Title: Assessment of Groundwater Potential Zones of Tons Basin Using Spatial Data Abstract :
The Tons basin is the subbasin of the river Ganga having its geographical extent of 80°18’ to 83°20’ east longitude and 23°58’ to 25°17’ north latitudes of the country. The major river in this sub-basin. Tons is the longest tributary of Yamuna river. Total basin area in Madhya Pradesh is 11974 km². Total land put to use for agriculture purpose in Tons basin is 8460 km². State of Madhya Pradesh has varied hydrogeological characteristics due to which ground water potential differs from place to place. An attempt has been made to delineate the groundwater potential zone of the Tons basin using spatial data. For delineation of groundwater potential zones, thematic maps of different governing themes of groundwater potential zone such as geology, drainage, drainage density, Land use/Land cover, slope, soil texture have been created to their relative importance. A multicriteria decision analysis technique i.e., Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) technique have been used for the probable weightage of different governing themes. Weighted index overlay analysis tool in ArcGIS 10.3 have been used for the creation for groundwater potential zone. The resultant map demonstrates possible groundwater potential zone of the Tons basin under three categories such as Good groundwater potential, moderate groundwater potential and poor groundwater potential. From the study it was concluded that, delineation of groundwater potential zones helpful for the information of groundwater prospective zone, extraction and development of groundwater and better planning and management.
Title: Morphometric Analysis and Prioritization of Sub Watersheds of Umar Nala Watershed, Madhya Pradesh Using Geospatial Technique Abstract :
Morphometric analysis and thereby prioritization of watersheds have gained significant importance in land and water resources management. In this study an attempt has been made to prioritize sub-watersheds based on morphometric analysis using geospatial techniques in Umar Nala watershed of Narsinghpur district, of Madhya Pradesh. Morphometric parameters, considered for the present study are stream frequency (Sf), drainage density (Dd), texture ratio (T), elongation ratio (Re), circulatory ratio (Rc), form factor (Rf), bifurcation ratio (Rb) and relief ratio (Rh). These parameters were estimated for each sub-watershed then ranks were assigned for prioritization of sub-watersheds on the basis of value/relationship to arrive at a computed value for final ranking of the sub-watersheds. On the basis of morphometric parameters determined in GIS environment and then applying standard formulae prioritization among seventeen sub watersheds of Umar Nala, sub watershed no 10 is on top priority among seventeen sub watersheds for further soil and water conservations measures to be taken in the watershed.
Title: Urban Rooftop Area Assessment for Estimation of Rooftop Rainwater-Harvesting Potential Abstract :
Rooftop water conservation is a promising technique for sustainable water resource management especially in urban areas. The tedious available roof top area estimation can be made easy with advances in geospatial technologies. The present study taken up to develop the roofing layer to estimate potential rooftop area from high resolution satellite imagery (1 m) i.e., Google earth Pro in GIS environment. The roof surfaces are considered as the micro catchments and GIS is employed to calculate the area of various types of roofs and their potential for planning of water harvest. The results are validated for errors in digitization by ground-truthing against 112 household systems through manual measurement. It is also attempted to identify the type of the roof to know the quality of the harvested water. The annual rainfall was analyzed to quantify the potential of the rainwater harvesting. The results of this study will demonstrate the Application capability of Google Earth Pro and GIS in estimating rainwater harvesting potential to tackle the prevailing water shortage. The estimated total roofing area is 818565.53 sq. m. The results of the study revealed the huge potential of 71.154 cubic meter with 1 mm of uniform distribution of rainwater over the roof tops.
Title: Development of Circular Flumes for Low Discharges Using Critical Flow Concept Abstract :
In the water scarce situation, measurement of flow in open channel reduce the pressure on water resources and promotes the better utilization of water. The present study aimed at developing critical flow circular flume with rectangular centre contraction. The circular flume was designed by placing rectangular block in a U- shaped channel. Six flumes were fabricated with different contractions and throat lengths (30%, 40% and 50% contractions and 15 cm and 30 cm throat lengths). Water surface profiles were collected for four discharges (6, 9, 12 and 15 Lps). Critical depths were computed and located on the water surface profiles. The study revealed that the critical flow conditions occurred at 15, 12 Lps in all six flumes. At low discharges and low contractions critical flow conditions not occurred in the throat. The head discharge equations were derived the computed discharges are compared with the actual discharges. The highest deviation observed in case of Flume -1 (-8.344%). 90 % of the errors are within the range of ± 5%.
