Title: Drying Behavior and Mathematical Modelling of Bottle Gourd Abstract :
Bottle Gourd slabs of 10×10×3 mm, 10×10×5 mm and 10×10×7 mm were dehydrated by fluidized bed drying technique with a sample size of 100 g at air temperature of 50, 60 and 70oC at air velocity of 10m/s. The drying rate is high for the slabs of 10×10×3mm at 70oC. Moisture diffusivity of bottle gourd slabs dried under fluidized bed drying conditions was found in the range of 1.03 × 10-09 to 6.18 × 10-09 m2/s water activity varied from 0.318 to 0.393 for fluidized bed dryer. The product of fluidized bed dryer at 70oC (10×10×3mm) has best quality in terms of water activity. The experimental data was fitted to page model other than the mathematical models available in the literature. The fluidized bed dried product for 10×10×5 mm slab at 60ËšC was of best quality in terms of color.
Title: Design and Development of Aonla Pricking Machine Abstract :
Aonla has the hallowed position in Ayurveda. Aonla is native to India and also grows at tropical and subtropical region like India, Pakistan Sri Lanka and Uzbekistan. In India Uttar Pradesh has the highest area under cultivation and production of Aonla. Area under Aonla orchard in Pratapgarh district of Uttar Pradesh is about 13000 hectares (Nitin Kumar et al.). Aonla is mostly used in making murabba, pickles and candy etc. Traditional method for making Aonla murabba is hygienic because for making murabba, Aonla has to be pricked first and that pricking method of Aonla is drudgery prone and most of the workers are injured by hand pricking method Also it takes too much time for pricking (Ganvir et al.). Till now Aonla is pricked by hand and power operated machine. Hand pricking of Aonla causes injury to the hands of the farm women and is a tiresome and slow process with low output capacity whereas the power operated machines are very costly and out of reach of medium and small farmers. Thus, to overcome these problems and keeping in mind the benefits of small and medium farmers a low cost, pedal operated aonla pricking machine suitable for farm women has been developed in the Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, SHUATS, Allahabad. This machine is paddle operated with an output capacity of 3-3.5 q/h. No injury is caused to the farm women operating the machine. However the machinen can be operated both by farm women as well as men farmers. Hopper of machine is containing 66 no. of Aonla at a time. Floor area used by this machine is 80 × 80 cm. Pricking needles, sieve plate and fruit plate used in this machine is made of stainless steel because of corrosion. Needles used in this machine are of 2 inches. 756 no. of needles are used in this machine. Maximum depth of pricking in Aonla is 7mm and max.dia of needle is 8mm. This machine is efficient for small and medium farmers
Title: Groundwater Potential Zoning in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhand Using Remote Sensing and GIS Abstract :
This study was conducted in Tikamgarh district of Bundelkhand, Madhya Pradesh, India to spatially delineate the groundwater potential zones using the integrated RS-GIS and MIF techniques. To do so, eight major biophysical and environmental factors like drainage density, geomorphology, geology, lineament density, land use/land cover, rainfall, slope and soil were considered. All the factors and their features have been assigned weights according to their relative importance and their normalized weights were calculated using the multi influence factor technique. Groundwater potential zoning map has been prepared through weighted overlay model in GIS environment after integrating all the thematic layers. The entire district has been classified into five different groundwater potential zones –Very Good, Good, Moderate, Poor and Very Poor depending on the likelihood of availability of ground water. Greater portion of the study area (40.60%) fall within the poor potentiality zone. About 3.10% and 11.54% of the total area fall under the very good and good potential zone respectively. 38.60% of the total area comes under the moderately potentiality zone. Only 6.16% of the total area fall under the very low potential zone. It shows that the applied technique produces considerably reliable results for this study which may facilitate the decision makers to formulate an effective plan for the study area.
Title: Arsenic Contamination in Ground Water at Deoghar (Jharkhand) Abstract :
Arsenic contamination in ground water is one of the major natural calamities of the world to the mankind. In the present study, altogether 20 water samples from 20 different tube wells of the house hold of Deoghar town were collected and analyzed on the spot with the help of arsenic test kit (color comparison method, [semi quantitative]). Final confirmation was made using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The lowest average value 0.444 ppm was recorded in the south part and the highest average value 1.2 pm was recorded in the north part of the Deoghar town.
