Title: Stability Performance of Bread Wheat Genotype for Grain Yield, Zinc and Iron Concentrations Abstract :
The primary aim of plant breeding is to improve stability in yield and to obtain varieties with good quality. For this reason, a study of wheat genotypes was conducted at three different locations: Bathinda, Gurdaspur and Ludhiana during 2015-16 in Punjab (India). Grain yield and its components with quality traits were assessed in 21 wheat genotypes with 3 checks using analysis of variance and regression analysis. The combined analysis of variance for environment (E), genotype (G) and (G×E) interaction was highly significant for all studied traits, suggesting differential responses of the genotypes and the need to stability analysis. Results revealed that high yielding genotypes can also be stable. The check HD 3086 and PBW 725 and genotypes BWL 6003, BWL 6065, BWL 6066, BWL 6068 and BWL 6069 for grain yield/plot had desired performance in term of high mean, unit regression coefficient (bi) and least deviation from regression (S2d), indicating the role of linear portion of GxE interaction and average stability in the performance of these genotype. The value of regression coefficient (bi) of genotypes BWL 6008, BWL 6011 and checks HD 3086, PBW 725 for grain Fe concentration; genotypes BWL 6006, BWL 6007, BWL 6013 and BWL 6062 for grain Zn concentration were have high mean, unit regression coefficient (bi) and least deviation from regression (S2d), indicating that these genotypes were considered specially adopted to unfavorable environments
Title: Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Ricebean [(Vigna umbellate) (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi)] Varieties and their Narrow Leaf Cross Derivatives using RAPD Markers Abstract :
Genetic diversity in 13 ricebean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi) varieties and their 11 narrow leaf crosses was studied using in RAPD markers. A total of 147 amplicons were scored out of which 91 (61.9%) showed polymorphism indicating fair amount of variation at DNA levels. Per cent polymorphism among twenty four ricebean varieties and their crosses ranged from 38.9 per cent to 59.8 per cent, on the other hand, percent polymorphism among eleven crosses alone ranged from 40.5% to 53.0%. Cluster analysis based on UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-Group Method for Arithmetic Average) analysis with Squared Euclidean Distance revealed the patterns of relatedness among the ricebean varieties and their crosses. The polymorphism observed between the varieties and crosses were used as markers for hybrid analysis. The patterns of RAPD markers were classified into seven types according to the presence or absence of bands. The present investigation indicated that out of the seventeen RAPD primers used most of them were useful with good amount of reliability to identify ricebean crosses showing 49.5% to 68.0% shared markers with the parents (Type I, III and IV). However, Type VII markers were useful in identifying new cultivars of ricebean with 5% to 17.4% non-parental bands.
Title: Optimization of Operating Conditions for Sterilization of Aseptic Food Packaging Material Abstract :
Sterilization of the packing material is essential in order to prevent spoilage caused by microorganisms found on the packing material. Hydrogen peroxide was used for sterilization of packaging material. Bacteriological effectiveness of sterilization of packaging material was tested with Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 as target organism as it is the most resistance to hydrogen peroxide. The initial count of spore taken for experimental purpose was 108 cfu/ml. In this study, the operating factors were hydrogen peroxide concentration (1.6-18.4 % v/v), temperature (26.4-93.6 °C) and treatment time (9.6-110.4 s) while the investigated response was log cycle reduction. The experimental data was fitted with second order regression equation. The operating conditions were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimum values of hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature and treatment time were found to be 8.05 % v/v, 77.20 oC and 80.54 s respectively at desirability value of 0.39. The log cycle reduction was found to be 6.10 under optimized condition. The optimized condition may be employed for sterilization of food packaging material in aseptic packaging.
Title: Effect of Industrial Processing on HMF Generation in Sucrose-Milk Protein Model Systems Abstract :
An investigation was carried out to estimate the HMF concentration at different heat treatments equivalent to industrial processing of milk and dairy beverages. Model systems of sucrose and milk proteins (whey protein and casein) were given heat treatments to generate Maillard reaction products. HMF concentration (mg/100g) was determined at different time intervals. One of the methods is 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2- furfuraldehyde (HMF) estimation. This could provide information not only on the overall health protecting potential of milk products but also on the stability of complex foods containing milk. In this research, simulated milk beverages were prepared to get an idea of HMF generation during industrial processing of dairy products. The results revealed that temperature and duration both have a significant effect on generation of HMF which directly correlation with generation of antioxidative maillard reaction products.
Analysis of variance of eighteen locally adapted rice varieties indicated that all the varieties were significantly different with respect to all the sixteen quantitative characters which were studied. Biological yield plant-1, grain yield plant-1, number of effective tillers plant-1 and 100-grain weight had recorded high PCV, GCV, heritability and genetic advance as percent of mean. Grain yield plant-1 had a significant and positive association with biological yield plant-1, days to maturity, days to 50% flowering, leaf blade width, flag leaf width, number of effective tillers plant-1, leaf blade length and panicle length both at phenotypic and genotypic level. The path analysis revealed that 100-grain weight, number of effective tillers plant-1, leaf blade width, days to maturity, harvest index, days to 50% flowering, plant height and flag leaf length shows positive and direct effect on grain yield plant-1 at genetic level. Present study suggest that leaf blade width, number of effective tillers plant-1, days to maturity and 100-grain weight should be given more emphasis during selection of parental lines for high yielding variety.
