Title: Improvement in Storage and Thermal Stability of Micro- structures of Amylase Entrapped in the Pectin Gel Abstract :
Mathematical models concerning the synthesis of micro structures, having amylase entrapped in pectin gel was established with response surface methodology. Pectin concentration, pH, temperature and incubation period were selected as the process variables for optimum entrapment of amylase. Sonication and calcium ions enhanced the residual activity of particles. Pectin entrapped amylase exhibited maximum catalysis at pH 6.5 and temperature 60ËšC. The kinetics of amylase in free and micro particles form was compatible. SEM micrographs showed spherical particles with an average size of 6.9 μm. Storage stability of pectin loaded amylase was enhanced in liquid medium when compared to free enzyme.
Title: Impact of Tillage and Herbicides on the Dynamics of Broad Leaf Weeds in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Abstract :
The investigation was carried out to evaluate the influence of tillage and herbicides on broad leaf weeds (BLW) at Varanasi. The treatments consisting of four tillage practices viz. conventional tillage no-residue, conventional tillage with residue, zero tillage no residue, zero tillage with residue in main plot and six herbicidal treatments viz. weedy check, weed free, mesosulfuron (12 g ai ha-1 at 30 DAS) followed by one hand weeding at 45 DAS, metsulfuron (4 g ai ha-1 at 30 DAS) followed by one hand weeding at 45 DAS, clodinafop + metsulfuron (60+4 g ai ha-1 at 30 DAS) and mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron (12+2.4 g ai ha-1 at 30 DAS) were allocated to sub plots with three replications. In the present study, zero tillage with residue recorded the lowest density of BLW viz. Rumex dentatus, Chenopodium album, Anagallis arvensis, Melilotus indica and Vicia sativa, total weed density; and the highest WCE as compared to the conventional tillage no-residue, zero tillage no residue and conventional tillage with residue, respectively. However, conventional tillage with residue recorded significantly the highest grain yield of wheat. Among herbicidal treatments, mix application of mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron recorded significantly the lowest density of all the BLW and total weed density, highest WCE and grain yield over mesosulfuron followed byone hand weeding at 45 DAS and metsulfuron followed by one hand weeding at 45 DAS and it was statistically at par with clodinafop + metsulfuron.
Title: Effect of Agro-ecology on Nutrient Content, Yield and Digestibility of Forage oat (Avena sativa L.) Varieties Abstract :
Effect of agro-ecologyon nutrient content, yield and digestibility of three oat varieties (Lamptone, CI8235 and CI8237) were evaluated. Two agro ecologies, which varied in altitude, were selected for the experiment. Gummer site was 2925 masl while Albazer was 2400masl. Representative soil samples at the depth of 20cm were collected from randomly selected spots (20 cm depth) of both the sites. The samples were then sent to the laboratory. Plots were prepared and assigned for each of the each variety randomly using RCBD design. Seeds were sown at 100 kg/ha rate on 7, July, 2015 with replication. Di-ammonium phosphate and urea were applied in the similar rate. From the two fertilizers, urea was applied in two levels. Plots were regularly weeded and supervised for the disease. At maturity, the whole plant from each plot was cut 2cm above the ground. Seed with its husk (SH) and straw were separated. Values were extrapolated to hectare. Similar to the soil sample, forge representative samples were sent to the laboratory. Soil type at Gummer was silt, acidic, with lower cation exchange capacity (CEC) and higher exchangeable acidity (EA) whereas at Albazer it was clay, alkaline with higher CEC and lower EA. Soil organic carbon (OC), dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN) and available phosphorus (AP) were more at Gummer than Albazer. Crop maturation period was varying between the two agro ecologies. At Gummer, maturation was 161days on average but at Albazer it was141 days in average. Straw had similar DM but more OM at Gummer than Albazer. The lowest DM and OM content SH was from Lamptone but highest from CI8235 and CI8237 at Albazer. Crude protein (CP) content of oats was more at Albazer than Gummer. Highest straw CP was obtained from Lamptone at Albazer than Gummer. CI8237 at Albazer had highest EE but Lamptone at Gummer had the lowest. SH at Gummer had higher EE than at Albazer. Lamptone’s SH was lowest in NDF at Albazer but highest at Gummer. Higher DM, OM and CP yields were from Gummer than Albazer. Interaction was observed between agro-ecology and the varieties for nutrient content and yield. Albazer had better CP content whereas Gummer was efficient in yield. CI8235 at Albazer hadlowest IVDMD while CI8237 at both sites had the highest. Thus, before introducing oats to a new area, determining soil physiochemical characteristics for suitability is recommended.
