Title: Genetic Divergence and GGE Bi-plot Analysis of Multienvironment Trial Data of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to Identify “Ideal” Genotype Abstract :
The present research revealed the study of genetic divergence and genotype (G) main effect and genotype by the environment (GE) interaction (G × GE) bi-plot analysis for multi-environmental trial data using yield data of three years. Since, genotypes were planted in 2017 in two dates like early and lates own condition hence, there was very slight differences in their yield so both the environments come together as compared to third environment (2018) which for from the two locations of year 2017. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of genotype, environment and their interaction on grain yield and to identify stable barley genotypes. The field experiment comprising of 69 barley genotypes laid out in a Randomized Block Design with three replications during Rabi 2016-2017. The extent of genetic variability, association between yield and yield components, frequency distribution of 25 top best genotypes in response to yield in three different environments, yield stability analysis and genetic diversity was studied. For stability analysis yield data of current year for one location and yield data of two locations/environments of previous year have been used. Field observations were recorded on six important characters days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, effective tillers per plant, plant height with awn, plant height without awn and 1000 grain weight (g). The result of bi-plot analysis using yield data of three years revealed that AXIS1 explained 57.6 per cent variation while AXIS2 was explained 31.07 per cent variation. Since, genotypes were planted in 2017 in two dates like early and late sown condition hence, there was very slight differences in their yield so both the environments come together (Figure1) as compared to third environment (2018) which for from the two locations of year 2017. Our result indicate that line G69 recommended as most stable genotype for yield potential and stability whereas lines G9, G55, G67 and G68 were consider as superior genotypes.
Title: Constraints Faced by Orange Growers about Production and
Marketing Orange Abstract :
The oranges created in Amravati district possessed the biggest share of oranges within the Vidarbha orange market. The orange crop plays a vital role within the economy of the region. Among the fruit crops, orange crop covers about 45,226 ha area in Vidarbha. There is still a good potential toward bringing a lot of area below orange in Vidarbha region. The present paper analyses the information behaviour of orange growers concerning the production of the oranges. The various types of constraints confronted by the orange grower related to production of orange are rootstock availability, labour availability, manures and fertilizers, irrigation, plant protection, capital, availability of loan from co-operative society, technical information, use of growth regulator, supporting and constraints confronted by the orange grower related to marketing of orange are Grading, Transportation, Sale of produce, Packaging, Storage. The study was conducted in the purposively selected Amravati district of the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state. Five Panchayat Samities from Amravati district were hand-picked purposively covering ten villages from every Panchayat Samiti. Thus, a total of 50 villages and five orange growers from each selected village was selected 250 orange growers constituted the sample size for the present investigation. The main objective of the present paper is to analyze the constraints faced by orange growers in the Amravati District of Maharashtra. Study findings indicated that the orange growers were non-availability of rootstock, high cost of rootstock and fertilizers, uncertainty of electricity supply and difficulties in getting loan were major constraints faced by the farmers which are related to the production. Lack of transport facilities, non-establishment of processing units, and high cost of packing material and non-availability of storage facilities in nearby markets were the major constraints about marketing on orange.
Title: Influential Factors on Customer Satisfaction: Case of Branded Fast Food Outlet in Jammu City Abstract :
The paper entitled “Influential Factors on Customer Satisfaction: Case of Branded Fast Food Outlet in Jammu City” was carried out in Jammu city of J&K (UT). The research adopted a convenience sampling technique to carry out the survey. The primary data was collected from 100 respondents by filling up the pre-tested schedule-cum-questionnaire. The major findings of the study show that the factors like hospitality, advertisement, and price of the food at the branded retail outlets influence the overall customer satisfaction.
