rice over general recommended dose of fertilizers. Similarly, soil organic carbon, available NPK and microbial activity in terms of FDA, DHA and Phosphates enzyme were also significantly enhanced under the treatments receiving STCR based recommended dose of fertilizers along with FYM. Thus, the application of fertilizers based on soil test improved the performance of rice crop along with enhanced soil organic carbon, available macronutrients and soil microbial enzyme activities as compared to the application of general recommendation of fertilizers.
Title: Effect of soil compaction and fertilizer placement depth on growth, yield, nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) and soil properties in tarai soils of Uttarakhand Abstract :
Soil compaction and placing of fertilizer in undesirable depth in soil are the most serious threat under intensive cultivation system in poorly drained heavy textured soil. In view of this, a field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2014-15 to understand the effect of soil compaction and fertilizer placement depth on performance of maize crop, nutrient uptake and soil properties. The soil was heavy textured i.e. silty clay loam with poor drainage and receiving about >1400 mm rainfall annually. Root length and root length density of plants in compacted plots (1.54 and 1.63 Mg/m3) decreased remarkably from 1.50-4.60 cm and 0.06-0.11 cm/cm3, respectively, compared with non-compacted soil (1.34 Mg/m3) however root dry weight did not exhibit response against soil compaction. Maximum grain yield of 5613.4 and 5593.0 kg/ha was recorded with non-compacted soil (1.34 Mg/m3) and 0-10 cm fertilizer placement depth, respectively, however at par yields were obtained between 1.54 and 1.63 Mg/m3 compaction levels. Compaction and fertilizer placement depth showed highest adverse effect on Zn uptake (14.70-20.42%) whereas least on P uptake (6.23-11.0%). Non compacted soil (1.34 Mg/m3) and placing fertilizer at 0-10 cm depth maintained favourable oxidizable organic carbon and hydraulic conductivity but reduced with increase in compaction and placement depth. In general, strong negative and non-significant relationships of the compaction and fertilizer placement depth with growth and yield parameters, yields, nutrient uptake and soil properties were estimated.
Title: Standardization of Glycerinisation for Leaves of Silver Oak (Grevillea robusta), Kanchan (Bauhinia purpurea) and Pipal (Ficus religiosa) Abstract :
Studies were carried out to standardize the dehydration technology for leaves of kanchan, pipal and silver oak under laboratory conditions in the Department of Post Harvest Technology of Horticultural Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Nadia, West Bengal during 2012-13. The foliages were subjected to four treatments replicated four times containing five foliage per replication. An experiment was carried out by placing only the stems or dipping the foliages in the glycerine solution, which were harvested at matured stage. The parameters like change in fresh weight and change in leaf area. Other quality parameters like texture, shape, brittleness, colour retention and over all acceptance were also recorded. Findings of results revealed that best results were obtain terms of texture, shape, brittleness, over-all acceptability was maximum in glycerine (20%) by uptake method for silver oak with high flexibility and glossiness. However, in case of kanchan glycerine (20%) by uptake method gave best result with similar attributes followed by glycerine (40%). In Pipal leaves, glycerine (40%) by dip method showed best results with maximum retention of colour.
Title: Integrated Rizi-Pisciculture: An approach towards livelihood and nutritional security for the tribal community of East Siang district, Arunachal Pradesh Abstract :
An approach was made to evaluate the feasibility and economic viability of rice fish culture (RFC) by conducting trials in 8 different villages viz. Ngorlung, Niglok, Balek, Mirem, Sikatode, Ayeng, Rayang and Seren of East Siang district, Arunachal Pradesh during Kharif seasons of 2011 to 2014. In the multilocational trials on rizi-pisciculture survival rate of advanced fry was recorded between 44.5 % and 48.7 % with an average weight of 83 g to 91 g at the harvest. During the study period average total cost of cultivation of RFC and sole cropping of rice was calculated to be ` 42,700 and ` 26,612 respectively. Average gross income and net income increased by ` 61,937 and ` 44,849 respectively by practicing RFC over the sole cropping of rice and it also raised the benefit-cost ratio of the system (2.61).