Title: Flubendiamide: Residues and Risk Assessment in Tomato Solanum lycopersicum Abstract :
Flubendiamide belongs to a new chemical class, the phthalic acid diamides, widely used on tomato in India for the management of fruit borers. Flubendiamide is registered for use in India on tomato, but Maximum Residue Limits are not available as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India. A research project was taken to study the dissipation pattern of flubendiamide on tomato cv. Nirupama in both open fields and poly-houses, when applied twice @ 48 g a.i. ha-1, first spray was given 50 days after planting (fruit initiation) followed by the second spray at 10 days interval as per the farmers practice. Flubendiamide residues were quantified through regular sampling till the residues are below the determination level (BDL) of 0.05 mg kg-1 following the validated QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of flubendiamide were performed on HPLC-PDA and LC-MS/MS. Initial deposits of 1.23 mg kg-1 were detected in the tomato samples collected from poly-house, which dissipated to BDL at the 10th day with half-life of 6.18 days. In open fields, deposits of 0.90 mg kg-1dissipated to BDL at the 7th day with half-life of 6.07 days, and indicated that dissipation was slow in poly-house when compared to the open fields due to various factors. MRL of 3 mg kg-1in poly-house tomato and 2 mg kg-1 in open field tomato is recommended based on the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) calculator and chronic hazard exposure assessment taking into consideration of average body weight, national per capita tomato consumption and acceptable daily intake (ADI) of flubendiamide. Among the various decontamination methods tested, veggy wash was found very effective in removing flubendiamide residues to the extent of 65.39 % which can be recommended as risk mitigation method for food safety, followed by 4%acetic acid solution (61.63%) and tap water wash was least effective (17.71%) in removing flubendiamide residues from tomato.
Title: Evaluating the Effect of Substrate Type and Concentration in the Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Abstract :
Remediation of contaminated soil has been considered as an important environmental issue. Biological methods are widely acknowledged and used to alleviate the environmental problems associated with contaminated soil. Biodegradation involves a series of metabolic processes that decompose organic compounds into smaller and simpler subunits by the aid of microorganisms. Biodegradation has a great potential to treat soil and groundwater contaminated by a variety of hazardous chemicals such as
refractory organics, oils, benzene, styrene, vinyl chloride, pentachlorophenol, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), toluene, xylene, phenols, etc. The present study focuses on the biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). The study was carried out to understand the effect of substrate concentration and type on the biodegradation rate and efficiency. Three sets of bioreactors were considered for the study, each set had 24 bioreactors. They were contaminated with different substrates i.e. diesel, lubricatingoil and waste oil at different concentrations to attain different initial hydrocarbon concentration. These bioreactors had no maintenance of any of the environmental parameters influencing bioremediation throughout the study period of 60 days. The performance and efficiency of the bio-treatment were evaluated for all the bioreactors. Maximum degradation was observed in lighter fraction of petroleum i.e. diesel and minimum degradation was observed in heavier fraction of petroleum i.e. waste oil, as lighter hydrocarbons evaporate in normal conditions.
