Title: Marker Assisted Foreground Selection of Back Cross Genotypes for Leaf Rust Resistance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Abstract :
The investigation was undertaken to identify desirable wheat genotypes at BC1 generation carrying leaf rust resistance alleles using molecular markers. The F1 was generated from cross NI5643 (lacking Lr34) × NIAW34 (carrying Lr34). The F1 was confirmed by using simple sequence repeats (SSR) marker gwm389. This F1 was used for crossing with recurrent parent NI5643 (lacking Lr34) and BC1 plants were produced. Twenty five BC1 plants were screened for the presence of Lr34, by using SSR primers. For this purpose markers from chromosome 7D i.e. cssfr1, cssfr2, KUDS, barc352 were used to screen parental genotypes. All these markers did not show polymorphism among parental genotypes. Therefore these were not used for foreground selection. Another marker from chromosome 7D, wms130 was used to screen BC1 plants for the presence of Lr34 (foreground selection). As per the SSR profile generated by primer wms130, the plants 1, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 22 and 25 were found positive for Lr34. Another 10 markers i.e. gwm389, wmc313, wmc468, gwm610, wmc707, gwm60, wmc525, barc137, wmc419 and barc62 were used for background selection. The plants with heterozygous amplification pattern were selected for developing BC2 plants. BC1 plants that are heterozygous or positive for Lr34 using all the markers are 1, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 22, 23 and 25. Based on foreground selection and background selection, a total of 15 plants were found carrying desirable alleles and were used for developing BC2.
Title: Combining Ability Analysis for Seed Yield and its Contributing Traits in Indian Mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.] Abstract :
A set of 10 × 10 diallel crosses (excluding reciprocals) of Indian mustard along with their parents were evaluated to estimate general and specific combining ability of parents and crosses, respectively. The analysis of variance for combining ability revealed that variance due to gca was significant for all the characters except lenoleic acid and erucic acid. Whereas, variance due to sca was significant for all the traits except plant height, lenoleic acid and erucic acid. Magnitude of variance components of sca were higher than gca (gca/sca) for all the traits except plant height, oleic acid and erucic acid indicated preponderance of non-additive gene action for these traits. The estimates of general combining ability effects indicated that parents GM 1 and GM 2 were good general combiners for seed yield per plant and most of the yield attributing traits. Parents, SKM 9033, RSK 28 and GDM 4 for oil content, P. Mustard 21 and LES 45 for oleic acid, P. Mustard 21 and Dhara for lenoleic acid and P. Mustard 21 and LES 45 for erucic acid were found good general combiners. Cross combinations viz., GDM 4 × Dhara, SKM 9033 × RSK 28, GM 3 × LES 45, GDM 4 × EC 287711 and GM 1 × P. Mustard 21 were found good specific combinations for seed yield per plant and other desirable traits. Thus these cross combinations could be utilized in breeding programme for further amelioration of seed yield in Indian mustard.
Title: Re-Description and Morphometric Analysis of Eucalyptus Gall Wasp, Leptocybe invasa Abstract :
Gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa, (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is a devastating pest of Eucalyptus plantations and nurseries. The pest causes galls on the midribs, petioles, and stem of tender shoots. In the present study detailed morphometric analysis with re-description, using twenty-six characters of gall wasp (female & male) have been given, which are distinctly supporting characters for the taxonomy and identification of Eucalyptus gall wasp.
Title: Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change: Key Strategies for Nigeria Abstract :
Nigeria’s major ecological zone have been reportedly altered by changes in climate over the last century. Biodiversity such as terrestrials, marines, freshwaters and other ecosystems including forests and agricultures have been tremendously impacted. These impacts have caused increase in desert encroachment, diseases occurrence, floods, erosion and a rising heat waves in the county. Several literatures have also reported the displacement of millions of Nigerians as a result of rise in sea levels and droughts in some parts of the country due to changes in climate. More also, the growing fluctuations in temperature, rainfall, among others are likely to have adverse impacts on the country’s economy since agriculture employs over 70% of its population. Hence, if these climate challenges are not effectively address, it could deplete or shorten the already limited natural resources in the country. It is against this background that this article reviews the current impacts of climate change in Nigeria. It also indicates the group of Nigerians who are highly vulnerable to the climate change impacts. It also explains the major areas and sectors which will experience the most impact of changes in climate in Nigeria. It further highlighs the challenges to climate adaptation in Nigeria. It ends by highlighting necessary adaptation strategies and calls the Nigerian government, international organization, civil societies and private sectors in the country to work together in scaling up these adaptation strategies in the country.
