Title: Character Association and Path Analysis for Fruit Yield and it’s Contributing Traits in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Abstract :
Experiment was conducted with thirty cucumber genotypes at the Experimental Farm of the Department of Vegetable Science, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh during Kharif season of 2015 with an objective to find out the contribution of nineteen important traits on yield. Results revealed that yield plant-1 had positive significant association with average fruit weight, fruit length and diameter, marketable fruits plant-1, harvest duration, vine length, primary branches plant-1, seed length, hundred seed weight, germination percentage, seed vigour index I and II, whereas, yield plant-1 had negative significant correlation with node number bearing first female flower, days to first harvest, total soluble solids and severity of four foliar diseases. Path analysis provided a clear picture that, harvest duration had maximum positive direct effect, followed by marketable fruits plant-1 while, days to first harvest had maximum negative direct effect followed by severity of downy mildew on yield plant-1. Further, harvest duration exerted maximum positive indirect effect via marketable fruits plant-1 whereas; severity of powdery mildew showed maximum negative indirect effect via harvest duration on yield plant-1. Thus, while conducting selection for yield improvement in cucumber, a breeder will have to emphasize on the early genotypes having more average fruit weight, longer fruits, more fruit diameter, more number of marketable fruits and primary branches plant-1, longer vine as well as harvest duration, more seed length, seed germination percentage, vigour index I and II with minimum severity of economically important foliar diseases.
Title: Genetic Variability Study for Yield and Yield Components in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Abstract :
Sixty five rice germplasms were evaluated for variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation coefficient and path correlation in different yield and yield contributing traits. The data was recorded on five randomly selected plants for eleven quantitative characters. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences for the characters under study, indicating the presence of high genetic variability among the genotypes. The estimates of GCV were lower than the respective PCV, indicating the influence of environmental factors on the expression of the traits studied. Characters like days to maturity, days to 50% flowering and panicle weight showed high heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance as percent of mean, suggesting that selection for the improvement of these characters may be rewarding. Grain yield had high positive and significant association with panicle weight, filled grains per panicle, total grains per panicle and panicle length. Path coefficient analysis showed maximum direct contribution towards grain yield per plant with panicle weight followed by numbers of effective tillers per plant.
Title: Effect of Sulphur and different Irrigation Regimes on PAR Distribution, Canopy Temperature, Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of irrigation and sulphur on leaf area index, on distribution pattern of photosynthetically active radiation, consumptive use, water use efficiency, Canopy-Air Temperature Difference as well as yield attributes and yield of summer groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) during two consecutive years (2009 and 2010) at the ‘C’ block farm of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal during pre-kharif season in a sandy loam soil with 24 treatment combinations (eight irrigation level in main plot and three level of sulphur in sub-plot) in a split plot design replicated thrice. The study revealed that both the levels of irrigation and sulphur significantly influenced all the yield attributing characters and the kernel yield. The highest values of yield attributing characters and kernel yield were recorded when sulphur applied @ 15 kg ha-1. The highest consumptive use, and water use efficiency were recorded under three irrigations applied at flowering, pegging and pod filling stage followed by two irrigations at pegging and pod filling stage. No irrigation treatment recorded lower photosynthetically active radiation absorption percentage value but higher photosynthetically active radiation extinction coefficient and Canopy-Air Temperature Difference value as compare to irrigation treatments, respectively.