Title: Effects of Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides on Human Health and Environment: A Review Abstract :
In developing country like India, a marketable surplus of agriculture is the most important factor which influences the economic development of a country. To meet the demands of agriculture goods adequately and to feed the increasing population, the phenomenon of Green Revolution came into existence. Green Revolution, allowed developing countries like India to overcome continual food scarcity by producing more food and other agricultural products by using high-yielding varieties of seeds, modifying farm equipment, and substantially increasing use of chemical fertilizers. For an optimum production of agriculture produce and to feed the growing population, application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has become necessary. Such type of agriculture practices allowed growth and sustainability of food grains but at the same time have the major impact on the environment and human health. This article provides a sketch of effects of chemical fertilizers and pesticides on human health and environment.
Title: Determination of Soil Water Stress Coefficient by different Methods for Computing Crop Transpiration Under Bed Planted Pigeon Pea Abstract :
To achieve the potential crop yield, time and amount of irrigation required for a particular crop under field condition should be quantified. Since soil water stress occurs after few days of irrigation, it affects root water uptake and hence transpiration rate. This stress effect can be quantified by soil water stress coefficient (Ks). Whenever, total available water (TAW) and readily available water (RAW) data are available, a simple Ks calculation can be done. To present a more realistic scenario, Ks can also be computed from simulated root water uptake (RWU) using HYDRUS-2D model. To check the reliability of model, our study was conducted under permanent raised bed with residue (PBB+R) and conventional tillage (CT) system in a pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system with the objective to compare actual measured transpiration rate with those simulated from model and calculated from FAO method. Soil water balance simulated (100-125 DAS) from HYDRUS-2D model showed higher cumulative root water uptake (CRWU) (1.72 cm), lower cumulative evaporation (CE) (0.34 cm) and higher soil water retention in PBB+R than in CT. Ks calculated from both the methods showed that under low soil moisture condition in root zone, Ks significantly reduced RWU whereas when root zone is sufficiently wet, Ks have very negligible effect. Model simulated actual transpiration rates were comparable with observed values whereas values computed from FAO method showed substantial deviation. Thus Ks obtained from model output showed the better soil moisture stress condition of the profile as it takes into account root growth parameters, radiation interception and crop canopy conditions. So, this model may be adopted for evaluating different management practices in terms of improvement in soil water use.
Title: Effect of Different Sources of Sulphur on Growth, Productivity and Oil Content of Brassica campestris var. toria in the Red Soil of Odisha Abstract :
A field experiment of two years was conducted during the rabi seasons of 2014-15 and 2015-16 at Instructional Farm of Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Nabarangpur), Umerkote, Nabarangpur, Odisha, India to study the effect of different sources with the graded doses of sulphur on growth, productivity and the oil content of Mustard (Brassica camprestris var. toria). The experiment was laid out in the randomized block design with three replications and nine treatments viz; T1 30 kg S ha-1 as SSP, T2 45 kg S ha-1 as SSP, T3 60 kg S ha-1 as SSP, T4 30 kg S ha-1 as Gypsum, T5 45 kg S ha-1 as Gypsum, T6 60 kg S ha-1 as Gypsum, T7 30 kg S ha-1 as Elemental sulphur, T8 45 kg S ha-1 as Elemental sulphur, T9 60 kg S ha-1 as Elemental sulphur along with an untreated control. Significantly highest seed yield (12. 47 qha-1) resulted under the application of sulphur @ 60 kgha-1 as Single Super Phosphate (SSP ) due to the significant increment in the yield attributes studied when compared to control (7.15 q ha-1). The sulphur application @ 45 kgha-1 as SSP which had given the seed yield 12.47 q ha-1 was at par with the seed yield of sulphur application @ 60 kgha-1 as SSP. Yield advantages due to the application of Gypsum @ 45 kgha-1, 60 kgha-1 and Elemental sulphur 45 kgha-1, 60 kgha-1 were 60.69%, 62.09% and 47.13%, 57.90%, respectively over control (7.15 q ha-1). The oil content in the seed was highest with the application of sulphur @ 60 kgha-1 (44.62%). The oil content of mustard was almost at par with both the sources of sulphur viz; SSP and Gypsum.
