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Title: Pathology of Mycotic Tracheitis in Poultry
Abstract :

A case of mycotic tracheitis in an adult Rhode Island Red bird of about 20 weeks of age is described here. The bird had a history of dyspnoea, gasping and was dull prior to death. On postmortem examination lungs showed multiple circumscribed granulomatous nodules in the lungs and the trachea was occluded with caseous plugs. Microscopically there were fungal hyphae penetrating the tracheal mucosa together with a caseative plug having central necrotic mass adhering to the tracheal wall, foci of severe congestion and hemorrhage, fungal granuloma surrounded by mononuclear cell infiltration, giant cell, fungal hyphae and fibrous tissues were recorded. The fungal hyphae were also demonstrated by Grocott’s methanamine silver stain.

Title: Effectiveness and Performance of “Sexcel” - ABS Sexed Semen, in Dairy Heifers, Cows and Buffaloes in Field conditions in different Agro-Climatic Zones of India
Abstract :

To analyse the effect of sexed semen on different breeds used in artificial insemination following study was conducted using sexed semen from seven different breeds for artificial insemination in females. All bulls used for sexing by ABS India were genomically tested for Holstein and Jersey breeds. A total of 3034 inseminations with Sexcel were performed with 2589 inseminations in dairy cows and 445 in buffaloes. The conception rate of sexed semen using confirmative pregnancy diagnosis (using peri rectal examination) at 90 days post insemination both in cows and buffaloes was recorded. Sex of the calf was recorded after the birth in each case. The results of conception rate (CR) and pregnancy rate evaluation in different breeds were recorded. The results revealed the average conception rate of Sexcel semen is 49.1% (ranging from 45.1 to 55.3%) in cows and 42.7 % in buffaloes. These figures show a cumulative picture wherein sexed semen was used in animals of different parities (Both primiparous and pluriparous). The current study provides ample insights into the conception rate using sexed semen under various agro climatic conditions in different breeds. The study showed that sexed semen gives good conception in animals of one to three parities provided they are reproductively clean and possess good fertility.

Title: Growth Response of New Zealand White Rabbits to Dietary Probiotic and Vitamin C under Tropical Humid Climate
Abstract :

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing Lactobacillus casei and vitamin C on growth performance of New Zealand White rabbits affected by heat stress during summer seasons between March and May in Kerala state, India. Twenty four two month old rabbits (average body weight 0.91kg) were distributed to four groups of six rabbits each. The treatments were control group (C) fed basal diet alone, L group fed basal diet along with Lactobacillus casei (106 colony forming units per g of feed), V group fed basal diet along with ascorbic acid (200 mg per kg feed), and LV group fed basal diet along with L. casei and ascorbic acid at the same rate as in V and L. The Temperature humidity index (THI) values in the rabbitry and rabbit fecal cortisol values (n=6 per group) were estimated to assess the heat stress level in rabbits. As per THI values, animals were exposed to stress (THI > 27.8) in the afternoon hours during the entire experimental period. The V, L and VL rabbits had lower mean cortisol level than control during the period of very severe and severe heat stress (1-9th experimental week- March and April). The groups did not differ for body weights during the period of very severe and severe heat stress (March and April). The V, L and VL rabbits had similar 21 week final weights but those of the L and VL rabbits were 25.52% and 32.29% higher than the control. The rabbits in the V, L and VL group showed 38.51%, 49.19% and 61.13% (P<0.05) higher overall mean daily body weight gain and 23.89%, 31.48%, 40.33% higher overall mean feed efficiency than the control. Dietary supplementation of the probiotic or ascorbic acid did not affect (P>0.05) the overall feed intake. Cost of production (Rupees) per kilogram live weight on feed basis was lowest for VL animals followed by L and V animals respectively.

Title: Impact of Climate Change on Livestock Production: A Review
Abstract :

Climate change is seen as a major threat to the survival of many species, ecosystems and the sustainability of livestock production systems in many parts of the world. Green house gases (GHG) are released in the atmosphere both by natural sources and anthropogenic (human related) activities. An attempt has been made in this article to understand the contribution of ruminant livestock to climate change and to identify the mitigation strategies to reduce enteric methane emission in livestock. In Indian subcontinent, heat stress is the most important climatic stress. Heat stress adversely affecting productive and reproductive performance of livestock, and hence reducing the total area where high yielding dairy cattle may be economically reared. The livestock sector which will be a sufferer of climate change is itself a large source of methane emissions contributing about 18% of total enteric methane budget. Ruminant livestock such as cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats contributes the major proportion of total agricultural emission of methane .In India, although the emission rate per animal is much lower than the developed countries, due to vast livestock population the total annual methane emissions from Indian livestock ranged from 7.26 to 10.4 MT/year. In India more than 90% of the total methane emission from enteric fermentation is being contributed by the large ruminants (cattle and buffalo) and rest from small ruminants and others. Generally CH4 reduction strategies can be grouped under two broad categories such as management and nutritional strategies. Although the reduction in GHG emissions from livestock industries are seen as high priorities, strategies for reducing emissions should not reduce the economic viability of enterprises if they are to find industry acceptability.

Title: Effect of Minosel Tablet on Blood Parameters of Goat Kids Raised under Poor Maintenance and Nutrition
Abstract :

As vitamins and minerals had significant effects on growth, reproduction, yield and the immune systems of animals, present study is conducted to research the impact of Minosel oral tablets, a combination of vitamins and minerals, on certain blood parameters of goat kids raised under poor nutrition and maintenance conditions. The experiment was conducted in 20 kids of both sexs of 3-10 days of age having 2-5 kg of body weight and they were raised under poor nutritional and management conditions in Van. After the systematic clinical examinations of ill grown animals, blood samples from each animal Were collected before and after the administration of oral tablets for analysis of certain blood biochemical parameters viz. glucose, total protein, urea, ALP, ALT, AST, LDH, calcium, and vitamins A, D and E. Minosel oral tablets (Teknovet, Turkey) were orally administered to ill-grown animals. Vitamin D and vitamin E levels were found to be statistically significant (P<0.05) while other blood parameters were statistically insignificant (P>0.05). As a result, applying Minosel oral tablets prophylactically to newborn kids may cause some vitamin and mineral deficiencies; in order to repair the destruction of some tissues and organs, supplemental treatments may be needed in addition to these vitamins and minerals.

Title: Personal, Socio-Economic Characteristics of Dairy Animal Owners and their Relationship with Knowledge of Dairy Husbandry Practices in Surat District of Gujarat
Abstract :

To study the knowledge of dairy animal owners in improved dairy husbandry practices a field survey in Surat district was conducted during March, 2013 to January, 2014. Data were collected through personal interview from randomly selected 300 dairy animal owners from randomly selected five talukas out of nine talukas of Surat district with the help of pre-tested structured schedule. The present study revealed that majority of the dairy farmers were belonged middle to old age group, literate, nuclear type of family having more number of children making big size family. Majority of the respondents were from scheduled tribe and other backward category having medium level of extension contacts and mass media exposure with membership in one organization. Majority of the respondents were falling under marginal to small categories farmers with small herd size and they possessed agriculture and livestock as their livelihood. The education, caste, land holding, animal holding size, extension contact and mass media exposure of the respondents were positively and significantly related, whereas vocational diversification was negatively related with knowledge of dairy farmers regarding improved dairy husbandry practices in the study area.

Title: Effect of Mincing on the Quality  Characteristics of Chevon Cutlets
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of mincing and added water on the quality characteristics of chevon cutlets. The lean meat was minced once, twice and thrice, respectively through 4 mm plate to evaluate the effect of mincing on physic-chemical and sensory parameters. A significant effect of mincing was observed with the highest scores for juiciness and texture for the products developed from twice minced lean meat. Thus, good quality chevon cutlets could be prepared by mincing the lean meat twice and with incorporation of 5% shredded potato and 3% added water from tough and less palatable chevon.

Title: The Transverse Septum Morphology of the Farmed Adult African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus B.) from Eastern Nigeria
Abstract :

The morphology of the adult African catfish transverse septum was studied to establish its functional anatomy as there is dearth of information on it from available literature. The fish sourced from commercial aquaculture was immobilized and the specimen- transverse septum dissected out, and investigated using haematoxyline and eosin stain. Grossly, the septum transversum was a milkish white membranous sheath separating the pericardial cavity from the thoraco-abdominal cavity. Histologically, the septum transversum was lined by simple squamous cells. The subepithelial region was composed mainly of loose irregular collagen fibres. Reticular fibres were also observed. Muscle tissue of mainly skeletal fibres and scant smooth muscle cells were seen embedded irregularly in the loose areolar tissue. Nerve fibres and blood vessels were also contained in this loose areolar tissue that formed the matrix of the septum transversum.

Title: Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Canola Meal on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and its Economic Efficiency in Finishing Pigs
Abstract :

Present study investigated the effects of dietary increasing levels of solvent-extracted canola meal (CM) as a substitute for soybean meal as an energy and amino acid source in finishing pigs. A total of 192 finishing pigs (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc; initial body weight of 48.62 ± 3 kg) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments on the basis of BW. There were 4 replicate pens in each treatment with 12 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0, 4, 8 and 12% canola meal. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 35 days. Dietary inclusion of increasing levels of canola meals had no effects (P>0.05) on growth performance and ATTD of nutrients and energy. Total feed cost per pigs was linearly reduced (P<0.05) with increase in dietary canola meal level. However, dietary inclusion of canola meal has no effects (P>0.05) on total weight gain (TWG), total feed intake (TFI) and feed cost per kg weight gain (FCG). These results indicates that up to 12% canola meal can be included in finishing pig’s diet without any adverse effect on growth performance and ATTD of nutrient. In addition, finisher pigs feed cost can be reduced with dietary inclusion of canola meal.

Title: Effect of Phytase Enzyme Supplementation in Low Energy-Protein Layer Diet on Tibial Mineral Contents
Abstract :

An experiment was carried out using 200 hundred Athulya birds divided into 10 treatments (T1-T10) to find out the effect of phytase enzyme on tibial mineral contents. Phytase was supplemented at 0, 500 and 1000 units/kg in low energy, low protein and low energy- protein layer chicken diets containing available phosphorus of 0.30% from 21 to 40 weeks of age. A standard layer ration was offered to birds in T1. Experimental diets from T2 to T10 were formulated with two levels of crude protein (18 and 16 percent) and two levels of metabolisable energy (2600 and 2400 ME kcal/kg diet). After the laying period, four birds from each treatment were randomly selected, slaughtered and data on tibial mineral contents viz. tibial ash. calcium and phosphorus were measured. The tibial mineral contents viz. tibial ash. calcium and phosphorus showed significant (P<0.01) increase among phytase supplemented treatments.

Title: Influence of Season on Biochemical Attributes of Bhadawari Buffalo Bull Semen: Effect of Temperature and Humidity
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to establish the seasonal variations in semen biochemical indices in Bhadawari bull. Four fertile, healthy adult Bhadawari bulls aged between 2 to 4 years were used as semen donors. The study was conducted over a period of six months and divided into three seasons as winter season (February- March), dry summer season (April-May) and wet summer season (June-July). Sixteen semen samples were collected in each season (four ejaculates from each bull) by using Artificial Vagina and seminal plasma were harvested by centrifugation. The results of the study showed gradual and significant rise in values of ALT, AST, ALP, cholesterol and triglycerides and decline in values of amylase with increase in ambient temperature and THI. Amylase showed negative correlation and other indices showed positive correlation with ambient temperature and THI. The ambient temperature and THI showed positive correlation with biochemical attributes except amylase while humidity showed negative correlation. It could be concluded from the study that temperature and THI of season significantly affects the semen biochemical attributes of Bhadawari bulls.

Title: Biotechnological Approach to Improve the Nutritional Availability in Livestock and Consequence for Reduction the Environment Pollution by Implement of Transgenic Phytase in Animal Feed
Abstract :

Phytases are hydrolytic enzymes that initiate the release of phosphate from phytate In recent years the application of the phytase enzyme have been studied intensively. Phytase enzymes have a wide distribution in plants, microorganisms, and in some animal tissues. Many strategies have been developed for improving phosphate and mineral availability in feed. However in recent years, expression of transgenic microbial phytase in plants can be successfully applied as animal feed supplementation for innovative means of delivering phytases to non-ruminants to inflation of bioavailability of mineral such as calcium, magnesium, zinc copper, enhance the utilization of phytate bounded phosphorus and reduce P pollution of animal excreta. Moreover, improved biotechnological processes in the production of transgeneic plant contain microbial phytase can eliminate the costs associated with phytase production, purification, and supplementation for commercial use. In current study we discussed about the comprehensive descriptions on source of phytase, expression profiling and their potential application in animal feed. Hence it is concluded that molecular farming in the production from microbial sources of stable phytase in feed could open a new venture for commercial purposes.

Title: Evaluation of the Heatsynch protocol in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) during hot summer season
Abstract :

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Heatynch protocol on plasma estrogen concentration in Murrah buffaloes and to evaluate if the Heatsynch protocol induces estrus in Murrah buffaloes. All treated animals responded to the treatment by displaying obvious signs of estrus. The mean plasma estrogen concentration among the individual buffalo was 191.9 ± 68.3 pg / ml after Estradiol benzoate (EB) injection. The plasma progesterone profile of these animals indicated that out of 16 animals 8 animals were acyclic before Heatsynch treatment (8/16) as plasma progesterone concentrations in these animals were basal (<0.24±0.01 ng/ml) for most of the sampling period during the course of treatment. Following Heatsynch treatment only two buffalo out of sixteen were acyclic (2/16) on the basis of their plasma progesterone profile. These results indicated that Heatsynch protocol is useful in inducing cyclicity in acyclic buffaloes. The seven buffalo out of sixteen (7/16) were conceived after treatment with Heatsynch protocol in summer. So, the treatment might have potential field application value to overcome poor estrus symptoms in summer.

Title: Standardization of Shredded Potato and Added Water Levels in the Development of Chevon Cutlets
Abstract :

The objective of the present study was undertaken to standardize the levels of shredded potato and added water in the development of chevon cutlets. The lean meat was minced twice through 4 mm plate. The cutlets were prepared with the incorporation of shredded potato at 0, 5, 10 and 15% level and added water at 0, 3, 6 and 9%, respectively replacing the lean meat. A significant effect of mincing was observed with the highest scores for juiciness and texture for the products developed from twice minced lean meat. Cutlets prepared with the incorporation of 5% shredded potato were found to have better scores for almost all the sensory parameters. Incorporation of 3% added water significantly (p<0.05) increased the appearance and colour, texture, juiciness and rusk pick-up. Thus, good quality chevon cutlets could be prepared by incorporating 5% shredded potato and 3% added water.

Title: Omphalitis in ducklings with Staphylococcus aureus infection
Abstract :

Outbreak of Omphalitis was reported in the week old ducklings at a research duck farm of Regional centre. The clinical signs were swollen abdomen contains cheesy caseous content into yalk sac, oedema, redness, few cases of inflammation at abdomen, septicaemia, showed little interest in food and water resulting gradual severely dehydrated. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from Omphalitis of 20 ducklings. Of the 20 Omphalitis cases 13 were khakis and 7 were of white pekins. The isolation and identification of the isolates were accomplished by cultural, microscopic and biochemical characterization. The antibogram showed that the isolates were highly sensitive to Agithromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Cloxacillin, Enrofloxacin, Gentamicin and Floxidin. They were moderately sensitive to Chloramphenicol, Ofloxacin, Furazolidon and Doxicillin but were resistant to Neomycin, Kanamycin and Sulphamethizole, Cefixime/clavulinic acid.

Title: Evaluation of Meat Consumption Pattern and Meat Quality in North Indian Cities
Abstract :

A survey was conducted in north Indian cities (Ghaziabad, Noida, Gurugram, Delhi, Lucknow and Bareilly) with an aim to evaluate meat consumption pattern and meat products quality. Retailers from 15 randomly chosen shops, viz., Shop-A, B, C...O and 403 consumers visiting those shops were interviewed. Sample meat products from 10 shops were collected and quality evaluated. Among retailers, 73.33% told meat Kabab (chicken and chevon), is the most sold out product. As per 50.37% & 34.24% consumers chicken and goat meat was 1st and 2nd preference of meat species respectively, 53.46% of consumers preferred “taste” as their first criteria of meat products purchase, 62.85% consumers preferred convenience meat products as compared to traditional counterparts, highest percentage of (43.42%) consumers chosen seekh kabab (chicken and chevon) as their first preference of product. Evaluation of market products quality revealed that, maximum and minimum protein percentage in Shop-A, Chicken Kabab (16.73%) and Shop-C, Chicken Kabab (5.32%) respectively. Cholesterol content found maximum and minimum amount in Mutton Kabab from Shop-J (60.72 mg/100g) and Chicken Sausages from Shop-N (33.54 mg/100g) respectively. Calcium content found highest in Chicken Kabab from Shop-C (1.63%). Highest Total Plate Count (TPC) detected in chicken Kabab from Shop-D (5.41 log 10 cfu/g).

Abstract :

Dr. Neelesh Sharma, Founder Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Animal Research, bestowed for the “Appreciation Award” during International Conference on Animal and Dairy Science, 15-17 September, 2014, held at Hyderabad. He was a Co-Chairman of the Animal Biotechnology session. Dr. Sharma also delivered an invited lecture on Stem Cell Research in the Animal Biotechnology session. Delegates were attended the conference from different countries and shared their knowledge through presenting oral/poster presentations.

Title: Survey of Calf Rearing Practices Followed at Rural Dairy Farms in Surat District
Abstract :

A field survey was conducted purposively in Surat district of Gujrat to ascertain the calf rearing management practices followed by rural dairy animal owners during March, 2013 to January, 2014. Data were collected from randomly selected 300 dairy animal owners through personal interview with the help of pre-tested structured schedule from five talukas selected at random. The present study revealed that majority (95.33%) of the respondents attended calving and cleaned the calves soon after parturition. Majority (96.33%) of respondents did not practice ligation, cutting and disinfection of the naval cord and it was left to fall off itself naturally. Only 35.05% of the respondents fed colostrum to new born calf within one hour of birth. Majority (58.67%) of the respondents followed weaning practices at the age of three months and 23.33% of the respondents allowed calves to suckle their dams till lactation ceased. Majority (82.33%) of the respondents provided green fodders from two months of age and only 2.67% of the respondents provided calf starter to the calves. Only 37% of the respondents followed dehorning during 3-4 week of age of their calves, 17% of respondents practiced castration of male calves, 48.67% of the respondents gave anthelmetics to the calves regularly and 12.33% of the respondents provided jacketing as well as bedding in order to protect their calves from cold during winter season.

Title: Application of Caslick’s Index in Predicting the Mare Fertility
Abstract :

Vulva acts as the first effective barrier to combat the external environmental infections and to protect the internal reproductive organs from ascending infections. Any abnormality in the shape and structure to the vulva may compromises the mare’s healthy reproductive status and may lead to the infertility. Vulvar conformation plays a major and crucial role not only during selection and purchase of mares but also in predicting the future fertility status. Caslick’s index gives estimation about the calculation of good vulval conformation. In the present study, we applied the same to our breedable mares present at the farm and correlated with fertility. The study confirms the positive correlation between the vulval confirmation and fertility status of the mares.

Title: Meat consumption in North-East India: Pattern, Opportunities and Implications
Abstract :

Meat is an important and common source of animal protein in the NE (North-Eastern) states as seen from the expenditure estimates which shows that 15 per cent in rural areas and 18 per cent in urban areas is devoted to meat out of the total food expenditure. The study is based on NSSO data on household consumption expenditure in 2009-10 pertaining to the 66th round. The study showed that the proportion of meat out of total food expenditure is almost two to three times more than the national average. Manipur is an exception where the rural households’ proportionate expenditure is more than urban households. Chevon/mutton and chicken have lesser supply than demand in most NE states. Beef and pork are relatively cheaper in rural areas and therefore consumed more whereas urbanization may be the factor that influence liking for chevon/mutton consumption in urban areas. Export policy, Infrastructure development, feed sector, and establishment of modern slaughter houses are some of the issues which need attention of the government to sustain meat consumption in the region.

