Title: Adaptability Measures for Wheat Genotypes Evaluated under Northern Hills Zone of Country for Irrigated Timely Sown Conditions Abstract :
Wheat genotypes were evaluated under multi environment trials for Northern Hills Zone of India to study the adaptability performance. Genotypes HS612, HS507 and HPW430 were of high yield and better adaptability by analytic measures of adaptability based on BLUP values during 2015-16. Two interaction principal components, accounted for 89.9 % of total GxE interaction sum of squares in biplot analysis. HPW428, HS613, VL2020, VL2024 had specific adaptations to Almora and Malan while HS616, HPW423, HPW430, VL2021, HPW426 expressed for Shimla and Khudwani locations. Wheat genotypes HS612, HS507 and HPW430 were cited by analytic measures as per BLUE values. HPW429, HS613, VL2020, VL2024 had specific adaptations to Almora and Malan while HS616, HS618, HPW425, HPW426, HPW430, VL2023, VL2021, HPW426 observed for Shimla and Khudwani. Second year (2017-18) had seen high yield and better adaptability of HS631, HS632, VL2030, VL2025 genotypes as per BLUP values. Biplot analysis expressed specific adaptations of HPW429, HS613, VL2020, VL2024 to Almora and Malan locations. BLUE values based measures showed high yield and better adaptability of HS631, HS632, VL2030, VL2025 genotypes. Biplot analysis while utilizing 79.5 % of total GxE interaction sum of squares exhibited specific adaptations of HPW446, VL907, HS632, VL2025, VL2030 to Almora and Shimla. Stratification of wheat genotypes as per BLUP values was more efficient than that by BLUE. Biplot analysis exhibited more of GxE interactions sum of squares by first two significant principal components based on BLUP as compared to BLUE values.
Title: Nutrient Management in Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) in India Abstract :
In India finger millet is mostly cultivated in resource poor soils of tropics and sub-tropics. Synchronizing nutrient supply with crop demand is essential to maximize yield and fertilizer use efficiency. It has been found that incorporation of N fertilizer during seeding stage increased yield as compared to broadcasting of fertilizer. The continuous application of inorganic N fertilizer reduced the soil organic carbon level. The foliar application of 2% urea produced higher grain and straw yield. Application of fertilizer P @ 125% recommended dose of phosphorus (RDP) with recommended N, K and FYM in different fertility soils recorded higher grain and straw yield. Nutrient management for targeting production and sustainability, integrated nutrient management (INM) will be the most suitable option. Application of 100% NPK along with FYM @ 10 t ha-1 recorded significantly higher grain and straw yield and enriched the soil organic carbon. Application of farmyard manure (FYM) alone or in a combination with chemical fertilizers contributed to higher amounts of carbon inputs and build up a higher soil organic carbon pool in rain fed groundnut–finger millet rotation in alfisol of semi-arid region. Cropping system approach either sequential or intercropping with legume was found beneficial. Treating seeds with Azospirillum brasilense (N fixing bacterium) and Aspergillus awamori (P Solubilizing fungus) @ 25 g kg-1 seed of finger millet found to be beneficial. Soil test crop response (STCR) need to be considered for supplying nutrients more precisely with a target yield output. In the present paper, the available literature on different options of nutrients application to finger millet for sustainable productivity is reviewed.