Title: Study on leaf area index and leaf area duration of growth analytical parameters in Wheat, Barley, and Oat Abstract :
An experiment were conducted in rabi season during 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 to find out the effect of cereal crops (Wheat, Oat, Barley) and cutting schedule on forage and grain yield. The study revealed the maximum chlorophyll accumulation in Barley and wheat during the initial stage at 95 DAS and wheat and barley during the reproductive stage at 30 DAS. Cutting at 50 DAS is proved beneficial on chlorophyll accumulation. Photosynthetic rate was maximum in wheat at 90 DAS. However cutting did not affect photosynthesis rate stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Barley gave maximum fodder yield (fresh/day). Cutting at 50 DAS was beneficial in producing maximum forage yield without sacrificing grain yield of cereal crops.
Title: Performance of rice varieties grown under different spacings with planting depths in system of rice intensification Abstract :
An experiment was conducted during the kharif seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12 at Krishi Nagar farm, Department of Agronomy, JNKVV, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh) to study to the production efficiency and monetary advantage in rice by adopting suitable planting geometry, varieties and depth of planting. The experiment comprises on 18 treatment combinations consisted of three planting geometry (20 cm × 20 cm, 25 cm × 25 cm and 30 cm × 30 cm) as main plot treatment and three varieties (MR-219, WGL-32100 and PS-3) as sub plot treatments and two depths of planting shallow (2.5cm) and normal (5.0 cm) as sub-sub plot treatments were tested in split-split plot design with three replications. Results showed that the 25 cm × 25 cm planting geometry had superiority in various yield attributing characters viz; weight of panicles, grains/panicle, test weight, healthy grains/panicle, less no. of chaffy grains/panicle, sterility percent, more, harvest index and yield in comparison to other planting geometries with MR-219 variety and shallow depth of planting.
Title: Marginal and small farmers’ climate change perception and adaptation Abstract :
Climate change refers to any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or/and as a result of human activity and adaptation to climate change requires that farmers first notice that the climate has changed, and then identify useful adaptations and implement them. The marginal and small farmers were highly vulnerable to climate change. The likely consequences of climate change on the water front in Tripura are decrease in total annual rainfall, change in rainfall pattern resulted in crop failure. The present research was conducted in West Tripura district of Tripura state and sample size was 150. Results suggested that perception of farmers on current climate condition ranged from bad to very bad and there were increase of crop, animal and human diseases; and also number of hot days and sun’s heat had increased too, whereas rainfall days and annual rainfall had decreased. Major identified adjustment factors by farmers were decreased use of irrigation water, change in planting date, find off-farm job and alternative livestock feed supplements. However, farmers’ perceived barriers to climate change adjustment were lack of weather information, problem with getting inputs, lack of knowledge about adaptations and lack of information about climate change.
Title: Effects of vermicompost and boron on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Pusa ruby) flowering, fruit ripening, yield and soil fertility in acid soils Abstract :
It was evident from a two year experiment that among the combination between vermicompost and boron, the application of minimum dose of boron (B1=10Kg/ha) with maximum dose of vermicompost (V3=20q/ha) i.e. B1V3 application reduced the number of days taken to flowering, 50% of flowering, ripening, 50% of ripening as compared to the other treatments and found superior in increasing the available N, P2O5, K2O, and Organic carbon in soil. The highest fruit yield was recorded with the combined application of 10 kg borax and 20 q vermicompost (1% N) / ha. The same treatment i.e. B1V3, was also found to be superior in increasing the better results regarding most of the parameters. Moreover the application B1V3 increased availability of N,P,K and Organic Carbon, which exerts positive effect on growth, development and yield of tomato.