Title: Effect of Weather Parameters on Seed Production of
Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var botrytis L.) Abstract :
The study on the effect of weather parameters on cauliflower seed production was conducted at three locations viz; Nauni, Saproon and Kandaghat during rabi season of 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 in Solan district of Himachal Pradesh. The location Nauni was warmest, followed by Kandaghat and Saproon. Significant variations in seed yield and yield contributing characters of cauliflower were observed due to execution of different weather conditions. The minimum number of days to initiation of seed stalk, flower initiation, 50 per cent flowering, and seed set in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var botrytis L.) were observed at Nauni, followed by Kandaghat and Saproon. Number of pods per plant and number of seeds per pod were found highest at Saproon (1055.2pods/plant; 18.4seeds/pod) which is coolest location as compared to other two. The maximum seed yield (239.6 kg/ha) was obtained from this location. Nauni and Kandaghat showed reduced seed yield compared to that obtained from Saproon. The lowest seed yield (174.0 kg/ha) was recorded at Nauni. The forenoon humidity during October to December exhibited significant and positive correlation with seed yield. During January to March minimum temperature showed significant and positive correlation with seed yield during April to June.
Title: Morphological Variation and Genetic Diversity in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Using Agro-morphic Traits Abstract :
The objective of the study was to assess the morphological variation and genetic divergence among carnation accessions based on agro-morphic traits. Analysis of variance indicated significant difference among the genotypes for different agro-morphological traits. The cultivar Rebra had maximum plant height, stem length, leaf pair per stem while earlier bud appearance was found in cultivar Tabor. Maximum days took to bud appearance exhibited by cultivar Niva. The minimum days taken to bud opening were observed in Irene and maximum days took to bud opening found in cv. Baltico. The maximum flower duration was recorded in cv. Irene and the minimum flower duration exhibited by cv. Kazhrela. Cultivar Rebra produced larger flower while, cv. Jureno gave smaller flower. On the basis of D2 analysis, the 25 genotypes could be grouped into 3 clusters. Cluster II accommodated highest number of 11 genotypes, followed by, cluster I with having 10 genotypes and cluster III contained 4 genotypes only. The maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster III and I followed by, cluster III and II) and minimum inter-cluster distance showed between cluster II and I. As far as the cluster means are concerned, genotypes consisted in cluster II had highest mean value of plant height, stem length, flower duration and flower diameter while some genotypes showed higher mean value for the characters like earlier bud emergence in cluster II and cluster I. Therefore, a hybridization programme may be initiated involving the genotypes belonging to diverse clusters with high mean for almost all the component characters.
Title: Studies on the Effect of Different Types of Feeding on the Commercial Characters of Mulberry Silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) in West Bengal: A Review Abstract :
The silkworm Bombyx mori is essentially monophagous and survives solely on the mulberry leaves (Morus spp.). Mulberry is a highly heterozygous and vegetatively propagated species that is prone to prolonged juvenile period. Since the quality of silk production is directly proportional to the quality of leaves used as the exclusive feed for these worms, leaf quality is of utmost importance in sericulture. The quality of leaves is reported to depend upon age of leaf on the shoot, succulency and nutrient content. The nutrient contents of mulberry leaves are known to vary according to the season, variety, age, type of harvesting. In addition, feeding with mixed varieties leaves and feeding frequencies are also known to influence the health of the silk worms. The present review paper discusses in details about the effects of different types of feeding on the commercial characteristics of mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori L) in West Bengal.