Title: Endocannabinoid Signaling in Spermatozoa: A Mini-Review
Abstract :

Spermatozoa undergoes array of signaling and intracellular pathways and ultimately become competent enough to accomplish fertilization. Hormones, ion channels and signaling molecules in both male and female reproductive tract show bidirectional cross play. The recent discovery of endocannabinoids and their receptors in male and female reproductive system opened new vistas for their research in regulating sperm function. Interestingly, endocannabinoids regulate sperm motility, capacitation, hyperactivity and eventually acrosome reaction. However, their complex intracellular pathways are still to be understood in regulating spermatozoa function. The present review highlights the major breakthrough research in the area of endocannabinoids in male reproduction and in more specific in sperm cells, and their association with regulation of sperm fertilizing competence.

Title: Effect of Orientation, Ventilation, Floor Space Allowance and Cooling Arrangement on Milk Yield and Microclimate of Dairy Shed in Goa
Abstract :

Ten farmers consisting of large, medium, small and marginal from each of six talukas ie Pernem, Bicholim and Ponda taluka of North Goa district; Salcete, Canacona and Sanguem talukas of South Goa district in total sixty farmers were considered based on cattle population for this study. Farmers were interviewed for collecting information on housing and production aspect of dairy cattle. Subsequently farmers were grouped according to type of dairy house. Data on microenvironment of cattle shed and milk yield of cows were recorded on daily basis. Data analysis revealed that the orientation, ventilation, floor space provision and cooling arrangement had a significant effect on average daily milk yield and microenvironment of dairy shed. Significantly higher milk yield and lesser heat stress were observed in east – west orientation, good ventilation and standard floor space of minimum 5 m2 per cattle. Further cooling arrangement in cattle shed had a highly significant (P < 0.01) effect on average daily milk yield and microenvironmental parameters revealing that if false ceiling is made inside cattle shed besides manual and mechanical cooling animals would feel more comfort resulting in higher milk production.

Title: Biometrical Changes in Reproductive Organs of Bakharwal Goats with Age
Abstract :

To study the biometry of genital organs of Bakharwal goats, twenty reproductive tracts were collected from slaughterhouses of Jammu during October 2014 to December 2014. Based on the age of slaughtered animals, the reproductive tracts were divided into two groups (group A, age between 12-18 months and group B, age between 24-30 months). For cervix length and width and thickness, the average measurements of group A were 4.31 ± 0.02 cm, 1.24 ± 0.03 cm, 0.54±0.02 and in group B were 4.44 ± 0.03 cm, 1.37 ± 0.01 cm, 0.61± 0.02, respectively. Similarly in group A, the average size of body of uterus was 3.31± 0.03 cm, 1.53 ± 0.01cm, 0.56 ± 0.02 cm and in group B, 3.47 ±0.11 cm, 1.60 ± 0.03 cm, 0.64 ± 0.01 cm. The average size of the right horn of uterus in group A was 13.98 ± 0.39 cm, 1.83 ± 0.02 cm, 0.57 ± 0.03 cm and the size of the left horn of uterus was 14.62 ± 0.30 cm, 1.02 ± 0.04 cm, 0.45 ±0.03 cm while the average size of the right horn of uterus in group B was 15.51 ± 0.19cm, 1.90 ± 0.02cm, 0.62 ± 0.26 cm and the size of the left horn of uterus was 15.6 ± 0.35 cm, 1.01 ± 0.04 cm, 0.57 ± 0.02 cm for length, width and thickness, respectively. Mean length of right and left fallopian tube in group A was 18.18 ± 0.25 cm, 17.70 ± 0.28 cm while in group B was 19.11 ± 0.10 cm, 17.90 ± 0.20 cm. In group A the average size of the right ovary was 1.98 ± 0.05cm, 1.00 ± 0.04 cm, 0.66 ± 0.03 cm while in left ovary 1.88 ± 0.26 cm, 1.15 ± 0.15, 0.64 ± 0.04 cm for length, width and thickness, respectively. Similarly, in group B the average size of the right ovary was 2.11± 0.05 cm, 1.10 ± 0.05 cm, 0.60 ± 0.02 cm while in left ovary 2.00 ± 0.02 cm, 1.30 ±0.11 cm. 0.66 ± 0.03 cm, for length, width, and thickness, respectively. It was concluded that the size of genital organs of Bakharwal goat increases with age during 12-18 months to 24-30 months of age.

Title: Association of Flooring Materials with Milk Yield and its Composition in Crossbred cows
Abstract :

Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of concrete or rubber surface, in combination with open yard with either brick paving or sand bed on milk production and composition in crossbred dairy cows under loose housing system. Total 20 crossbred cows, were assigned to four treatment groups (5 per group) viz. Control group (T0): Concrete floor (in covered feeding area) + Brick paving (in loafing area); Treatment 1 (T1): Concrete floor + Sand bed; Treatment 2 (T2): Rubber mat + Sand bed; Treatment 3 (T3): Rubber mat + Brick paving. Milk yield did not differed significantly (P>0.05) among groups, but it was higher in T2 followed by T3, T0 (control) and T1. Fat %, SNF % and Total Solids % were almost similar (P > 0.05) in all the groups. Therefore, it can be concluded that provision of rubber mat or sand floor alone does not affect milk production and composition. However, floor combination of rubber mat and sand bed in loose houses showed higher production.

Title: Changes in Hormones of Somatotropic Axis during Transition Period in Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Supplemented with Vitamin E
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to assess the effect of vitamin E supplementation on GH-insulin–IGF-1 axis in Murrah buffaloes during transition period. The Murrah buffaloes (n = 12) were selected during their late gestation from National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI) livestock herd and divided randomly into two groups, comprising of 6 each. Buffaloes of group I were given only the control diet, while group II were supplemented with 2000 IU/day/head vitamin E along with control feed. Blood sample were collected from each buffalo at weekly interval from day -21 to day +21 relative to parturition by jugular vein- puncture. Growth hormone (GH) -IGF-1 and insulin were quantified by bovine specific ELISA test kit. The results revealed non significant difference in circulatory concentration of insulin and GH during transition period between the two groups. However, insulin and IGF-I magnitude of decline was significantly greater in Group I. It was concluded that decline in the levels of these hormones during transition period was a physiological phenomenon that was associated with negative energy balance. Dietary supplementation of Vitamin E had no direct influence on peripheral profiles of these hormones during transition period

Title: Retention of Magnet in Reticulo-rumen for the Prevention of Traumatic Reticulo-peritonitis in Dairy Cattle
Abstract :

The present work was aimed to study retention time of magnet in reticulo-rumen for prevention of traumatic reticulo-peritonitis in cattle. A total of 32 stall fed cattle from an organised dairy farm were screened for foreign bodies in reticulum with the help of stud finder. Metallic foreign bodies were detected in 37.5 per cent of the cattle. The animals were orally administered a cylindrical bar magnet of 70 mm length rounded at both ends. Subsequently, the animals were evaluated for the presence of magnet in their reticulum, twice at 6 months interval with the help of magnetic compass, as well as with reticular radiograph once at six months. The magnet was retained for 6 months in 78.1 per cent and for 1 year in 51.8 per cent of the animals. Yearly evaluation of reticulum with compass is recommended to detect retention of magnet in cattle.

Title: Seroprevalence of Newcastle Disease, Chicken Infectious Anemia and Avian Influenza in Indigenous Chickens in Grenada, West Indies
Abstract :

This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) and Avian influenza virus (AIV) in indigenous chickens in Grenada, West Indies. Indigenous chickens are kept for eggs and meat for either domestic consumption or local sale. These birds are usually kept in the backyard of the house with little or no shelter. The mean size of the flock per household was 14 birds (range 5-40 birds). Blood was collected from 368 birds from all the six parishes of Grenada and serum samples were tested for antibodies against NDV, CIAV and AIV using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The seroprevalence of antibodies against NDV, CIA and AI was 66.3% (95% CI; 61.5% to 71.1%), 59.5% (95% CI; 54.4% to 64.5%) and 10.3% (95% CI; 7.2% to 13.4%), respectively. Since indigenous chickens in Grenada are not vaccinated against poultry pathogens, these results indicate exposure of chickens to NDV, AIV and CIAV Indigenous chickens are thus among the risk factors acting as vectors of pathogens that can threaten commercial poultry and other avian species in Grenada

Title: Effects of Kefir on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Pekin Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica)
Abstract :

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of kefir as a probiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Pekin ducks. For this purpose, 42 ducklings at 2-week-old age were randomly and equally divided into 1 control and 2 treatment groups. All groups were fed with the same diet during the 6 week study period. Group 1 served as control and received normal drinking water. For group 2 and 3, 2.5% and 7.5% kefir was applied in drinking water. Feed and water was offered ad libitum. All birds were individually weighed at the start and then weekly intervals until the end of the experiment. At the end of the study, a total of 30 ducks, 5 male and 5 female from each group was randomly selected for slaughter. The results showed that after a 6 week feeding period, the total body weight in group 2 and 3 were significantly lower than group 1 (P < 0.05). Despite the numerical variations, no statistical difference was seen among the groups in terms of body weight gain, feed intake and FCR values (P < 0.05). Group 3 with high kefir percentage was significantly lower and different than the other experimental groups in terms of liver and gizzard weights, hot carcass (g), cold carcass (g) and abdominal fat (%) (P < 0.05) parameters. Despite the numerical variations, no statistical difference was seen among the groups in terms of meat composition values (P > 0.05). Our findings showed that, the decrease in total body weight, abdominal fat ratio, liver and giblets weights based on the increased kefir rates attracted attention. In conclusion, kefir usage as a supplement in ducks does not provide an economical benefit but kefir could be used for human consumption for antiobesity.

Title: Multi-Nutrient Blocks with and without Tanniferous Leaf Meal Mixture: Formulation and Preparation under Sub-Tropical Environment of Jammu
Abstract :

An experimental study was conducted on formulation, preparation and production of two types of multi nutrient blocks (MNB) with and without tanniferous leaf meal mixture (LMM) for supplementation of goats fed on wheat straw based diet. The condensed tannins (CT) containing multi nutrient blocks (MNB-CT) and MNB were formulated, prepared and developed where MNB-CT had CT containing LMM of Psidium guajava and Eugenia jambolana in 70:30 ratio while MNB had no CT source. Other ingredients used included mustard oil cake, molasses, urea, limestone powder, di-calcium phosphate, mineral mixture, wheat bran and common salt were 875, 825, 181.25, 175, 193.75, 100, 112.5, 37.5 and 487.5, 825, 212.5, 162.5, 200, 100, 62.5, 37.5 (g/block), respectively in MNB and MNB-CT blocks. Nutrient composition (g/ block) of MNB and MNB-CT for organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, total ash, acid insoluble ash, calcium and phosphorus were 1939, 867.25, 17.25, 561, 20.5, 140.75, 62.25 and 1965.5, 861.75, 23.75, 534.5, 21.75, 130.75, 59 g, respectively. The MNB-CT blocks had good binding ability, compactness, hardness, less brittle and remained fit for licking to the animals compared to MNB blocks. The acceptability and intakes of both types of blocks were equally good. The LMM incorporation in MNB-CT reduced the cost of production as well as deworming in H. contortus infected goats so it directly curtailed the cost of goat rearing. Therefore, farmers could be benefited by supplementing MNB-CT blocks to improve health and productive performance of goats in sub-tropical region of Jammu (J & K), India.

Title: Effect of Feeding Formaldehyde Treated Rapeseed and Cottonseed Cakes on Milk Yield and Composition at Various Stages of Lactation and Parity in Jersey Cows
Abstract :

The aim of this study was to document the response of lactating Jersey cows to feeding of formaldehyde treated oil cakes of rapeseed and cottonseed on milk yield and composition at various stages of lactation and parity. Formaldehyde treatment of oil cakes was performed at 1% of crude protein, and these treated cakes were used in preparing treatment concentrate mixture. The experiment was carried out for 40 days using 27 lactating Jersey cows differing in parity 1-3, 4-6 and ≥7 with different stages of lactation i.e. early (1-3 m), mid (4-6 m) and late (7-9 m) in each lactation groups. The animals were grouped into Control and Treatment. For first 10 days, cows of Control group were offered with a control concentrate and thereafter same animals were grouped as Treatment group and fed the same concentrate having both the protein meals treated with formaldehyde, along with ad libitum access to barley green fodder and wheat straw. The milk yield and its component yield were decreased linearly as lactation advanced and the differences were significant (P<0.05) between early and late lactation. The highest increment (P<0.05) in milk yield was noted in early lactation (0.69 kg/d) and least during late lactation (0.56 kg/d). Milk SNF yield was improved (P<0.05) up to the tune of 40 g/d in mid lactation cows only. With respect to parity, the highest (P<0.05) milk yield was observed in 1st-3rd parity and lowest after 7th parity, while milk fat% followed the reverse trend upon feeding formaldehyde treated oil cakes, while other parameters like fat and SNF percentage did not differ due to treatment. Furthermore, milk fat yield was increased (P<0.05) to the extent of 50 g/d and 20 g/d in 1st-3rd and above 7th parity cows, respectively. It was concluded that feeding of concentrate mixture containing formaldehyde treated oil cakes (rapeseed and cottonseed) economically improved yield of milk and milk components. Furthermore, the treatment effect was more pronounced during early lactation and in lower (1-3) parity Jersey cows.

Title: Identifying the Factors Affecting Birth Weight and Conception Rate in Sahiwal Bulls
Abstract :

The data on growth and fertility traits of 43 Sahiwal bulls during 27 years (1987-2013) belonging to 8 sets of Sahiwal Breeding Project at ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal (Haryana), India were analysed using fixed linear model to assess the effect of non-genetic factors on birth weight and fertility traits in Sahiwal bulls. The average birth weight (BW), conception rate based on first AI (CRFAI) and overall conception rate (OCR) in Sahiwal bulls was estimated as 22.19 ± 0.05 kg, 45.95 ± 1.37% and 46.38 ± 1.55%, with coefficient of variation of 13.42%, 21.84 % and 22.32%, respectively. The overall least-squares means for birth weight, conception rate based on first AI and overall conception rate was estimated as 22.04 ± 1.08 kg, 46.24 ± 0.35% and 46.86 ± 0.27%, respectively in Sahiwal breeding bulls. Period of birth had not influenced the birth weight of Sahiwal bulls, though period of conception had significant (P < 0.01) effect on fertility traits. Season of birth/AI, parity and age of female did not influenced the birth weight and fertility traits of Sahiwal bulls.

Title: Non-Genetic Factors Affecting Growth and Production Traits in Dorper Crossbred Sheep
Abstract :

Data on growth traits of 401 animals used in the present study were collected from history sheet of crossbred sheep maintained at Government Sheep Breeding Farm Panthal, Reasi, J&K, India. Traits included in the study were birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), 6-month body weight (6-BW), 12-month body weight (12-BW), mature body weight (MBW) and annual wool production (AWP). The statistical analysis was carried out using LSMLMW computer programme. The overall least-squares means were 2.857 ± 0.058 kg, 15.269 ± 0.296 kg, 17.034 ± 0.258 kg, 22.315 ± 0.298 kg, 29.375 ± 0.237 kg and 0.651 ± 0.012 kg, respectively for BWT, WWT, 6-BW, 12-BW, MBW and AWP. The co-efficient of variations for different traits were low to moderate. Period of lambing had significant effect on all the traits except for BWT. Moreover, there was no definite trend for different traits over different periods except for 12-BW, where increasing trend was obtained. Season of lambing had significant effect only on WWT and MBW. Genetic group had non-significant effect on all the traits under study although, 50% genetic groups were superior for most of the traits. Sex had significant effect on all the traits except for 6-BW and 12-BW. It can be concluded from the study that growth traits and production traits are influenced by different non-genetic factors like period, season and sex.

Title: Comparative analysis of cultural isolation and PCR based assay for detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in foods of animal origin
Abstract :

The present study was designed to determine the occurrence of C. jejuni and C. coli in chicken meat, chicken offal, chevon and milk samples from Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India) to elucidate the role of these products in transmission of Campylobacter to humans. The samples were examined using both cultural as well as polymerase chain reaction based detection method. Out of 280 samples examined, 29 (10.36%) samples were found positive by cultural method, where as 68 (24.29%) samples showed presence of Campylobacter species by polymerase chain reaction. All the samples depicted positive by culture were also found positive by PCR. The highest occurrence rate was observed in chicken meat (46%), followed by chicken offal (20%), chevon (18%) and milk (3.75%). The results depicted the superior efficacy of PCR for rapid screening of samples owing to its high rapidity, specificity and automation potential. The study suggested the potential of transmission of Campylobacter species to humans due to the consumption of raw or contaminated meat or milk.

Title: Invitro Effect of Zinc Treatment on the Antioxidant Status of Heat Stressed Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Periparturient Sahiwal and Karan Fries Cows - A Comparative Study
Abstract :

The current study was undertaken to evaluate the invitro effect of zinc treatment on the Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase status in the heat stressed Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) of periparturient indigenous and crossbred cows. Twelve pregnant cows, six each from Sahiwal and Karan Fries in their second parity were selected for the experiment. Blood samples were collected at -21, 0 and +21 days with respect to calving from each animal. The 48 hour long cultured PBMC were exposed to three levels of treatment viz., 37oC, 42oC to induce thermal stress and 42oC+Zinc to minimize the effect of high temperature. SOD and Catalase showed a significant (P<0.05) difference between the two breeds, more concentration being found in Karan Fries. While comparing the days, the concentration of both SOD and Catalase was found to be more on the day of calving though non-significantly in case of SOD but the difference was significant (P<0.05) vis-à-vis Catalase. Zinc treatment caused a decreased production of both SOD and Catalase which were otherwise increased due to thermal stress. The antioxidant concentration was highest due to thermal stress in Karan Fries on the day of calving. The oxidative stress supervenes during peripartum and heat stress which could be alleviated by zinc treatment.

Title: Differentiation of Sheep and Goat Species by PCR-RFLP of Mitochondrial 16S rRNA Gene
Abstract :

The present study was carried out with an aim to develop a method for differentiation of sheep and goat meat using PCR-RFLP. Tissue samples were collected randomly from ten animals of each species and used for mitochondrial DNA extraction. PCR amplification of 600 bp fragment of 16S rRNA gene was done using universal primer. RFLP studies were carried out by digesting the amplicons using restriction enzymes viz. AluI and HhaI. Amplicons of Goat 16S rRNA gene was fragmented to 460bp and 140bp fragments by HhaI while the amplified gene of sheep was digested by AluI into two fragments of 360bp and 240bp each. This resulting RFLP pattern of 16S rRNA could easily identify and differentiate meat of sheep and goat species.

Title: Effect of Area Specific Mineral Supplementation on Biochemical Profile in Female Black Bengal Goats
Abstract :

To discern the effect of area specific mineral supplementation (ASMS), on some plasma parameters viz. glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), alpha amino nitrogen (AAN), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), the intensive study was conducted on 24 female Black Bengal goats at around of 4-5 months of age. The animals were divided into four groups viz. Group I (control), II, III supplemented with 0, 1 and 2% area specific mineral supplementation, respectively. Whereas, in another group (Group-IV), commercial mineral mixture fortified concentrate was given. Blood samples were collected at monthly interval and estimated five prime plasma parameters. Present study revealed that plasma glucose concentration was in normal range and differed significantly (P < 0.05) in groups. Highest plasma glucose concentration was observed in group IV and lowest in control group. Whereas, NEFA differed significantly in different groups. Plasma AAN level was higher in Group IV followed in Group III, II and I respectively. AAN did not differ significantly in groups. Plasma ALT and AST level differed significantly but highest Plasma ALT and AST level observed in Group II. Present study revealed that ASMS improved plasma biochemical profile in Black Bengal goats.

Title: Adaptive Capability as Indicated by Redox Status and Endocrine Responses in Crossbred Cattle Exposed to Thermal Stress
Abstract :

A series of studies were conducted to assess the effect of increasing environmental temperatures on redox status and endocrine responses in crossbred cattle under simulated conditions. In present study four non-lactating crossbred cattle were exposed to 25, 30, 35 and 40°C temperature with relative humidity of 40-50% in psychrometric chamber for 5 hours/day from 10:00 to 15:00 hours for 21 days. The physiological responses, feed and water intake were recorded and blood samples were collected at 15:00 hours on day 1, 6, 11, 16 and 21 of the experiment. Blood serum was harvested to estimate superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), reactive oxygen species (ROS), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and cortisol concentration. The temperature exposures of 25 and 30°C did not affect physiological responses, feed intake, water intake, T3, T4, cortisol concentration and SOD activity in serum. The dry matter intake (DMI)/day decreased significantly (p<0.05) whereas water intake, respiratory rate and rectal temperature increased progressively at 35 and 40°C as compared to 25 and 30°C temperature exposure. The serum ROS level increased progressively with increase in exposure temperature and a corresponding increase in serum SOD activity was also observed up to a temperature exposure of 35°C however, SOD activity declined at 40°C exposure. Serum T4 concentration decreased whereas cortisol level increased significantly at 35 and 40°C exposure as compared to 25 and 30°C temperature exposure. It can be concluded from the present study that the crossbred animals can readily adapt to a temperature exposure of 25 and 30°C and can acclimatize up to 35°C with compensatory physiological, biochemical and endocrine changes but fail to do so at the temperature exposure of 40°C.

