Title: A Study on Environmental Sustainability Index of Vegetable Farming in Himachal Pradesh Abstract :
Vegetable farming has paved new path of economic development in hilly states like Himachal Pradesh. Now farmers are capable of harvesting more monetary value per unit of land. Most of the farmers in the state have marginal land holding and traditional agriculture could not sustain farming community in geographically isolated hills. New dimensions added to hill agriculture has also brought new challenges and now it become concern whether these changes are ecologically viable? what is the level of environmental sustainability, and how it can be improved? To answer all these questions present study was conducted in Himachal Pradesh with the objectives of; developing sustainability index for vegetable farming; to establish relationship between various socio-economic variables with environmental sustainability of vegetable farms and to find effect of group action on environmental sustainability. Study reveal that majority of farms of SHG members were moderately sustainable to sustainable and of non-member majority of vegetable farms found in least sustainable to moderately sustainable. Thus, group action in the form of SHGs can be considered as a holistic approach to increase environmental sustainability of vegetable farming in the state. Education status and extension contacts of the farmers found to have positive impact on environmental sustainability of vegetable farming in the state.
Title: Single Cell Proliferation to Produce Monoclonal Population of Transfected Caprine Fibroblast Cell Abstract :
Transfected cell lines are widely used in biological research. Cell heterogeneity within a population can be vital to its unusual function and fate. Mixed mutants may not be as informative regarding which cell responds to our treatment. Cell to cell differences in RNA transcripts and protein expression further complicate the condition. To understand the real affect on the treated cells, researchers want to have single cell monoclonal population to provide correct information for getting truly transfected cell population. With this fact, we focus on the single cell isolation from transfected cells and its proliferation, which include methods of single cell pickup, analysis of media supplements on growth parameters and optimizing the best condition for single cell proliferation. Dilution method and Single cell pickup with mouth pipette method were compared for their efficacy. Rotational media supplement was found better than the regular medium used for cell growth. To explore the best suitable conditions for cell proliferation and survival, the cell viability percentage, total cell count, cell proliferation rate and population doubling time were calculated at different time interval in different media supplement groups.
Sesame known to be the most ancient oilseed crop in the world and well recognized for good quality edible oil due its high PUFA content, antioxidant properties, excellent nutritional and medicinal properties. The present investigation aims at analyzing the genetic diversity of 205 genotypes for 8 morphological characters. Phenotypic coefficients of variation exhibited a bit higher values but maintained a close relation with genotypic variation and genotypic co-efficient of variation for all the traits, indicating low G×E interaction. A combination of high heritability (broad sense) and high genetic advance indicate preponderance of additive gene action which is fixable. Additive gene action was prominent for the traits like no of capsules/plant, seed yield/plant, and primary branches/plant. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on agro-morphological traits results revealed that the inter cluster distance in most cases was larger indicating wider diversity among the germplasm of different groups. The maximum inter cluster distance was found between clusters V and III, followed by clusters V and II, clusters VI and II. The principal component analysis revealed that capsule number and 1000-seed weight had a strong relation with seed yield, suggesting the need for more emphasis on these components for increasing the seed yield in sesame.
Title: Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Pinus kesiya through Trans-specific Amplification of Nuclear SSR Markers Abstract :
De novo primer development is cost intensive and time-consuming, therefore using primers developed for other species on the target species is a more preferred alternative. In the present study, a total of 47 primer pairs from P. taeda, P. merkusii, P. resinosa and P. densiflora were used for trans-specific amplification of P. kesiya. It was observed that only 5 (10.6%) primer pairs out of 47 transferred in P. kesiya which may be due to the phylogenetic distance of the target species from the source species. The expected heterozygosity (HE) ranged from 0.490 to 0.603 with a mean of 0.540 and the observed heterozygosity (HO) ranged from 0.044 to 0.819 with a mean of 0.342. The study has shown that the nuclear SSR markers can be utilized for estimating the genetic structure of P. kesiya populations. Results of the present work will go a long way in implementing proper strategies for the better management and conservation of P. kesiya forests and initiating tree improvement programmes in this species.