Title: Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Yield and Economics in Summer Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. saccharata) Abstract :
The field experiment was carreied out at Research Farm, Bagusala, M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management during summer, 2018. The soil was sandy loam in texture, slightly acidic in reaction ( pH 6.8 ) and low in available N (158.83 kg /ha) and P2O5 (10.82 kg /ha) and medium in available K2O (147.67 kg/ha). The randomized complete block design was adopted with three replications for testing 8 treatments. They were consisted of 100% recommended dose of fertilizer ( DF) @ 120-60-60 kg of N-P2O5-K2O /ha), 100% RDF + bio fertilizer consortia (Azotobactor + Azosporillum + phosphobacter) @15 kg/ha, 50 % recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) through farm yard manure (FYM) + 50 % RDF + bio fertilizer consortia (BFC) @15 kg/ha, 50 % RDN through vermi compost (VC) + 50% RDF + BFC @15 kg/ha, 75 % RDF + 25 % RDN through FYM, 75 % RDF + 25 % RDN through VC, 75 % RDF + 25 % RDN through FYM + BFC @15 kg/ha and 75 % RDF + 25 % RDN through VC + BFC @15 kg/ha. The yield attributes such as number of cobs/plant, cob length, cob girth and cob weight along with green cob and forage yield were remarkably influenced by integrated nutrient management treatments. Application of 75 % RDF + 25 % RDN (VC) + BFC @15 kg/ha recorded the highest yield attributes and green cob (12.01 t/ha) and fodder (` 16.52 t/ha) yield. It was followed by 100 % RDF + BFC @15 kg/ha producing the green cob and forage yield of 11.67 and 16.17 t/ha, respectively. The maximum net return (Rs. 164206/ ha) and benefit cost ratio (1.92) was obtained with integration of 100 % RFD (120-60-60 kg of N, P2O5 and K2O /ha) and BFC (Azotobactobacter + Azosporillum + posphobacter) @15 kg/ha.
Title: Yield Attributes, Yield, Competitive Ability and Economics of Summer Maize-Legume Intercropping System Abstract :
Maize (Zea mays L.), the queen of cereals, is planted with wide spacing and so it offers the scope of intercropping. Considering the benefits of cereal-legume association, an experiment on maize-legume intercropping system was conducted during summer season of 2018 at Bagusala Farm of M. S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Gajapati district, Odisha. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design and the treatments were comprised of ten cropping systems, namely, T1: sole maize, T2: sole green gram (Vigna radiata L.), T3: sole groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), T4: sole black gram (Vigna mungo L.), T5: maize + greengram (2:1), T6: maize + groundnut (2:1), T7: maize + blackgram (2:1), T8: maize + greengram (2:2), T9: maize + groundnut (2:2) and T10 maize +black gram (2:2). Paired row sowing of hybrid maize was done with a spacing of 80 cm/30 cm × 25 cm in sole maize. Pure stand of legumes i.e. green gram, groundnut and black gram were sown with 30 cm × 10 cm spacing. As per the treatments, single and double row of intercrops were taken in between two pairs of maize. The result indicated that intercropped legumes improved the yield components of maize and offered some bonus yield. The maximum maize grain yield (5669 kgha-1) was noted with sole maize, however, maize equivalent yield of 7609kg ha-1 was recorded with maize + groundnut (2:2) and it was followed by maize + black gram with 2:2 ratio (6902 kg ha-1). In expression of the competition functions, maize + groundnut (2:2) recorded the highest values of area time equivalent ratio (1.70), relative yield total (1.47) and monetary advantage (` 42002 kg ha-1). The intercropping combination of maize + groundnut (2:2) recorded the highest net return (` 47954 ha-1), with a benefit-cost ratio of 1.00, but by the treatment maize + black gram with 2:2 ratio registered greater B:C ratio (1.11) with net return of ` 45499 ha-1.