Title: Histological and Immunohistochemical Studies of Furstenberg’s Rosette in Sheep and Goat
Abstract :

A total of twelve healthy adult Madras Red ewe and Boer local she-goat teats were histologically and immunohistochemically examined. In between the teat canal and teat cistern Furstenberg’s rosette was appeared as modified zone of mucosa thrown into primary and secondary folds. The mucosal folds were lined by a bilayered cuboidal epithelium. Subepithelial area of rosette was composed of numerous lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages and plasma cells. Mucosa below the Furstenberg’s rosette was lined by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining of rosette by CD3 antibody revealed the localization of intraepithelial ‘T’ lymphocytes in the mucosal folds. ‘T’ lymphocytes were also localized in the lamina propria region

Title: Gross and Biometrical studies of Placentome in Goat (Capra hircus) during Different Stages of Pregnancy
Abstract :

The present study was conducted on the 18 healthy and normal goat uteri of non-descript breed (Capra hircus) varying from day old to 150 days of gestation. The uteri were assigned in to three groups according to their gestational age; Group I (0-50 days), Group II (51 -100 days) and Group III (101-till term). The length, diameter and thickness of gravid horn, non gravid horn, body and cervix were significantly increased with the advancement of pregnancy. Weight of uterus was also significantly increased as pregnancy progressed. The thickness of endometrium, myometrium, perimetrium and total thickness of uterine wall in gravid horn was significantly increased with advancement of pregnancy. The numbers of placentomes ranged from 92 to 153, which were significantly increased from early to mid pregnancy and subsequently significantly decreased during late pregnancy. In the late pregnancy, the placentome were disc like with a shallow depression and had relatively thinner margin. The length, width and thickness of the placentome were significantly increased with the advancement of pregnancy.

Title: Application of Total Quality Management to Ensure Food Quality in Food Industry
Abstract :

Total Quality Management (TQM) is a managerial and managemental approach of an organization focused on quality, based on participation of all of its members and while aiming at long term benefits to the organization and consumers health. It is focused on continuous improvement of all processes approached with combined fundamental management techniques and specialized tools under quality systems. TQM is a process of managing the whole organization so that it progress in all the dimensions of products and services that are important to the consumers. It roots from the belief that mistake can be avoided or mininimised and defects can be prevented, with sole objective being the continuous process improvement. The introduction of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) has signaled a shift in emphasis from resource intensive end product inspection and testing to preventive control of hazards at all the stages of food supply chain. It also identifies and controls hazards that are fundamentals for food safety. The integrated approach to implementation of ISO standards and HACCP concept is vital for management of quality and safety of dairy products hence safeguarding the customer’s requirements, ensuring that certified products conform to minimum standards set internationally. These standards ensure and enhance transparency in the development of food quality and safety procedures, thus helping to upgrade and update food safety systems. ISO laid down guidelines, codes, specifications and requirements to evolve effective TQM system.

Title: Detection of Virulence Genes in Salmonella Species Isolated from Chevon and Chicken Meat
Abstract :

The aim of present study was to investigate the detection of virulence factors encoded Salmonella enterotoxin (stn) and plasmid encoded fimbriae (pef) genes in isolates of Salmonellae isolated from chevon and chicken meat samples collected from different districts of Chhattisgarh. A total of 32 Salmonella isolates were recovered, among them 18 and 14 isolates were recovered from chevon and chicken meat samples, respectively. All the Salmonella isolates were tested for the presence of virulence associated genes viz., stn and pef by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols, standardized separately for each gene. All 32 (100%) Salmonella isolates were found to carry the enterotoxin determinant stn gene where as none of the Salmonella isolate was found positive for pef gene, indicating that the stn gene is widely distributed among the Salmonella isolates irrespective of source of sample, species, serovars and location. The stn gene in Salmonella was found to be highly conserved. Thus, stn gene may be used as a target gene for detection of Salmonellae in different types of field samples.

Title: Effect of Kinnow Mandarin (Citrus Nobilis Lour x Citrus Deliciosa Tenora) Fruit Waste Silage on Nutrient Intake, Digestibility and Performance of Goat Bucks
Abstract :

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the feeding Kinnow mandarin fruit waste (KMW) silage viÅ›-a- viÅ› oat silage on nutrient intake, nutrient digestibility, utilization and general performance of adult male goats. Twelve local adult male goats were randomly allotted into two equal groups namely oat silage (OS) and Kinnow silage (KS) group. Animals were offered weighed quantities of respective silage (Oat silage to OS and KMW silage to KS) on ad lib. Silage intake (g/d), DM intake (DMI), digestible DMI, digestible organic matter (OMI) and digestible CP intake was comparable (P>0.05) among the two dietary groups. The per cent digestibility of all the analysed nutrients was analogous (P>0.05) in both the groups irrespective of the diet. Total digestible nutrient (TDN) intake (g/d) of goats kept on KMW silage was significantly (P<0.05) higher than OS group animals. Balance of nitrogen and phosphorus was positive in both the groups without any significant (P>0.05) difference between dietary groups. There was no significant difference in analysed blood bio-chemicals and serum enzymes level between different periods and groups, suggesting general well-being of goats. On the basis of results of present study, it can be concluded adult male goats can be maintained on the silage of Kinnow waste without affecting nutrient intake, utilization and general performance of animals

Title: In vitro Efficacy of Emblica officinalis Against MRSA Isolated from Buffaloes Suffering from Subclinical Mastitis
Abstract :

The present study describes in- vitro efficacy of Emblica officinalis against Methicillin Resistant S. aureus mastitis. Diffusion technique was used to assess in-vitro efficacy of Emblica officinalis. Zone of inhibition was measured and used to compare the in-vitro efficacy. The zone ranged between 10-13 mm with maximum zone of 13 mm observed in 200 and 225 mg/ml DMSO disc, followed by 12 mm in 175 and 150 mg/ml DMSO disc, 11 mm in 125 mg/ml DMSO disc and 10 mm in 100 mg/ml DMSO disc. The results indicate that the sensitivity pattern for Emblica officinalis at 200 & 175 mg/ml DMSO concentration and was comparable with the standard antibiotics in Methicillin sensitive S. aureus. In Methicillin resistant S. aureus isolates, the zone of inhibition was in the order Oxytetracycline (15mm) followed by Emblica officinalis -200 (13 mm) and Methicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, ofloxacin were resistance.

Title: Effect of Taurine and Methionine Supplementation on Leukocyte Profile of Broiler Chickens
Abstract :

The animal protein sources are rich in essential amino acids but transmission of zoonotic diseases and their high cost limits its use. Therefore it becomes necessary to supplement the synthetic amino acids in plant proteins based broilers diet. A study was conducted in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of three levels of taurine (0, 0.025%, and 0.05%) and two levels of methionine (0 and 0.15%) to determine the effect of taurine and methionine supplementation on leukocyte profile of broiler chickens. The study showed significantly (P < 0.01) increased total leukocyte count (TLC) in taurine and methionine supplemented treatments. As the taurine level increased in the diet heterophil and eosinophil count significantly (P < 0.01) increased whereas, lymphocyte and monocyte count significantly (P < 0.01) decreased . The result reveals that graded level of dietary taurine and methionine plays significant role in reducing the oxidative damage by altering the leukocyte profile.

Title: Effect of Poly herbal Phytobiotic on the Growth, Immunocompetence, Development of Digestive Organs and Carcass Characteristics of Commercial Broilers
Abstract :

Seventy two, one week old, Cobb 400 broiler chickens were distributed into two experimental groups having four replicates. The birds of the control group were fed a basal diet (22.5% CP & 2830 K cal/kg ME) while the other group was offered a basal diet supplemented with a polyherbal phytobiotic, AV/SSL/12 in drinking water@ 4 ml/100 birds/ day during 1-2 weeks, 8 ml/ 100 birds/ day during 2-4 weeks and 15 ml/100 birds/ day during 4-6 weeks of age. AV/SSL/12 birds had a significantly higher (P<0.05) body weight compared to the control at 2nd week of age. The body weight gain of the birds in the liver tonic fed group was significantly higher (P<0.001) compared to the control group at 2nd week of age. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly better (P<0.05) in the phytobiotic group compared to the control group during 3-6 weeks and 1-6 weeks of age. Total immunoglobulins and mercaptoethanol sensitive (IgM) antibody titer (log 2) values in response to sheep red blood cells was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the phytobiotic compared to the control group. The herbal supplemented group had significantly higher (P<0.05) large intestine length compared to the control group at 6 weeks of age. However, there was no significant difference between the treatment groups in the carcass characteristics and yield of cut up parts of the broilers after 6 weeks of age. Hence, it may not be unreasonable to infer that poly herbal liver tonic, AV/SSL/12 possesses promising immunomodulatory potential and supplementation of poly herbal liver tonic may elicit growth of commercial broilers.

Title: Evaluation of Sorghum Stover Based Complete Rations with Different Roughage to Concentrate Ratio for Efficient Microbial Biomass Production by Using In Vitro Gas Production Technique
Abstract :

An in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the optimum roughage to concentrate ratio in complete rations using sorghum stover (SS) as a roughage source since it is a main feed resource for urban and peri-urban dairies. Eight complete rations were prepared with roughage (R) to concentrate (C) ratio of 100R:0C to 30R:70C. In vitro gas production (ml) at 24 h incubation, in vitro organic matter digestibility and metabolizable energy, truly digestible organic matter and ammonia nitrogen production were increased linearly (P<0.01) as the proportion of concentrate was increased in the ration. Significantly higher (P<0.01) total volatile fatty acid concentration was observed in 50R:50C, 40R:60C and 30R:70C compared to other rations. Significantly (P<0.01) highest partitioning factor, microbial biomass production and efficiency of microbial biomass production were recorded at 60R:40C ratio followed by 50R:50C. Therefore, the present study suggested that SS can be included in complete rations for ruminants at the level of 60 per cent for economic milk and meat production.

Title: Characteristics of Geese Production and Management in the Valley of Kashmir
Abstract :

The study was conducted in geese-rearing districts of Kashmir valley, India with the aim of studying various characteristics of geese production and management. Geese-rearing was recorded to be the primary occupation of 6.56% of farmers. Out of the total, 23.73% rearers were landless and kept geese as a subsidiary source of income. Three diverse production-systems viz. backyard (56.45%), semi-intensive (33.87%) and extensive-system (9.68%), were being practiced. Different types of houses included separate-sheds (50.00%), separate pen/cage (26.67%) and pen underneath the farmers’ house/veranda (23.33%) with only 76.47% farmers using litter-material. Feed was offered in a large bowl, on floor and on a polythene-sheet by 8.62%, 29.31% and 62.07% farmers respectively. Types of incubation nests included grass-nest placed on floor (57.41%), basket-nest (27.78% farmers) and colony-nests (57.41%). Average number of eggs set for incubation was 9.531±0.282 and age of eggs kept for incubation averaged to 24.167±1.923 days. 88.24% farmers practiced custom of placing an iron-sickle underneath the straw-bedding of the nest. Goslings were allowed to go into the water after 10.878±1.497 days of hatching.. Eggs were mostly kept for incubation while geese were sold as well as consumed by the family. In villages geese were being marketed at the farmer’s door-step and in city, middlemen played a role in the marketing. It was concluded that geese-farming promises a good future in an area where water-bodies are available in plenty and rearing is carried out on a large scale adopting an extensive-rearing and free foraging feeding system.

Title: Heat Shock Protein70 (HSP70) Gene Expression Pattern in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) during different Seasons in Sahiwal Cows (Bos Indicus)
Abstract :

Thermal stress alters the normal body homeostasis and causes severe detrimental effects on production and productivity of animals. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly conserved family of proteins that are ubiquitously expressed in animal’s body during thermal stress. Out of all the members present in this family, HSP70 is regarded as the most significant indicator of thermal stress. The present study was therefore conducted to demonstrate the relative mRNA expression pattern of HSP70 gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during different seasons in Sahiwal cows (Bos Indicus). Apparently healthy, non - lactating and non - pregnant sahiwal cows (above two years of age) were taken for study (n = 6). Blood samples were collected thrice i.e. once in December-January (THI <72), between February - March (THI = 72) and June (THI > 72). Blood sample collected in thermo - neutral zone (THI = 72) was taken as control. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) study was undertaken to investigate the variation in relative mRNA expression profile of HSP70 gene during different seasons. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as a housekeeping gene. The relative expression values of HSP70 during summer season were found statistically significant in comparison to winter. These results suggest that HSP70 gene expression varies with THI and this variation may play an imperative role in conferring thermo tolerance against heat stress during different seasons of a year.

Title: Comparative Evaluation of Different Lactation Curve Models in Prediction of Monthly Test-Day Milk Yields in Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :

Present investigation was undertaken to compare the different lactation curve models for describing the shape of the lactation curve in Murrah buffaloes. Data for the present study included 9071 monthly test-day milk yield (MTDMY) from 965 Murrah buffaloes calved during 1977 to 2012 at the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. A total of 10 monthly test-day milk yield records were taken at an interval of 30 days. The data were used to estimate lactation curve parameters for four lactation curve models viz. Gamma type function (GF), Exponential function (EF), Mixed log function (MLF) and Polynomial regression function (MLF). The mean monthly test day milk yields (MTDMY) increased from 5.91±0.13 kg on TD1 to a peak yield of 7.41±0.12 kg on TD3. The estimates of coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) for GF, EF, MLF, and PRF were 96.42%, 98.65%, 98.48%, 99.86% and 0.077, 0.049, 0.052, 0.015, respectively. PRF fitted best to the test day data followed by EF on the basis of higher R2 and lower RMSE estimates, whereas GF fitted least.

Title: Elucidation of Molecular Basis of Neutrophil Apoptosis during Staphylococcal Mastitis in Crossbred Cows
Abstract :

Neutrophil apoptosis is a dynamic process following their recruitment to the site of infection that varies depending upon the type of challenge. The proposed study was designed to elucidate the role of classical mediators of apoptosis in neutrophils isolated from milk samples of crossbred Karan Fries cows suffering from subclinical (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CM). Milk samples were collected from 12 KF cows suffering from clinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcal aureus. Clinical mastitis was confirmed on the basis of CMT scoring, bacteriological evaluation, gross and morphological changes in milk and by counting milk somatic cells (SCC). Milk Poly Morpho-Nuclear Cells (PMNs) were isolated and apoptosis was studied. Neutrophil apoptosis was evaluated by studying the exteriorization of phosphatidyl serine, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, Caspase 3, 7, 8 and 9 by fluorescent microscopy. Results showed that apoptosis in neutrophils were mediated through exteriorization of membrane phosphatidyl serine; increased mitochondrial transmemebrane potential and activation of caspases 3, 7, 8 and 9 like other somatic cells. From the study, it was evident that neutrophils undergo induced apoptosis during Staphylococcal mastitis. The findings of the study provide an insight into the molecular basis of neutrophil apoptosis and form a basis to enhance the host immunity by the process of apoptosis modulation to combat the infections caused by the pathogen. The study provided a base for future studies by which neutrophil apoptosis can be modulated so as to enhance the phagocytic clearance of the microbes from the site of infection.

Title: Seroprevalence of Leptospirosis in Clinically Ailing Bovine
Abstract :

The purpose of this study was to carried out seroepidemiological study of leptospirosis in clinically ailing cattle and buffaloes of South Gujarat where cases of leptospirosis in human is increase every monsoon since last decade. To determine clinical pattern of bovine Leptospirosis in this area a total of 130 serum samples of cattle and buffaloes were collected randomly from different age groups of cattle and buffaloes of either sex reared in this area and tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) using different serovars of Leptospira spp. The prevalence of leptospiral antibodies was detected in 15.84 and 17.24 % in clinically ailing cattle and buffaloes, respectively. In clinically ailing seropositive cattle history of mastitis/agalactia/oligolactia was recorded in maximum number of cases (24.00 %) followed by abortion (20.00 %), fever (14.81%), repeat breeding (11.76%) and anorexia (5.88%) in different combinations. In seropositive clinically ailing buffaloes the clinical signs included mastitis (30.00%), fever (16.66 %) and abortion (14.28%). In clinically ailing cattle highest prevalence was noted in animals above 4 years of age (20.00%) followed by 1-4 years of age (4.76%) whereas in clinically ailing buffalo seropositivity was recorded only in above 4 years of age (20.00%). The most prevalent serovar pomona has been reported from different clinical conditions in both cattle and buffaloes. Based on present and few past investigation reports the sero-epidemiological condition of bovine leptospirosis that need due attention as South Gujarat region is endemic zone for leptospirosis.

Title: Determination of Herd Prevalence of Brucellosis using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Indirect ELISA
Abstract :

The present study was aimed at diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle and buffalo using RBPT and iELISA and comparing the two tests. The animals belonged to a cattle shelter house (Gaushala). Out of 303 sera samples collected, 125 (41.25 %) were positive by RBPT and among 125 positive samples, 2 were of male and other 123 were of female animals. On the other hand the results of ELISA were tripartite and 142 (46.86%), 22 (07.26 %) and 139 (45.54%) samples were found as positive, moderately positive and negative, respectively. Overall by combining the both type of positive results, 164 (54.12%) samples were found positive by iELISA. On herd level, this was much higher than reports from most of earlier workers. On taking iELISA as reference test, the sensitivity and specificity of RBPT were calculated as 80.78% and 100%, respectively and the level of agreement between two tests was 0.871. But three categories of variations were observed between two tests, i.e. eighteen samples were positive in RBPT but negative in ELISA, 49 were negative in RBPT but positive in ELISA and 12 were negative in RBPT but moderately positive in ELISA.

Title: Association of Semen Attributes and Seminal Plasma Proteins of Buffalo Bulls
Abstract :

This study was conducted to explicate the association of semen attributes with seminal plasma proteins of buffalo bulls. Total 108 ejaculates were collected from six sexually mature adult Bhadawari buffalo bulls aged 2-4 years in three seasons (rainy, winter and summer) of a year by using artificial vagina. Immediately after collection, semen samples were divided into two aliquots. One aliquots of neat semen were evaluated for ejaculate volume (EV), sperm concentration (SC), mass motility (MM), progressive motility (PM), percent live-dead (LD) count, percent Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST), and percent acrosomal integrity (AI). The other semen aliquots were centrifuged for harvesting the seminal plasma. SDS-PAGE was performed for separation of seminal plasma proteins and gel images were analysed to determine molecular weights, IOD of protein bands and relative protein fractions (protein %) using the Gel doc system. The correlation results revealed positive correlation of SC with 70 and 72 kDa proteins while negative correlation with 86 kDa protein. The PM showed positive correlation with 24.5, 70 and 72 kDa proteins and negative correlation with 84 and 86 kDa proteins and AI showed positive correlation with 18.5, 24.5, 44.5, 70, and 72 kDa and negative correlation with 20 and 84 kDa proteins. The results of correlation among seminal plasma proteins showed positive correlation of 24.5 kDa with 35, 44.5, 70 and 72 kDa and negative correlation with 86 kDa proteins. The 70 and 72 kDa proteins showed positive correlation with 18.5 and 24.5 kDa and negative correlation with 20, 84 and 86 kDa proteins. The 84 kDa proteins showed negative association with 24.5, 70 and 72 kDa proteins while 86 kDa proteins showed negative association with 24.5, 35, 36.5, 70 and 72 kDa proteins. In conclusion, though significant correlations among seminal plasma proteins and semen characteristics were detected, yet it is noteworthy that correlation does not mean cause. Therefore, more refined studies that allow higher-resolution separation of seminal plasma proteins and more detailed characterization of those proteins, as well as investigation of their physiological role, will further advance knowledge in this area.