Title: Effect of Picking Stages on Fruit and Seed Development in Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] Cultivars Kashi Pragati and Kashi Kranti Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of picking on fruit and seed development in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) cv. Kashi Pragati and Kashi Kranti. Data on fruit and seed characters were recorded from 4 to 40 days after flowering (DAF) at an interval of 2 days. Quick fruit development occurs between 4 to 8 DAF and fruits picked at this stage were of optimum fresh weight, length, diameter and free from thick pericarp thus making it consumable. Fresh weight of filled seeds was found to be maximum at 18 days after flowering in Kashi Pragati (7.61 g) whereas it was 22 days after flowering in Kashi Kranti (6.90 g), while dry weight of seeds per pod and 100 seed weight were maximum at 24 days after flowering. The physiological maturity of seeds was attained after 26 days after flowering when the germination percentage in both the cultivars was above 75%. However, to obtain optimum seed yield with optimum germination percentage and vigour, the fruits should be picked on at 38 days after flowering stage.
Title: A Review on Comparison of Seismic Behavior of RC Structures Using Various Codes Abstract :
The seismic design of building is made to withstand the earthquake effect without the loss of life and property. The design of structures according to provision of seismic code provides adequate safety against the seismic forces due to earthquake. Seismic codes are unique to particular region. The comparisons of the static and dynamic analysis on various types of structures using various codes are performed. It figures out the variations that occurs in parameters such as displacement, base shear, storey drift, axial and shear force, bending moments while using different codes. This paper presents a review on seismic behavior of various structures using various codal provisions as given in Indian Code, American code, European code, New Zealand code for earthquake analysis.
Title: Performance Assessment of Solar Reflector Supported Steam Generator for Cooking of Meals under Different Climatic Conditions Abstract :
Solar energy is gaining enormous attention from researchers, environmentalists, government agencies and stake holders due to its inexhaustible availability, environmental friendly and easy to tap. This experiment was designed to evaluate the efficiency and cooking performance of a solar reflector with steam generator under different climatic conditions and the results were compared with the traditional method of cooking. In summer season, the temperature of concentrated light beam on receiver was observed to be 460 ± 31 oC and generated maximum steam pressure of 7.4 kg/cm2 followed by 353 ± 13 oC and 5.1 kg/cm2, respectively in post winter and 311 ± 26 oC and 4 kg/cm2, respectively in rainy season. The reflector efficiency was calculated to be 30 ± 1% during whole experiment. High specific energy in steam at 1.5 kg/cm2 pressure resulted in excellent cooking and consumed only 7 min to prepare 1 kg of rice, which was significantly lower as compared to the time consumed (27 min) in traditional system. The whole assembly would be free of cost after 8.7 years of operation and therefore it is imperative to state that this cutting edge technology would uplift the social economy along with conserving the basic structure of environment.
Title: Influence of Throat Length and Flow Parameters on a Venturi as an Aerator Abstract :
Venturi system helps to air drawn into a flowing stream of water transferring the oxygen from air to water till they reach the water surface and burst due to Bernoulli’s principle in form of bubbles. The efficacy of venturi as an aeration device is primarily dependent on the geometry and the flow conditions prevailing inside. Presently, the diameter and placement of holes in a venturi under different flow conditions was studied to determine the performance of the venturi as an aerator. To evaluate the results, SOTR and SAE were calculated and compared for analyse their performance. The study involved selecting 5 different throat lengths each having multiple hole of 1 mm diameter. The hole distance from the start of the throat section, which has been characterised as the effective distance (ED) has been so selected that all the ED’s are different. The ED’s selected for study varied from 2 mm to 46 mm under three different discharges of 1.72 m3/h, 2.02 m3/h and 2.38 m3/h. Firstly, it was observed from the experiments that the venturi performs best when the ED is less. Secondly, it was also observed that both SOTR and SAE are more for higher discharge. Next, it was also found that increasing the throat length beyond a certain value has a negative effect on the SOTR and SAE. It was also observed that among all the possible combinations the
best was for the 10 mm throat section with the hole situated just adjacent to the start of the throat section and performing at a high discharge.