Title: GPS and Sensor Based Technologies in Variable Rate Fertilizer Application Abstract :
With an average consumption of 165.8 kg per hectare, India stands as the third-largest producer and consumer of fertilizer in the world. Farmers practice traditional methods to apply fertilizers uniformly throughout the field. This uniform and constant rate application of fertilizer is inefficient and mostly leads to over-fertilizing certain areas and at the same time, under-fertilizing others, not meeting the actual nutrient demand. Variable-rate fertilizer application (VRFA) is the process of applying various rates of crop nutrients by synchronizing existing machinery with mechatronics according to the variability within any agricultural field. One such effort are to be made to develop VRFA systems to meet the soil and plant needs. A variable rate fertilizer application (VRFA) system based on a digital map was developed in Kharagpur and achieved an appreciable target application rate at selected grid points (Chandel et al., 2016). The system was effective, accurate and showed quick response to target application rates with a negligible time lag. The coefficient of variation at all the outlets was in the range of 11.7–15.0 percent. The system was able to meet the target fertilizer application rate with a variation of up to 15 percent for a grid resolution of 8×8 m. Another VRFA system was developed for controlling the amount of fertilizer that works by measuring the NDVI of crops using an optical sensor (Zhang et al. 2014). This type of VRFA system does not use prescription maps but relies on sensors to provide real-time crop detection. The coefficient of variation was ranging from 0.35 to 2.67 percent and elapsed a response time of less than 0.875 s. The system helps in maintaining desired application rate by making real-time adjustments with on-the-go monitoring. It is revealed that the use of VRFA system helped to improve input use efficiency and decrease the negative effect on the environment. Thus, it is a promising technology through which the performance of a unit area could be tracked, mapped and analyzed. Also, the farmer will be able to know the exact production of each part of the field.
Title: Comparison of Fenugreek Crop Evapotranspiration Measured
by a Micro-lysimeter, Field Water Balance Method and
Automatic Closed Canopy Chamber Abstract :
The attempt was to design and develop an automatic closed canopy chamber (ACCC) having dimension of 1.2 m×1.2 m× 1.2 m for crop evapotranspiration measurement by using transparent acrylic sheet of 4 mm thickness. Between two small fans a temperature and relative humidity sensor was used to measure vapor density. The intermediate circuit was developed for making automation system in ACCC. The arduino based coding was developed as per desired logic operation. The top lead of chamber was automatically closed for 2 minutes when inside and outside temperature and relative humidity of ambient air were similar. During measurement mode of ACCC, the two fans were started automatically. After measurement mode, fans were automatically stopped and top lead was opened. The ACCC was calibrated by evaporating mass of water from water filled tray which was placed inside the automatic closed canopy chamber. The validation of the developed ACCC were made using micro-lysimeters (MLS ) having size of 0.2 m × 0.2 m × 0.2 m by growing shallow rooted crop like fenugreek. The depth of irrigation was computed based on soil moisture content before irrigation and field capacity. The field testing of ACCC was made by placing chamber in plots of fenugreek crop. The irrigation was applied by drip irrigation as per crop water consumption. The sensor sensed and recorded the instantaneous temperature and relative humidity at 1 second interval for 24 hours. Two sample t-tests were done to compare the data pair of crop evapotranspiration obtained by the MLS inside the ACCC with that of outside the ACCC to ascertain whether there is any effect of the change in micro-climate for a short period of 2 minute on the crop growth physiological processes. Also, the data pair of crop evapotranspiration measured by the MLs, ACCC using the sensor data of temperature-relative humidity were compared and statistically analyzed through t-test. Similarly, the data pair of ETC measured by the FWB (Field Water Balance Method) and ACCC using the sensor data of temperature-relative humidity were also compared and statistically analyzed through t-test. The calibration factor of the ACCC was found as 1.666. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the crop evapotranspiration measured by the MLs inside and outside ACCC. Also in case of validation and field testing of ACCC, there were no significant difference between the ETC measured by the ACCC, MLs and FWB at 95 percent confidence level. This implies that there are no effects of the change in micro-climate for a short period of 2 minutes in the chamber, on the plant physiological processes. The ETc rate of fenugreek increases as sun rises and reaches the peak after one to two hour from mid-day and then continuously decreases with time. During validation and field testing of ACCC, the fenugreek crop coefficients varied from 0.72 to 1.04 and 0.69 to 1.02 respectively. The developed ACCC is portable as well as more comfortable and cost effective compared to the lysimeter for the measurement of the actual crop evapotranspiration and the crop coefficient