Title: Variability and Path Coefficient Studies for Yield and Yield Related Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Abstract :
The twenty four genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L.) were evaluated for genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation and path coefficient analysis considering seventeen quantitative traits. The analysis of variance showed that genotypes differed significantly for all the seventeen traits studied and it is clear from the investigation that the traits like spikelet/panicle, sterile spikelet/panicle, grain weight/panicle exhibiting highest values of phenotypic and genotypic coefficient variation, heritability and genetic advance. Correlation and path analysis study revealed that the traits viz., days to maturity, plant height, effective tillers/plant and spikelet fertility percent demonstrated greater positive direct effect and significant positive correlation with grain yield/plant indicating the usefulness of these trait in selection for enhancing the grain yield.
Title: Molecular Characterization of Different Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) Cultivars Growing under Mid Hill Conditions of Himachal Pradesh Abstract :
Genetic similarity of fifteen strawberry cultivars was assessed using RAPD and ISSR molecular markers. The DNA of the fifteen strawberry cultivars were extracted and amplified by PCR with RAPD and ISSR primers. The DNA Fragments were separated in agarose gel for RAPD and in polyacrylamide gel for ISSR markers. The genetic similarity matrix was estimated by Jaccard coefficient. Studied cultivars were found to be coherent into two groups. RAPD markers projected more coherence with origin and genealogy of the cultivars. ISSR markers projected more similarity between ‘Chandler’ and ‘Shasta’ whereas as per RAPD marker ‘Chandler’ and ‘Sweet Charlie’ were more closely related. In molecular assessment Elyana cultivar was found to be marked cultivars as it shows long flowering duration, higher yield and bigger fruits and can be used as a potential genotype to breed cultivars among the locally adapted cultivars.
Title: Studies on the Effect of Phosphorus Levels on Yield Attributes and Yield of Groundnut in South Odisha Condition Abstract :
Proper basal application of phosphorus has a tremendous influence on the kernel yield, pod yield and other yield contributing characteristics. In view of this, an experiment was conducted during summer season (February to June) of 2018 at Bagusala Farm (23o39’ N latitude, 87o42’ E longitude) of M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha to find out the effect of various phosphorus levels on yield attributes and yield of groundnut. Seven levels of basal application of phosphorus rates, namely, 0 (control), 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 kg P ha-1 were tested in randomized complete block design (RCBD) design with four replications. The experiment revealed that the basal application of P2O5 at the rate of 100 kg ha-1 registered superior performance in expression of yield attributes like number of pods per plant, number of kernels per plant, kernel weight per plant and yield of groundnut. It may be concluded that to obtain higher productivity of groundnut during summer season in sandy loam soils of south Odisha, basal application of P2O5 @ 100 kg ha-1 is recommended.
Title: Influence of Plant Population and NPSB Blended Fertilizer Rates on Yield Parameters and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Bako, Ethiopia Abstract :
Maize (Zea mays L.) is ranked number one in total production among food grains and is inevitable in achieving food security in Ethiopia. In spite of good agro-climatic conditions and soils, maize productivity is constrained by a number of problems; optimum plant population and nutrient management are the most critical among many others. Hence, this field experiment was carried out in split plot design distributing three levels of plant population 53,333 plants/ha, 66,666 plants/ha, and 76923 plants/ha in the main plots and five levels of NPSB fertilizer rates 0,100,150,200 and 250 kg/ha in sub-plots comparing with NP recommended rates in the research area. The two main effects, the plant population and NPSB rate did not change cob length, number of row cob-1 and harvest index. The analysis of variance showed the interaction of plant population and NPSB rates influenced number of kernels cob-1, thousand kernel weight, number of cobs per plot and above ground biomass. Highest number of cob plot-1 was recorded from the plot with 66,666 plants ha-1 and highest biological yield 28299 kg/ha was harvested from the plot with standard check. The highest grain yield was obtained from 150 kg/ha with the plant population of 66666 plants/ha (60 cm × 25 cm). From the research it was concluded that the yield of maize was significantly affected by fertilizer rates and plant population, the combination of 66,666 plant/ha and 150 kg/ha of NPSB fertilizer rate was found to be superior and economically viable for maze production in the study area and similar agro ecologies.