Title: Nonparametric Measures of Stability Analysis Compared as
Per BLUP & BLUE of Wheat Genotypes for Central Zone of
Country Abstract :
Stability for wheat genotypes had been compared in Central Zone of the country as per the BLUP and BLUE of yield values. Measures based on ranks of BLUP for 2015-16 i.e. Sis identified G1, G5, G7, G6. Corrected yield measures CSi s pointed towards G1, G2, G5, G6. Values of NPi (s) identified G1, G2, G7. Overall similarity among non-parametric measures tested by Kendall’s coefficient of concordance. Positive correlations of Sis, CSis & NPi
(s) observed with other measures. Biplot analysis exhibited cluster of CVwith CCV, Si1, Si2, Si4, Si5, Si7 , Si3, Si6, NPi(2), NPi(3) & NPi(4). Based on BLUE’s of genotypes, Sis found G1, G7,G4, G5 while CSis identified G5, G4, G2 as opposed to G7, G1, G4 genotypes as by values NPi(s). Positiveand negative correlations exhibited by Sis, CSis & NPi(s) with the measures. Biplot analysis observed large cluster comprised of Yield with GAI, NPi(2), NPi(3), NPi(4), Si1, Si2, Si4Si3, Si5, Si6 measures. Second year of study(2017-18) as per BLUP’s seen, Sis settled for G8, G7, G2 genotypes. While NPi(s) settled for G1, G2, G8, G5. Negative correlations of yield had been observed with MR, CV, Med, NPi(2), NPi(3), NPi(4) while positive with GAI, CMR, CSi6. Measure CV expressed affinity with NPi(2), NPi(3) & NPi(4), SD, Si3, Si6, Si1, Si2, Si4, Si5,Si7 in Biplot analysis.. Measures Sis as per BLUE’s pointed towards G2, G5,G8, G7 whereas CSis settled for G6, G8, G7. . Wheat genotypes G8, G2, G7, G5 favoured by least values of NPi(s). Positive correlation Sis,CSis & NPi(s) with others. Large cluster of CCV, CSD, NPi(1), Si1, Si2, Si4, CSi1, CSi2, CSi3, CSi4, CSi5, CSi6, CSi7 and Z1measures.
Title: Bioindicator Emerged as a Potential Environmental Marker Abstract :
In the era of modern science and new technology, mankind is adopting new and novel approaches to deal with the problems. The high population density and urbanization has changed our environment to a polluted one. Its not easy to deal with this problem with complex and costly equipment. Bioindicators are playing a major role in reducing the pollution and to check it timely without any environmental hazard. Bioindicators are the living organism which facilitate in reduction of the environmental pollution. They directly or indirectly determine the amount of pollutants and contaminants present in our ecosystem. They rapidly react to their surrounding environment and give us early warning. These can be used for indexing the health of the ecosystem as well as balancing the ecosystem without any disturbance in food chain. Biomonitoring is one of the promising and cost-effective methods as compared to other techniques. More researches are highly needed to explore the hidden characteristics and many more new species which will help us to build a better and safe environment.
Title: Impact of Front Line Demonstrations on the Yield and Economics of Black Gram in Rabi Rice Fallows in Krishna District of Andhra Pradesh Abstract :
In the year 2016-17 Cluster front line demonstrations (CFLDs) were organised in 40 Ha, in 2017-18 in 50 Ha and in 2018-19 it was done in 50 hectares. All the critical inputs were provided to the farmers free of cost. In Andhra Pradesh, the average yield of black gram was 8.0 qt./Ha and average yield of Krishna district was 10.3 qt/Ha, a potential pulse producing district in the state and the potential yield is 15 qt/Ha. Extension activities viz., training programmes, method demonstrations, field visits and group discussion were organised to create awareness on the latest technologies and skill component involved. The average data for all three years indicate that in the demonstrated plots the average yield was 14.3 qt/ha compared to 12.8 qt/ha in the farmers practice fields. The cost of cultivation was also reduced in the demonstrated plots (` 23110.00 per hectare) compared to farmers practice pots (` 28900) indicating a reduction, resulted in improving the net income of the farmers in the demonstration plots. There is a increase in the net income in demonstrated plots to the tune of ` 11965.00 per hectare and the cost benefit ratio was also greatly improved from 2 to 3 in the demonstrated plots.