Title: Influence of Weed Management Practices on Weed Control Efficiency, Yield and Economics in Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. saccharata) Abstract :
The field experiment was conducted in sandy loam soil at Research Farm, M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Bagusala village, Paralakhemundi, Odisha, India during summer season of 2018. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications and eight treatments. The herbicidal treatmentrs of pre emergence (PE) application of either pendimethalin @ 0.75kg/ha, oxyfluorfen @ 50 g/ha and metribuzin @ 0.3 kg/ha at 1 day after sowing (DAS) or the same herbicides supplimented with straw mulching (SM) @ 6 t/ha at 30 DAS were compared with intercultivation twice at 20 and 40 DAS and unweeded control.Experimental results revealed that weed mangement treatments significantly influenced the yield attributes and yield of sweet corn along with improvement in weed control efficiency. Pre emergence application of either metribuzin @ 0.30 kg/ha or pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg /ha at 1 DAS in combination with SM @ 6.0 t/ha at 30 DAS remarkbly enhanced the yield attributes such as number of cobs/plant, cob length, cob girth and cob weight. The green cob (11.78 t /ha) and forage (14.55 t/ha) yield were the highest with metribuzin @ 0.30 kg/ha as PE at 1 DAS + SM @ 6 t/ha at 30 DAS. It was followed by pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg /ha as PE at 1 DAS + SM @ 6 t/ha at 30 DAS producing the green cob and forage yield of 11.21 and 14.22 t/ha, respectively. The reduction in yield was to the tune of 35.10% due to uninterrupted growth of weeds. The maximum gross return (` 250150 /ha), net return (` 181635 /ha) and B:C ratio (2.65) were obtained with PE application of metribuzin @ 0.30 k g/ha at 1 DAS + SM @ 6 t/ha at 30 DAS. It was followed by pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg /ha as PE at 1 DAS + SM @ 6 t/ha at 30 DAS registering the gross and net return of ` 238420/ ha and ` 169605 /ha, respectively.
Title: Standardization of Organic Manure and Bio-inoculants for Production of Improved Planting Material of Tea Abstract :
Tea is one of the important plantation crops of India as well as West Bengal, contributes considerably in national economy and earns foreign exchange. During 2014-15, total production of tea in India was 1233.14 m kg, out of which only 100 m kg were organic tea. Mainly due to importers demand of organic tea, there is urgent need to enhance organic production of tea crop. Indiscriminate use of inorganic agricultural inputs-fertilizers, weedicides, pesticide and fungicides and lesser use of organic matters deplete soil health, residues remain beyond MRL in processed tea, ultimately reduction in export. Tea Board provides 55% subsidy for organic tea production. For organic cultivation of tea, the planting materials should also be organically produced in nursery, which is very scanty for perennial crops in general and plantation crops in particular. With this background, the present investigation was carried out at instructional farm of the department of Plantation Crops and Processing, UBKV, Pundibari, with the objective to standardize the organic manures and bio-inoculants for production of improved planting materials of tea, The experiment was conducted from 2013 to 2015 and laid out in completely randomized block design. The planting materials of tea chosen to standardize organic manures and bio-inoculants were TS-462 and TV 26. From the study it can be inferred that, the treatment T6-vermicompost 50 g/sleeve and bio fertilizers mixture 10 g (Azotobacter + Azospirillium + PSB + Trichoderma + VAM @2.0 g each)/sleeve observed to be the best when compared to other treatments and control.
Title: Effect of Bulky Manures and Fermented Liquid Organics on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Uptake and Economics of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) Under Rainfed Condition Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted to study the “Effect of bulky organic manures and fermented liquid organics on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and economics of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) under rainfed condition” at Organic Farming Research Centre, Zonal Agricultural and Horticultural Research Station (ZAHRS), Navile, Shivamogga, during Kharif 2018-19. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with ten treatments comprising of different bulky organic manures (FYM and Vermicompost) and fermented liquid organic manures (Beejamrutha, Jeevamruta, Panchagavya and Cow urine) were replicated thrice. Experimental results revealed that, significantly higher growth, yield attributes, economics and nutrient uptake with good shelf-life and protein content of the French bean were found in the treatment which received Beejamrutha (seed treatment) + Jeevamrutha (soil application @ 500 L ha-1) + 100% RDN through vermicompost + Foliar spray of Panchagavya @ 3% (T6) and were on par with application of Beejamrutha (seed treatment) + Jeevamrutha (soil application @ 500 L ha-1) + 50% RDN through FYM + 50% RDN through vermicompost + Foliar spray of Panchagavya @ 3% (T7) and Beejamrutha (seed treatment) + Jeevamrutha (soil application @ 500 L ha-1) + 100% RDN through FYM + Foliar spray of Panchagavya @ 3% (T5). Simillar trend of higher benefit cost ratio was also recorded in the same set of treatment combination. This study indicated that combined application of bulky and fermented liquid organic manures in seed treatments, soil application and foliar spray performed better in organic French bean production at best benefit ratio cost.