Title: Chemical and Non-chemical Method of Weed Management in Blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) in North Eastern Zone of Tamil Nadu Abstract :
Pulse crops are grown in different cropping systems as a sole crop, catch crop, mixed crop, intercrop and sequential crop in different cropping systems followed by farmers. The crops are facing weed infestation during its entire life cycle from seed to seed. The weed management in appropriate time will increase the yield. In the present study, the dominant weeds species like Echinochloa colona, Cyperus rotundus, Commelina benghalensis and Phyllanthus spp. were observed. Among the treatment methods, application of both pre emergence (pendimethalin @ 1 kg a.i ha-1) at 3 DAS (days after sowing) + post emergence (Quizalofop-p- ethyl @ 50 g .i ha-1) at 25 DAS recorded the minimum weed density and shown weed control efficiency of 97.32 per cent at 45 DAS and 97.94 per cent at 60 DAS with seed yield of 1004.1 kg ha-1. The non chemical method like sugarcane trash mulching decreased the weed density but the complete weed control efficiency was not observed. The herbicidal treatments significantly reduced the weed biomass compared to weedy check.
Title: Effect of Bulky Manures and Fermented Liquid Organics on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Uptake and Economics of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) Under Rainfed Condition Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted to study the “Effect of bulky organic manures and fermented liquid organics on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and economics of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) under rainfed condition” at Organic Farming Research Centre, Zonal Agricultural and Horticultural Research Station (ZAHRS), Navile, Shivamogga, during Kharif 2018-19. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with ten treatments comprising of different bulky organic manures (FYM and Vermicompost) and fermented liquid organic manures (Beejamrutha, Jeevamruta, Panchagavya and Cow urine) were replicated thrice. Experimental results revealed that, significantly higher growth, yield attributes, economics and nutrient uptake with good shelf life and protein content of the French bean were found in the treatment which received Beejamrutha (seed treatment) + Jeevamrutha (soil application @ 500 L ha-1) + 100 % RDN through vermicompost + Foliar spray of Panchagavya @ 3 % (T6) and were on par with application of Beejamrutha (seed treatment) + Jeevamrutha (soil application @ 500 L ha-1) + 50 % RDN through FYM + 50 % RDN through vermicompost + Foliar spray of Panchagavya @ 3 % (T7) and Beejamrutha (seed treatment) + Jeevamrutha (soil application @ 500 L ha-1) + 100 % RDN through FYM + Foliar spray of Panchagavya @ 3 % (T5). Simillar trend of higher benefit cost ratio was also recorded in the same set of treatment combination. This study indicated that combined application of bulky and fermented liquid organic manures in seed treatments, soil application and foliar spray performed better in organic French bean production at best benefit ratio cost.
Title: Performance Assessment of Newly Improved High Yielding Wheat Varieties in the Irrigated Farming Situations of Birbhum District, West Bengal Abstract :
Wheat is one of the potential crops in Birbhum District from a platter of crops having utility in a crop diversification programme. As crop diversification is one of the major thrust areas of the Rathindra Krishi Vigyan Kendra, the Kendra has taken up the crop diversification programme with newly improved High Yielding (HY) wheat varieties through its Front Line Demonstration (FLD) Programmes for the last couple of years. In Birbhum the average yield of Wheat stood at 2950.20 kg. / ha in 2015-16. This figure shows that there is a lot of scope in improvement in productivity as concerned. So, the main objectives of these demonstration programmes of the Rathindra Krishi Vigyan Kendra were to show the farmers the modern methods of wheat cultivation using resource conservatory technologies thus increasing the production, productivity, net returns and B: C ratio. The results from the FLD Programmes showed us that the highest ever yield was achieved by the newly improved HYV HD – 2824 in the year of 2014-15 with an average yield of 4056.00 kgs. / ha with an yield increase of 21.92 per cent over the local check variety Sonalika (yield – 3330.00 kgs. / ha) and with a B : C Ratio of 2.32. However, the highest yield increase over the local Check Variety Sonalika, Net Income and as well as B: C Ratio were highest in the case of Variety PBW – 343 with a Yield increase of 27.50 per cent, an average Net Income of ` 32,049.00 / ha and B: C Ratio of 2.39 in the year of 2016-17. The studies conducted on the performances of the FLDs organized by the Rathindra Krishi Vigyan Kendra on newly improved Wheat Varieties safely point out that HD – 2824 and PBW – 343 are the two HYVs of Wheat which can meet up the growing demands of Wheat Varieties with improved yield and as well as increased income potential for irrigated situations of Birbhum District.