Title: Optimization of Process Parameters for Osmotic Dehydration of Chayote Cubes by Response Surface Methodology Abstract :
Chayote is a rich source of vitamin C and vitamin B-6 as well as folate. It also contains dietary fiber and is high in potassium and very low in sodium, a combination which makes it ideal for supporting healthy blood pressure. The response surface methodology (RSM) of central composite rotatable design (CCRD) with 30 experimental runs were used for the optimization of process parameters during the osmotic dehydration of chayote cubes (1 cm3) using brine solution of salt for maximizing water loss (WL), minimizing solid gain (SG) and maximizing rehydration ratio (RR) of the dehydrated product. The independent process variables with four factors and five levels included solution temperature (25-45ºC), immersion time (140-220 min), concentration (5-15%) and sample to solution ratio (1:6-1:14 w/w). Osmotically pretreated chayote cubes were further dehydrated in hot air oven at the desired temperature of 60°C and later it was analyzed for rehydration ratio of the dried samples by placing it into water for 16-17 hours at ambient temperature. The results were obtained at the optimum operating conditions to be the solution temperature of 35.61ºC, immersion time of 186.56 min, concentration of 9.02% and STSR of 1:11.23 (w/w). Under these conditions, the WL SG and RR were evaluated as 29.79% (wb), 5.47% (wb) and 21.14, respectively.
Title: Physico-chemical Analysis of Fruit Juices by Using Self-Made Low Cost Portable Ohmic Heater Abstract :
The conventional methods of preservation like refrigeration, adding preservatives etc. are some of the methods but they might have side effects on environment like refrigeration on ozone layer, and on consumers like preservatives affects the health. In this experiment firstly ohmic heater was constructed having 3 ltrs and then 2 ltrs of capacity and finally they were discarded because they need large surface area and require large quantity of juice. Finally we prepared heater of 1.5 ltrs capacity which gave good electrical conductivity and it was economical also. The juices were stored in PET bottles at refrigeration temperature and physico+chemical analysis was done at weekly intervals over a period of 21 days. In parallel study, another spicemen of juices was stored at ambient temperature and checked at regular intervals. TSS, pH, Titrable acidity and Vitamin C content were checked after heating. The juices were heated for the 5 minutes, 10 minutes and 15 minutes respectively and then their TSS, pH, Titrable acidity, Vitamin C , sensory analysis were checked at weekly interval stored in both refrigerated and ambient conditions. Significant difference in pH,of sweet orange and pomegranate juice refrigerated and ambient condition were observed. It was noticed that TSS, and Titrable acidity Pomegranate and sweet orange juice under ambient and refrigerated increased significantly, whereas vitamin C showed the decreasing pattern in both the conditions.
Title: Effect of Slice Thickness on Drying Kinetics of Papaya using Food Dehydrator Abstract :
In this study, the influence of drying air temperature and slice thickness on drying kinetics has been reported. Papaya was sliced into the different thickness of 3, 5 and 7 mm and drying experiments were performed in the food dehydrator (Ezidri Ultra Fd1000, Hydra flow Industries Limited, Newzealand) at temperatures of 45, 55 and 65 oC. The experimental moisture loss data were fitted to the seven thin layer drying models. Three statistical parameters Coefficient of determination (R2), reduced-χ2 and root mean square error (RMSE) was used to test the mathematical models. All the models gave the best fitting results, but the Page Model shows lower RMSE (0.006), reduced- χ2 (0.314x10-4) and highest R2 (1.000) value. The effective diffusivity of slices varied from 7.47751×10-09 to 5.71×10-08, effective diffusivity increased with increasing temperature and slice thickness. The activation energy of slices varied from 17.323 kJ/mol to 35.100 kJ/mol it is also increased with increasing thickness.