Title: Outbreak of Rice Blast on the Coastal Region of South-Eastern India Abstract :
Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea is turn to be one of the most severe pathogen under change in climatic condition in coastal region of South-Eastern India. Severity of the pathogen was not overwhelming previously. An investigation was carried out in several villages of different districts of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha under the RAWEP programme of Centurion University of Technology and Management with compared to meteorological data support from IMD, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. Different meteorological factors consider under this study were maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), relative humidity maximum (RH max), relative humidity minimum (RH min), rainfall (RF). Among the three cultivated rice varieties, Pooja and Samba mahsuri (BPT-5204) are the most susceptible blast varieties (5.71% and 4.85%) compared to Swarna (MTU 7029) with a disease incidence level of 1.23%. Outcome of this investigation also revealed that the most crucial two (Tmax and RH max) factors directly involved for the emergence of the disease compared to previous year 2015-16 and 2016-17. The peak disease infestation was observed in the month of October and November with PDI of 27.33 % and 26 %. Farmers based prolonged survey report and our observation concluded with the fact that Tricyclazole 75% WP (trade name – BAAN/ Indofils) and 40% EC formulation of Isoprothiolane (trade name – Fujione / Rallis India Limited) are the two sequential most effective fungicides compared to different market based available fungicides and showed best efficacy against neck, collar and leaf blasts. Weather parameters as well as complex adaptability of the pathogenic nature (showing resistant against different fungicides) turned this Ascomycota member to a severe one.
Title: Management of Phytophthora capsici Infection in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) using New Generation Fungicides and Biopesticide Abstract :
A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different new generation fungicides and biopesticide against Phytophthora capsici in black pepper. Five commercial fungicides and a biopesticide were tested and natural infection due to P. capsici was recorded. Disease indexing was done by visual observation on leaf blight, spike infection, leaf shedding and yellowing of vines. Among the different fungicides, spraying and drenching with Fenamidone 10WDG + Mancozeb 50WDG @ 0.2% was found to be the most effective with 12.4% disease intensity. It was followed by Copper hydroxide 77 WP @ 0.2% with 17.8% disease intensity. Dimethomorph 9WP + Mancozeb 60WP and Cymoxanil 8WP + Mancozeb 64WP were also effective against Phytophthora infection and found better than the existing practice of spraying Bordeaux mixture and drenching Copper oxy chloride. Soil application of talc based formulation of PGPM mix @ 50 g/vine and foliar spray at 2% concentration also resulted in considerable reduction in the severity of Phytophthora infection in black pepper.
Title: Soil Nutrient Status of Gosani Block Under Gajapati District, Odisha Abstract :
The present investigation was led during the year 2018-19 at Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Gajapati, Odisha with intend to consider supplement status of various village of Gosani square. The examples were gathered from various homesteads and towns of Gosani square. At that point test investigated according to standard strategy for surveying pH, EC, OC, and significant supplements like accessible nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium with micronutrients like zinc, copper, manganese and iron status of soils. The pH of soils changed from 6.13 to 6.44 and EC shifted from 0.06 to 0.34 dS/m. The natural carbon content in ranch soils was shifted from 0.35 to 0.55%. The accessible nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium ran from 125 to 250 and 31 to 41 and 185 to 542 kg/ha individually. The accessible zinc, copper, manganese and iron went from 1.08 to 2.92, 0.90 to 3.06, 9.96 to 27.90 and 17.02 to 74.14 mg/kg individually. The outcomes demonstrate that result were somewhat acidic in response, non-saline and low in natural carbon. The results were low to medium in accessible nitrogen and high in accessible phosphorous and medium to high in accessible potassium. The micronutrient status like accessible zinc was low to satisfactory and accessible copper, manganese; iron were sufficient sum found in soils. The outcomes presume that decent use of supplements required for fruitful harvest creation and advancement of vegetable in various villages under Gosani Block.