Title: Extent of Adoption of Sweet Corn Cultivation in South Eastern Ghat Zone of Odisha Abstract :
Sweet corn is becoming very popular in different parts of the country. The present study was conducted during 2019-20 in two blocks of Malkangiri district comprising 120 numbers of farmers from four adopted villages of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Malkangiri in South Eastern Ghat Zone of Odisha. In previous years (2017-18 and 2018-19) KVK, Malkangiri has conducted FLD programmes on sweet corn cultivation by providing the critical inputs with support of production technologies. Conducting front line demonstrations on farmer’s field help to identify potential of the sweet corn in specific area as well as it helps in improving the economic and social status of the farmers. The ex-post facto research design was used for the study. Majority of the respondents (83.3%) were found to possess medium to high level of adoption behavior regarding different recommended package and practices about sweet corn cultivation. It means that the respondents were more energetic, progressive and adopting the sweet corn as cash crop keeping the market demand in mind and practicing the technologies for better production and higher net return. The study revealed that socio- economic variable like education, extension contact, communication material used and holding size were the pertinent variables exhibiting influence towards adoption behaviour of the respondents. Different extension agencies like KVK, ATMA, NGO’s of the district need to provide more technical support to the farmers for increase in area and production of sweet corn.
Title: Study of Root and Stem Rot Pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) in Different Culture Media, Host Range and Effect of Weather Parameters on Disease Incidence Abstract :
Root and stem rot of cowpea caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important problems for farmers among the coastal regions of Odisha. Keeping this in view, the behavioural study of the pathogen was done by studying its growth pattern in different culture media and host medium. Among five different media, Potato dextrose agar (90.00 mm) was found to support the maximum radial growth followed by Sabouraud’s dextrose agar medium (87.90 mm), Potato dextrose rose Bengal agar (82.40 mm), Oat meal agar (76.60 mm) and Malt extract agar (70.98 mm). In study of meteorological parameters in relation to disease development the maximum incidence was recorded in October at a maximum temperature of 32.7oC, minimum temperature 22.9 oC accompanied by night RH 92% and day RH 64%. However, weather parameters under study did not yield any significant effect on disease development. However, the soil factors like sandy loam textured soil and acidic to neutral PH contributed towards this soil borne disease. Among host range studies, Rhizoctonia solani isolated from cowpea could infect rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), chilli (Capsicum annum), brinjal (Solanum melongena), field pea (Pisum sativum), cucumber (Cucumissataivus), bengalgram (Cicer arietinum), arhar (Cajanus cajan), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and groundnut (Arachis hypogea) in addition to its own host.
Title: Over view of Septoria Diseases on Different Crops and its Management Abstract :
Septoria is one of the major emerging pathogen of diverse plant families and has been reported from all over the world. It is the one of the major foliar disease which infects total shoot system and growing stage of plants (mostly Solanaceaceous crops). However, important fungal disease such as Septoria leaf spot caused by the fungal pathogen Septoria lycopersici is well known and not only restricted in Solanaceae. This fungal pathogen spreads rapidly and effected in any stage of development which ultimately causes quick defoliation and weakening of infecting part, rendering them unable to bear fruit tends to maturity. At the initial stage of infection symptoms appear as circular and angular lesions most commonly found on the older, lower leaves of the plant. The lesions contain pycnidia in the centre of spot in leaves to identify the pathogen of this region. This pycnidia are fruiting body of the fungus. When the lesions are more numerous often the leaves turn yellow, then brown shrivel up and eventually drooping of plant altogether, this fungal spores spread to healthy leaves by windblown, rain splashes, through irrigated water, mechanical transmission and through the activities of insects such as aphids, beetles etc. Septoria become more severe during warm, wet, humid periods and develops within four to five days from the date of transmission. In favorable time Septoria infects various cultivated and non cultivated crops but with the coming of unfavorable condition it retains in plant debris or body of secondary host round the season.