Title: Ultrasonographic Study of Testicular Development in Beetal Bucks
Abstract :

Two dimensional (2D) ultrasound imaging of testis was conducted on six prepubertal bucks from 1 month to 9 months of age. Testicular scanning was done through direct contact in longitudinal and vertical positions by using 6.0 MHz frequency with a real time ultrasound scanner. The testicular parenchyma (TP) appeared homogenous with a coarse medium echo-pattern which appeared anechoic at first month of age and then moderately echogenic as development occurred with advancement of age. The mediastinum appeared as a longitudinal structure in the middle of testis having greater echogenicity than TP in longitudinal plane and as an echogenic spot in centre of TP in transverse plane. The scrotal septum was seen as a hyperechoic structure in lateral sonograms from initial scanning onwards. The tunics of the testes appeared as a bright echogenic line. Inter-testicular septal depression also appeared between testes as anechoic linear band on transverse scanning. The length, width and circumference of the testes showed significant increase (P<0.05) with the advancement of age. Pixel value of testes showed an incremental pattern with slight deviations at few points. All testicular parameters increased linearly as age advanced, with maximum increase from third to fourth month.

Title: Prediction of Breeding Value Using Bivariate Animal Model for Repeated and Single Records
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out on Karan Fries cows maintained at National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Karnal, Haryana. Data were collected on fertility and production performance spread over a period of 34 years (1978 to 2012). Breeding values estimated by univariate animal model were compared with univariate animal repeatability model on the basis of spearman’s rank correlation estimate. The rank correlation estimates ranged between 0.39 to 0.47 indicating that sires rankings on first lactation basis had moderate correlation with the rankings on the basis of breeding values estimated by repeatability model. Further the bivariate animal repeatability models viz. SP & 305MY, CI & 305MY and DPR & 305MY had lower error standard deviation 251.85, 254.92 and 249.93 kgs in comparison to bivariate animal model for single records for which the error standard deviation estimates were 281.84, 279.81 and 278.99 kgs, respectively. The error standard deviation estimates of SP & TMY, CI & TMY, DPR & TMY were 284.99, 294.35 and 285.47 kgs in comparison to bivariate animal model for single records for which the error standard deviation estimates were 272.01, 315.30 and 298.22 kgs, respectively. Results of the present study indicated that the repeatability model was superior in comparison to the animal model for single records and thus repeated records should be used for breeding value prediction in dairy cattle.

Title: Different Treatment Regimen for Eradication of Pinworm (Syphacia obvelata) Infection in Mice Colony
Abstract :

Syphacia obvelata infection was diagnosed in mice during routine health monitoring of rodent colony at Animal Facility, ILS-NISER, Bhubaneswar. Entire mice colony was treated with fenbendazole mixed in drinking water @70 mg / liter in combination with topical spray of injectable 0.1 % ivermectin solution to arrest the disease. At the same time mice were isolated and grouped (n=18) to compare other treatment regimens using ivermectin (oral & spray) and fenbendazole (oral) and chalk out an effective therapeutic strategy for large rodent colonies. Use of cocktail of oral fenbendazole and 0.1 % ivermectin spray was able to eradicate pinworm infection in mice colony but study with individual use of fenbendazole in drinking water was not able to treat the infection in group. Oral use of ivermectin was able to treat pin worm infection in mice but is not recommended for treatment due to its deleterious effects. Use of 0.1% ivermectin as spray alone resulted in complete eradication of Syphacia obvelata hence suggested to be safe and effective method for pin worm eradication in large rodent colonies.

Title: Comparative Efficacy of different Antimicrobials Used in the Treatment of Colibacillotic Calves
Abstract :

Colibacillosis of newborn calves is characterised by rapid onset, watery white or yellowish diarrhoea and high mortality. In the present therapeutic study the efficacy of four highly sensitive in-vitro drugs viz., ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin and co-trimoxazole was evaluated. Ciprofloxacin at the dose rate of 4mg/kg body weight was found 100 per cent effective, gentamicin at the dose rate of 4mg/kg body weight was found 83.33 per cent effective where as neomycin @10mg/kg body weight and co-trimoxazole @ 25 mg/kg body weight were found 66.67 per cent effective in this study. Treatment regimen used in four different groups of clinical cases of colibacillosis indicated ciprofloxacin being most effective drug followed by gentamicin, neomycin and co-trimoxazole which was comparable with in-vitro studies.

Title: Comparative Efficacy of Nitazoxanide and Sulphadimidine in the Treatment of Cryptosporidiosis in Bovine Calves
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to assess the therapeutic efficacy of oral Nitaxoxanide and Sulphadimidine treatment against Cryptosporidium infection in bovine calves reared under field conditions. A total of 18 diarrhoeic calves naturally infected with Cryptosporidium infection were evaluated. Nitazoxanide was found to be very effective on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs, restoration of altered haemato-biochemical parameters to their normal level and 78.89% reduction in Cryptosporidium oocysts shedding. On the other contrary, sulphadimidine was found almost ineffective in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in calves. Intravenous infusion of Ringer’s lactate and 5% Dextrose used as adjunct therapy for correction of fluid and electrolyte losses fastened the recovery.

Title: Effect of Epidural Administration of Promethazine With and Without Bupivacaine on Biochemical Attiributes of Canines
Abstract :

Six apparently healthy nondescript adult dogs weighing 15 to 20 kg were used for investigation on effects of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Promethazine as epidural anesthetic on Biochemical attributes. Nine serum samples from each dog were collected at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and at 96 h post treatment for the estimation of Blood Glucose, Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT), Serum Alkaline Phosphatase (SAP), Total Bilirubin and serum creatinine. It was observed that the Blood Glucose levels rise after administration of Promethazine alone and with Bupivacaine and achieved peak on 72 h post administration and then declined. Serum Total Protein levels remain unaffected after administration of Promethazine alone while along with Bupivacaine increase in total serum protein during different time interval with peak value recorded at 24 h post administration. SGPT levels increased and reached peak at 12 h post administration after administration of Promethazine alone and with combination with Bupivacaine. SAP values followed trends of SGPT and reached peak at 12 h post administration and then declining gradually in both treatments. The Blood creatinine values increased gradually post administration in both treatments and achieved peak at 48 h post administration and then declining gradually.

Title: Subclinical Bovine Mastitis in Rural, Peri-Urban and Suburban Regions of Jaipur District of Rajasthan, India
Abstract :

A cross section study was carried out from June 2013 to May 2014 on a total of 110 lactating cows of rural, peri-urban and suburban regions of Jaipur District of state of Rajasthan, for sub clinical mastitis by using California Mastitis Test (CMT), White side test (WST), Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT) and Somatic cell count (SCC). Prevalence of subclinical bovine mastitis in animal level was recorded as 67.27, 64.55, 63.64 and 74.55 % by CMT, WST, SFMT and SCC, respectively whereas 39.55, 38.86, 37.95 and 45.23 % by CMT, WST, SFMT and SCC, respectively in the level of quarters. Staphylococcus species (46.3%) occupied the prime position among the bacterial isolates followed by Streptococcus species (9.76%), Escherichia coli (6.1%), mixed growth (32.96%) and sterile growth (4.88%). Antibiotic susceptibility test revealed highest sensitivity towards Enrofloxacin. However, antibiotics showing higher rate of resistance patterns were Streptomycin, Penicillin G, Ampicillin, Cloxacillin, Amoxicillin, Kanamycin and Lincomycin. This reflects the poor quality of milk available to the consumers, lack of adequate hygienic practices, pre-emptive prophylactic regimen and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials.

Title: Transcriptional Abundance of Myosin Light Chain 2 Gene in Cardiac Differentiated Canine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Abstract :

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are promising cell source for cardiac tissue engineering and cell based therapies for heart repair as they can be expanded in vitro and differentiated into most cardiovascular cell types, including cardiomyocytes. During embryonic heart development, this differentiation occurs under the influence of internal and external stimuli that guide cells to go down the cardiac lineage. The aim of this study was to characterize the cardiac differentiation potential of a canine iPS cell. With the use of a standard embryoid body–based differentiation protocol for iPS cells were differentiated for 24 days. In vitro differentiations of canine iPSCs via embryoid bodies (EBs) were produced by ‘Hanging Drop’ method. EB’s were differentiated using 5-azacytidine (5-Aza). During differentiation, EBs were collected on day 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 to evaluate the expression of cardiomyocyte specific marker. Analyses on molecular, structural, and functional levels demonstrated that iPS cell– derived cardiomyocytes show typical features of ES cell– derived cardiomyocytes. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated expression of marker genes. The differentiated cells expressed cardiac-specific gene myosin light chain 2 (MYL2) which started from day 8 of differentiation and highest expression was observed on day 16. Immunocytochemistry and relative expression of cardiac specific genes revealed that iPS cells differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes and allow to derivation of autologous functional cardiomyocytes for cellular cardiomyoplasty and myocardial tissue engineering.

Title: Growth Dynamics of Salmonella, Isolated from Different Sources, at different Temperature and pH
Abstract :

A total of 350 samples 50 each from raw poultry meat, poultry cloacal swabs and human diarrheic cases, besides 200 eggs were processed for the isolation of Salmonella. Effect of varying temperature and pH on growth of Salmonella isolates was evaluated by growing the organism in Brain Heart Infusion Broth at 4, 10, and 30°C with pH values of 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5. At 10°C, the mean generation time of the isolates at pH values of 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5 was 44.23 ± 0.44, 15.51 ± 0.08 and 10.23 ± 0.10 hrs, respectively, while at 30°C, the generation time of the isolates at pH values of 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5 was 126.10 ± 0.68, 59.96 ± 0.14 and 36.22 ± 0.07 min, respectively. No growth observed at 4°C, at any given pH value. As the temperature and pH were lowered, significant increase in generation time of the organism was observed.

Title: Physicochemical Analysis and Sensory Evaluation of Burfi Enriched with Dried Date
Abstract :

The study was aimed at evaluating the quality of burfi enriched with dried date. Three samples of khoa-dried date blends viz. T1 (90:10), T2 (85:15), T3 (80:20) and control (T0) burfi was analyzed for physicochemical parameters and sensory attributes. The physicochemical composition of burfi was affected due to addition of dried date. The moisture, fat and protein contents decreased with increase in the amount of dried date while that of total solids and total sugar content recorded an increasing trend. Based on sensory analysis, the dried date burfi prepared with 15% dried date in treatment T2 scored highest sensory score. The cost of production of highly acceptable burfi enriched with dried date (T2) was `. 156.50 per kg.

Title: Prevalence of Gastro-intestinal Parasites in Captive Wild Animals of Kanan Pandari Zoo, Bilaspur
Abstract :

The present study was envisaged to record the prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in captive wild animals of Kanan Pandari Zoo, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh. For this investigation, a total of 145 faecal samples of different captive wild animals were screened, 54 were found positive for various helminth parasites, indicating 37.24% prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites. Among different helminthic infections, the prevalence of nematodal infection was higher than cestodal infection. Among different captive wild animals, the prevalence of parasites was higher in herbivores (45.68%) followed by carnivores (28.33%). The intensity of gastro-intestinal parasitic infection in captive wild animals was mild as eggs per gram ranged from 100-500.

Title: Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers Supplemented Mineral Premix without Cobalt, Iron and Copper
Abstract :

Ninety, day old broiler chicks were arranged into 5X3X6 pattern to investigate the effect of exclusion of Cobalt, Iron and Copper from the mineral mixture. Five dietary groups (T1 to T5) were assigned basal diets containing 2800 kcal ME/kg and 22% CP (Starter) and 20% (Finisher) for a total duration of 6 weeks. The chicks in T1 were fed commercial mineral mixture, T2 were supplemented with mineral mixture prepared with laboratory reagent grade minerals while chicks of T3, T4 and T5 were fed laboratory reagent grade mineral mixture without Cobalt, Iron and Copper, respectively. No significant difference was observed in weight gain, feed intake, FER and PI of broilers fed various mineral supplements. Significantly (p<0.05) higher nitrogen and energy retention (%) was recorded in broilers (T5) fed mineral supplement without Copper compared to broilers fed (T1) commercial mineral supplement (77.18±0.28 vs. 70.50±2.70 and 81.86±1.04 vs. 75.71±2.36). It was concluded that Cobalt,

Title: Immunomodulatory Activity of Moringa oleifera in Albino Rats
Abstract :

The study was conducted to evaluate immunomodulatory property of hot aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera in albino rats. This study comprised of six groups containing six rats in each group. Group I served as control, received standard feed and water. Group II and IV received hot aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera @ 400 mg/kg b.wt, orally for 45 days. Group III and V received ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera @ 400 mg/kg b.wt, orally for 45 days. Group VI received standard immunomodulatory drug Levamisole @ 50 mg/kg b.wt, orally for 45 days. A significant increase (P< 0.05) in HA titre was observed in levamisole treated group VI, ethanolic extract treated group V and hot aqueous extract treated group IV of Moringa oleifera as compared to group I. In delayed hypersensitivity test a significant increase (P< 0.05) in paw volume was observed in response to Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBC’s) in group II (hot aqueous extract), group III (ethanolic extract) and group VI (levamisole). Phagocytic index was also found to be non-significantly increased in levamisole treated group VI, ethanolic extract treated group III and hot aqueous extract treated group II as compared to group I. Thus the results showed that Moringa oleifera possess immunomodulatory property.

Title: Effect of Season and Age on Bacterial Load in Fresh Semen Ejaculates of Buffalo Bulls
Abstract :

Fresh semen of 10 Murrah buffalo bulls of two different age group viz. 4-5 years and 8-9 years having five bulls in each, were evaluated for total viable bacterial load during three different seasons (summer, rainy and winter).Mean bacterial load in fresh ejaculates of buffalo bulls (three ejaculates per bull in each season) was measured using standard plate count method and expressed as mean (± SEM) CFU per ml of semen. Non significant (P > 0.05) but visible differences of mean bacterial load in bubaline semen was recorded between seasons. Comparatively higher bacterial count in bubaline semen was observed during summer season (18000 ± 4667 CFU/ml) as compared to rainy (16000 ± 3055 CFU/ml) and winter season (12000±3266 CFU/ml). Likewise, nonsignificant (P>0.05) seasonal influence was recorded over bacterial load in semen from bulls of two different age groups. However, appreciable variation was noticed within seasons. During summer season, younger bulls (aged between 4-5 years) showed higher bacterial load (22000±8000 CFU/ml) as compared to older bulls (14000±5099 CFU/ml) and vice versa during winter season. Variations recorded during present study was due to significant variation (P<0.05) among individual bulls within and between seasons. Bacterial load in bubaline semen during summer season was negatively correlated with that during rainy (r = -0.296) and winter season (r = -0.19), however positive correlation (r = 0.423) was noticed between rainy and winter season. In conclusion, the changing seasons during the period of study produced nonsignificant effect on microbial quality of the spermatozoa in Murrah bulls.

Title: Steroid induced hyperadrenocorticism in dogs- A Short study
Abstract :

The present study screened ten dogs with the history of prolonged exogenous glucocorticoid administration. The dogs were subjected to detailed clinical examination and special diagnostic procedures to study the clinicopathological changes associated. The most common signs observed were thinning of skin and asymmetrical alopecia. Serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol were elevated. The adrenal glands were found to be atrophied on ultrasonography. The cortisol levels were within normal range in Low Dose Dexamethasone Suppression Test LDDST. Iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed in these dogs and were advised withdrawal of steroid. Initial improvement of clinical signs was observed at 8 weeks after corticosteroid withdrawal.

Title: Haemato-biochemical and Immunological Study on NSAIDs Induced Acute Toxicity in Broiler Chicken
Abstract :
The present study was aimed to elucidate the effect of Nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induced toxicity in the broiler chicken. For this purpose, 120 broiler chicks were utilized and divided into 4 major groups (C, D, B and N) and within each major group the chicks were divided into 3 sub groups having 10 chicks each. The control chicks received normal diet without any medicine. Diclofenac was used @ 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg b.wt. in D1, D2 and D3 group respectively. Ibuprofen was fed @ 15, 30, 45 mg /kg b.wt in B1, B2 and B3 group respectively. The nimesulide group viz. N1, N2 and N3 were given Nimesulide @ 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg b.wt respectively. NSAIDs induced toxicity showed no effect on the haematological parameters of broiler chicks in the present study, however, there was increase in the serum alkaline phosphatase level in intoxicated birds indicating hepatotoxicity compared to the control group with highest value of 173.33 ± 0.80 IU/L in B3. Further, atrophy of spleen and bursa of fabricius was observed in intoxicated birds. Highest atrophy of spleen (1.1 gm/kg body weight) was observed in N3 and D3 while as maximum bursal atrophy of 1.20 ± 0.06 gm/kg body weight was recorded in B3.
Title: Clinical and Rumen Fluid Evaluation of Ruminal Disorders in Cattle
Abstract :

Clinical and rumen fluid changes in various ruminal disorders were studied clinically in 13 cattle at University of Gondar veterinary clinic, Gondar town, Ethiopia from September 2013 to May 2014. History, clinical signs, physiological and rumen fluid parameters were studied in all the cattle. The comparisons of the means between different stages of physiological parameters of different ruminal disorders were determined by repeated measure ANOVA to evaluate pre and post rumenotomy changes. The predominant clinical observations were, abdominal distension in non potential foreign bodies; grunt with bruxism in potential foreign bodies; bloat along with colic signs in ruminal tympany; and fluid splashing sound with palpable mass in the rumen in ruminal impaction. Poor quality roughage and excess concentrate were found to be the predisposing factors in ruminal disorders. In physiological parameters significant increase in temperature and decrease in rumen motility from the presurgical values up to 24 hrs and 48 hrs after rumenotomy were observed. Heart, pulse and respiratory rates revealed none significant changes between pre and post surgical intervals. The rumen fluid of cattle with different ruminal disorders on analysis before rumenotomy showed brownish colour, watery consistency, aromatic odour, pH range 4.9-8.0, increased MBRT and sedimentation activity time in most of the cases.

Title: Contents Volume 10 Issue 2
Abstract :
Title: Effect of Bypass Fat With and Without Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Herbal Galactogoue on Milk Yield, Fat Content and Serum Triglyceride Levels of Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :

60 buffaloes of early and 60 buffaloes of mid lactation stages are selected to study the effect of Bypass fat with and without combination of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Herbal galactogogue on milk yield, fat percentage and serum triglyceride content. It was observed that combination of Bypass fat with Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Herbal galactogogue supplementation increased weekly average milk yield of supplemented buffaloes as well as fat content and serum triglyceride content compared to plain Bypass fat supplemented buffaloes which in turn performed better than non supplemented buffaloes. This effect is attributable to beneficial effect of Yeast on rumen metabolism and subsequent increased dry matter (DM) digestion,   propionic acid production, and protein digestion compared with  the control provides energy as well as yeast to balance and improve rumen metabolism which in turn improves milk fat and serum triglyceride level.. The increased energy supply to the animals in negative energy balance was responsible for increased milk yield and availability of low density serum triglyceride in plasma led to increased fat content and serum triglyceride levels.

Title: Process Protocol and Cost of Production of Functional Fiber-Enriched Pork Loaves
Abstract :

The objectives of the present study was to standardize the protocol for production of functional pork loaves and to assess the economics of production of the developed product.Four treatments were prepared with incorporation of inulin powder (IP) as fibre source viz. Control (0% IP; C), 1% (T1), 2% (T2) and 3% (T3) by replacing the amount of lean meat in the product formulation. Different batches were steam cooked at 110 ºC for 40 minutes, cooled, sliced and evaluated for different quality parameters. The cooking yield and emulsion stability improved with the increase in level of incorporation of inulin. The cost of production also increased with increase in inulin level in product and calculated as highest in T3. The net profit for the control and 1% IP enriched pork loaves was highest whereas lowest for 3% IP pork loaves. The break-even point was estimated on the basis of value ` marketed product and calculated as ` 1195188.00 for control whereas ` 1331576.00 for T3 and cost-benefit ratio 35% for control and T1. Net Income (`/month) after repayment of loan was highest for control and T1 as ` 77533.00 and lowest for T3 70033.00. The estimated details of economics of the developed product concluded that there is marginal increase about 1% in the price of functional pork loaves and this venture can a successful enterprise.