Title: Forecasting of Rice Production using the Meteorological
Factor in Major States in India and its Role in Food Security Abstract :
The world as well as in India, rice is playing a major role in food security. Production factors (like rainfall, minimum temperature, fertilizer consumption, an area under irrigation for a particular crop) are very crucial for crop productivity. Forecasting is always important for policy implication and planning purposes of the country. In the present investigation, the projection has been made using simple ARIMA and ARIMAX (with the inclusion of crop inputs in ARIMA models). In terms of less error in model and projection, wise ARIMAX model was found better compared to simple ARIMA. In this present study, forecasting has been attempted with the inclusion of meteorological factors using ARIMA modeling up to the year 2022. This study reveals the future trend of rice production as well as a factor affecting productivity. Among the major states, West Bengal would lead the state in India in rice production, with a productivity of 4758 kg/ha, while Punjab will be the leader in productivity in the year 2022. This prediction would be helpful for policy implication and food security of the country
Title: Role of Rhizobium on Growth and Development of Groundnut:
A Review Abstract :
To fulfill the demand of increased population it is very essential to enhance crop productivity with precise inputs. Non-judicious application of inorganic fertilizers and other agrochemicals is degrading soil health, creating environmental pollution and also contributing to climate change. Nowadays, people became more aware towards health risks and demand for quality foods with less chemical residues is increasing as there is a progression of demand for organic products. But it is very difficult to produce adequate quantity of organic foods for the raised population in the developing countries as per standard organic practices. That’s why judicious use of inorganic fertilizers, organic manures and biofertilizers is required to supply nutrients to crops. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), such as Rhizobium inoculation in groundnut (a major oilseed crop) can boost crop growth and enhance yield in a sustainable manner. Further, Rhizobium has multifaceted advantages in crop nutrient uptake and soil quality improvement. The article described the role of PGPR as well as Rhizobium in growth and productivity of groundnut towards production sustainability.
Title: Evaluation of Maize (Zea mays L.) Varieties for Moisture Stress Areas in Humbo District, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia Abstract :
Maize is a priority crop to farmers because it is a staple food in many rural communities of the southern region. It is widely grown in the various parts of the southern region, from lowland to mid-highlands. On the other hand, moisture stress is one of the most critical production constraints of maize in low to intermediate agroecology. Thus, developing maize varieties tolerant to moisture is of paramount importance to sustain maize production in moisture areas. In this context, field experiments were conducted during 201617 croppings at Kindo Koyisha and Humbo to select adaptable maize varieties for moisture stress areas with reasonable grain yield. Treatments used in this study were eight maize varieties (BH546, BH547, Gibe II, MH130, Melkasa IV, MH140, Melkasa II, and Melkasa 6Q) and three local cultivars (Local red, Local mixed, and Local white) of the total of eleven maize genotypes were evaluated at two moisture-prone areas in southern Ethiopia. Treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Maize varieties exhibited different performances at two tested locations. The varieties had the relatively superior performance of Kindo Koyisha as compared to Humbo. The Humbo varieties MH140, MH130, BH546, and Melkasa IV, have yielded relatively higher grain than the rest of the areas. At the same time, the Kindo Koyisha maize varieties expressed relatively better performance concerning grain yield. It has been recorded that the varieties with superior performance with sounding grain yield were BH546, MH140, BH547, and MH130 in these locations. Based on this result, BH546, MH140, and MH130 could be used at both locations. Moreover, BH547 at Bale and Melkasa IV at Humbo also be used in respective locations for production.
Title: Quantification and Diminution of Quercus semecarpifolia
Forests Ecosystem Services in Himalayan Region- An Overview Abstract :
The genus Quercus comprises very important tree species of the Himalayan forests. Oaks are crucial for a multitude of ecosystem services and livelihood support services reaped by the locals in the Himalayan region. Quercus semecarpifolia is the oldest and dominating species of the Himalayan region. It is considered a lifeline for people of this region due to the wider range of ecosystem and livelihood services provided by it. But this species forest is depleting very rapidly in his region due to over dependency. Major cause of overexploitation is lopping for fodder and fuelwood. The present study attempted to Quantify, recognize, and group the ecosystem services provided by Q. semecarpifolia. Further, certain factors responsible for regular shrinkage of Q. semecarpifolia forests were also addressed.