Title: Respiration behaviour and heat of respiration of mango
(cv. Langdo) under different storage conditions Abstract :
Individual agricultural commodity has substantial rate of respiration which varies from commodity to commodity and cultivar to cultivar. Quantification of rate of respiration and thereby heat generated due to respiration is require to develop controlled, modified or cold storage system and to predict the shelf life. A scientific study was carried out to determine the effect of different storage conditions on rate of respiration and heat of respiration of mango fruits (cv. Langdo). Air tight multi-chamber temperature and RH control system was developed to conduct the experiment at various temperatures. Mango fruits were stored at 10, 15, 20, 25°C and ambient temperature in the developed air tight multi-chamber system. Rate of respiration and heat of respiration was determined for different storage conditions. At the beginning maximum rate of respiration,61.44, 71.76, 80.03, 83.93, 100.42 mlCO2/kg/h and heat of respiration, 7164.84, 8221.14, 9009.34, 9287.19, 10745.55 kcal/metric ton/day was observed at 10, 15, 20, 25°C and ambient temperature respectively. It was found that under steady state storage condition the rate of respiration and heat of respiration was increased with increase in temperature whereas decreased with time for all storage conditions.
Title: Optimization and Storage Study of Banana Choco Abstract :
Optimization of the process was done by using response surface methodology (RSM) for the development of banana chocolate. Sensory evaluation was performed by a semi-trained panel of 9 members on the basis of product’s color, body and texture and flavor. Statistical analysis showed that all the responses were significantly affected by independent variables. The banana chocolate was developed using the derived optimum processing conditions to check the validity of the quadratic model. The recommended optimum range for the development of banana chocolate is banana, cocoa powder and milk powder as 15-30g, 5-10g and 20-40g, respectively. Storage study of banana chocolate was performed at 2οC, 10οC and 25οC; storage at 2οC proved to be the best optimized storage condition.
Title: Bioefficacy of geographical isolates of Beauveria bassiana for the management of Paracoccus marginatus infesting tapioca under field condition Abstract :
To evaluate the bio-efficacy of various B.bassiana local isolates against P. marginatus in tapioca, two field trials were conducted during May - June, 2013 in tapioca crop (Var: Mulvadi) at farmer holding field, Onnipalayapudhur and Mathampalayam, near Coimbatore. The experiments were conducted in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) consisting of eight treatments including an untreated control which was replicated thrice with plot size of 5×4m2. The dose of B.bassiana tested was 1×108 spore/ ml concentration. The experimental results showed that at 10 days after first round of spraying, the highest mean per cent reduction in the mealybug population was 32.20% due to the application of UPI(Bb). After second round of spraying, the mean per cent reduction of population observed in UPI(Bb) was56.98per cent at Onnipalayapudhur. Whereas the mean per cent reduction of mealybug population after first round of spraying in Mathampalayam was 41.95% observed in UPI (Bb) treated plot. After second round of application, the mean per cent reduction of mealybug was recorded 72.76% in UPI(Bb).
Title: Cost-effective and eco-friendly management of Oligonychus coffeae, Calacarus carinatus and Acaphylla theae on tea with a pyridazinone molecule fenpyroximate 5% EC Abstract :
The hazardous environmental effect, non-selectivity with non-target toxicity and longer residual persistence of conventional synthetic pesticides leads to resistance development and secondary pest outbreak opened the new modern era of bio-rational eco-friendly chemicals having novel mode of action with higher bio-efficacy on insects and mites control as an approach of integrated pest management. Field bio-effectiveness of a METI acaricide fenpyroximate 5% EC along with traditional acaricides as foliar spray against tea red spider mite, purple mite and pink mite was undertaken at Sukna Tea Estate and Kamalpur Tea Estate, West Bengal respectively with a 20+ years old plantation (TV-29) during 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. The treatments at higher dosages (30 and 60 g a.i. ha-1) were superior over standard checks propargite 57% EC and fenazaquin 10% EC. Mean percent reduction of red spider mite, purple mite and pink mite was minimum in treatments with higher dosages with mean value ranging from 73.83%-81.17%, 83.87%-91.66% and 83.90%-90.15% respectively. The test chemistry was relatively safe to important predatory fauna like Cheilomenes sexmaculata and Amblyseius ovalis. Highest yield was obtained in case of higher dosages (637.9 and 648.3 kg made tea ha-1), but fenpyroximate 5% EC at 30 g a.i. ha-1 (600 ml ha-1) proved most economic with the cost: benefit ratio of 1: 18.22, in the management of different mite pests infesting tea.