Title: Effect of Nutrient Management on Soil Health and Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Production in Degraded land of Chambal Ravine Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted on a degraded ravine land to evaluate the influence of inorganic and organic sources of nutrients practices on soil health and crop performance of wheat of (Triticum aestivum L.). The crop cultivar MP-1203 of wheat was grown with 120:60:60 kg ha-1 (NPK) recommended dose of fertilizers under nutrient management practices viz., seven treatments Farmer Practices (T1), 100% RDF (T2), 150% RDF (T3), STCR Based NPK Application (T4), 50% RDF + 5 tone FYM + PSB+ all deficient Micro Nutrient (T5), 75% RDF + 2.5 ton FYM/ha + PSB + ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 (T6), Organics Practices FYM @10 tone ha-1 + PSB + Azotobactor (T7), in randomized block design, replicated three times. Soil reaction, organic carbon, electrical conductivity, BD, MWD, MC, straw and seed yield were analyzed during the study. It was observed that soil reaction pH -1:2.5 (8.48), electrical conductivity (0.37 dSm-1) and organic carbon (0.19%), Bulk density (1.52 Mg M-3), found significantly higher in the 150% RDF followed by 100% RDF and mean weight diameter (0.50 mm), moisture content (18.24 %), were found significantly higher in the 75% RDF + 2.5 ton FYM/ha + PSB + ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 (T6) followed by 150% RDF and soil biological properties viz., Microbial Biomass Carbon (SMBC) (66.05 µgC g-1), dehydrogenase activity (DHA) (59.46 µg g-1 TPF g-1 h-1), and fluorescin diacitate (FDA) (11.24 µg g-1 h-1) were found significantly higher in the Organics Practices FYM @10tone ha-1+PSB+Azotobactor (T7) followed by 75% RDF +2 .5 ton FYM/ha + PSB + ZnSO4@ 25 kg ha-1 (T6) and 150% RDF (T3),. Very poor microbial activities were observed in farmer practices. The straw yield (4454.27 kg ha-1) and seed yield (3984.45 kg ha-1) of wheat was found highest in 75% RDF+2.5 ton FYM/ha+ PSB+ ZnSO4@ 25 kg ha-1 (T6) practices followed by 150% RDF and STCR Based NPK Application (T4), Thus, the study demonstrated that the 75% RDF + 2.5 ton FYM ha-1 + PSB+ ZnSO4@ 25 kg ha-1 (T6) practice improved soil health and performance of wheat crop.
Title: Effect of Certain Chemicals on Post Harvest Life of Some Cut Foliages Abstract :
Evaluations on post harvest senescence of ornamental cut foliages are deficient in contrast to cut flowers although they enact adequate prospective roles in floriculture industry. In this juncture, present investigation being employed fronds of Asparagus plumosus, A. densiflorus and Nephrolepis exaltata of uniform length congregated from the greenhouse of National Library, Kolkata during early hours of the day executed in the laboratory of Dept. of Horticulture, University of Calcutta under ambient temperature while GA and NAA@50 and 100ppm, AgNO3@20 and 40ppm, sucrose@4 and 8% and tap water as control utilized as vase solution and pulsing treatment duo for 24hrs. Here, experimental findings revealed that AgNO3@20ppm for both A. plumosus and A. densiflorus and GA@100ppm for Nephrolepis exaltata were ample competent to protract the vase-life of 20.66, 10.66 and 40.33 days respectively while effective vase-life after pulsing treatment of 25.66, 17.33 and 20.66 days for same aforesaid species were obtained by GA@100 and 50ppm and AgNO3@20ppm. The fresh weight of all foliages remained almost unchanged upto 120hrs in both treatments. GA@100ppm as vase-solution evidently enhanced pigment intensity irrespective of entire species but upgradation of the same regarding Nephrolepis exaltata was obtained by AgNO3@20ppm after pulsing. AgNO3@20 and 40ppm and GA@50ppm facilitated also total water uptake upto 96hrs in all species but surprisingly NAA@50ppm exhibited its potency for Nephrolepis exaltata by 11.8ml of total water uptake. Everywhere sucrose yielded disappointed outcomes. Hence, this survey pinpointed that GA@100ppm and AgNO3@20 and 40ppm as both holding solution and pulsing treatment could protract the vase-life of aforementioned irreplaceable cut foliages.
Title: Response Surface Optimization of Extraction Parameters of Green Tea Abstract :
Green tea is one of the most popular beverage in the world. Green tea (Camellia sinensis ) is a rich source of bioactive components so it has been used in traditional medicine. In the present study, green tea is extracted with water to obtain maximum nutritional quality and antioxidant activity. The optimal conditions for extraction of green tea was determined by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Box-Behnken design was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent factors, leaf to water ratio (1:10, 1:30 1:50), temperature (40 to 50°C) and extraction time (15 to 45 min). Optimal conditions were, extraction temperature of 51.44°C, time 29.48 min and water to solid ratio of 1:47.80 with highest total polyphenols, total flavonoid, caffeine, antioxidant activity and lowest tannin.