Title: Biplot Analysis of Advanced Wheat Genotypes in Northern Eastern Plains Zone Abstract :
The biplot analyses methods of AMMI & GGE were applied to analyze multi-environment trials data for advanced wheat genotypes evaluated under northern eastern plains zone of the country. The combined analysis of variance showed that the interaction effect of genotypes with environment accounted for 57.3% of total variation. Genotypes PBW 693 and NW 5054 with mean yields greater than the overall mean and low IPC1 scores had a high combination of yield and stability performances. Based on the angles between environment vectors, the Patna, Coochbehar and Ranchi, Malda as well as Shillongani, Jalalgarh separated in a three groups highly correlated among themselves. The vertex genotypes in GGE biplot study were HD 3128, K 0307, NW 5054, HD 2733 and UP 2855 as these genotypes were farthest from the origin of the biplot.
Title: Microsatellite Based Genotyping of the Helianthus annuus L. Abstract :
Genetic diversity among 35 genotypes of sunflower was determined using microsatellites (SSR markers) in the present study. Thirty five genotypes (3 CMS A lines and 32 R lines) were subjected to 34 SSR markers. Thirty four primers revealed 72 alleles with average 2.20 alleles per locus. PIC value for the primer pairs varied from 0.12 (ORS 591) to 0.71 (ORS 317) with average PIC value of 0.42. The phylogenetic tree divided genotypes into two main clusters viz. cluster 1 and cluster 2, which further are divided into four sub-clusters. Range of genetic distances based on SSR marker analysis varied from 0.32 (6A × P188R) - 0.73 (11A × P174R). The distances measured based on SSR primers showed that the CMS 11A was most divergent genotype with a mean genetic dissimilarity coefficient of 0.59. Immense genetic diversity was observed in the present study, which can be used for further designing hybridization programme.
Title: Microsatellite based Molecular Characterization and Genetic Diversity Analysis of Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines Abstract :
Molecular characterization of the genotypes provides reliable information about the extent of genetic diversity which aids in the development of an appropriate breeding program. In the present study, a total of seventeen polymorphic SSR markers were used across eight maize inbreds for their characterization and discrimination. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 alleles (UMC-1657) to 8 alleles (UMC-1097), with an average of 4.47 alleles across 17 loci obtained in the study. The PIC value ranged from 0.46 (UMC-1657) to 0.86 (UMC-1097) with average of 0.68. The dendogram constructed using similarity coefficient values divided 8 genotypes in three divergent clusters.
Title: Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Associated with Long Term Wastewater Irrigation in the Peri-urban Soil of Varanasi Abstract :
Heavy metals introduced into soil by irrigating with sewage effluent can influence the soil’s microflora and, in particular, the profusion, miscellany, and activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This study focused on the spore density, species abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the heavy metal affected soil in the peri-urban areas of Varanasi, on inceptisol after long-term irrigation. Identification through spore morphology showed existence of three species in the rhizosphere of fifteen crop species widely grown in the region. The physico-chemical analysis of the native soils revealed that they were neutral to alkali pH ranging from 7.3 to 8.9 and habituated three different species of AM fungi including Glomus mosseae, Glomus fasciculatum and Glomus intraradices. Spore density in samples ranged from 56 to 330 spores 100 g-1 soil. Species richness of AMF ranged from 2 to 3. Shannon–Weiner diversity index ranged from 0.497 to 1.053.
Title: Bioefficacy of Certain Insecticides and Biopesticides against Spotted Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata Infesting Greengram Abstract :
A filed study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of certain insecticides and biopesticides for the management of Maruca vitrata on greengram during Kharif 2014-15 and 2015-16. The data indicated that Spinosad 60g a.i./ha followed by Emamectin benzoate 8g a.i./ha were the most effective treatments in reducing M. vitrata larval population whereas Verticillium lecanii (1×108 Spores/g) 5g/L was observed to be the least effective treatment. Spinosad 60g a.i. /ha treatment produced maximum and Verticillium lecanii (1×108 Spores/g) 5g/L produced minimum yield during both the years of experimentation.