Title: Energy Inputs and Yield Relationship in Greenhouse Okra Production by Bio-priming Abstract :
Production of chemical fertilizers is associated with consumption of huge energy. In the present study, an attempt was made to assess the energy consumption in bio-priming mediated okra production under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that among all the treatments, seed priming with Trichoderma harzianum (NBRI 1055) along with 90% RDF was not only helpful in reducing fertilizer dose by 10%, but at the same time produced almost similar yield as compared to with 100% RDF. Bio-priming in different combination with chemical fertilizers had a positive impact on the chemical composition of okra. Bio-primed treatments saved 970 to 1670 KJ energy in producing unit produce as compared with 100% RDF. This proved that bio-priming is cost-effective, user, and eco-friendly technique solving numerous problems in agriculture. This technique requires the prerequisite of incorporating organic matter in soil and seen as complementary to inorganic fertilizer source, not as their replacement.
Title: Micronutrients Status Under Different Tree Species Plantations in Entisol Soil and its Relationship with AMF Root Colonization Abstract :
Entisol soil dominates in Chhattisgarh which do not support any vegetation because of preponderance of granular iron oxides, and nutrients and water deficiencies and poor microbial activities. In the present study secondary and micronutrients contents in entisol soil in 25 year old forest plantations comprising 09 different species have evaluated with its relationship on symbiotic Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) in roots for the screening of tree species suitable in entisol. The highest root colonization was 62% exhibited in D. sissoo and in T. arjuna while the lowest in A. indica (30%). Soil moisture ranged 10.03 to 12.3% varied significantly with different tree species at P<0.01. Sulfur and calcium content of soil found high in soil under Eucalyptus globulus plantation. Boron, Cu and Mn content were higher under D. sisoo and T. arjuna compared to other tree species plantations. A positive correlation recorded between AMF root colonization with different soil attributes viz. Mg (r2 0.037), B (r2 0.116), Cu (r2 0.210), Fe (r2 0.114), Mn (r2 0.187) and Zn (r2 0.119) was an indicative of the benefits of AMF to host tree species even in old plantations. Variations on tree species and soil parameters were observed significantly, however it was unpredictable to confirm that the particular tree species have better effects on the parameter of nutrients accumulated in rhizosphere soil and on the basis of AMF colonization in tree species plantations at this age.
Title: Impact of Zinc and Iron Ferti-Fortification on Leaf Area Index, Kernel Yield, Shelling Percentage and Iron Uptake of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Genotypes Abstract :
Results of the field experiment entitled “Studies on zinc and iron enrichment through ferti-fortification in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes” was conducted during rabi season of 2014-15 at Agronomy field unit, College of Agriculture, UAS, Raichur are discussed in this paper. The soil of the experimental site was deep black, clay in texture with pH 8.4, deficient in DTPA extractable zinc and iron. Three groundnut genotypes in main plots and seven micronutrient treatments comprising of one control and three each of zinc and iron as soil, foliar and both were assigned in the sub-plot in a split-plot design replicated thrice. Results revealed that the groundnut genotype ICGV-00351 recorded significantly higher leaf area index (1.79 at harvest), kernel yield and shelling percentage (1934 kg ha-1 and 72.77%) and Fe uptake by kernels, haulm and their total uptake (357.12, 517.71 and 874.83 g ha-1, respectively) as compared to other genotypes. Among the micronutrients, soil (25 kg ha-1) and foliar (0.5%) application of ZnSO4 recorded significantly higher leaf area index (2.10 at harvest), kernel yield (2051 kg ha-1) and shelling percentage (73.21 %) as compared to the other treatments. Whereas, uptake of Fe in kernels, haulm and their total uptake. Significantly higher uptake of Fe in kernels, haulm and total uptake of Fe in groundnut was recorded with soil (25 kg ha-1) and foliar (0.5 %) application of FeSO4 (427.56, 701.62 and 1129.18 g ha-1, respectively) over other treatments.