Title: Development and Evaluation of Mechanical Weeder for Finger Millet Crop Abstract :
Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is a main field crop in southern part of Karnataka commonly called ragi as it provides both stable food for the region and good fodder for cattles. Weeds management is a major problem in finger millet crop and are responsible for drastic reduction of yield. Weeding by traditional methods are laborious and time consuming which leads to high cost of production. Pertaining to this, blade type simple mechanical weeder was developed and evaluated under finger millet crop with 2 and 4 blade harrows for weeding 2 and 4 rows at a time respectively. The results obtained at 2 rows and 4 rows weeding condition, the weeding efficiency (88 & 85 %), plant damage (2.5 & 3.6 %), effective field capacity (0.108 & 0.144 ha/h), field efficiency (90 & 60 %), fuel consumption (4.181 & 3.424 L/ha) and cost of weeding (` 572 & ` 447.42 ha) respectively.
Title: Effect of Low Sprinkling Distribution Uniformity on Yield of Wheat using Set Sprinklers Abstract :
Uniformity of soil moisture under sprinkler irrigation is important for plant quality; however, sprinkler systems are typically gauged by the uniformity of application above the crop canopy as stated by Dukes et al. (2006). The uniformity with which an irrigation system applies water has an effect on the efficiency of the system. The uniformity of an irrigation system needs to be high to ensure that the majority of the crop receives an adequate amount of water. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Low sprinkling distribution uniformity on the yield of Wheat. This study revealed that low distribution uniformity will result in low yield. It also reveals that to maximize the yield of wheat the depth of irrigation should be doubled when irrigating using sprinkler irrigation on daily basis.
Title: Wilt Incidence and Cultural Variability of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. udum Collected from different Districts of Uttar Pradesh Abstract :
Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) L. Millsp. is an important legume crop widely used as food grain as it is rich source of protein, carbohydrate, essential amino acids, minerals and fibres. India is reknowned as a major pigeonpea producer country all over the world. Pigeonpea is susceptible to a number of pathogens, among which Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. udum is considered as the most important fungal pathogen causing a considerable economic loss in India and all over the world. Among different states in India, Uttar Pradesh is the major pigeon pea growing state having most of the wilt susceptible pigeonpea growing areas causing considerable yield losses. In the present study, collection of diseased samples from wilt affected areas of different districts, isolation of test fungi, test of pathogenicity in pots under wirenet house condition was conducted. Further test of wilt incidence of the selected strains of Fusarum oxysporum f.sp. udum through root dip method and soil inoculation method was undertaken in earthen pots under wirenet house to make a precise comparison between the two methods. Cultural variabilities like radial growth, growth rate and mycelia dry weight among the selected isolates were studied under laboratory conditions.
Title: Effect of different inoculum levels of Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc on plant growth, biochemical and nutrient parameters of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) Abstract :
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of root rot fungus Fusarium solani on the growth of the plant, number of pods, chlorophyll, carotenoid, nitrogen and phosphorus content and nitrate reductase activity on an important pulse crop lentil by inoculating the plants with variable inoculum levels from 0.25 g to 4.00 g fungal mycelial mat per kg soil. A reduction was observed in all the plant growth, biochemical and nutrient parameters as the inoculum level increased, with a significant reduction taking place at and above the inoculum level of 1.00 g mycelial mat per kg soil. Maximum damage to the plant was recorded at the highest inoculum level i.e. 4.00 g mycelial mat per kg soil. The percentage of root rot was directly proportional to the inoculum level, highest being on 4.00g mycelial mat per kg soil.
