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IJAEB - Volume 13 - Issue 4

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Title: Contents
Abstract :
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology-Contents
Title: Editorial
Abstract :


Title: Stability Index Based on Weighted Average of Absolute Scores of AMMI and Yield of Wheat Genotypes Evaluated Under Restricted Irrigated Conditions for Peninsular Zone
Abstract :

Highly significant effects of environment (E), G×E interaction and genotypes (G) were observed by AMMI analysis during 2018-19 and 2019-20 study years for wheat genotypes evaluated at major locations of Peninsular zone of the country. WAASB measure observed suitability of HI 1605, HI 8805 & HI 8802 genotypes. Superiority index while weighting 0.65 and 0.35 for yield & stability found MACS 6695, HI 1605 & NIAW 3170 as of stable performance with high yield. PRVG and MHPRVG measures observed suitability of NIAW 3170, MACS 6695 & MACS 6696 wheat genotypes. Moreover, the average yield of genotypes ranked NIAW 3170, MACS 6695 & MACS 6696 as of order of choice. SI expressed only negative values of correlations most of other stability measures except of MHPRVG, PRVG, yield. WAASB measure exhibited direct relationships with other measures analogous of negative values with MASV, SI, MHPRVG, PRVG, yield. Analytic measures MHPRVG & PRVG had only positive values with SI, and yield remaining stability measures maintained negative values. MP1358, NIDW1149 & NIAW3170 would be suitable genotypes as per WAASB measure during second year of study. Superiority index found MP1358, NIAW3170 & MACS4087 as of stable performance with high yield. PRVG and MHPRVG measures observed suitability of MP1358, HI1605 & MACS4087 wheat genotypes. More over the average yield of genotypes ranked MP1358, MACS4087 & HI1605 as of order of choice. SI expressed mostly negative values other measures except of weak direct relation with MASV1, MASV along with strong with yield, MHPRVG & PRVG measures. WAASB measure exhibited direct relationships with other measures and indirect with only MASV1& SI.


  • Stability measure WAASB based on all significant interaction principal components observed suitability of wheat genotypes associated with lower values of measure.
  • Superiority index provided variable weighting mechanism between stability and yield of genotypes under multi environment trials. Assigning 0.65 and 0.35 weights to yield & stability respectively selected wheat genotypes of stable performance with high yield.
  • Recent analytic measures of stability PRVG and MHPRVG measures expressed strong association with superiority index.
Title: In vitro Callus Induction and Regeneration of Popular Indica Rice Genotypes
Abstract :
Five rice cultivars viz., ASD 16, White Ponni, Pusa Basmati 1, Pusa Sugandh 4 and Pusa Sugandh 5 belonging to subspecies indica were compared for its ability in callus formation and regeneration. In this experiment, the different parameters viz., the effect of hormones (2,4-D and kinetin), organic supplement (coconut milk O1-CM 100 mll-1, O2-CM 75 mll-1, O3-CM 50 mll-1), explants (seed and immature embryo), media (MS and N6), carbon source (sucrose and maltose) using five genotypes on callus response was studied. The effect of hardening methods was also assessed. Results showed that for enhanced callus induction was with MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mgl-1 2, 4-D + 0.5 mgl-1 kinetin + 30 gl-1 maltose irrespective of explants used. Addition of 100 ml l-1 coconut milk was found have improvement in callus response. The performance of immature embryo was better than seed for callus induction, emrbyogenic callus formation, rhizogenic callus formation and regeneration. MS media provided superiority over N6. Among the genotypes Pusa Basmati 1 rendered outstanding performance in callus behavior. The treatment combination MS + 2.5 mgl-1 BAP + 0.5 mgl-1 NAA + 1.0 mgl-1 KN gave the highest organogenesis response and regeneration of plantlets. Hardening in mist chamber was recognized as the best method to give the highest per cent of regenerated plant lets.
  • Five indica rice varieties were used for callus induction and regeneration
  • MS +2.0 mgl-1 2,4-D + 0.5 mgl-1 kinetin + 30 gl-1 maltose gave enhanced callus induction.
  • MS + 2.5 mgl-1 BAP + 0.5 mgl-1 NAA + 1.0 mgl-1 KN gave the highest regeneration
Title: Impact of Covid – 19 on Food Purchasing, Eating Behaviors and Perceptions of Food Safety in Consumers of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh of India
Abstract :