Title: Effect of Different Fillers on the Physico-chemical and Sensory Attributes of Chicken Meat Caruncles
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of three different fillers i.e. rice flour, tapioca starch and potato starch, on the physico-chemical and sensory attributes of chicken meat caruncles, so as to find the best filler for chicken snacks. Four different batches were prepared as follows - control (35% refined wheat flour), T-1 (22.75% refined wheat flour + 12.25% rice flour), T-2 (14.00% refined wheat flour + 21.00% tapioca starch) and T-3 (35.00% potato starch). All the variants were assayed for physico-chemical, proximate composition, texture profile, colour profile and sensory attributes. The cooking yield (%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T-2 batch than control and other treated groups. There was continued and significant (P<0.05) increase in Water Absorption Index (WAI) of all the samples from control to T-3. In texture profile, hardness was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T-3 batch than control, T-1 and T-2. Adhesiveness, adhesive force and stringiness remained non-significant (P>0.05) in control and treated batches. L* value increased non-significantly in all the treated samples due to addition of fillers. Moisture (%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T-1 followed by T-2, control and T-3. Among the sensory attributes, colour/appearance, crispiness, after-taste, meat flavour intensity and overall acceptability were significantly higher (P<0.05) in T-2 (tapioca starch) batch than control, T-1 and T-3 batches. Hence 60% tapioca starch could be used in place of refined wheat flour along with 65% spent hen meat for the development of good quality chicken meat caruncles.

Title: Clinico-Biochemical Alterations and Therapeutic Management of Canine Gastroenteritis
Abstract :

The clinical investigation was done on 45 dogs suffering from gastroenteritis. The affected dogs showed diarrhoea, vomition, depression, anorexia and dehydration. Significant decrease in plasma glucose, albumin, potassium and chloride were observed. The affected dogs were randomly divided into three groups. In group-I (n = 15), levofloxacin was given along with antiemetic, vit B-complex and fluid therapy. In group-II (n = 15) and group-III (n = 15), cefotaxime and ceftriaxone were used instead of levofloxacin. The present investigation showed that therapeutic regimen in group-I (levofloxacin) was most effective for the treatment of gastroenteritis as compared to group-II (cefotaxime) and group-III (ceftriaxone).

Title: Comparative Gross Anatomical Studies on the Sternum of Emu, Turkey and Duck
Abstract :

Study was undertaken to provide a reference for the gross anatomy of the sternum of emu as one of the ratite species and also to compare the structural differences with sternum of duck and turkey. The sternum from four adult emu, turkey and duck were collected and used for the present study. The sternum was a large unsegmented bone located on the antero-ventral aspect of the body cavity, bowl-shaped in emu, triangular in turkey and rectangular in duck. It consisted of deeply concave dorsal surface, more convex ventral surface without keel in emu, with prominent keel in turkey and duck and had two extremities and two borders. An upward and antero-laterally directed flat antero-lateral process was observed and was long in turkey, short and curved in emu and very small in duck. The posterior extremity or metasternum was triangular and flattened in emu. It had very long posterior process and carried ventrally a thin plate of bone called keel in duck and turkey. Single and divided postero-lateral process was noticed in duck and turkey respectively but was absent in emu.

Title: Constraints Perceived by the Gujjars regarding Adoption of Improved Animal Husbandry Practices
Abstract :

Gujjar is a major tribal pastoral community of India. In Jammu and Kashmir state, Gujjars that deal with dairy and animal husbandry practices are known as Dodhi Gujjars. Their herd mainly constitutes of local buffaloes, buffaloes of Nili-Ravi breed and in some cases they keep two or three indigenous cows also. The study was conducted in Jammu district of Jammu and Kashmir, with a view to find out the constraints faced by Gujjars in adoption of improved animal husbandry practices. The data were collected from 120 Gujjar respondents belonging to R.S Pura and Bishnah block of Jammu district with the help of structured interview schedule containing selected dependent and independent variable, through personal interview technique. In general, constraints related to awareness of the respondents and non availability of veterinary services were perceived as the most serious constraints in adoption of improved animal husbandry practices by the Gujjars. Lack of knowledge about; “keeping up to date management records, antibiotics in milk and their ill effects to human population, recommended feeding practices”, high cost of mineral mixture, perception of A.I. as an unnatural process and veterinary center/ dispensary functioning without a veterinary assistant surgeon were the most serious constraints perceived by the Gujjars.

Title: Expression Profile of CXCL3 Gene in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Challenged in vitro with Theileria annulata in Crossbred Cattle
Abstract :

Bovine tropical theileriosis is a major haemoprotozoan disease associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality particularly in exotic and crossbred cattle. Recent studies suggest that a number of immune response genes, expressed differentially in exotic and indigenous breeds play an important role in breed specific resistance to tropical theileriosis. In the present study, expression of CXCL3 gene which has chemotactic activity for neutrophils, controls migration and adhesion of monocytes and ultimately mediates its effects on target cells by interacting with a cell surface chemokine receptor called CXCR2 was studied in crossbred cattle. The in vitro experimental result revealed significant difference in CXCL3 gene expression in Theileria annulata challenged peripheral blood mononuclear cells of crossbred animals as compared to healthy controls and a 2.53 fold increase (p < 0.05) was recorded. The results of current study indicate that CXCL3 may be involved in host-pathogen interaction during tropical theileriosis.

Title: Coagulation parameters in dogs with heat stroke – A short study
Abstract :

The present study was performed to detect the usefulness of coagulation parameters that helps in the diagnosing the severity of changes associated with heat stroke. Twenty five previously healthy dogs with the history of epistaxis, hyperthermia and dyspnea after exposure to high environmental temperature were selected and subjected to detailed clinical examination, physical examination, laboratory tests and coagulation analysis. Bilateral epistaxis, hyperthermia and respiratory distress were the common clinical signs recorded. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were significantly increased in affected dogs than normal. Dogs with normal coagulation parameters responded to the treatment.

Title: Effects of Probiotics Supplementation on Growth Performance, Feed Conversion Ratio and Economics of Broilers
Abstract :

Two hundred and forty (n=240), day-old broiler chicks of strain ‘cobb400’ were divided equally into 3 groups of 80 chicks each in group to observe the effect of probiotics (Protexin) supplementation on growth performance and economics of feeding in broilers. Different dietary treatments were T1–basal diet without probiotics supplementation (control), T2–T1 + probiotics supplementation (50 g/ton of feed) and T3– T1 + probiotics supplementation (100 g/ton of feed). Average daily body weight gain (BWG) was significantly higher (P≤0.01) in T3 compared to T2 and T1 (41.63 ± 0.25 g vs 39.48 ± 0.15, 39.99 ± 0.10). Feed intake during starter, finisher and overall study period remained statistically (P≥0.05) at par. Feed conversion ratio was significantly (P≤0.01) improved with probiotics supplementation @100 g/ton of feed compared to control. Dressing percentage and organ weights (% Body Weight) remained statistically (P≥0.05) similar. Mortality (%) was lower for group T3 (1.25) compared to T2 (3.75) and T1 (5.00) but differences were non-significant (P≥0.05). The return over feed cost was significantly (P≤0.01) higher in T2 (`30.99) compared to T1 (` 27.82) and control (` 26.45). The profit per bird over control in group T2 and T3 was ` 1.37 and ` 4.54, respectively. Thus, the dietary supplementation of probiotics at 100 g/ton of feed significantly enhanced body weight gain along with better feed conversion ratio and profit without any adverse effect on feed intake, mortality and carcass characteristics.

Title: Use of Acidified Litter for Broiler Production in Winter Season
Abstract :

This experiment was conducted to compare the effect of litter amendments by using acidifier on growth performance, carcass characteristics and welfare of commercial broiler chicks along with its economical implication during winter season (December-January months). A total of 180, day-old (Vencobb) broiler chicks were equally and randomly assigned to two litter abatements with alum and sodium bisulphate (ATL and SBTL) treatment groups along with one Control group of 60 birds each for 6 weeks. All the chicks were reared under identical managemental conditions except the treatments. The result revealed that, average body weight gain was significantly (p<0.05) highest in SBTL group (1860g) followed closely by ATL (1813g) than the Control group (1770g) at end of 6th week. The growing chicks significantly gained more body weight with better FCR, PER, EER and higher carcass yield with better immunity in the same order of succession. Findings proved that the pH of the acidified treated litter and the control litter had significant difference which clearly reveals the efficiency of litter treatment products to improve the quality of litter thus in turn enhances the productivity and welfare in broiler production.

Title: Evaluation of Propofol Anaesthesia inMedetomidine-Pentazocine and Midazolam-Pentazocine Premedicated Buffalo Calves
Abstract :

Twelve buffalo calves of either sex presented to the college clinic with various surgical conditions were utilized to study the effect of continuous intravenous infusion of propofol after premedication with medetomidine – pentazocine and midazolam – pentazocine. The animals were divided into two groups of six animals each. Group I animals were premedicated with Medetomidine @ 2.5 µg/kg b.wt. – pentazocine @ 0.5 mg/kg b.wt IV and Group II animals received midazolam @ 0.25 mg/kg b.wt. – pentazocine @ 0.5 mg/kg b.wt. IV.. Propofol was given @ 4 mg/kg b.wt. IV after premedication and maintained by continuous intravenous infusion of propofol @ 0.4 mg/kg b.wt. in 5 % dextrose normal saline in both groups. Induction quality was excellent, smooth and attained sternal recumbency rapidly without struggling in both groups. Anaesthetic character, Physiological & haematobiochemical parameters were studied at 0, 5,10,15,30 and 60 minutes following anaesthetic injections. No significant changes were recorded in both the groups. ECG studies did not reveal any abnormalities except slight variations in the amplitude of P wave, T wave and QRS complex in both groups. The study suggests that medetomidine – pentazocine premedication with continuous intravenous infusion of propofol provided better surgical anaesthesia and was compatable and safe in buffalo calves.

Title: Polymorphic Sperm Phenotype Suggesting Genetic Sperm Defects in a Jersey (Bos taurus) X Zebu (Bos indicus) Crossbred Bull
Abstract :

Data on semen collections from a Jersey X Zebu crossbred bull, consistently producing semen with high proportion of sperm abnormalities was collected and the semen characteristics were analyzed. Observation of the records of 58 ejaculations from the bull has revealed that 96.6% of the ejaculates were rejected for poor semen quality especially in sperm morphology. A representative semen sample from the bull also showed sperm abnormalities up to 72.9%, of which 14.9% and 14.5% of the spermatozoa exhibited loose heads and microcephalic heads respectively. Coiled tail (16.7%) and short tail (14.9%) were the main tail defects observed. Since sperm defects were consistently appearing in high proportions in almost all the ejaculates the genetic cause of the sperm defect was suspected.

Title: Comparative Study of Efficacy of Fenbendazole and Ivermectin against Haemonchus contortus in Goats of Jammu region
Abstract :

Parasitic disease constitutes 60-70% diseases affecting the animals and has serious economic implication in livestock entrepreneurship by direct and indirect production loss. Indiscriminate use of anthelmintic drugs has made the situation even more precarious. A similar problem was encountered in goat farm of SKUAST-Jammu, where goats with constant complain of diarrhoea and loss of body condition was reported despite of routine deworming. The present study was therefore conducted with the objective of determining the efficacy of conventional dewormer used and its comparison with some unexploited antiparasitic drug for the same reason. Twenty seven goats with above said problem were divided into three groups after qualitative examination Group I was treated with ivermectin at dose rate of 0.2 mg per kg body weight orally. Group II was treated with fenbendazole @5 mg/kg body weight orally and Group III goats were kept as untreated control. Quantitative examination for EPG was conducted on day 0, 7 and 14 by Stoll’s technique. FECRT percentage revealed 100% efficacy of ivermectin @ 0.2mg/kg b.wt. whereas FECRT percentage in fenbendazole treated group was found to be 57.44% on day 7 and 70.87% on day 14 post treatment. Coproculture revealed presence of only H.contortus larvae, post treatment. The study revealed low efficacy of fenbendazole and hence ivermectin is the better drug than fenbendazole to control GIT nematodes.

Title: Effect of Infrared Lamps to Ameliorate Morbidity and Mortality in Vrindavani Calves
Abstract :

The present study was carried out to determine the effect of Infrared lamps to ameliorate morbidity and mortality in Vrindavani calves. Ten newborn calves were randomly divided into two groups (G1 and G2) of five each. The calves of G1 were provided with no additional protection; however calves of G2 were protected against cold weather by using the Infrared lamps. The health status of calves was monitored daily both in the morning and evening. The blood samples collected within six hours of birth and then at fortnightly interval were analyzed for total leukocyte count (TLC, thousands/µl) and differential leukocyte count (DLC). The physiological parameters i.e. respiration rate (RR, breaths/min), heart rate (HR, beats/min) and rectal temperature (RT, °F) were recorded at weekly interval. The health performance was better in calves of G2 as compared to G1. The calves in G1 showed comparatively higher values of TLC and neutrophils and the differences were found significant (P<0.05) on 15th day for TLC and 15th and 45th day for neutrophils. The values of lymphocytes were found significantly (P<0.05) lower in calves of G1 than G2 on 15th and 45th day.The physiological parameters did not varied significantly between the groups except for RT which was most of the times significantly (P<0.05) lower in calves of G1 than G2. On the basis of the results, it could be concluded that the Infrared lamps are efficient in providing favourable microclimate and hence can be effectively used in calf shed to protect newborn calves from adverse conditions of winter.

Title: Minerals Profile of Soil, Feed, Fodder and Serum of Dairy Cattle in North Eastern Ghat (NEG) of Odisha
Abstract :

A survey based study was planned in North Eastern Ghat (NEG) of Odisha to analyse the mineral profile of soil, feed, fodder and serum of dairy cattle. This agro-climatic zone comprises of four districts namely Kandhamal, Ganjam, Raygada and Gajapati. Amongst those two districts viz Ganjam and Gajapati are taken for the study considering the density of dairy cattle population. In the similar manner two Blocks from Ganjam District namely Khallikote, Kukudakhandi and two blocks from Gajapati District namely Mohana, R.Udayagiri was considered for our experimental area with two villages from each of the block. Macro and micro minerals like Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn) and Iron (Fe) were estimated for soil, feed, fodder and serum. Soil Ca was estimated by rapid titration method and available soil phosphorus was determined by colorimetric analysis. The soil micro minerals like Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn were analyzed as per the method of Lindsay and Lindsay (1978). Dry ash and Wet ash method were used for analysis of macro and micro minerals respectively for feed and fodder. The concentration of Ca and P in serum was estimated by using the kit method. The serum micro minerals like Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn were estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method. The findings depicted that cattle of this region are severely deficient in Ca, Zn, and Cu and marginally deficient in P and Mn with higher value of Fe content than the respective critical levels. Considering the importance of productivity and reproductive performance of dairy animal an area specific mineral mixture must be prepared and fed to the animals to meet the deficiencies of these minerals.

Title: Metabolic Profiling of Normal and Lame Karan Fries Cows and its Association with Lameness during Transition Period
Abstract :

In high yielding dairy cows, one of the major cause of lameness during transition period is the altered nutritional status of pregnant animal. Concentrations of essential nutrients get varied and often decrease around calving due to physiological factors and thus extra-supplementation is recommended in these animals. Blood measures are frequently used in assessment of the vital nutrients for predicting the risk of lameness during this period. The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of healthy and lame Karan Fries (KF) cows and their association with lameness score during transition period. For this fifteen high-yielding crossbreed (KF) healthy cows and fifteen high yielding crossbreed (KF) lame cows were randomly selected from the Livestock Research Centre (LRC) of National Diary Research Institute, Karnal for pooled blood sample collection. Samples were collected 60d, 15d pre-partum, on the day of calving, and 60d, 15d post-partum. The results revealed that the mean plasma biotin, zinc (below critical level) and calcium (within range) levels were significantly lower (P<0.05) in lame KF cows while β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations was significantly higher, however no significant difference in plasma copper, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations was found in lame cows as compared to normal KF cows during this period. There was also significant (P<0.05) variation of blood biochemical profiles (glucose, NEFA and BHBA) and plasma biotin concentration among different lameness scores (1-5) whereas no relation of mineral profiles (calcium, zinc and copper) was seen with lameness score.

Title: Evaluation of Immune response to Enterotoxaemia Vaccine in Sheep reared under Experimental and Field conditions using ELISA
Abstract :

Immune response to enterotoxaemia vaccine (ET) was evaluated in sheep reared under laboratory and field conditions using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Under experimental condition, six sheep were vaccinated with booster dose on 14th day and evaluated for immune response; however in field conditions, serum samples from 386 ET vaccinated sheep (139 from organized farms and 247 from unorganized sector of Andhra Pradesh) were evaluated for protective antibody titre using ELISA. Highest protective titre was recorded in sheep reared under experimental condition; on day 30 after vaccination followed by gradual decrease up to day 90. Immune responses of sheep maintained under rural conditions were found to be low when compared with sheep maintained under experimental/laboratory conditions. The protective titers were maintained up to 3 months in sheep maintained under village conditions whereas up to 4 months in those maintained in experimental conditions. So, it can be concluded that good managemental practices along with booster vaccination of ET in farms could evoke better immune response in sheep against ET.

Title: Induction of Estrus and Fertility Response in True Anoestrus Buffaloes Using Intravaginal Progesterone Sponge During Summer
Abstract :

Present study was carried out to study the efficacy of intravaginal progesterone sponge for induction of estrum in post partum anoestrus buffaloes during summer. True anoestrus animals were identified by repeated rectal examinations twice at 10 days interval apart having the small and smooth ovaries without any follicular activity. Out of 40 animals identified, 30 were treated with intravaginal progesterone sponge for 10 days and PGF2 injection was given one day prior to removal of sponge. Remaining 10 animals were kept as anoestrus control without treatment. The animals were watched closely for change in external gentallia after sponge removal and for estrus symptoms. The animals exhibiting estrus were inseminated artificially. Estrus was induced in 80% of animals (24/30) and the conception rate was 66.66% (16/24). This result indicates the better possibilities of inducing ovarian cyclicity in functionally anoestrus buffaloes by cost effective intravaginal progesterone sponge.

Title: Relationship Among Intramammary Infection and Raw Milk Parameters in Jersey Crossbred Cows under Hot-Humid Climate
Abstract :

The raw milk quality has increasing importance for producer and consumer as it is directly related to processing, production and price. The aim of present study was to determine the relationship among intramammary infection (IMI) and raw milk parameters in Jersey crossbred cows. Total 24 lactating Jersey crossbred cows were randomly selected and representative animal wise morning milk samples were collected in monthly interval for four month. The level of somatic cell count (SCC) and milk parameters (fat (%), solid non-fat (%) and pH) was estimated from the collected sample. Test day milk yield for individual animals was also recorded and then the data obtained were statistically analyzed. A significant (P<0.01) negative correlation of Log10SCC with test day milk yield, fat and SNF percentage was found, while, milk pH was highly positive correlated with Log10SCC in milk. The mean±SE values of milk yield, fat and SNF were significantly (P<0.01) lower in subclinical infected group except for SCC and pH, which were higher in subclinical infected group. It can be concluded that IMI and higher SCC adversely affect the milk production and raw milk quality parameters and these parameters can be used as useful indicator as complimentary to SCC to monitor udder health and for early diagnosis of subclinical mastitis at dairy farm.

Title: Occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Dogs and their Handlers in Jammu
Abstract :

The study explored the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in dogs and their handlers. Samples comprised of dogs wound (n = 50), dogs nasal (n = 22), dogs skin behind ears (n = 50) and hand swabs of dogs owners (n = 40). Out of these 162 samples, 2 (1.23%) were positive for S. aureus, of which 1 (0.61%) was MRSA. S. aureus isolates were of wound and skin samples each and isolate from wound was MRSA. None of the dogs nasal and owners’ hand swabs were positive for S. aureus and MRSA. Study revealed resistance of S. aureus to ampicillin (100%) while sensitivity to clindamycin (100%), doxycycline (100%), vancomycin (100%), linezolid (100%), teicoplanin (100%) and amoxyclav (100.0%). MRSA observed high resistance to cefoxitin (100%) and vancomycin (100%) while isolates were sensitive to clindamycin (100%), amoxyclav (100.0%), ceftriaxone (100%), gentamicin (100%), ampicillin (100%) and linezolid (100%).