Title: Cereal Bioactive Compounds: A Review Abstract :
Cereal grains and wholegrain cereal products (rich in fibrous polymers) are the excellent sources of numerous unique substances rating among biologically active compounds such as dietary fiber (arabinoxylans, beta-glucans, cellulose, lignin and lignans), sterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, alkylresorcinols, phenolic acids, vitamins and microelements. Cereals have been staple foods both directly for human consumption and ready available to the human diet. The major cereals consumed worldwide are wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum. Bioactive compounds of whole-grains are present in the bran/germ fraction of cereal-grains and least in endosperm. The bioactive components in cereals help in reducing the risk of chronic diseases act as a functional ingredient. Bioactive compounds in whole-grain cereals have not received as much attention as in fruits and vegetables due to difficult in extractions and some have antinutritional role. These health benefits are achieved through multifactorial physiological mechanisms including antioxidant activity, mediation of hormones, enhancement of immune system and facilitation of substance transit through the digestive tract, butyric acid production in the colon, and absorption.
Title: In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Antibacterial Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Medicinal Tree Species, Anacardium occidentale L. and Mangifera indica L. Abstract :
This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant property and antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extract of mature leaves and flower of the medicinal tree species, Anacardium occidentale and Mangifera indica. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) free radical scavenging method and agar well diffusion method was used to detect antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity respectively. Various plant extracts of both the tree species studied were found to have potent antioxidant activity against DPPH and antibacterial activity against five human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Salmonella typhi; Bacillus subtilis; Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore ethyl acetate extracts of mature leaf and flower extract of both A.occidentale and M.indica can be considered as a new potential source of natural antioxidants and antibacterial agent for pharmaceutical industries.
Title: Effect of Nano-Titanium Dioxide Polymorphs Priming on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of French Bean
(Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Abstract :
A laboratory experiment was performed to examine the effect of nano-TiO2 polymorphs priming on seed germination and seedling growth of french bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Nano-TiO2 polymorphs i.e. anatase and rutile, were synthesized by the sol-gel method using titanium tetraisopropoxide as Ti-precursor and 2-propanol as solvent. Seeds of french bean were treated with nine different concentrations (in water) of each nano-TiO2 polymorphs (0, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00 and 2.50 %) by soaking in different concentrations suspension (prepared by ultrasonication method) for 24 hours. At the end of the experiment, the percentage of seed germination, seed germination index, seedling vigour index, root length, shoot length, number of lateral roots, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry weight were evaluated at 15 days following paper towel method. The results showed that increase in concentration of each nano-TiO2 polymorphs caused a significant increase in each study parameters. The best concentration of nano-TiO2 polymorphs was 2.50 %. The findings illustrated the beneficial effect of nano-TiO2 polymorphs priming on seed germination and plant growth of french bean.
Title: Study of Micronutrient Status in Soil of Solapur District Abstract :
The aim of this study was to evaluate available micronutrient (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and B) status and their relationship with soil properties. In this work the status of micronutrient in soil of Solapur district area, Maharashtra, India is described The present study is mainly focused on testing of soil samples in Solapur district to determine their level of micronutrients and to provide information to the farmers regarding micronutrients availability in soil. The increment in nutrient supply beyond a certain limit resulting in the decreased yield of plants is often be associated with the production of specific toxic effects .The incidence of micronutrient deficiencies in soil and plants is increasing due to high and multiple plant. Extensive micronutrient deficiencies lead to decline in factor productivity even with balanced NPK fertilization. Although the crop response to micronutrients application varies with soil type, crops and genotype, agro-climatic conditions and severity of deficiency, an enormous response to micronutrient fertilization has been reported in a wide variety of crops including horticultural crops across the country.
Title: Evaluation of Certain Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] Genotypes for Resistance Against Major Sucking Insect Pests Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Farm of Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi to investigate the resistance of mungbean genotypes against major sucking insect pests during kharif 2015. Results revealed that the mungbean genotype VGG 10-008 (4.98 whitefly/split cage) showed minimum infestation of whitefly and genotype MH 921 (8.77 whitefly/split cage) maximum infestation. In the case of jassid, maximum infestation was recorded on genotype LGG 460 (6.31 jassid/ split cage) and minimum jassid infestation was recorded on genotype DGG 6 (3.31 jassid/split cage). Genotype LGG 460 (2.93 thrips/10 flowers) showed maximum infestation of flower thrips and minimum in genotype DGG 6 (1.28 thrips/10 flowers). Genotype PM 10-18 (7.73 q/ha) produced maximum yield and genotype LGG 460 produced minimum yield (2.47 q/ha).