Title: Screening and Identification of Genotypes for Natural Color from Grain Amaranth (Amaranth sp.) Abstract :
Nature exhibits a wide range of colours in the form of plant pigments that are used as dyes. Anthocyanin is one such water soluble pigment responsible for an attractive red to blue colour and is known to possess high antioxidant activity. Research on grain amaranth thus far has been focussed on production and productivity besides its nutritive quality. The present study highlights on extraction of anthocyanin from grain amaranth, an underutilized crop. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) (mg/g) in leaf, inflorescence and stem peel was estimated and evaluated statistically (1% and 5% level of significance). Leaves, stem-peel and inflorescence of grain amaranth considered as a waste material after seed extraction is apotential source of anthocyanin adds value.
Title: Heterosis Studies for Yield and Yield Component Characters in Maize (Zea mays L.) Abstract :
21 F1s obtained by crossing seven inbred lines in diallel fashion (without reciprocals) over parents and standard check were evaluated for grain yield and its component characters to study the heterosis over better parent and standard check. Thirteen crosses registered significant positive heterosis over both mid and better parents for grain yield per plant. The crosses, DHK-12-2002 × DHK-12-2036, DHK-12-2002 × DHK-12-2035 and DHK-12-2003 × DHK-12-2068, recorded highest significant relative heterosis and heterobeltiosis for grain yield per plant. The cross, DHK-12-2003 × DHK-12-2068, registered significant positive heterosis over standard check (DHM 117) for grain yield per plant indicating that the cross may be exploited for commercial release.
Title: Genetic Diversity Analysis in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Accessions using SSR Markers Abstract :
Sixty-five rice accessions were analyzed to evaluated the genetic polymorphism and identification of diverse parents using simple sequences repeat (SSR) markers. These accessions showed significant phenotypic variation for all the characters studied. A total of 52 alleles were detected by 19 polymorphic markers showing highly polymorphic across all accessions with an average of 2.7 alleles per polymorphic marker. The marker RM-84 and RM- 481 produced maximum 4 alleles. The PIC value ranged from 0.032 to 0.588 and marker RM231 was found to be the most appropriate marker to discriminate among the rice genotypes owing to the highest PIC value of 0.588. The cluster analysis showed that these accessions grouped in to nine clusters in which cluster IB-1a had maximum thirty-one genotypes followed by cluster IB-1b and cluster V. While highest dissimilarity coefficient value was observed between the cultivar LC-4 and IR-82635-B-B-47- and between OR-1946-2-1 and UPLRI-7 showing highly diverse genotypes. These accessions were showing wide genetic divergence among the constituent in it and may be directly utilized in hybridization programme for improvement of yield related traits.
Title: Insect Molecular Markers and its Utility- A Review Abstract :
Insects represent a major life form on earth. Nearly one million insect species have been discovered which comprises 75% of all the recorded animal species. This biological success is accredited to the enormous diversity of their size and body structure, mating strategies, and the incredible feeding and adaptation behaviour. Significant progress has been made in understanding insect diversity and ecology by using classical genetic principles. Over the last past 15 years, DNA markers have made a significant contribution in molecular studies on genetic relatedness, phylogeny, population dynamics and genome mapping in insects. A brief account of DNA based marker systems, their utility in entomological research, with examples wherever available is presented to prompt further reading and applications. The techniques described include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), microsatellites/simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and expressed sequence tag (EST) based marker system, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other derived marker systems along with their genetic nature and relative comparison. Although a large number of samples can be analyzed quickly, a number of other factors such as cost, speed and requirement of technical skills are the major concern. In this review, we hope to inform the general reader about the importance and scope of the main molecular markers commonly in use, along with brief details of some other techniques which show great promise for entomological studies. Thereafter, we discuss their applications including suitability for particular studies, the reliability of particular techniques, the issues of safety involved, cost effectiveness and the statistical analyses utilized.