Title: Effect of essential oils on mortality, hatching and multiplication of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita and its Impact on plant growth parameters Abstract :
Essential oil from aromatic plants showed strong nematicidal activity in vitro experiments. Among six tested essential oils, percent juvenile mortality was observed in lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), 89, 51 as well as in palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), 80 and 44 at the doses of 500 and 250 ppm respectively at 12 hour of exposure time. However, maximum mortality percentage was observed in C. citratus oil and it registered cent percent mortality at 500 ppm at 24 hours of exposure time. The hatching in both treatments started by 8th day and steeply increased in 10th day. Essential oils at 5 concentrations drastically reduced the total number of J2, as both essential oils showed more than 50 % reduction in hatching over control. The minimum cumulative hatching was observed in 1000 ppm in C. citrates oil. The effect of root-dip treatments of tomato seedlings with C. citratus and C. martini significantly reduced total number of root knot galls/per plant, per cent galled area and soil population as compared to control. The minimum number of M. incognita galls was found in C. citratus at 500 ppm it was significantly different from carbosulfan as well as C. martini treatments. The maximum shoot length was found in C. martini followed by C. citratus and carbosulfan at 500 ppm. All the treatments significantly improved the root length than the inoculated plants but they were not significantly different among themselves.
Title: Assessment of drought characteristics for Dhasan basin in Bundelkhand region Abstract :
Drought monitoring is an important aspect for assessing and forecasting the drought risk for an area. The various types of drought including the meteorological drought and groundwater drought have been analysed using the appropriate drought indicators for Dhasan basin. This has helped in understanding the spatio-temporal variation of droughts including duration, severity and also helped to capture the progression and withdrawal of droughts during various months of the identified drought years. Based on the Effective Drought Index (EDI), four major drought events have been identified during 1981-82, 1988-89, 2002-03 and 2007-08. The drought severity assessment based on the EDI, indicates that the maximum drought severity of -33.49 had occurred during September 2006 and May 2008 and it was of longest duration (21 months) in the area under Banda rain gauging station. An increasing trend of meteorological drought severity has been observed for all the rain gauging stations in Dhasan basin. Hydrological drought characteristics have been evaluated using Groundwater Drought Index (GDI), which indicates that the groundwater drought severity is increasing gradually in the study area. During August 2002, about 0.78 sq. km. area was under severe drought whereas, during November 2002 about 46.01 sq. km. of the area was under severe drought and only 0.62 sq. km. area was under extreme drought conditions.
Title: Study on quality of white bread enriched with finger millet flour Abstract :
White bread prepared from white flour is a rich source of carbohydrate, protein and energy. But it has poor nutritional qualities in terms of quality protein, vitamins, minerals and fiber as germ and bran are removed while preparing white flour. Finger Millet is a rich source of calcium, fiber, minerals and good quality protein. White bread was fortified with Finger Millet Flour (FMF) by blending in the proportion of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% with the white flour. The enriched bread was evaluated for its physical, nutritional and rheological properties viz. loaf weight, loaf volume, specific loaf volume, carbohydrate, protein, fat, crude fiber, ash, calcium, physiological energy and crumb hardness and were found to be 431 to 470 g, 1166.37 to 1166.37 cc, 2.02 to 2.71 cc/g, 59.92 to 60.08 %, 5.10 to 6.22 %, 4.42 to 4.64%, 0.52 to 1.57 %, 0.70 to 1.50 %, 32.52 to 110.6 %mg, 299.80 to 306.90 kcal/g and 124.5 to 150g. Sensory score based on appearance, crust colour, crumb colour, taste, texture and overall acceptability was highest in the white bread fortified with 20 % FMF. Based on the physical acceptance, superior nutritional quality with the acceptable physical properties and rheological property, significant fortification was found by incorporating the FMF up to 20% to the white flour.