Covid-19 brought a paradigm shift on food consumption, purchase, and eating behavior of consumers significantly as concerns over safety, health, and financial worries increased. As the world was fighting the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic, an online survey is conducted to understand its impact on food purchasing, eating behaviors, and perceptions of food safety among the middle class and upper-middle population in the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh of India during April and May 2020. Many of the respondents were from Telangana (46.52%) and Andhra Pradesh (38.58%), respectively while few were from other states and countries. 60.7% of respondents who participated in the survey were from the urban areas, while 20.1% were from rural areas and 17% from semi-urban areas. A significant change is observed in consumers’ purchase behavior during the Covid-19 pandemic. People preferred to shop less frequently, and 62% of respondents managed with existing goods. 69% of people maintained social distancing and wearing masks while purchasing foods. 74.3% went to stores less often for groceries purchase. The amount of packaged food consumption increased by 28%. Consumers became more cautious about health and altered their eating habits. 60% of respondents have agreed that their food habits have changed, and 52% of respondents reportedly consumed healthier foods compared to pre-covid days. 90% of survey populations finished home-cooked meals. 96% of respondents were aware of the Covid-19 threat and were taking precautionary measures. 86% of respondents sanitized the food produce bought from outside. There was panic among 53% of respondents about the safety of food available. 34% of respondents did not want to go back to their old eating habits until they get vaccinated against covid-19.