Title: Comparative Efficacy of PercollTM Discontinuous Density Gradient Centrifugation and Glass Wool Filtration Techniques for Spermatozoa Selection in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
Abstract :

Dead and damaged spermatozoa cells present universally in the ejaculates of all eutherian mammals exert toxic effect on contemporary healthy cells mostly through generation of excessive free radicals. This is much more evident during extended period of processing, resulting in poor ejaculate quality. The solution lies in depletion of dead/damaged spermatozoa from the neat ejaculates itself. Thus the objective of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of the protocols such as discontinuous PercollTM density gradient centrifugation (PDGC) and glass wool filtration (GWF) for depletion of dead/damaged spermatozoa from fresh semen in buffalo. Random ejaculates (n=6) of Murrah buffalo bulls were divided into two aliquots after quality assessment: PDGC and GWF protocols (Group I and II, respectively). At the end of the purification protocol, efficiency of the protocols in depleting dead/damaged spermatozoa as reflected by certain quality parameters were evaluated. The mean efficiency (%) of purification protocols based on recovery of spermatozoa was 44.68 and 40.02% for PDGC and GWF, respectively. Moreover significantly (p<0.05) greater values for quality parameters was observed in the Group II (26.4+6.8 vs 68.8+4.4 for acrosome integrity (%); 12.68+6.6 vs 57.7+7.5 for functional plasma membrane integrity (%); 20.3+5.8 vs 80.75+6.7 for viability (%) in Group I and II, respectively). It was concluded that GWF is a better technique than PGDC to filter out dead/damaged spermatozoa from fresh semen with improvement in semen quality and can be a valuable tool in assisted reproductive technology.

Title: Retrospective Inspection and Dissemination Pattern of Common Metabolic Ailments among Hilly and Tarai Region Goats of Uttarakhand
Abstract :

Goats are considered as an important animal not in present scenario but also from ancient time. Due to increasing frugal interest of goat farming globally, profound animal husbandry practices are attaining importance under the target of obtaining quality products along with good animal health and welfare. During the transition phase of life, noticeable alterations in the endocrine and metabolic status of the dairy ruminants were registered. Among small ruminants i.e. goat’s hypocalcaemia, hypoglycemia/Pregnancy toxemia and hypomagnesaemia are the common metabolic disorders which normally precipitated during metabolic anxiety phase. The present study was conducted during the period of 1st January 2019 to 31st December 2019. During this period we had registered total 957 goats at Kalsi, Chakrata areas of district Dehradun, Chorgalia, Kotabagh, Kaladhungi areas of district Nainital and Shetlai, Pantnagar, Bazpur areas of district Uddham Singh Nagar beside this we had also included the concerned cases from Government Veterinary Hospital Outpatient departments (OPDs) of the above said areas in Uttarakhand. In the present study, we had performed a prevalence study over common occurring metabolic diseases of goats like hypocalcaemia, hypoglycemia/pregnancy toxemia and hypomagnesaemia. Besides this, we had also studied the dissemination pattern of common occurring metabolic diseases on the basis of their age groups and parity.

Title: Hematological Alterations Induced by Imidacloprid and Ameliorative Effect of Withania somnifera in Female Albino Wistar Rats
Abstract :

Present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of oral administration of imidacloprid on weekly body weights and hematological parameters in female rats and also to determine the protective role of Withania somnifera against imidacloprid induced toxicity. Forty eight (48) female albino Wistar rats were divided into four (4) groups of twelve (12) animals each. Group 1 served as control, groups 2 was given with imidacloprid at the rate of 30 mg/kg b.wt/day, group 3 was maintained as Withania somnifera (WS) control (1g/ kg feed) and group 4 was treated with both imidacloprid + Withania somnifera (dose as above). The experiment was carried out for a period of 30 days and the test compound was administered daily by oral gavage. Blood samples were collected on 15th and 30th day for hematological analysis. A significant (P < 0.05) reduction in weekly body weights were observed in group 2. Hematology revealed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in TEC, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH and MCHC and increase (P < 0.05) in TLC in group 2. The DLC revealed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in neutrophil count and significant (P < 0.05) decrease in lymphocyte count in group 2. Administration of Withania somnifera along with imidacloprid brought moderate protection in all the above parameters.

Title: Polymorphism in Exon-40 of FASN Gene in Lesser known Buffalo breeds of India
Abstract :

Present study was aimed to discover the single nucleotide variation present in exon 40 region of the Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) gene. FASN plays a central role in de novo lipogenesis in mammals and variation in this enzyme may affect economic traits including fatty acid composition of buffalo milk. A total of 80 DNA samples in two riverine buffalo breeds namely, Gojri and Chhattisgarhi were screened using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). FASN gene was found to be polymorphic with an adenine to guanine transition. Three types of genotypes, viz. AA, AG and GG were observed in the studied breeds. Allele A was found to be more frequent than G allele. All the genotypes showed almost the same frequency across the breeds, indicating that there is absence of selection for FASN gene in lesser known buffalo breeds of India. The study will augment the information available and can be applied in future studies to determine the role of bovine FASN gene as a candidate gene marker for a milk-fat content.

Title: Evaluation of Wound Healing Properties of Herbal Medicaments on the Basis of Clinical and Haemato-biochemical Changes
Abstract :

The present study was conducted on 24 dogs irrespective of sex, breed and aged between 1year to 8 years with different types of wounds. The animals were randomly divided into four groups. Each group consisted of 6 dogs. The animals of group I were treated with povidone iodine (5.0%) and in group II, III, IV animals were treated with the herbal ointment which were prepared from hydroalcoholic extract of Marigold leaves, Guava leaves and 1:1 mixture of both extract for 7 consecutive days. Clinical and haematological parameters were recorded at different time intervals in all four groups. The study revealed better wound healing properties of the Ointment of 1:1 mixture of Marigold and Guava (10% w/w) leaves extract without any side effect as compared to povidone iodine 5%, ointment of Marigold leaves extract (10% w/w) and ointment of Guava leaves extract (10% w/w) on the basis of clinical and haematological parameters

Title: Incidence of Cystic Liver Caused by Cysticercus fasciolaris in Laboratory Rat
Abstract :

Herein we are reporting about an incidence of Cysticercus fasciolaris infestation in a male and female Sprague Dawley housed for experimental purpose. The clinical finding includes anorexia and dullness. Post mortem examination of both the animals revealed cystic liver with irregular lump of hard tissue attached to left lateral lobe of liver in male rat. A thin, pale white segmented larva with distinct head was found lodged inside the cyst in both the animals. Based upon the morphological features, the larva was identified to be intermediate stage of Taenia taeniaeformis which is a tapeworm of cat with rodents acting as intermediate host. Most of the rodent facilities do not screen laboratory animals for presence of this parasite in regular health monitoring procedures. The findings are important due to impact of this parasite on animal health, research studies and sporadic zoonotic potential.

Title: Novel Granulocytic Colony Stimulating Factor-based Therapy for Morbidity Reduction in Pancytopenic Dogs with Babesia gibsoni
Abstract :

Vector borne pancytopenia is emerging as a life threatening entity in animals. In India babesiosis is one among the most prevalent tick-borne parasitic diseases of dogs caused by either Babesia gibsoni or Babesia canis. Bleeding due to thrombocytopenia and the concurrent anaemia and leukopenia were difficult to manage. This study assessed the efficacy of Filgrastim in pancytopenia associated with Babesia gibsoni in dogs presented to the Small Animal Medicine Referral Clinic, Madras Veterinary College. The therapeutic practices included Injection Filgrastim @ 10 µg/kg, SC, SID in combination with the standard triple therapy to manage the pancytopenia and the infection. Twenty numbers of PCR positive Babesia gibsoni dogs were used for this study. The animals were divided in to two groups based on therapeutic practices. First group consisted of dogs treated with triple therapy and the second group consisted of dogs treated and evaluated with Filgrastim along with triple therapy. The study showed that there was a significant increase in leukocyte count in Filgrastim treated group when compared to the other group. Integration of G-CSF along with standard triple therapy helped in better survival in pancytopenic dogs with Babesia gibsoni.

Title: Organ Weights and Intestinal Morphology of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Supplements
Abstract :

The present study was evaluated the effect of dietary inclusion of various feed supplements and their combination on the performance index, glucose and serum cholesterol for 6 weeks. Day-old broiler chicks (n=252) were randomly assigned to seven treatment groups, each with 3 replicates. The first treatment was designated as control (T0) in which no supplement was added to the feed, while in treatments T1; organic mineral mixture (Organomin forte), T2; organic mineral mixture (Vannamin), T3; probiotics (Microguard), T4; enzyme (Brozyme -XPR) and probiotics, T5; emulsifier (Lipigon) were provided through feed. In the T6 group, 3 percent less energy was given through feed. The weight of vital organs viz. heart, liver, gizzard, and spleen were significantly (P<0.05) increased by the feed supplements of which were in the normal range. The gut morphology was also favorably altered due to feed supplementations. This indicates that the organic mineral mixtures, probiotics, enzymes and emulsifiers, and their combinations can be used as a growth promoter in broiler diets and can improve gut health. These products show promising effects as alternatives for antibiotics as pressure to eliminate growth-promoting antibiotic use increases.

Title: Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Desi Chickens in Andhra Pradesh
Abstract :

A total of 150 cloacal swabs were collected from desi chickens, 217 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were identified. The phenotypic antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae was studied for 14 selected antibiotics by disc diffusion method. The selection of antibiotics was based on usage of antibiotics in commercial poultry farms and also based on priority of critically important antibiotics in humans. All Enterobacteriaceae isolates were subjected to multiplex PCR - I and II for detection of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaOXA genes and blaCTX-M, group 1 and 2 genes. Predominant β- Lactamase genes in gut microbiota of desi chicken include blaTEM (90.55%) followed by blaCTX-M group I (25.86%) and blaSHV (9.44%) genes. All the samples were found to be negative for blaOXA and blaCTX-M group 2 genes.

Title: Growth Performance of Murrah Buffalo Calves under Humid Tropical Conditions of Kerala
Abstract :

Data obtained from Murrah buffalo herd maintained at Livestock Research Station, Thiruvazhamkunnu (Kerala) was analysed to determine average birth weight and average daily gain of calves. Mean body weight (±SE) at birth observed was 34.76 ± 0.54 Kg. Body weight at birth of female and male Murrah calves were 32.83 ± 0.63 Kg and 37.06 ± 0.73 Kg respectively. Significant difference was observed between sexes with respect to birth weight and body weight at 15 days of age (p<0.05). Average daily gain observed in male and female calves during 90 day period was 0.595 Kg and 0.612 Kg respectively. Difference in average daily gain was not statistically significant, except between 30-45 days during which female calves gained more weight than males (p<0.05).

Title: Guided Tissue Regeneration with β-Tricalcium Phosphate and Platelet-rich Plasma for Fracture Repair in Dogs using Internal Fixation
Abstract :

The study was conducted on 19 adult dogs referred for treatment of fracture in diaphyseal region of three long bones, viz, radius-ulna, femur and tibia-fibula. These dogs were divided randomly into three groups viz T1, T2 and T3. In group T1, the diaphyseal fractures of the long bones were immobilized by an internal fixation technique using reconstruction plate or locking compression plate. In group T2, β- tri calcium phosphate granules were incorporated at fracture site after fixation. In group T3, one milliliter of PRP was administered locally at fracture site just before the closing the first suture line. Clinical and radiographic examination were also conducted during the study. There was a significant reduction in mean inflammation score at 7th day in groups T2 and T3 and at 30th day than 0 day in all the groups. At 90th day, the mean radiographic score was highest for group T3 and it was followed by the score in group T2. At day 90th, a radiograph in both the views was not able to delineate the granules from osseous tissue. The mean weight bearing score was also higher in group T3 than in group T2 at 30th, 60th and 90th post operative day showing that restoration of the function was better and earlier in groups T2 and T3 than in group T1

Title: Carcass Traits and Leather Quality Characteristics of Blackhead Ogaden Sheep Fed Different Proportions of Roughage and Concentrate Ratios
Abstract :

An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of varying level of roughage to concentrate ratios on carcass traits and leather quality characteristics of Blackhead Ogaden sheep aged 2 years (20.8±1.8 initial body weight). Twenty four lambs were blocked into 6 groups of four lambs based on initial body weight and randomly assigned within group to 4 diets. Roughage composed of natural grass hay and haricot bean hauls (50:50 ratio) and concentrate mixture composed of wheat bran (69%) and 31% of oil seed meal (noug seed cake and cottonseed meal in the ratio of 1.1:1) were offered at roughage (R) to concentrate (C) ratios of 60R:40C, 50R:50C, 40R:60C, and 30R:70C. Roughage and supplement were offered separately and percentages of the two feeds were determined based on ad libitum consumption of individual animal on dry matter (DM) basis. After the completion of stall feeding, animals were slaughtered for carcass parameters and leather quality evaluation. Slaughter body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage as a proportion of slaughter body weight, empty body weight, and total usable products are greater in group consumed 30R:70C than 60R:40C ration (P<0.05). Fat content and elongation percentage of leather produced from sheep consumed 60R:40C was higher (p<0.05) than 30R:70C. However, the other chemical and physico-mechanical quality of leather were not affect by the treatment diet (P>0.05). Thus, we conclude that feeding of roughage and concentrate at the ratio of 30R:70C could be recommended as better feeding strategy for better performances of finishing sheep.

Title: Immunohistochemistry of Canine Hair Follicle Stem Cells (cHFSCs) by using CK15 and CK19
Abstract :

Adult body harbors powerful reservoir of stem cells that maintains homeostasis by tissue regeneration and in response to disease and injury. Hair follicle is a dynamic mini organ supporting important biological functions of the body in maintaining homeostasis and skin tissue self-renewal. This study was carried out with the objective of finding the adult stem cells in canine hair follicular tissue. To conduct this study, adult canine skin samples (n=12) irrespective of breed and sex were collected. To characterize the hair follicle stem cells, paraffin sections of canine hair follicles were immunostained with positive hair follicle stem cell markers like Anti- cytokeratin 15 (CK15) and Anti-cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and FITC conjugated and HRP conjugated secondary antibodies were used. Immunoreactivities for CK15 and CK19 were observed in the bulge/isthmus region of hair follicles in between the infundibulum and suprabulbar regions and occupied most part of the peripheral layer of outer root sheath cell. Immunophenotyping of canine Hair Follicle Stem Cells (cHFSCs) in the bulge region of hair follicle helps in confirmation of in vitro culture of cHFSCs from the bulge region which will be further used for translational research.

Title: Phenotypic Time Trend in Performance Evaluation of Dahlem Red Chicken under Intensive Management in Himachal Pradesh
Abstract :

A study was conducted to evaluate the production performance of Dahlem Red chicken over three consecutive generations maintained in intensive system. Dahlem Red birds were initially procured from CPDO Chandigarh and further produced through selective breeding. Performance traits evaluated were growth (day old chick weight, 4th week body weight (BW), 8th week BW, 12th week BW, 20th week BW and 40th week BW), age at sexual maturity, hen housed egg production (HHEP), hen day egg production (HDEP) and survivor egg production (SEP) at 40, 52 and 72 weeks of age and egg weight at 28, 40 and 52 weeks of age. Analysis revealed positive phenotypic trend in 4 week (17.58 g), 8 week (56.35 g), 12 week body weight (133.5 g), age at first egg (5.5 days) and age at 25% HHEP (2.0 days). The hen housed and hen day egg production at 40, 52 and 72 weeks revealed positive phenotypic trend of 4.79 and 1.93, 15.83 and 8.31, 31.6 and 13.98 eggs respectively. Further, survivor egg production also showed positive trend estimates at 40 and 52 weeks. Declining trends were observed in SEP at 72 week, day old chick weight (-0.89 g), 20 week BW (-37.99 g), 40 week BW (-141.2 g) and egg weight at 28 week (-1.7 g), 40 week (-3.3 g) and 52 week (-2.3 g). The results indicated the effectiveness of the selection along with improved management for bringing improvement in production traits in successive generations.

Title: Comparison of Decellularized Bubaline Diaphragmatic Scaffold with Synthetic Polygalactin and Polypropylene Composite Mesh for Perineal Hernioplasty in Dogs
Abstract :

Present study was planned to compare xenogenic decellularized bubaline diaphragmatic scaffold with synthetic polygalactin and polypropylene composite mesh for repair of perineal hernia in dogs. Twelve dogs suffering with perineal hernia were randomly divided in to two equal groups. In group I perineal hernioplasty was done with Synthetic polygalactin and polypropylene composite mesh while in group II, with decellularized bubaline diaphragmatic scaffold (dBDS). Mean surgical time was 59.17 ± 14.04 and 57.50 ± 6.15 minute in group I and II respectively. Swelling, redness and warmth increased significantly (p<0.05) on day 3 in both the groups. In group II initially significantly (p<0.05) increased exudation was observed on day 3 which reduced gradually. Degree of pain after surgery was significantly (P<0.05) decrease on day 3 in both the groups. Neutrophil count was significantly (p<0.05) increased and correspondingly lymphocyte count significantly (p<0.05) decreased on day 7 in group I while in group II no significant difference within the group was observed. Colour Doppler ultrasonographic examination revealed no vascularization on 0 day in both the groups. Neovascularization was observed on day 30 in group I and day 14 in group II on Colour Doppler ultrasonographic examination. It was increased on day 90 in both the groups. The complication encountered in the present study includes local seroma, suture dehiscence due to self mutilation, constipation and fistula formation. Decellularized bubaline diaphragmatic scaffold was well accepted by all the animals and showed less complication than synthetic mesh.

Title: Age-Specific Peripheral Anti-Müllerian Hormone Concentration in Buffaloes
Abstract :

Anti- Mullerian hormone (AMH) is one of the important endocrine markers for the assessment of the age-related decline of fertility potential in animals. No baseline data is available on peripheral AMH concentrations at different ages in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). The present study thus aimed (i) to examine the responsiveness of the ovary to gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge to release plasma AMH into circulation to address the question whether ovarian secretion of AMH would be affected by gonadotrophic status and (ii) to determine plasma AMH concentrations at different ages in buffaloes (n= 154) using an enzyme immune-assay. Data on hormonal concentrations in GnRH-treated buffaloes and in different ages of buffaloes were analyzed by non-parametric one-way repeated measure ANOVA and one-way ANOVA, respectively. No change (p>0.05) of plasma AMH concentrations after GnRH challenge in experimental buffaloes was recorded. Plasma AMH concentration was significantly lower (p<0.05) at 3 months of age (0.56 ± 0.29 ng/ ml) and thereafter it started increasing and reached at a level of 3.07 ± 0.44 ng/ ml at 3 years of age and then remained same (≥2 ng/ ml) up to 11 years of age and again declined progressively and reached at the level of 0.52 ± 0.12 ng/ ml at 15 years of age. A cubic model was the best fitted model to elucidate the change of plasma AMH level with age. Hence, the present study suggested that peripheral AMH concentration could be a candidate endocrine marker for the assessment of reproductive status in buffaloes.

Title: Estimation of In-vitro Plasma Protein Binding of Ampicillin in Horses Based on Spectrophotometric Method
Abstract :

Estimation of plasma protein binding (PPB) is of paramount importance in the pharmacokinetics characterization of drugs, as it can cause significant change in volume of distribution, clearance and half-life of the drug. Ampicillin (α-amino benzyl penicillin) is most commonly used drug in equine practice. This study was conducted to determine the extent of PPB of ampicillin in apparently healthy horses (n=6). A simple spectrophotometric method was applied for the determination of ampicillin at 320 nm wavelength, based on acid degradation product of penicillin at 75°C in presence of citrate buffer (pH 5.2) and traces of copper salt. In the study, it was observed that this method permits the detection of ampicillin to a level not beyond 1.0 μg/ml. Various concentrations of ampicillin (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 μg/ml) were prepared in triplicate in pooled plasma collected from healthy animals. In vitro binding of ampicillin to plasma proteins was determined by employing the equilibrium dialysis technique. The study revealed that the plasma protein binding of ampicillin was to the extent of 12.8 ± 0.07 %. Binding capacity of ampicillin to plasma protein (βi) and dissociation rate constant of protein-drug complex (Kβ) in the present study were 0.34 × 10-6 ± 0.02 × 10-6 and 0.003 × 10-9 ± 0.0003 × 10-9 mol, respectively in horses. Hence, the study concluded that usage of spectrophotometric method helps in quick, cost effective and efficient results in estimation of PPB for ampicillin.