Title: Efficacy of some Medicinal Plant Oils against Cabbage Aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. On Cabbage Abstract :
Field experiments were carried out at Vegetable Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi U.P. during the year 2016-17 to control the Bravicoryne brassicae in cabbage variety Golden acre. result revealed that Among the all the essential medicinal plant oils the maximum reduction of aphid population over control was observed in plots treated with Citronella oil (85.25%) followed by Pogostemon cablin oil (80.21%). Whereas, Mentha oil (58.48%) was found least effective in reducing the aphid population over control. The tested plant essential oils and insecticide on the basis of field efficacy in reducing aphid population are found in order of Citronella oil > Patchouli oil > O. basilicum var. saumya > Palmarosa oil > O. basilicum var. Surabhi > O. basilicum × O. tenuiflorum > Asataf > Turmeric oil > Mentha oil. The effect of different essential oils on cabbage yield was also studied under investigation; and maximum yield of cabbage heads was obtained in the plots treated with Citronella oil (233.89 qha-1) and Minimum yield obtained menthe oil (217.22 qha-1) Over the control and then The highest B/C ratio was found in the treatment of Cymbopogon martinii 0.05%(31.27:1) whereas, the lowest B:C ratio of 17.70:1 was obtained in Mentha oil treated plot followed by Curcuma longa 0.1% (22.82:1). Though the maximum yield was obtained from plots treated with Cymbopogon citrates oil. However, the highest B/C ratio was obtained from the plots treated with Cymbopogon martinii oil. This is so, because of differences in cost of essential oils.
Title: Effect Off Moisture Regimes and Phosphogypsum Levels on Yield, Nutrient Uptake and Soil Nutrient Balance of Rabi Groundnut Abstract :
The field experiment was conducted at College farm, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University (now Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during rabi 2013-14 to study the influence of three moisture regimes viz., 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 IW/CPE ratios and five phosphogypsum levels viz., Control (500 kg ha-1 gypsum at flower initiation), Phosphogypsum @ 250 kg ha-1 at flower initiation, Phosphogypsum @ 250 kg ha-1 (½ as basal and ½ at flower initiation), Phosphogypsum @ 500 kg ha-1 (½ as basal and ½ at flower initiation) and Phosphogypsum @ 500 kg ha-1 at flower initiation and was replicated thrice. Among moisture regimes highest yield, nutrient uptakes were obtained with I3 (1.0 IW/CPE) moisture regime but highest available nutrients in soil after harvest of groundnut were recorded with I1 (0.6 IW/CPE) moisture regime. Among phosphogypsum levels highest yield, nutrients uptake and available nutrients in soil after harvest of groundnut were obtained with Pg5: Phosphogypsum @ 500 kg ha-1 at flower initiation.
Title: Antivirulence activity of essential oils against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causing bacterial blight of Oryza sativa Abstract :
The majority of bacterial diseases currently being treated use the traditional antibiotic therapy which gives way to the development of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The seriousness further increases in the microbes which form resilient biofilms. Therefore, researchers around the globe are working towards the development of new bactericides which do not impose the above conditions. The present investigation was thus carried out with the aim to screen natural essential oils from different plant parts against Xanthomonas oryzae, causal organism of leaf blight disease in rice. The results revealed decrement in biofilm formation at 1000 ppm in 9 oils out of 15 without considerable decrease in total colony forming units. However, the motility traits viz. swimming was maximally reduced in case of calamous and cajeput oil while swarming was decreased significantly in jatamansi and costus root oil. The other virulence traits like protease and exopolysaccharide responsible for the pathogenecity of the bacterium was maximally reduced in calamous and jatamansi oils. However, maximum decrease in lipase was observed in case of costus root oil. Overall, the results highlight potential anti virulence property of calamous, costus and jatamansi oil which can be in future used for the development of potential bactericide against X. oryzae.
Title: Economic Efficiency of Pecan Nut Production: An Application of Output Oriented DEA Model Abstract :
The economics of pecan nut production in Poonch district of Jammu & Kashmir state was assessed using output oriented DEA model. The NPV and profitability index were positive and the internal rate of return (IRR) was 14% which shows that investing in pecan nut orchard will be a profitable venture until the market interest rate remain below 14%. The results of output oriented model revealed that growers were efficient in terms of pecan nut production at given level of inputs, with mean overall technical efficiency of 0.922, mean pure technical efficiency of 0.949 and mean scale efficiency of 0.972. The real output obtained was 40.65 quintals per acre which was 4.97% less than the optimum output (42.68 quintals/acre) at used level of inputs. Although, the difference in actual and targeted output was less, the percentage of farmers obtaining less than the optimum output was quite high i.e. 44%.
Title: Effect of Paclobutrazol on Growth and Yield of Kharif Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Abstract :
A field experiment was done during 2013 and 2014 to reduce the unnecessary vegetative growth of kharif groundnut through application of paclobutrazol (PBZ), a growth retardant and to study its impact on yield. The experiment was laid out in split–plot design with six treatments in main plot (PBZ @ 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 ppm and control) and three treatments in sub–plot (Single spraying at 30 Days after emergence (DAE), single spraying at 50 DAE and double spraying at 30 and 50 DAE) and replicated thrice. PBZ in different concentration had the positive response to reduce the plant height during later stages of growth. In case of time of application, significant variation in crop growth rate (CGR) was found before harvesting. Among different yield attributes, pod dry weight (g) plant-1 was increased upto 32% with increase in concentration of PBZ and upto 28% with time of application as compared to control and single application, respectively. PBZ @ 250ppm with double spraying remarkably augmented total kernel yield (Kg ha-1), harvest index as well as oil percentage of this crop and ultimately improved the net return: cost ratio.