  • Purchasing and eating habits have changed. People were shopping less in-person and consuming more home-cooked healthy meals while managing with existing stocks.
  • Consumer behavior changed rapidly throughout, for the crisis. Food consumption, and eating habits, have been significantly impacted due to concerns about hygiene, personal safety, food purchases, and consumption.
Title: Fish Biodiversity Assemblages and Fishing Gears Used at Chinadi Beel in Narsingdi District of Bangladesh
Abstract :
The present survey disclosed the available fish biodiversity and the gears used for fishing in the Chinadi beel, Narsingdi, Bangladesh, for a certain period. Data was collected through face to face conversations using a well-structured questionnaire and cross-checked. About 51 species of fish under 7 orders and 19 families were found. The dominant order was found jointly for Cypriniformes (29.41%) and Siluriformes (29.41%). About 39 least concern (75%), 5 vulnerable (9.62%), 6 near threatened (11.54%), and 1 not evaluated (1.92%) species were observed. Fifteen different types of fishing gears (8 major categories) are used for fishing by the fishermen, of which seine net was the most leading gear. Most of the gears are banned for a period due to its unauthorized mesh size. The price of fishing gears was ranged from 250-1,00,000 Tk, of which the highest price was for seine net. The uppermost catch per unit effort (CPUE) was found for ber jal that was 15-18 kg/day. Most of the fishing gear was operated throughout the year, but limited in the dry season. However, the variety of fish abundance and species diversity is declining day by day in this beel. To protect the fish diversity of the Chinadi beel, it is recommended to establish effective fishery management practices, monitoring overfishing, and awareness of fishermen is highly recommended.
  • The beel has a rich fish biodiversity and important for fisheries resources in the middle-east part of Bangladesh. About 51 species of fish under 7 orders and 19 families were found. Fifteen fishing gears (8 major categories) are used for fishing by the fishermen.
  • Now-a-days, biodiversity of fish was decreased due to over fishing, water pollution, heavy siltation, rapid urbanization and intervention of human.
Title: Development of Bacterial Consortia for Solid Waste Degradation and its Use as Organic Manure
Abstract :
Solid waste disposal has become a big concern all over the world. Almost 50% of the municipal waste collected daily, especially in the metropolitan cities where the population is very high, consists of organic solid waste. This organic waste left in the open dumping grounds results in stench and contamination of groundwater. The present study aims to find out the utilization of effective microbial consortia for decomposing the organic waste. Different garbage samples was collected from Panvel area for isolating the effective organic waste degrading organisms. These strains were characterized by microscopic observations and biochemical tests. Their cellulolytic, proteolytic, amylolytic and lipoolytic activities were evaluated. Depending on these enzyme activities, different consortia were prepared and their efficacy in reduction, maturity and deodorization of organic waste was compared. The plant growth promoting effect of this degraded waste on Triticum aestivum (wheat) and Zea mays (maize) was evaluated. 5 Different Microbial Consortium was developed. Microbial consortia increased the efficacy of composting as compared to control. Consortia no. 1 and 5 showed better degrading ability. Consortia 4 and 5 facilitated the best growth for Wheat and Maize respectively. Consortia 2 showed the best result in terms of germination and growth for both wheat and maize.
  • All the groups of consortia were effective in terms of degradation of MSW, improving the properties of soil and growth of the plants
  • Also, when comparing with the control, the phosphorus, nitrogen content and plant growth showed great improvements
Title: Characterization of Biochars from Various Agricultural By-Products Using FTIR Spectroscopy, SEM focused with image Processing
Abstract :
Biochar is a charred final product by the pyrolysis of biomass. In this work, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of various agricultural by-products (Pine needles, Rice husk, and grinded wheat straw, Bamboo leaves) derived carbonaceous biochars were investigated. The efficacy of FTIR spectra as a simple and rapid method for bio-physical characterization had been explored. The FTIR information was also discussed for explaining the biochar formation process. Results indicated the feasibility of FTIR in rapid and non-destructive biochar measurements for quality and production. Digital image processing has been used to identify the cell walls of the SEM images by using several filters and image histograms of all the SEM images are also generated. All the algorithms are used after careful consideration of noise removal using wiener filter to each of the images.
  • Agricultural by-products can be used as feedstock materials to produce biochar.
  • With pyrolysis, significant changes in chemical, physical, and structural can easily be revealed by FTIR spectra and SEM of biomass and biochar samples.
  • The proposed image processing method can detect the cell walls of SEM images after efficiently removing the noise from the original gray-scale images
Title: Field Efficacy of Bio-fertilizers and Bio-inputs to Improve Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Production under Alkaline Soil in Kachchh District of Gujarat
Abstract :
With the aim of reducing chemical fertilizer application and improving the sustainability of wheat cultivation under alkaline soil, the present study investigated the effects of different biofertilizers and organic products on wheat productivity. The application of these products was applied in the soil through irrigation water as solitary or in consortia by three different ways of treatment, i.e. (1) single treatment; (2) double treatment (first and 21 days), and (3) triple treatment (first, 21 days and 45 days). We demonstrate that all the biofertilizers significantly enhanced wheat productivity as compared to the control treatment, but this was mostly observed with more than one treatment condition. The biofertilizers were applied in solitary and consortia treatments. Solitary treatment of Azospirillium spp, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas fluorescence was found effective. However, the Nitrogen consortium treatment of biofertilizers (Azotobacter chroococcum + Azospirillium spp) was more prominent as compared to solitary application. Our results suggest that more than one application of biofertilizers may be effectively exploited for sustainable wheat production in an eco-friendly way, but attention should be paid to the consortium approach or organic amendments during cultivation.
  • Bioinoculant showed a positive effect due to their PGP characteristics on wheat shoot growth
  • Promising bacterial strains of Nitrogen fixers have potential as inoculation agents in eco-friendly wheat crop production under abiotic stress contributing to environmental sustainability.
Title: Land Use / Land Cover Mapping of Nahra Nala Watershed Using SENTINEL-2B Imagery
Abstract :
Land is a limited natural resource which restricts no further increase in a cultivated area. Moreover, due to the increasing population, the pressure on this resource is increasing day by day. Hence, land use/land cover (LU/LC) information is very much necessary for the best possible use by maximizing outputs sustainably from this diminishing resource such that good planning and management can be done to meet the demand of the ever-increasing population. Therefore, a study has been conducted for land use/land cover mapping using SENTINEL-2B satellite data having a fine spatial resolution of Nahra nala watershed, which is a tributary of Wainganga river situated in Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh, India. Five land use/land cover classes were identified, namely water bodies, agricultural land, forest, habitation (built-up), and wasteland in the study area. The study area possesses forest as the predominant LU/LC class with 83.79 percent of the total geographical area of the watershed. Accuracy assessment was also applied to the final classified results based on the ground truth points or known reference pixels along with Google Earth imageries. The overall classification accuracy of 95.52% with the kappa value of 0.92 was achieved.
  • This study conducted in Nahra Nala Watershed of Balaghat district, Madhya Pradesh, India, to make the land use / land cover classification map through Remote Sensing and GIS approach.
  • SENTINEL-2B high-resolution imagery is used for achieving the higher accuracy in LU/LC classification.
Title: Puddling Effects on Energy Parameters under Animal Farming for Mechanized Cultivation of Rice
Abstract :