Title: Host Range, Life Aspects and Mode of Damage of Brinjal Shoot and Fruit Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee) on Brinjal:
A Review Abstract :
Brinjal (Eggplant) Solanum melongena Linnaeus is the most important vegetable of hot and humid climates. A wide range of essential biochemicals and minerals belongs to brinjal. It is a fairly good source of iron, calcium, phosphorous, potassium and vitamin B group. Brinjal Shoot and Fruit Borer Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee is the major infectious insect causing a great damage to plants. BSFB generally depends on brinjal but it may infest other solanaceous field crops and may be on wild hosts. The insect has been reported a number of crops such as S. tuberosum (potato), S. lycopersicum and some other Solanaceous crops. The damage by this borer starts at seedling stage and continues till the last harvest of fruits. Egg-laying occurs during night and incubation period ranges from 3-8 days depending of environmental conditions. Larval period completes in 12-22 days depending upon environmental situations and passes through five instars. Full grown larvae pupate into the soil or under plant debris and dropped dead shoots. Adult of BSFB is a whitish moth which hides during day time and activates from dusk to perform various activities like mating oviposition. Larvae bore into fruits and shoots and in younger plants, caterpillars drill into midrib of large leaves. At the time of maturity, damage of the insect on fruits causes a serious loss in yield.
Title: Mental Health of Farmers – Need of the Hour Abstract :
Farmers are presently facing tough times. Farming is hard physical labour from morning to evening. Managing a farm can lead to monetary stress, anxiety, depression, financial ruin, marital strife, and addiction. The mental health message should reach not only to the farmers but also to the bankers, extension workers, counsellors and veterinarians. Farmers face a number of challenges when it comes to their mental health. Farming can create stress that can seriously impact the farmer’s well being. Some of the behavioural signs due to stress in farming are loss of interest in social activities, poor concentration, confusion, forgetfulness, indecision, impatience in relationships, irritability, and withdrawal from society. Some of the physical symptoms are poor or disturbed sleep, weight loss or gain, changes in appetite, stomach upset, headache, and chest pain. In farms and rural areas issues of mental health are often ignored. The present is not an easy time to be in agriculture. Low commodity prices and mounting input costs are resulting in poor returns from farming. This has led to mental stress amongst farmers, which when unaddressed can lead to serious consequences in the farming community. Farmers and their families facing high levels of stress get into depression and even nourish suicidal thoughts. In rural areas, there is a paucity of mental health professionals who are culturally competent to serve farmers. In times of great stress, farmers need someone to talk to and get advice from. It can make all the difference in sorting out during troubled situations. Extension workers and advisors should understand the mental well being of farmers. Social activities must be encouraged and avenues for entertainment must be created in rural areas for farmers to get away from farm stress.
Title: Growth and Instability Analysis of Area, Production and Productivity of Paddy in Kerala, with Special Reference to “The Kerala Conservation of Paddy Land and Wetland Act, 2008.” Abstract :
Rice is the staple food of Keralites. Kerala climate is well suited for wetland paddy cultivation. However, the paddy land in Kerala is decreasing over years. The Kerala conservation of paddy land and wetland Act, 2008 made a slight change in this decadal decreasing trend. In this study, Bai-Perron test identified a structural break in area, production and productivity during 2007-08 and 2009-10, which could be associated to the conservation act. The compound annual growth rate for area and production was found to be negative. The growth in area diminished before and after the break, but the diminishing rate was less after the break (-2.52%) than the period before the break date (-4.40%). So, as in the case of production. Productivity showed a positive growth rate for the overall period. Instability in production was high after the break date, whereas, instability in area remained almost same for both before and after the break dates. Exponential growth model was used for forecasting. The forecasted area and production up to 2030 showed a declining trend. The forecasted results on area showed that there will be a decline of around 36,444 ha in another 12 years. Similarly, the production will also come down to 3,70,795 t.