The training can be more valuable and significant when analysis of training needs prior to beginning of training programmes and imparting knowledge according to the needs of the farmers. A list of seven major dairy practices/components was prepared to know training need index (TNI) of the dairy farmers of Jammu district. Under each major component, specific and relevant training need items were collected and systematically incorporated in to the interview schedule and administered. The results revealed that even in the most popular areas of training, there was an inadequacy. According to livestock owners perceived training needs, animal health (I), followed by marketing and financial management (II), breeding and general management (III), milking hygiene practices (IV), animal nutrition (V), animal welfare management (VI) and housing and environment management (VII) respectively. Therefore, the extension agencies and training imparting agencies in border belts of Jammu district has to give special emphasis on health care, feeding and breeding during dairy farmers training for increasing the livestock productivity and improving the living standards of the farmers. The various dairy extension agencies have to re-orient their training based on these findings to reduce the existing technological and adoption gap among the dairy farmers.
Title: Regional Variation in Agricultural Water Demand and Water Availability in Uttar Pradesh, India Abstract :
Water is one of the important and scarce natural resource that triggers the growth of crop production. But water availability varies from the region to region depending upon the rainfall, geological formation etc. Due to growing demand of water for various uses and erratic rainfall,the water availability for crop production declining very fast in different regions of Uttar Pradesh. Water scarcity is becoming a serious challenge for government, researchers, economist and policy makers. Much effort is being made to reduce water use by crops and produce ‘more crop per drop’. Present study was an attempt to find out region-wise consumptive water demand for crop production and water availability. The study was based on secondary data. The CropWat model was used to find out the crop water requirement. Results suggests that total water demand for Eastern region, Central region, Bundelkhand region and Western region and it was found to be 70478, 38366,13790, 64703 MCM, respectively. Out of total crop water requirement, the highest share comes from wheat, rice and sugarcane in Eastern and Central region. In the Eastern region the share of crop water requirement for wheat, rice (k) and sugarcane was estimated to be 92.93 per cent of the total crop water requirement, whereas in case of Central region it was 87.64 per cent to total crop water demand. In Western region share of water requirement for growing wheat, sugarcane and rice (k) to total crop water requirement was estimated to be 88.79 per cent. During 2013-14, the annual water availability was found more than the crop water demand for Eastern, Central and Bundelkhand region, whereas in case of Western region water demand for crop production was more than the water supply from all the sources.
Title: Effect of Silver Nitrate on Leaf Abscission in Culture during Establishment of Explants of Custard Apple (Annona squamosa l.) cv. Balanagar Abstract :
The present investigation was carried out on “Micropropagation in custard apple (Annona squamosa L.)” with objective to develop commercially feasible and economically viable protocol for micropropagation technique of custard apple. While standardization of micropropagation in custard apple, Effect of silver nitrate on leaf abscission in culture during establishment of explants of custard apple cv. Balanagar were examined. In order to control leaf abscission silver nitrate at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/l was tested to medium MS + 0.5 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l KIN + 100mg/l CH. The results revealed that Silver nitrate significantly reduced leaf abscission in both shoot tip and axillary bud explants. The least leaf abscission was reported in treatment N3 (5 mg/l) followed by treatment N4 (10 mg/l) and N1 (2.5mg/l) in both shoot tip and axillary bud explants. Whereas, in treatment N1 (without silver nitrate) more than 80% leaf abscission was observed. The number of leaves produced by the explants was maximum in treatment N3 (5 mg/l) in both shoot tip (7.5) and axillary bud (8.5) explants. Whereas, when silver nitrate was applied at 10 mg/l (Treatment N4) this was phytotoxic and inhibited leaf production.
Title: Diagnosis of Brucellosis using Molecular Techniques from Various Clinical Samples Abstract :
Brucellosis is an important zoonosis and a significant cause of reproductive losses in animals Abortion .In presence study 115 clinical samples were collected from cattle and buffalo, it all sample were analyzed with genus specific PCR bcsp31gene, those samples give positive result in genus PCR analyzed with species specific IS711gene PCR, 11 samples give positive result out of 115 samples in genus and species specific PCR. Highest percentage of positive result showed in Cotyledon (40%), Placenta (25%) and Vaginal discharge (20%) when the blood and Vaginal swab showed only 6% and 5.12% positive result in genus and species specific PCR, those all infected cattle and buffalo detected Brucella abortus positive. it means the cotyledon of aborted animal was more reliable clinical sample for molecular diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle and buffalo.