Among various agricultural operations, irrigation is one of the highest energy consuming operations followed by tillage operation for seedbed preparation (sowing or transplanting). Studies suggested that for optimal crop yield realization tillage energy use would have to increase. As draught animal (bullocks/he-buffaloes) uses had been highest (114.8 to 207.3 h/ha) in animal farming and subsequently animal energy use for tillage operations may be decreased by adoption of improved energy efficient implements suiting to local size of draught animals. In the same way manual transplanting of rice consumes higher energy and remains same unless mechanized transplanting of rice is introduced using self-propelled rice transplanters. With this background a study on energy requirement for cultivation of mechanized rice was carried out during 2008 and 2009 with different level of tillage (puddling) under animal farming system. Five different animal drawn puddling equipments (lugged wheel puddler, zigzag puddler, rotary blade puddler, disc harrow cum puddler and indigenous plough) with two level of puddling intensity (two and three passes) were used for development of puddle bed and subsequently rice transplanting was done by using three methods of transplanting viz. transplanting by self-propelled rice transplanter, manually operated rice transplanter and random hand transplanting. Results revealed that input energy for puddling operation depends on the actual field capacity and weight of the puddling equipments. The energy required for puddling operation for each of the equipment increased with varying level of puddling from two passes to three passes. The energy input for puddling operation was highest (19302 MJ/ha) in indigenous plough with three passes and lowest (18270 MJ/ha) in zigzag puddler with two passes. Higher values of energy output-input ratio (7.88) and lower value of specific energy (3.80 MJ/kg) was obtained in rotary blade puddler (three passes). In case of transplanting methods, self-propelled rice transplanter gave significantly highest (7.48) energy output-input ratio and lowest specific energy (4.15 MJ/kg). The puddle bed developed by rotary blade puddler three passes and rice transplanting by self-propelled rice transplanter resulted in higher yield (53.18 q/ha) associated with higher energy output-input ratio (8.63) and lower specific energy (3.45 MJ/kg) compared to rest of the treatments.


  • Energy input and economics of different puddling and transplanting methods was worked out to find out the energy efficient and cost effective puddling equipment for development of puddle bed suited to the requirements of mechanical transplanters.
  • Five different types of animal drawn puddling equipments and two types of mechanical transplanters are used in this study.
  • Study indicated that rotary tools are energy efficient for puddling operations compared to linear tools.
Title: Market Integration of Major Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils in India- Evidence from Karnataka
Abstract :

This study has analyzed market integration across six major wholesale markets for groundnut, sunflower, and soybean. This paper investigates the market integration of selected oilseeds and respective oil markets in India by employing monthly wholesale prices from 2009 January to 2020 February. The stationarity property of the time series of prices was checked through the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test. To get the evidence in which direction the price transmission is occurring among the selected markets, Granger causality test has been used, which confirmed that some markets are influencing each other in a unidirectional way. Others have a bidirectional relationship at a five per cent level of importance, meaning that the chosen oilseed market prices have long-run association. In view of vertical integration Bellary pod market, Chennai oil and Ahmadabad oil markets are the key markets for groundnut, sunflower, and soybean, respectively. Thus, the study concluded that regional markets for selected oilseeds are strongly co-integrated. Furthermore, the study suggested that the Government can smoothen the price in most influencing markets and expect a similar result in other markets. Therefore, there is a need for faster market information movement by strengthening market intelligence by establishing an online marketing system through networking.