Title: A Review on Organic Farming as a Potential Sector of Agripreneurship Development among the Tribal Youth of India Abstract :
The agrarian system of our country is in state of transition from subsistence oriented to commercialization. The modern farming system is gradually becoming unsustainable and the increasing problems of chemical agriculture, cost of cultivation and upsetting environmental as well as health impacts have many negative impacts over agrarian society. Unemployment and underemployment are two major constraints in generating livelihood options for young farmers. Agripreneurship has been recognized as an effective means for economic transformation and poverty reduction. More than sixty per cent of India’s arable land is under traditional agriculture where use of synthetic inputs are strictly avoided. Young farmers are active stake holders in the agripreneurship design and are enable to transform rural communities in a sustainable basis. Tribal youth form a considerable part of country’s tribal population and they lag behind their urban and rural counterparts with respect to education and training as they reside in hilly and undulating forest areas. High and rising levels of unemployment among the tribal youth force them to choose unorganized sectors. Despite having ample scope in several agricultural enterprises, unmatched skill sets of tribal youth force them to undertake labour operations. Tribal youth are tomorrow’s entrepreneurs, innovators and indeed leaders. Thus, this review focusses on agripreneurship development among tribal young farmers in organic farming, challenges of tribal youth in undertaking organic farming as agribusiness and solutions to eradicate the same along with a potential case of Odisha supporting the context.
Title: Management of Nutritional and Climatic factors for Silkworm Rearing in West Bengal: A Review Abstract :
The development and reproduction of insects are greatly influenced by a variety of nutritional and climatic factors. These factors may exert their effects on insects either directly or indirectly. Under natural conditions organisms are subjected to a combination of nutritional and climatic factors, and it is this combination that ultimately determines the distribution and abundance of a species. Frequently the effect of one facto modifies the normal response of an organism to another factor. For example climatic factor light, by inducing diapauses may make an insect unresponsive or unaffected by temperature fluctuations. Major silk producing insect Bombyx mori L is also not an exception. Bombyx mori L is a domesticated and delicate insect. Improper maintenance of nutritional and climatic factors affect the genotypic expression in the form of phenotypic output of silkworm crop such as cocoon weight, shell weight, and cocoon shell ratio. Besides it is not easy to manage silkworm rearing in West Bengal due to prevalence of high temperature and high humidity most of the time during the silkworm rearing. These climatic factors also influence the various nutritional factors. As per example humidity in the rearing room may affect the types of leaf fed to silkworm larvae in different instars. The present review paper discuss in details about the role of various nutritional and climatic factors on growth and development of silkworm and it also indicates future strategies to be taken for the management various climatic and nutritional factors for successful cocoon crop in West Bengal.
Title: Evaluation of Î²-Carotene Content and Antioxidant Activity of Banana Peels and Banana Peel Extracted Insoluble Dietary Fibres Abstract :
The present study explores the potential antioxidant activity and β-Carotene content of banana peel and banana peel extracted insoluble dietary fibres. Grand Nain cultivar of bananas was selected. Two stages of ripened banana peel powder mainly stage 3 and 4 were compared along with the extracted insoluble dietary fibre for their β-Carotene and antioxidant activity. β-Carotene content in stage 3 banana peel powder and banana peel extracted insoluble dietary fibre powder varied from 42.8 to 29.9 mg/100g and in stage 4 banana peel powder and banana peel extracted insoluble dietary fibre powder varied from 26.8 to 11.8 mg/100g respectively. Antioxidant activity varied from 61.41±1.46% to 61.08±9.46 in stage 3 banana peel powder and banana peel extracted insoluble dietary fibre powder respectively, whereas, in stage 4 banana peel powder and banana peel extracted insoluble dietary fibre powder it varied from 47.46±7.32% to 43.44±8.54% respectively.