Title: Impact of Air Pollutants on Agricultural Crops Abstract :
History of mankind has witnessed transformation in form of industrialization, urbanization and motorized transport in the past. These all had made the life easier for human but these also led to increase in level of pollutants in the atmosphere. These pollutants have cascading impact on agriculture. The impact of some of the major pollutants such as SO2 , NOx and ozone is in the form of production of ROS, reduced photosynthesis and energy metabolism. The aerosol and particulate matter pollution also leads to reduced transpiration which raises the canopy temperature and also disturbs the water and nutrient uptake by the crop plants. To date most of the pollution related studies, especially in developing countries, are restricted to its impact on urban areas and human health. It is needed to extend these studies to impact of air pollution on agriculture. In this paper we have discussed the various mechanisms through which the pollutants act on the crop plants and their impact on yield.
Title: Impact of Agro Technology on Socio-economic Condition of
the Farming Groups at Jagannathpur Abstract :
Agriculture is being highly technologized today; to sustain production and gain higher yields, farmers have to be updated regarding available technologies. As the land area is decreasing, there’s always a challenge to increase production and earn profit. Therefore, technological innovations also change farmers’ socio-economic conditions. Considering this, an interview on three categories (landless, marginal, small) of 15 farmers was conducted at the Jagannathpur union of Kumarkhali upazilla under the Kushtia district to investigate the socio-economic status, problems in crop production, potentials, limitations of rural development and adoption extent of modern agricultural technologies. Outcomes expressed that, a major source of annual income (1,20,800 Tk) of landless farmers were from non-agricultural works; contrary, marginal (2,89,000 Tk) and small (3,89,200 Tk) farmers’ prime source of income was from agricultural origins. It was a positive sign that all categories of farm families spent a good sum of money for educating children immediately after food expenditure. All the farmers had drinking water, electricity and hygienic toilet facilities at their dwelling house. The problem confrontation index (PCI) of rural development was highest in lack of capital (36). Physical and social PCI was identified as limited natural resources (32) and reduction of croplands (28), respectively. Concerning technology adoption, 14% used biofertilizer, 12% followed a modern model of vegetable production, 12% collected quality seeds, 10% exercised mulching, 10% used perching and 10% imitated seed preservation techniques. Top PCI for crop production was high input cost (36) followed by lack of technical knowledge (34). Most of the respondents agreed that agricultural production directly contributes to food security (34), increased nutrition (32) and financial safety (30).
Title: Effect of Integration of Seed Bio-priming and Inorganic
Fertilization on Soil Physico-chemical Properties of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Abstract :
Conventional agricultural practices rely on the immense application of agrochemicals that show detrimental effects on soil biota. Negative impacts on soil microbiota and enzymes that involve in nutrient cycles hinder nutrient availability. Application of plant growth-promoting microbes such as Trichoderma spp. can evade these hurdles by improving soil biodiversity and performance of the crop. A pot culture experiment was conducted during two consecutive years (2018 and 2019) to figure out the effect of different doses of fertilizers and seed bio-priming with Trichoderma asperellum BHUT8 in sunflower (PAC334) on soil chemical properties. Results showed that the initial soil reaction was slightly alkaline that tend towards neutral with seed bio-priming. The electrical conductivity of soil in both seasons varied randomly among imposed treatments. Soil cation exchange capacity, which permits the soil to hold all essential nutrients, was enhanced 4% with the supply of 70% recommended dose of fertilizer and seed bio-priming. Soil available nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium were found maximum in the treatments supplied with Trichoderma through seed bio-priming. Inoculation of Trichoderma showed positive effects on soil chemical properties and reduced the requirement of inorganic fertilizers.