  • Market integration explains how distinct markets are related to one another.
  • In India, selected regional markets for selected oilseeds are strongly co-integrated.
  • Strengthening of market infrastructure including transportation, storage, and communication is the need of the hour to reap the benefits of market integration.
Title: Growth and Feasibility of Solar Irrigation Pump in Rajasthan, India: An Economic Perspective
Abstract :

Agriculture plays an important role in the Indian economy. The agriculture sector has seen consistent and significant growth in terms of technology and innovation, which has helped India to become a food exporter. However, past initiatives focussed on improving production and environmental aspect were neglected. Now, government is formulating policies and initiatives that would help in increasing agriculture production along with sustainable development. Promotion of solar irrigation pump is among one of those policies. Provision of heavy subsidies and schemes (JNNSM, KUSUM, etc.) on the adoption of solar pumps have increased their affordability. Because of the increased affordability of solar pumps after subsidies, the popularity of solar pumps has increased in Rajasthan, which has resulted in an increased rate of adoption. Considering the role of solar pumps in current scenario and that of future, this study was conducted to analyze the economic viability and costs incurred in solar pump installation. Payback period, NPV, BCR, and IRR were used in the analysis.

  • Following study tries to estimate the time it will take to recover the investment made on a 7.5 HP solar pump.
  • Rate of growth of solar irrigation pump in the last eight years.
  • Economic feasibility of installing solar irrigation pump.
Title: Economic and Environmental Benefits of Replacing Diesel Pumps with Solar Irrigation Pumps in Jaipur, Rajasthan
Abstract :
With the increase in population, urbanization, and development in India, the energy demand has increased in recent years. One of the main consumers of energy is the agricultural sector. Agriculture in India saw significant development regarding production and technology. India heavily relies on the energy derived from fossil fuels for driving its engine of development. Currently, India is the third-largest Greenhouse gas emitter in the world after China and the USA. So, for continued development along with reducing GHG, India needs to switch its source of energy from fossil fuels to renewable sources. This paper uses primary data to analyze the economic and environmental benefits of solar irrigation pumps in terms of savings on fuel and reduction in carbon emission.
  • Savings on diesel fuel by replacing diesel irrigation pump by solar irrigation pump.
  • Reduction in carbon dioxide and carbon emission by replacing diesel irrigation pump.
  • Carbon credits generated by replacing diesel irrigation pump.
Title: Integrated Resource Management Impact on Productivity of Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] in Hilly Tracts of Tripura, India
Abstract :
Pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is the rich sources of dietary protein, carbohydrate & certain minerals, but its poor yield needs to formulate proper nutrient and pest management practices for higher productivity in upland alfisols of NEH regions and to combat it, an experiment was conducted during three consecutive kharif seasons at College of Agriculture, Lembucherra, Tripura comprising of eight nutrient and pest management combinations (T1-RDF (20: 60: 40); T2-T1+2% urea spray at 50% flowering; T3-T1+ 0.5% Borax spray at 50% flowering; T4- T1+ 0.5% ZnSO4 spray at 50% flowering; T5-T1 + 1% urea + 0.25% ZnSO4 + 0.25% Borax spray at 50% flowering; T6-T1+ Multimicronutrient spray @2 ml/litre at 50% flowering; T7-T1 + Indoxacarb at flowering + One systemic insecticide 15 days after the first spray; T8-T6+ Indoxacarb at flowering + One systemic insecticide 15 days after the first spray) in RBD design. It was revealed that micro-nutrient application in a combination of insecticide spray at flowering leads to better growth, higher yield (1.84 t/ha), and return per rupee (2.93), respectively.
  • Low fertility and pest damage leads to a poor yield of pigeonpea in NEHR.
  • Management through micro-nutrient and plant protection chemicals.
Title: Farmyard Manure: A Boon for Integrated Nutrient Management
Abstract :
In the present review, farmyard manure is explained as a perfect source of nutrients for plant growth as well as for soil microbiota. It is one of the efficient and effective organic manures. It can provide organic matter to soil microbes as a source of carbon. An increase in microbial population leads to the degradation of pesticides and heavy metals to less harmful compounds. In addition to it, ions of harmful elements get adsorb on organic colloids and become immobile in soil. Application of farmyard manure not only increases the availability of nutrients in the soil but also improves the soil properties like soil structure, water holding capacity, bulk density, cation exchange capacity, etc. Studies revealed that farmyard manure is an excellent organic manure for sustaining good soil health along with achieving desired food production.
  • Farmyard manure is an effective and efficient source of nutrients to soil microorganisms as well as to plants comparative to all other manures.