Title: Impact of Plant Growth Regulators and Nutrient Consortium on Growth, Superoxide Dismutase, Na+/K+ ratio and Yield of Blackgram under Salinity Stress Abstract :
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of plant growth regulators like jasmonic acid (50 μM), brassinolide (0.5 ppm), salicylic acid (100 ppm), ascorbic acid (100 ppm), gibberellic acid (10 ppm), benzyl amino purine (5 ppm) and nutrient consortium (K2SO4 - 0.5% + FeSO4 - 0.5%) + Borax - 0.3%) and 1% TNAU pulse wonder on blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) variety TNAU Blackgram CO 6 under salinity condition. The salinity was imposed by 125 mM NaCl concentration in pot culture. Plant growth regulators and nutrient consortium were used as foliar spray at 20 and 40 days after sowing except jasmonic acid, which used as seed soaking. Under salinity stress, root volume, leaf area, specific leaf weight, net assimilation rate and yield were significantly reduced compared to normal condition. Among the treatments, brassinolide showed its supremacy on higher leaf area (149.13 cm2 plant-1), specific leaf weight (0.41 mg cm-2) and super oxide dismutase activity (325 Units mg-1 protein) followed by salicylic acid and TNAU pulse wonder. However highest root volume of 3.5 cc was recorded by TNAU pulse wonder. Salicylic acid registered highest net assimilation rate of 0.398 mg cm-2 d-1 followed by brassinolide (0.396 mg cm-2 d-1). The minimum Na+/K+ ratio (0.325) was observed in brassinolide followed by salicylic acid (0.355) which is on par with nutrient mixture (0.357) and TNAU pulse wonder (0.362). Among the plant growth regulators and nutrients, brassinolide recorded the maximum grain yield of 8.85 g plant-1 followed the salicylic acid (8.72 g) which is on par with TNAU Pulse Wonder (8.60 g).
Title: Expression of ECMYB Transcription Factor Gene Under Different Abiotic Stress Conditions in Eleusine coracana Abstract :
Plants are exposed to various abiotic stress conditions during their lifespan. Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, extreme temperature, ROS etc. affect crop yield to great extent. Global warming may worsen the situation in the years to come in most agricultural regions. Therefore, it is critical to understand the mechanisms that enable plants to cope with water deficit. Strategies involving genetic engineering show great promise. Coordinated expression of stress responsive genes is very important for the survival of plant under stress conditions and the regulation is brought about by transcription factors (TF). Myb is a family of transcription factor comprising of a few drought responsive TF. The expression of the TF may be regulated with the onset of drought or other abiotic stress conditions. Eleusine coracana being a rainfed crop could be a good source to fish out drought responsive myb gene. The study was carried out to demonstrate the expression of Ecmyb gene in sensitive (PES-400) and tolerant (PRM6107) genotype of E. coracana under drought, cold, ROS and salt stress. Drought stress was provided by withholding water for 11 days whereas cold stress was provided by incubating the plants in BOD incubator at 40C for different time periods. Similarly salt stress was given by watering the plants with sodium chloride and ROS was created by spraying paraquat on the plants. RT-PCR was carried out to study the expression of Ecmyb gene in different stress conditions. The gene was expressed in the tolerant genotype in all the stress conditions except cold. However, no expression was observed in sensitive genotype under stress condition. Both the sensitive as well as tolerant genotypes did not show Ecmyb gene expression under unstressed condition. The study concludes that the expression of Ecmyb gene was induced with the onset of drought, ROS and salt stress. Cold stress had no effect on the expression of the gene. The transcript was sequenced and submitted to NCBI database (Accession No. JN107890). In-silico analysis showed maximum similarity with drought responsive genes of rice and maize. Future prospects include full length cloning and functional validation of the gene.