Title: Influence of different types of Strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculation and Phosphorus Fertilizer Rates on Nitrogen Uptake Efficiency and N2 Fixation of Soybean (Glycine max L. (Merrill)) in Ethiopia Abstract :
Soybean production in western Ethiopia particularly at Bako has remained low, partly due to soil nutrient depletion and degradation, which is considered serious threats to agricultural productivity and food security. This study was conducted to assess the effect of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains and phosphorus rates on nitrogen uptake efficiency, N2 fixation of soybean, seed yield, yield components, yield and quality to enhance soybean production and yeild. Treatments included factorial combinations of four Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains with un-inoculated, (Soybean murodk, Soybean 12 and Soybean MAR-1495) and four phosphorus levels (0, 23, 46 and 69 kg P2O5 ha-1) which were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Interaction of Phosphorus and Bradyrhizobium inoculation, revealed that application of 69 kg P2O5 ha-1 with Soybean 12 inoculation significantly resulted enhanced leaf area (64.2 cm2), and above ground biomass (8241 kg ha-1), whereas Soybean MAR-1495 strain inoculation produced highest harvest index (48.77% plant-1). Among all treatments, combined application of Soybean 12 along with 46 kg of P2O5 ha-1 gave better performance of soybean with highest seed yield. While, phosphorus rates at 46 and 69 kg P2O5 ha-1 with Soybean 12 inoculation resulted in maximum leaf area index of 0.157 plant-1. Hence, 46 kg P2O5 ha-1 phosphorus rate with Soybean 12 inoculation was found to be economical and superior in yield.
Title: Neolamarkia cadamba â€“ A Potential Tree Species for Domestication through Agroforestry System Abstract :
Agroforestry is the management and integration of trees, crops and/or livestock on the same plot of land and can be an integral component of productive agriculture for higher economic returns. With the ever increasing population during past decades, the land resources for cultivation are shrinking. This situation calls for the adoption of ‘Agroforestry systems’ which is not only an efficient land management but also has promising role in maintaining environmental balance. In India, farmers’ are lacking in information on choosing the combination or compatibility of agricultural crops and tree species for different agroforestry systems under various agro-ecological zones. The benefits of successful agroforestry systems have an economic, environmental and social dimension. It is important to bring out a technology package on successful and viable agroforestry systems suitable for different agro-ecological zones for socioeconomic upliftment of rural farming community. The fast growing, multipurpose and indigenous trees, which could combine very well with annual crops and provide maximum economic returns in the short period of time is preferred under agroforestry systems. Neolamarkia cadamba is one such tree having fast growth in nature and highly suitable for agroforestry systems for higher economic returns. N. cadamba is a species having various end uses for pulp, ply and most preferred for pencil making. Though many phyto-chemicals and pharmacological compounds have been identified from this tree species, the species has not been domesticated so far under agroforestry systems. A detailed review on the status of this species including nursery techniques, agroforestry system establishment, etc. is presented in this paper.
Title: Dry Matter Production in Eucalyptus Clones Abstract :
Eucalypts are among the most widely cultivated forest trees in the world under a range of different climates for products that include pulp, paper fuel wood and solid wood products such as poles, furniture and construction timber. Productivity and profitability of plantations of Eucalyptus have been revolutionized with the development of genetically improved, fast growing and high yielding Clonal planting stock of Eucalypts. Eucalypts Clonal planting has been said to have advantages which includes quick provision of benefits associates with fast growth, short rotation for production of pulp wood (of around 70 MT ha-1 in 6 years) ready marketing and easy establishment and less maintenance needs. Clonal planting one among the approach for management of water and nutrients compared to the other conventional strategies. Studies relating to Clonal difference and evaluation for dry matter production will help for better water and nutrient use efficiency to overcome productivity loss due to deficit rainfall and optimum utilization of available natural resources for higher wood production. The present study was carried out to test the hypothesis that there exists a Clonal variation in dry matter production and the present study gives an insight in to Clonal variation in with reference to dry matter production of above ground and below ground biomass.