  • Farmyard manure plays an important role in the remediation of pesticides, herbicides, and heavy metals along with increasing nutrient supply in the soil.
  • Apart from improving nutrient content, farmyard manure also improves soil’s physical, chemical, and biological properties.
Title: Heterotrimeric G Proteins: Key Players in Plant Growth and Stress Responses
Abstract :
Heterotrimeric G proteins are large membrane-associated G proteins with subunits (Gα), (Gβ), and (Gγ) present in the plasma membrane in eukaryotes. They are signal transducers that play an important role in signaling pathways in various living organisms. In the inactive stage, Gα contains guanosine diphosphate and forms the heterotrimeric complex with Gβγ dimer which is activated by nucleotide exchange on Gα for guanosine triphosphate (GTP), GTP bound Gα dissociates from Gβγ dimer and modulates the effector for downstream signaling. Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) protein is a regulatory point of G protein activation and stimulates rate-limiting GTPase activity of Gα subunit. G-protein research in plants is getting a lot of attention recently due to the emerging roles in modulating abiotic and biotic stress responses. An increase in the frequency of extreme weather and climate change has accelerated the adverse effect from plant stresses which are detrimental for plant growth. G-proteins plays important role in various functions that enhances plant growth and development, regulation of hormones, signals, stresses and plant defense responses. Furthermore, future research should be directed towards the discovery of novel components and their signaling mechanisms.
  • Guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G- proteins) are cytosolic proteins that are present in trimeric complex with α, β & γ subunits in plants.
  • They act as signal transducers that regulate multiple signaling pathways in eukaryotes.
  • Heterotrimeric G- proteins play vital role in plant growth and development in many plant species.
  • Besides roles in plant growth, they are also important for mitigation of abiotic (salt, drought, ozone, temperature) stresses and plant defense responses by inducing different mechanisms.
Title: Protein Profiling of Oreochromis spp. Epidermal Mucus Subsequent to Challenge of Common Freshwater Bacteria
Abstract :
Freshwater bacteria are the emerging pathogens that cause severe systemic disease in fish worldwide. Fish epidermal mucus contains innate immune components that provide the primary defense against different pathogenic microbes. The current experiment was designed to profile molecular changes of red hybrid tilapia mucus after subsequent challenge to common freshwater bacteria. Thus, to profile the epidermal mucus, 30 red hybrid tilapia Oreochromis spp. each of 150g was infected with Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aeromonas hydrophila. 10 fish were infected for each bacterium, and 10 fish acted as control. Every 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours, fish body mucus was collected in order to profile and explore molecular changes after subsequent challenge towards the causative agent. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel-Electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) was used to allow the fish body mucus protein separation by mass. As a result, common protein, 14 kDa was found in all of the isolated mucus challenged. Meanwhile, a protein with a size 49 kDa, 81kDa, and 101 kDa was found as a prominent protein of Streptococcus agalactiae. The prominent protein after challenge with Staphylococcus aureus is 20 kDa, 30 kDa, 35 kDa, and 63 kDa. In contrast, the most prominent protein after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila is 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 60 kDa. Protein profiling of mucus after 4 hours being challenged shows the best variations from the region 14-101 kDa. All of this finding is important towards better treatment and prevention of disease occurrence in Tilapia aquaculture.
  • Common protein, 14 kDa was found in all of the isolated mucus challenged.
  • Protein profiling of mucus after 4 hours being challenged shows the best variations from the region 14-101 kDa.
Title: Evaluation Trial on Bottle Gourd [Lagenaria siceraria] Under Prayagraj Agro-Climatic Conditions
Abstract :
The present investigation entitled “Evaluation trail on bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) under Prayagraj Agro-climatic conditions was conducted at Horticulture Research farm at Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Naini, Prayagraj from July to Oct 2019. The experimental soil was sandy loam in texture with a pH of 7.0 to 8.0, 0.480 organic carbon, and 280, 12.3, and 150 kg/ha-1 of available N, P, and K, respectively. The main objective of the experiment is to find out the most suitable variety of bottle gourd for better growth under Prayagraj, Agro-climatic conditions. Twenty six bottle gourd varieties were evaluated for different quantitative characters using Randomized Block Design (RBD) with the aim to identify the most suitable variety. Among twenty six varieties, the variety 2016/BOGVAR-1exhibited days to first harvest (49.55DAT).
  • Twenty six bottle gourd varieties were evaluated for different quantitative characters using Randomized Block Design (RBD) with the aim to identify the most suitable variety.