Title: Management of Biotic Stresses in Chickpea Exploiting Host Plant Resistance Abstract :
Cultivating resistant varieties is the most feasible and economical way to manage biotic stresses including seasonal weeds. A large number of diseases, insect pests, nematodes and seasonal weeds are known to cause alarming losses in standing chickpea crop leading to varying level of economic losses depending on weather conditions and crop growth. Thus, development and use of multiple adversities resistant/tolerant cultivars as component of integrated biotic stresses management will certainly help in minimizing losses due to major biotic stresses. In past, several donors’ parents carrying gene(s) of interest possessing resistance/tolerance against major biotic stresses (mainly diseases) have been identified and utilized for the development of resistant varieties for different agro-ecological zones of the country. Exploiting host plant resistance in managing diseases of crops by way of developing resistant varieties remain top priority agenda in breeding programs and has paid dividends as well. Out of more than 250 high yielding varieties developed, more than 50 have high level of resistance against fusarium wilt and other diseases. It is worthwhile mentioning that for each agro-ecological zone varieties possessing fusarium wilt resistant are now available. The research on insect pests, nematodes and weeds remain at minimal or could not lead in release of varieties having sufficient level of tolerance. Thus, there is urgent need to take up research for development of multiple adversities resistant varieties of chickpea not only to sustain present level of productivity but also to improve it further. Field and laboratory based techniques for rapid phenotyping of germplasm and breeding materials against major diseases, insect pests (insect bioassay), nematodes and weeds are now available. At the same time, genomic resources are becoming available for enhancing efficiency of selection from large breeding populations. In present article status and strategies for development of multiple adversities resistant chickpea varieties have been highlighted along with future research priorities.
Title: Pathogenic Variability of Ralstonia solanacearum Causing Bacterial Wilt of Brinjal in Red and Lateritic Agro-climatic Zone of West Bengal Abstract :
Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the most economically important solanaceous vegetables in India. The crop is suffering severely from bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi et al. that considerably limits its cultivation and production. Symptoms of the disease in brinjal appeared usually at flowering and fruiting stage of the crop growth. Drooping of the top most leaves followed by total or partial wilting was common. Infected plants showed vascular browning. Variability of the pathogen was recorded in respect to their aggressiveness and pathogenicity. Presence of more aggressive isolates in Bahadurpur (BAHRS5) and Halsidanga (HALRS6) and moderately aggressive isolates in Mukundapur (MUKRS2) and Gorabari (GORRS3) may be due to higher cropping intensity of solanaceous vegetables. Stem incision appeared superior to the stem injection method for pathogenicity test through cross inoculation studies. No host specificity was observed among the isolates of the pathogen from brinjal, tomato and Amaranthus spinosus revealed race 1 while host specificity was recorded in case of the pathogen isolated from Costus speciosus revealed race 4.
Title: WaBcal - A Calculator for Preparing Water Budget of Discrete Land Unit Abstract :
WaBcal is a calculator to prepare water budget of any discrete land unit. It is developed in C language and follows water budget norms proposed by National Agriculture Commission (1972,2002). Major input to the model is normal rainfall of that area and this is proportionately equated into surface flow, ground water flow, evaporation at various stages and magnitude, soil moisture etc. The calculator considers different water needs of the area which include demand from agriculture, domestic, livestock and industries. Total 27 field crop, nine vegetables and six fruit crop and six other crops are prevailing in Madhya Pradesh that may be used for computing agriculture demand. 18 Animals are considered for live stalk demand. Population gives domestic water demand. As an output the calculator gives water surplus/deficit of the study area.
Title: A Study on Impact of ICT Enabled Web Portal (Krishinet) on Farmers Abstract :
In recent years, there has been extensive investment in e-governance throughout the developing world. Still, little is known about the impact of those investments, partly due to a lack of assessment guidance. In this study modified sustainable livelihood framework approach was used for studying impact of the project on farmers. Before and after data was collected from the registered farmers using recall method to assess the impact of the project on all five types of capital (Natural capital, financial capital, human capital, physical capital and social capital). It was found that after implementation of the project, in the category of natural capital, average production and average sold quantity of rice, wheat, pigeon pea, mustard, and green gram has been significantly increased and in the category of financial capital, respondents’ average family income, earning from agriculture and allied sector and benefit from government schemes has been significantly increased and in the category of human capital, average number of training received by respondents and average number of extension contacts made by respondents has been significantly increased and in the category of physical capital, average storage facility has been increased by respondents and in the category of social capital, average number of meetings attended by respondents in Krishi Gyan Kendra has been significantly increased.
Title: Impact of Propolis on Milk Yield, Composition and Somatic Cell Count of Cow Breeds at Dairy Farm of Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India Abstract :
Propolis has several pharmacological properties and safe alternatives to antibiotics. This study aims to address the impact of methanol extract of Indian propolis (MEIP) on milk yields and composition of six breeds and cross-breeds of cows. Bioactive compounds extracted from the raw propolis. 24 lactating cows were selected from six different types of breeds viz. Sahiwal, Haryana, Holstein Frisian × Sahiwal, Holstein Frisian Χ Haryana, Jersey × Sahiwal and Jersey × Haryana. They were randomly divided into four treatments with 6 replicates each and fed according to NRC (2001) with 0, 10, 20, 30ml MEIP/cow/day. The result showed that MEIP influenced the milk yield and composition of cows. The milk composition (%) was better (P<0.05) and the somatic cell count was lower in MEIP20 and MEIP30 compared to control and MEIP10. The response was greater in Sahiwal cows. The lowest (P<0.05) somatic cell count was observed in the Holstein Friesian × Sahiwal crossbred cows. The study concluded that the supplementation with MEIP, improved milk yield, milk composition and somatic cells count in other breeds except Holstein Friesian.