Title: Calibration and Validation of CERES-Wheat Model in North Eastern Plain Zone (NEPZ) of India Abstract :
The crop growth model DSSAT (Decision Support Systems for Agrotechnology Transfer) used to simulate the weather parameters impacts on crop growth and yield. The experiment was conducted on Wheat crop in North Eastern Plain Zone of India. The main objective of the study was to evaluate wheat phenological stages and yield in major wheat growing zone of India. Among the parameters of the crop Yield and Days of flowering has been used for calibration and validation purpose. For the study CERES - Wheat model was used for the calibration and validation. Different data sets were used for the calibration and validation of the model. Methods of deviation statistics like Index of Agreement (d), RMSE and NRMSE are used to measure the efficiency of the model. For Yield it shows (d), RMSE and NRMSE values 0.961,199.25 and 5.17 respectively and for Days of flowering it shows (d), (RMSE) and NRMSE values are 0.970, 4.37 and 4.35 respectively. Study results shows that model is adequate to simulate the effects of climate change on wheat yield in North Eastern Plain Zone of India that are free from all pests. The model may also be used to improve and evaluate the current practices of wheat growth management to enhance wheat production.
Title: Studies on Induction of Somaclonal Variation in Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and Validation of Mutant Using Molecular Markers Abstract :
Sugarcane is a perennial grass of the family Poaceae, primarily cultivated for its juice from which sugar is processed. Sugarcane yields are declining due to varietal degeneration and susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses. Smut of sugarcane is one of them, the disease can cause significant losses in cane tonnage and juice quality. As development of superior sugarcane varieties through conventional hybridization program is time consuming and has the problem of transfer of undesirable characters/traits into the newly developed hybrids/variety. In this connection, attempts were made to introduce genetic variability in sugarcane by in vitro culture techniques and mutation breeding. Induction of somaclonal variation is one of them which is described as the genetic variability present among cultured cells, plants derived from such cells or progeny of such plants. The treatment, MS medium supplemented with 3 mgl-1 2,4-D found most suitable for callus induction and multiplication. The callus on application of EMS become pinkish brown in colour, shoot regeneration from callus cells was high in MS medium supplemented with 3 mgl-1 BAP gave dark gray or brown and sticky callus. Molecular analysis of somaclonal mutants showed by primers polymorphism of DNA bands on validating with molecular markers viz. RAPD and ISSR markers gave 100 per cent polymorphism by two RAPD primers named OPA-01 and OPA-02 showed that out of 17 DNA samples of mutants considered, all were showing variations but one DNA sample was showing similarity with mother plant. The present investigation reports the study induction of somaclonal variation in Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and validation of mutant using molecular markers in variety Co261.
Title: Evaluation of Matrix Effect of Chilli, Cabbage and Bitter Gourd in Multiclass Multi-pesticide Residue Analysis Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Abstract :
Matrix effect of twenty three (23) multi-class pesticides in three different vegetables (Bitter gourd, Chilli, Cabbage) was evaluated using modified QuEChERS [Quick (Qu), Easy (E), Cheap (Ch), Effective (E), Rugged (R) and Safe (S)] coupled with GC-MS analysis. Validation parameters (linearity, LOD, LOQ, accuracy and precision) were determined for multi-residue analysis. The Horwitz ratio was used to explain for intra-laboratory precision. The matrix effect (% ME) for each pesticide in each vegetable was assessed based on the study of slope ratio of linearity curves obtained from solvent and respective vegetable matrix. Most of the compounds had positive matrix effect and cabbage was found to be the least sensitive matrix compared to others. Recovery study was carried out fortifying pesticide mixture prepared from both pure solvent and matrix. The values of recovery percentages were satisfactory when calculated with matrix matched standard mixture (79% to 108%), with an acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD) (<20%). The results of the present study truly revealed the influence of matrix in pesticide residue estimation.