Title: Effect of Eugenia jambolana and Psidium guajava Leaf Meal Mixture Supplementation on Performance, Biochemical Profile and Histopathological Changes of Broiler Chicks
Abstract :

Present study was undertaken in 120 day-old broiler chicks, randomly distributed into 4 dietary treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4 supplemented with leaf meal mixture (LMM) of Eugenia jambolana and Psidium guajava @ 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 % of diet, respectively) each having 3 replicates (10 chicks/ replicate) in a complete randomized block design (CRD). Experimental chicks were fed basal diets (starter and finisher) supplemented with graded levels of LMM. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded at weekly intervals. Two birds from each replicate were slaughtered at the end of feeding trial (42 days). Blood samples were collected and serum separated for biochemical profiles. For histopathological examination, representative tissue samples were collected in 10% neutral buffer formalin and then processed for paraffin embedding employing alcohol as dehydrating agent and xylene as clearing agent. Sections were cut at 4-5µm thickness and stained by routine haematoxylin and eosin method. On histopathological examination of liver, kidney, heart and intestine of T1 and T2 groups showed normal integrity, mild to moderate histopathological changes in T3 group, while, T4 showed drastic histopathological changes. It was concluded that E. jambolana and P. guajava LMM supplementation (2.5% or even 5%) maintained birds performance, minor histopathological changes and producing healthy low cholesterol broiler meat. The LMM incorporation (2.5%) in the diet of broiler chicks may be recommended as socioeconomic, alternative functional feed resource.

Title: Influence of Alteration of Dry Period Feeding Management on Body Weight and Body Measurements of Jersey Crossbred Cows at Lower Gangetic Region
Abstract :

Alteration during far off dry period feeding management was done to see its effect on body weight and body measurements of Jersey cross bred cows. This study was conducted on 14 healthy dairy animals which were separated into two comparable groups on the basis of almost similar age groups, parity, body weight, and body condition score. Statistically analyzed data revealed that there was significantly higher (p<0.01) tail head thickness in overall dry period and at calving in control group animals than treatment group animals. Significantly higher (p<0.01) overall abdominal girth after 4 months of lactation was found in control group animals as compared to treatment group animals. Significantly higher (p<0.01) body length during overall dry period and at calving was noticed in control group animals. Non significant (p>0.05) difference was reported in body weight and heart girth among control and treatment group animals. The coefficients of correlation indicated high and significant (P<0.01) correlation among body condition score, tail head thickness, body length, heart girth, abdominal girth in this study. It can be concluded that alteration of feeding management practices during far-off dry period does not significantly change body weight during dry period and post partum period but can lead to significant difference in some body measurements of Jersey crossbred cows at tropical lower Gangetic region. Correlation of parameters suggested that the larger body sized animal of same breed may produce more milk.

Title: Effect of Seminal Zinc, Calcium, Oxidative Stress and Protein Profile on Semen Quality of Crossbred Bulls
Abstract :

The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of endogenous minerals (Zn and Ca), seminal proteins and oxidative stress on semen quality of crossbred bulls. Two crossbred bulls with history of good initial quality, high sperm motility percentage, and freezable ejaculates and poor initial quality, low sperm motility percentage, and donating mostly non-freezable ejaculates (Bull B), respectively were utilized. Six ejaculates from each bull were used and categorized into high progressive motile as good quality and low progressive motile as poor quality ejaculates groups. Total 24 ejaculates were taken during entire period of study. The level of Zn, Ca in seminal plasma and Ca in sperm pellets was found significantly (P<0.05) higher in good quality ejaculates of Bull A compared to poor quality ejaculates of Bull B; however, the level of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde was significantly higher (P<0.05) in poor quality ejaculates of Bull B compare to good quality ejaculate of Bull A. The 25 kDa protein band was prominent only in good quality ejaculate of Bull A. It was concluded that several proteinaceous antioxidant enzymes which may be present in 25 kDa band and minerals like Zn and Ca as a cofactors of these enzymes could be responsible for good quality semen ejaculates of Bull A.

Title: Effect of Shatavari Root Powder (Asparagus racemosus) Supplementation on Milk Composition of Sahiwal Crossbred Cows
Abstract :

The present investigation was conducted to assess the effect of Shatavari root powder (Asparagus racemosus) supplementation on milk composition of Sahiwal crossbred cows during summer season on twenty lactating Sahiwal crossbred (H.F. × Sahiwal) cows in early stage of lactation were selected for the experiment. All the cows were randomly divided into two groups T1 (control) and T2 (Treatment) of 10 in each group. The treatment group was provided Shatavari root powder @ 50 g/head/day for 90 days post partum. Data related to milk composition takes fortnightly interval. The overall average milk fat, Protein and Lactose percent during the experimental period in T1 and T2 groups were 3.77 ± 0.01, 3.84 ± 0.03, 3.43 ± 0.01 and 3.46 ± 0.01, 4.54 ± 0.06 and 4.69 ± 0.06 percent respectively, there was no significant (P<0.05) differences between T1 and T2 groups. The overall average solid not fat (values) and total solid (values) differed significantly (P<0.05) between T1 and T2 groups 8.84 ± 0.04, 9.11 ± 0.11, 12.66 ± 0.03 and 13.02 ± 0.14% in T1 and T2 groups was significantly (P<0.05).

Title: Influence of Eugenia jambolana and Psidium guajava Leaf Meal Mixture Supplementation on Carcass Characteristics and Economics of Broiler Chickens
Abstract :

Present study was conducted in 120 day-old unsexed broiler chicks. They were randomly distributed into 4 dietary treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4) supplemented with leaf meal mixture (LMM) of Eugenia jambolana and Psidium guajava@ 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 % of diet, respectively of 30 birds per treatment, each having 3 replicates (10 chicks per replicate) in a complete randomized block design (CRD). Significantly (P<0.05) higher mean body weight was observed in T1 as compared to T2, T3 and T4 groups. Carcass yields viz. live weight, de-feathered weight, slaughtered weight and eviscerated weights (in gram and % LWt.) were statistically non significant (P>0.05) with and without LMM supplemented diets. However, weights of spleen and liver were significantly (P<0.000, P<0.026) higher in LMM supplemented groups as compared to un-supplemented control (T1). Dietary supplementation significantly reduced abdominal fat content in T4 compared to T1, whereas, T2 and T3 have an intermediate values between T1 and T4 and increased the net profit, it ranged from ` 30.41 to 34.24 per bird.

Title: Toxinotyping of Clostridium perfringens in Poultry from Necrotic Enteritis Cases
Abstract :

Clostridium perfringens is well known causative agent of necrotic enteritis in poultry and is mainly caused by Type A toxin. NetB toxin is found to be one of the newly emerging virulent toxin gene which is also responsible for necrotic enteritis. The present study was carried out to characterize and to type the different toxins associated with C. perfringens in NE cases of poultry. For the present study total 125 samples were collected from poultry birds, out of which 50 samples were of intestinal content from diseased birds, 50 cloacal swabs and 25 intestinal content from healthy birds. These samples were further processed for isolation, identification, and toxinotyping of Clostridium perfringens isolates. Onisolation of C. perfringens on blood agar total 43 isolates were found positive showing a pattern of double hemolysis on blood agar. The positive isolates of C. perfringens were further confirmed by using 16S rRNA species specific PCR. After confirmation isolates were processed for toxinotyping mainly targeting cpa, cpb and cpb2 toxins by using multiplex PCR. On toxinotyping it was found that NE in poultry birds were mainly caused by C. perfringens type A. On virulent gene detection of netB toxin, total 4 isolates were found positive for netB toxin. This study pointed out that C. perfringens type A is responsible for development of NE in poultry along with net B toxin which is a new key virulent factor. Further studies of netB toxoid and C. perfringens type A for vaccine production could minimize the clostridial problems in broiler farms.

Title: A Study on Growth Performance of Weaned Kids of Sirohi Goat Fed with Different Levels of Concentrates
Abstract :

The present investigation was conducted a study on growth performance of weaned kids of Sirohi goat fed with different levels of concentrates for the effect of concentrate feeding on body weight gain. Twenty four kids of Sirohi breed between 3-4 months age were randomly selected on the basis of uniform body weight, age and divided into 3 groups of 8 kids each at the goat farm of S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner. Group T1 served as control supplemented with 50 g concentrate per kid per day for 3 months. Group T2 (treatment) supplemented with 50, 100 and 150 g concentrate and T3 (treatment) with 100, 150 and 200 g concentrate per head per day for 1st, 2nd and 3rd month, respectively. Other management practices were similar for each group. Fodder of khejri loom was offered ad-libitum to all groups. Body weight of kids was recorded weekly. Group T3 fed with more quantity of concentrate achieved the highest (85.77 g/day) average weekly weight gain followed by T2 (69.22 g/day) and control group T1 (61.33 g/day). Maximum average total weight gain per kid was observed in group T3 (7.72 kg) followed by T2 (6.23 kg) and least was found in T1 (5.52 kg). Thus, from above findings it can be concluded that T2 and T3 treatments showed significantly improved growth performance in Sirohi kids and higher level (T3) was relatively the best level in terms of both biological and economical returns.

Title: Prevalence of Acute Pancreatitis in Dogs
Abstract :

The study was aimed to study the prevalence of acute pancreatitis in dogs. Forty dogs with history of acute onset of vomiting, abdominal pain and anorexia were screened for acute pancreatitis by radiography, abdominal ultrasound and confirmed by SNAP cPL (Canine pancreatic lipase) kit test. Fourteen (0.375 per cent of gastrointestinal cases) dogs found to be positive for acute pancreatitis by abdominal ultrasound, out of which SNAP cPL was positive in nine dogs (64 per cent). Among this 64.3 per cent was secondary acute pancreatitis and 35.7 per cent being primary acute pancreatitis. Highest prevalence was observed in male, Non-descriptive dogs, irrespective of age group. The common history and clinical findings recorded were anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, dehydration, tachycardia, tachypnea, praying posture and pyrexia.

Title: Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Herbal Regimen for the Treatment of Post-partum Anestrus in Water Buffaloes
Abstract :

A study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of combinations of different brands of herbal uterine cleansers, estrus inducers and mineral supplements in the treatment of anestrus in water buffaloes. Thirty she-buffaloes with a history of anestrus were randomly assigned to either of five equal groups. Group T0 served as untreated control, Group T1 was treated with a combination of Exapar bolus (M/s Ayurvet Limited, India), Janova capsule (M/s Ayurvet Limited, India) and Mintrus caplet (M/s Ayurvet Limited, India). Group T2 was treated with AV/UTB/26 bolus (M/s Ayurvet Limited, India), AV/OIP/22 powder (M/s Ayurvet Limited, India) and Mintrus caplet. Group T3 was treated with a combination of Brands A, B and C. Group T4 was treated with a combination of Brands X, Y and Z. The best estrus response was recorded in the Group T2 and the highest conception rates in Groups T2 and T4. The time interval between treatment and onset of estrus was significantly lowest (P<0.05) in Group T1 as compared to the other groups.

Title: Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli from Milk
Abstract :

Milk plays a major role as a source of nutrition in the diet but contaminated milk can be a source of harmful bacteria. Escherichia coli is opportunistic pathogen and is responsible for a wide range of infections. The prevalence of pathogenic multi-drug resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli is increasing and becoming a global concern. A study was carried out to isolate ESBL producing E. coli from 150 milk samples from Anand and around villages. Total 94(62.66%) samples were found positive as E. coli by isolation on MacConkey and Eosin Methylene Blue agar which were confirmed by primary & biochemical tests including Gram’s staining. Antibiotic sensitivity test (ABST) was performed against 6 antibiotics and isolates found resistant to Aztrionem: 58(61%), Cefoxitin: 20(21%), Ceftriaxone: 56(59%), Ceftazidime: 62(65%), Cefpodoxime: 34(44.73%) & Ceftazidime + Clavulanic acid: 8(8.5%). A total 34(36.17%) ESBL producing E. coli were phenotypically confirmed by ABST and Epsilometer test. Genotypic confirmation of 34 isolates was done by PCR and isolates found positive for bla CTX M-3 gene: 18(52.94%), bla CTX M-9 gene 6(17.64%), bla SHV gene: 5(14.70%) and bla TEM gene: 5(14.70%). In summary, analyzed milk samples were found to have a health risk for consumers due to contamination by ESBL producing E. coli, their pathogenicity and treatment failure as a result of antibiotic resistance.

Title: Role of Bacterial and Parasitic Pathogens in Occurrence of Neonatal Diarrhoea in Goat-Kids
Abstract :

Infectious diarrhoea in neonates of animals is one of the most common and economically important conditions encountered in the livestock industry. Faecal samples (n=210) from diarrhoeic neonatal goat-kids of different livestock sheds of ICAR-CIRG, Makhdoom, Mathura (U.P.), were aseptically collected, and immediately processed for isolation of bacterial pathogens and parasitic evaluation. A total of 178 isolates of E. coli from 210 samples were identified on the basis of cultural, morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics. Out of 178 E. coli isolates, 3.93 % (7/178) isolates were identified as STEC by PCR amplification of stx-1 and stx-2 gene. A total of 64 isolates of E. coli were sent to National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli for the serotyping. The common serogroups of E. coli responsible for neonatal diarrhoea in goat-kids were identified as O36, O26, O59, O29, O43, O91, O82, O9 and O171, out of which, 46.15% were O36, O26 and O59. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was detected in 46 samples out of 148 faecal samples by ZN staining and nested PCR.Based on cultural, morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics,16 isolates of Salmonella spp. and 5 of Klebsiella spp. were identified from 210 fecal samples. The present study concluded that E. coli followed by Cryptosporidium spp. and Salmonella spp. were the prevalent infectious agents associated with neonatal diarrhoea in goat-kids.

Title: Quality Characteristics of Chicken Meat Cutlets Incorporated with Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) Flour
Abstract :

In view of continuously growing demand of snacks foods worldwide due to rapid changing lifestyle, industrialization and urbanization, the present study was conducted to standardize the incorporation level of finger millet flour for preparation of chicken meat cutlets. Chicken meat cutlets were prepared with different levels of finger millet flour viz. 5, 10, and 15%, and different levels by replacing the lean meat in chicken cutlets formulation. The optimum (mention) level of finger millet was standardized as 5% for incorporation in chicken meat cutlets. Crude fiber and calcium content of chicken cutlets prepared with finger millet flour was significantly higher as compared to control thereby depicting marked improvement in the desirable food trait with health benefits. The product yield of chicken meat cutlets with optimized level of finger millet flour was significantly higher as compared to control. It did not show significant effect on any of the sensory parameters. Storage stability of aerobically packaged chicken meat cutlets with optimum level (mention level) of finger millet flour along with control was further evaluated during refrigerated storage (4±1oC) at regular intervals of 0, 3, 6 and 9 days with respect to physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics. Chicken meat cutlets could be stored safely in aerobic packaging for 6 days at refrigeration condition (4±1oC).

Title: Conservation Priorities for Indian Goat Breeds Based on Microsatellite and Analytical Data
Abstract :

The demographic and microsatellite data on 25 markers along with non genetic information such as distribution, adaptation and utility pertaining to 24 Indian goat breeds were used to assess their conservation priorities. The effective population size (Ne) of Gohilwadi, Jharkhand Black and Sangamneri was greater than 200 and that of Black Bengal, Kutchi, Mehsana, Sirohi, Malabari and Zalawadi ranged from 100 to 200 but it was below 100 for rest (60%) of the breeds with Ganjam having the least value of 17.5 based on microsatellite data. All goat breeds whose effective population size is greater than 100 based on markers did have population size between 0.1 and 0.2 million except in few cases. The Ne based on microsatellite and demographic data revealed almost same order of ranking of goat populations. It was also revealed that Attappady and Kutchi were at highest risk of extinction probability (0.63) and more than half of the Indian goat breeds were having less than 50% extinction probability. Therefore, Attappady and Kutchi should be given top priority for conservation.

Title: Effect of Cage or Deep Litter Housing on Production Performance of White Leghorn Chickens
Abstract :

The effect of cage or deep litter housing on production performance of White Leghorn was investigated in this experiment. A total 144 pullets of White Leghorn were randomly assigned to two treatments as; Cage housing and Deep litter housing. Results revealed that body weight at sexual maturity was significantly (P<0.05) lower in birds reared in cage than the deep litter housing. Moreover, lower feed intake was observed in birds kept in cages than that of deep litter housing. Feed conversion ratio in terms of feed intake/dozen eggs or feed intake/kg egg mass was better in birds reared in cages than the deep litter housing. The average hen day and hen house egg production were not affected due to different housing systems. Egg quality traits like albumen index, yolk index and Haugh unit score were significantly (P<0.05) higher for eggs produced by birds reared in cage housing than the deep litter housing. The profit of about 20% was observed in cage housing over deep litter housing. It was concluded that the lower feed consumption and body weight at sexual maturity, better feed conversion, egg quality and economic returns were achieved in cages compared to deep litter housing. However, cage or deep litter housing had no effect on egg production.

Title: Nesting Preferences of Birds in Relation to Exotic Trees in Ludhiana, Punjab
Abstract :

Birds have very close association with trees. Trees offer a platform to birds for nesting, roosting, foraging, breeding and feeding purposes. The introduction of exotic (non-native) flora can effect or modify inherent species richness, communal alignment and species abundance, as well as species relationships and communal structure. Birds are exclusively sensitive to alterations both in terms of environmental and ecological. Introduction of exotic trees and human disturbance have also affected the bird diversity. The main objective of the present study was to find out the nesting preference of avian species in relation to exotic trees at two selected locations i.e. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Location I) and Gurpal Nagar, Ludhiana (Location II) from June 2018 to July 2019. Five different exotic trees species selected were Safeda (Eucalyptus tereticornis), Poplar (Populus deltoides), Bottle brush (Callistemon viminalis), Monkey Puzzle (Araucaria araucana), Silver Oak (Grivillea robusta). A total 31 nests (6 on Bottle brush tree, 2 on Silver oak tree, 7 on Poplar tree, 16 on Eucalyptus tree) were recorded. Out of these, 5 nests were of Baya weaver Ploceus philippinus, 4 nests were of Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri, 20 nests were of House Crow Corvus splendens and 2 nests were of Common Myna Acridotheres tristis. Four bird species were observed nesting at location I while only one was observed at location II. Less bird diversity recorded was at location II (8) as compared to location I (23) because of the anthropogenic activities which disturbed the natural habitat at that location.

Title: Karyomorphological Studies of Kangayam, Pulikulam, Crossbred Jersey and Crossbred Holstein Friesian Bulls
Abstract :

The present study was carried out in four genetic groups of cattle, viz. Kangayam, Pulikulam, crossbred Jersey and crossbred Holstein Friesian, to compare the karyomorphological pattern between Bos indicus and Bos taurus x indicus bull calves. Metaphase chromosomal spreads obtained by short term lymphocyte culture technique revealed chromosomal complement (2n) of 60, with 29 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes in four groups. All the autosomes were acrocentric, X-chromosome was sub-metacentric and Y-chromosome was acrocentric in Bos indicus and metacentric in crossbred bulls. There was no significant difference in relative length, arm ratio, centromeric index and morphological index of autosomes and X-chromosome between indicine and taurine groups; but Y-chromosome differed significantly (P˂0.01) in relative length between Bos indicus and Bos taurus x indicus crosses. Y-chromosome polymorphism could help in the determination of breed origin and male lines used in the breeding programmes in order to prevent the possible interferences in the process of reproduction.

Title: Nutrient Composition, Metabolites and Microbial Counts in Litter Material of Broiler Chicken Fed Condensed Tannins Containing Guava Leaf Meal Supplemented Diets: Reduce Environmental Pollution and Alternate Feedstuffs for Ruminants
Abstract :

Present study was conducted in 240 day-old broiler chicks to assess the effect of condensed tannins (CT) containing guava leaf meal (GLM) supplemented diet on nutrient composition, litter metabolites viz. pH, moisture and ammonia concentration) and microbial counts after completion of feeding trial of 42 days. Chicks were randomly allocated into 4 dietary treatments, with 4 replicates of 15 chicks in each pen in a completely randomized block design (CRD). Chicks were fed basal diets supplemented with GLM @ 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 percent, in T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively, while, T0 group fed only basal diet. Litter materials of chicks showed good nutrient profiles and properly sterilized litter material act as alternative feed ingredient for ruminants feed. Supplementation of GLM in the diets of chicks significantly (P<0.05) reduced moisture, pH, NH3 concentration, harmful Eschericia coli and Clostridia spp. counts in the litter materials and reduced environmental pollution. The litter material of GLM supplemented (T1, T2 and T3) chicken showed significantly higher (P<0.05) CP contents as compared to un-supplemented control. It can be concluded that properly sterilized litter material of GLM supplemented chicks act as cheaper alternative feedstuffs for ruminant’s ration and reduce environmental pollution by lowering NH3 concentration, harmful E. coli and Clostridia counts in broiler litter material.

Title: Isolation, Identification and Antibacterial Activity of Endophytic Bacteria from Leaves of Acacia catechu
Abstract :

Drug resistance in bacteria is becoming an alarming problem in recent years. Post-antibiotic era is not so far. The need for novel antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents and agrochemicals are utmost. Endophytes are microorganisms that reside in the tissues of living plants which are relatively unstudied and are potential sources of novel natural products for exploitation in medicine, agriculture and industry. The endophytes of medicinal plants participate in biochemical pathways and produce novel bioactive compounds. The aim of the study was to isolate, identify and to assess antibacterial activity of endophytic bacteria from leaves of Acacia catechu. 18 endophytic bacteria had been isolated and identified by sequencing 16S rRNA gene. The isolated endophytic bacteria were identified as Bacillus humi. Considerable in vitro antibacterial activities against a panel of human pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli) were recorded. Among 18 isolates, 15 isolates had shown inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium and 10 isolates had shown inhibitory activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Title: Effect of Incorporation of Corn Bran, Dried Carrot Pomace and Dried Tomato Pomace on Quality Attributes of Chicken Nuggets
Abstract :

A study was conducted to improve dietary fibre content of chicken nuggets by incorporating corn bran (CB), dried carrot pomace (DCP) and dried tomato pomace (DTP) as dietary fibre sources. Lean meat was replaced with each dietary fibre source at 3%, 6% and 9% level. One product from each fibre source was selected on the basis of sensory evaluation. Sensory acceptability of 3% fibre treated nuggets was comparable with control and further increase in fibre level resulted in a decline in sensory acceptability. All CB and DCP treated nuggets were harder and firmer than control while 3% DTP treated nuggets were harder than control. Fibre addition resulted in less springier and less cohesive nuggets. Yellowness increased in DCP added nuggets while both redness and yellowness increased in DTP added nuggets. Fibre treated nuggets had less moisture and cholesterol content and higher protein, ash, crude fibre, emulsion stability and cooking yield. pH of DCP and DTP treated nuggets was lower than control. Drastic increase in total dietary fibre and insoluble dietary fibre content was observed in treated nuggets. Sensory scores of nuggets declined significantly while thiobarbituric acid reacting substance value (TBARS) and microbial counts increased significantly during refrigerated storage. It is concluded that incorporation of dietary fibre at 6% level resulted in healthier and fibre enriched nuggets with higher cooking yield and acceptability upto 15th day of refrigerated storage.

Title: Treatment of Idiopathic Immune Mediated Hemolytic Anaemia in Dogs
Abstract :

Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) is the most common autoimmune disease in dogs. This study was conducted to evaluate prednisolone and azathioprine therapeutic protocols for the management of idiopathic IMHA in dogs. The anaemic dogs brought with clinical signs such as pale or icteric mucous membranes were screened for IMHA by saline agglutination and spherocyte count and confirmed by flow cytometry. The positive cases were further subjected to haematology, biochemistry, coagulation profile, MAT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of underlying secondary causes like Babesia spp, Ehrlichia canis and Leptospira spp (secondary IMHA). Thirty two cases were positive for IMHA, out of which thirteen cases were primary (Idiopathic) IMHA (17.3 %) and remaining nineteen cases were secondary IMHA (82.7 %) due to underlying causes such as Babesia gibsoni (13), Ehrlichia canis (3) and Leptospira spp. (3) respectively. Immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and prednisolone in combination with azathioprine and specific therapy of etiological agent with supportive therapy was used. Significant increase in Hb, PCV, RBC and thrombocyte count, significant decrease in leucocyte, neutrophil, monocyte and total protein and significant increase in ALT activity was recorded after therapy. Prednisolone was found to be effective in the management of canine IMHA than prednisolone combined with azathioprine.

Title: IGF-1 Gene Polymorphism in Migratory Gaddi Goats of Western Himalayan Region, India
Abstract :

Goat production is a predominant livestock activity in harsh climatic regions of the country particularly hilly regions. ‘Gaddi’ is a prominent goat breed of Himachal Pradesh constituting 60-65% of total goat population of 11.20 lakh (19th Livestock Census, 2012). The somatotropic axis has a key role in postnatal growth and metabolism. IGF-1 gene encodes the protein that is structurally and functionally similar to insulin and regulates cellular synthesis of DNA as well as cellular growth and development, especially in neurons and also mediates the effect of GH gene. The present study was carried onÊ»Gaddiʼ, a distinct goat breed of high altitude areas of Western Himalayan region, for molecular characterization of IGF-1 gene and further analyse its association with growth traits. Blood samples from 63 genetically unrelated animals of Gaddi goat breed were taken from the migratory flocks under AICRP and Gaddi goat unit of CSKHPKV, Palampur and subjected to DNA isolation. 363 bp amplicon was generated and PCR-RFLP analysis using HaeIII restriction enzyme (RE) revealed two variants (AB and BB) however, no significant association could be established. Allele frequencies for A and B alleles were 0.25 and 0.75. The estimates obtained for Ne, Hobs, Hexp and PIC were 1.61, 0.51, 0.38 and 0.31, respectively. PIC value of 0.31 implies the effectiveness of the marker in population studies and also revealed median level of polymorphism. Sequencing confirmed one nucleotide mutation (C264G), however, no significant association were found at IGF-1 genotype with biometric traits in screened Gaddi goats

Title: Production Practices, Constraints and Opportunities of Abergelle Goat Breed, Northern Ethiopia
Abstract :

The study was conducted to assess the production practices, constraints and opportunities of Abergelle goat breed. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through focus group discussion and key informant interview by using tools of participatory rural appraisal. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software and the qualitative data ware narrated. The mainstay of livelihoods of the people of Abergelle district was found highly dependent on production of goats. Two types of goat housing were practiced during dry and wet seasons in the study area. Females were not supposed to herd goats and women were culturally prohibited to consume whole goat milk in the study area. The major supporting institutions in the study area to enhance the productivity of the goat breed were Save the Children (UK), Office of Agriculture and Sekota Dryland Agricultural Research Center. The major constraints faced for the production of Abergelle goat breed were lack of supplementary feed during dry seasons, low level of production, inflexible credit services, shortage of animal health extension workers, lack of transportation facilities, the prevalence of diseases and parasites, shortage of veterinary drugs and equipment. On the other hand, the major opportunities for the production of Abergelle goat breed in the area were availability of adaptable improved forage species, presence of water bodies and the existence of vast communal grazing areas. To improve the production and productivity of Abergelle goat breed in the study area, concerned stakeholders should give an emphasis on the aforementioned major constraints and opportunities.

Title: Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Bovine Mastitic Milk Sample Along with Antibiogram Study
Abstract :

A total of 4378 cattle and buffalo were screened during period of study (July 2018-June 19). Out of which 27 Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. The isolates were confirmed phenotypically based on pigment production on nutrient agar. These were then confirmed by PCR amplification of species specific oligonucleotide sequences. All the 27 isolates amplified 956bp amplicon 16srRNA Pseudomonas aeruginosa species specific nucleotide sequence. The isolates were also checked for exo and aglD virulence associated genes. All of them amplified 540bp and 313bp amplicon of exo gene and aglD gene. All the isolates were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing. Most of the isolates showed highest sensitivity for levofloxacin, streptomycin and enrofloxacin followed by gentamicin, moxifloxacin and amikacin. Neomycin, cefoperazone and ceftriaxone were intermediate in action.

Title: Socio-economic Status, Sheep Husbandry Practices and Morphological Patterns of Macherla Sheep, a Lesser-known Sheep Breed of Andhra Pradesh
Abstract :

A study on socio-economic status of Macherla sheep rearing farmers, sheep husbandry practices, and morphological patterns of Macherla sheep was carried out on 92 shepherds and 1279 sheep in Guntur, Prakasam, and Krishna districts of Andhra Pradesh and Nagar Kurnool district of Telangana state. The study revealed that 79.34% and 20.65% of the farmers had primary and secondary school education respectively with an average of 5.44 members per family. Most of the sheep houses were of open type (61%) with kutcha type of floors (80.43%). The average land holding capacity was 3.41 acres and the mean annual income of the shepherds was ` 1,01,043 with a range of ` 75,000 to 2,00,000 and the mean flock size was 134.31 ± 4.60. The most common practice of feeding was grazing (70.58%). Major breeding season was July to September, while the minor breeding season was March to May. All the farmers in the study area immunized their sheep to protect them from infectious diseases and 79.41% of them followed a periodical deworming schedule. In most of the flocks, mortality of adult sheep was below 5% and in lambs 11-20%. The predominant color pattern was bi-colour of white and black (44.41%) followed by brown and white (35.65%), exclusive brown (18.64%), and exclusive black (1.88%). The most common head profile was convex (84.91%), majority of animals had pendulous ear pattern (96.79%) and 75.45% animals had wattles. Both sexes are horned and oriented backward, downward and forward. Further, 84.55% animals had slender type tail.

Title: Contents Vol. 10, No. 3, June 2020
Abstract :
Title: Cadmium (Cd) and Chlorpyrifos (CPF) Induced Pulmonary Toxicity in Wistar Rats
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to know the pulmonary toxicity by individual toxicities of cadmium, chlorpyrifos and their combination in albino wistar rats. The experiment was carried out for 28 days. Group 1 - Control. Group 2 - Cadmium chloride (Cd) @ 22.5 mg/ kg b.wt /per oral / day. Group 3 - Chlorpyrifos (CPF) @ 25 mg/ kg b.wt /per oral / day. Group 4 - Cadmium chloride (Cd) @22.5 mg + Chlorpyrifos (CPF) @ 25 mg/ kg b.wt /per oral / day. Lungs showed mild to moderate congestion in groups 2 and 3 and moderate to severe in group 4 on 15th and 29th day of the experiment. Lung sections of control rats showed normal architecture. Lung sections of group 2 rats on 15th day showed hemorrhages in the interstitium spaces with infiltration of lymphocytes, On 29th day, mild hyperplasia and desquamated bronchial epithelial cells, peri bronchial and peri vascular lymphoid aggregates were noticed. The sections of lung on 15th day of group 3 rats showed exudate and desquamated epithelial cells in the lumen of secondary bronchiole , on 29th day, emphysematous alveoli with loss of architecture of alveolar epithelium, interstitial edema with infiltration of lymphocytes, mild hyperplasia of bronchial epithelial cells were also noticed. In group 4 rats, similar lesions as described in groups 2 and 3 were observed with severe intensity on 15th and on 29th day of the experiment. In combined toxicity group, the severity of lesions were more thus suggesting synergistic effects of these components.

Title: Histoarchitecture and Histochemical Studies on the Lacrimal Gland of Pig (Sus scrofa)
Abstract :

The fresh tissues were collected from five pigs of either sex and processed for histomorphological studies. The gland was located on dorso-lateral aspect of the eye in the orbital cavity. The gland was multilobar tubulo-acinar with predominance of acini. It was covered by a thick connective tissue capsule and connective tissue septa, which penetrate into the glandular parenchyma and divided the gland into lobes and lobules. The acini were of mixed type but predominantly sero-mucous in nature. The secretory units were followed by a duct system. The excretory duct system was made up of intercalated, intralobular, interlobular and large excretory ducts. The strong presence of glycogen in the acini was demonstrated with the help PAS (McManus’) stain. The ducts showed very weak reaction for the presence of glycogen but goblet cells in the stratified ducts showed strong positive reaction for PAS. The acini showed strong reaction for acidic mucosubstances with PAS-AB. The goblet cells in the stratified ducts also showed strong positive activity towards the PAS-AB. The intense activity towards the Alcian blue showed presence of sialomucins and hyaluronic acids in glandular parenchyma of the lacrimal gland

Title: Amelioration of Acrylamide Induced Neurotoxicity in Wistar Rats
Abstract :

Present study was undertaken to study the neurotoxicity of oral acrylamide (ACR) and its amelioration using α-tocopherol, reduced glutathione (GSH) and hot aqueous extract (HAE) of Ocimum sanctum. Forty five male Wistar rats were divided into 12 groups. The study showed a significant reduction in the body weight of the rats fed with ACR in comparison to the other groups while body weight was restored in the rats fed with α-tocopherol and HAE. Neurotoxicity in rats fed with ACR was evident with the results of histopathology and oxidative stress (high MDA and decreased activities of GSH, SOD, GST and CAT in brain). Co-administration of α-tocopherol and HAE lowered these changes however, there was no marked improvement seen in neural damage but improvement was evident in behavioral as well as physiological changes at a marked point. Histopathology of brain in ACR alone fed group showed extensive neural degeneration and massive deposition of fibrin which was substantially decreased and ameliorated with the co-administration of α-tocopherol and HAE. These results support the oxidative stress results as well. Our results suggests that α-tocopherol and HAE can be useful for protecting brain tissue against ACR induced neurotoxicity through minimizing the free radical mediated oxidative stress.

Title: Current Advances in surgical Management of Ruminal Disorders of Bovine
Abstract :
Ruminal disorders in ruminant are numerous and constitute a major clinical problem. Disorders of forestomach in adult cattle can result from a variety of common causes including traumatic reticulo-peritonitis, ruminal acidosis, bloat, simple indigestion and vagal indigestion. The bovine forestomach are affected highly due to ingested foreign bodies which are the subject of attention almost all over the world and also major economic importance due to severe loss of production and productivity and sometimes death of the animal. The animals are stabilized with fluids and electrolytes for the imbalances preoperatively. Preparation of the animal for surgery includes removal of the hair and cleansing of the skin around the surgical site. Rumenotomy and diaphragmatic hernia repair are surgeries performed for treating many ruminal disorders in bovine. Anaesthetic techniques required for rumenotomy are para-vertebral nerve block by use of lignocaine hydrochloride. Ultrasound diagnosis, completely siphon out of the fluid, visceral blockade and refilling of rumen with refilling agents are among the current advances in surgical managements of ruminal disorders. A long vertical skin incision starting about three to four centimeters below the transverse process of the lumbar vertebrae is made. The abdominal muscles and peritoneum are also incised corresponding to the skin incision. The rumen incision is closed by double row of continuous inverting sutures using chromic catgut. The commonest
complications are wound dehiscence and hemorrhage and seroma formation.
Title: Gross Morphological and Morphometrical Developmental Studies on Harderian Gland in Chicken
Abstract :

The present gross morphological and morphometrical study was conducted on the Harderian gland of chicken. A total of 32 numbers of healthy birds were procured from the Poultry Farm of Nagpur Veterinary College, MAFSU, Nagpur. The chicks were divided into 4 groups viz. 3, 10, 17, and 24 days of age with 8 chicks in each group. It was seen that the Harderian gland was found directed towards ventro-medial aspect of the eyeball in chicks and loosely attached by periorbital fascia to the underlying muscle. The average biometrical observations of left and right Harderian gland in respect of weight, length, width and area of gland were found increased with the advancement of age. Area of the gland increased on its length from 17th day to 24th day of age which resulted into more elongated glands.

Title: Effect of Rendering Temperature on Collagen Content from the Poultry Skin
Abstract :

While looking for an alternate source of commercial collagen the deserted poultry sleeves from wet poultry market appears promising. The present study was envisaged with objective of evaluating effect of the rendering regime on quantity of collagen in rendered poultry skin. The deserted poultry sleeves were custom processed for separation of feathers from skin. The skin was subjected to different rendering temperatures viz: 40, 50 and 60°C for 2 hr. The yield of rendered fat, fat recovery rate, amount of defatted skin, hydroxyproline and collagen content in differently rendered skin were quantified to know the effect of rendering regime. Results revealed a gradual increase in yield of rendered fat and fat recovery rate with increase in temperature, while the amount of defatted skin, hydroxyproline and collagen content in rendered skin decreased with increase in rendering temperature. The yield of rendered fat at 40, 50 and 60°C rendering temperature were 25.50%, 30.97% and 35.08% with corresponding fat recovery rates of 61.59%, 74.80% and 84.74%, respectively. The hydroxyproline content was highest in skin processed at 40°C and least in skin rendered at 60°C. The percentage recovery of collagen from skin rendered at 40°C, 50°C and 60°C were 96.37%, 77.22% and 62.01%,respectively. The study indicated that dry rendering at 40°C temperature is optimal for rendering of fat while processing the poultry skin for extraction of valuable collagen.

Title: Occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Bovine Raw Milk in Chennai
Abstract :

Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) presence in milk is of significant importance as they are often involved in food borne intoxications. Effective surveillance and detection are the most important tools in outbreak investigation and control. Our study was designed to ascertain the occurrence Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from raw milk collected from apparently healthy cattle in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 89 (89/258; 34.49%) positive isolates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from 258 raw milk samples screened. Of which 24 (24/258; 9.3%) isolates positive for MRSA. Studying the antimicrobial resistance and its patterns in foods of animal origin will be of immense help to various regulatory agencies and authorities to devise and implement control measures and to note the compliance of our foods with the prescribed standards.

Title: Financial Analysis of Broiler Production Units
Abstract :

The present paper entitled “A Study of Income and Investment Pattern of Broiler Production Units” was carried out on the basis of primary data collected through pre-tested schedule-cum-questionnaire with personal interview method. For purpose of the study, three groups of broilers units were selected purposely and classified as per bird size. Group I included birds below 2000 in numbers, group II included birds 2001-5000 in numbers and group III included birds 5001 & above in numbers. 15 broiler units were selected from each group, thus a total of 45 broiler units were studied. Kathua district of Jammu Kashmir Union Territory was selected purposively as the district has highest numbers of broiler production units. The cost of production includes variable cost and fixed cost, on first group broiler farms per lot cost of broiler production comes to ` 147112.45 for 1486.66 birds, on second group ` 367243.52 for 3666.66 birds and ` 959446.94 for 9466.66 birds respectively. The benefit-cost ratio per farm/lot observed highest on third group farms i.e. 1:52 followed by 1:35 on second group, 1:17 on third group, while it is 1:44 on overall on sampled farms.

Title: Effect of Non-Genetic Factors on Test-Day Milk Yields and First Lactation Milk Yields in Holstein Friesian × Sahiwal Cattle
Abstract :

The present study was carried out using first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records of 466 crossbred (HF × Sahiwal) cattle calved from 2000 to 2018 sired by 89 bulls maintained at Directorate of Livestock Farms, GADVASU, Ludhiana. Mixed model analysis was carried out by least-squares maximum likelihood programme to study the effects of non-genetic factors on first full lactation milk yield (FFLMY), first lactation 305-day milk yield (FL305MY) and monthly test-day (TD) milk yield records of crossbred cattle. The least squares means of different monthly TD milk yields (1st to 11th) were 12.05 ± 0.42, 15.65 ± 0.42, 15.38 ± 0.44, 14.44 ± 0.43, 13.79 ± 0.41, 12.88 ± 0.40, 12.27 ± 0.42, 11.83 ± 0.37, 10.85 ± 0.42, 10.64 ± 0.45 and 10.28 ± 0.50 kg, respectively. For FFLMY and FL305MY the means were 4979.60±184.45 and 3818.17±103.26 kg. The effects of different AFC groups were non-significant on TDs and FL305MYs, whereas it was significant (p≤0.01) for FFLMY. The season was significant (p≤0.01) for all the monthly TDs whereas it was non-significant for FFLMY and FL305MY. The sire was significant (p≤0.01) for most of the TDs and FL305MYs except the later TDs (9th, 10th and 11th TD) and FFLMYs. The present investigation revealed the importance of non-genetic factors in performance evaluation of crossbred cattle based on monthly test-day milk yield, FL305MY and FFLMY records.

Title: Occurrence of Carbaryl, DDT and Deltamethrin Residues in Bovine Milk in Chhattisgarh, India and Risk Assessment to Human Health
Abstract :

The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of pesticide residues in bovine milk and associated health risks in human. To assess the pesticide residues, a total of 200 milk samples were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Photo Diode Array Detector (PDA).The residues of carbaryl, 4’4’ DDT and deltamethrin pesticides were found in the 27.5%, 11% and 5% milk samples, respectively. The spatial distribution of pesticide residues in milk samples indicated that carbaryl was wide spread over the entire study area. The non-significance differences in mean residual concentrations of all three pesticides in cow and buffalo milk samples were recorded. The human health risk assessment in terms of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health hazard was calculated based on both lower bound [LB (mean residue levels)] and upper bound [UB (95th percentile level)] limits at current levels of pesticides in bovine milk samples. The estimated average daily dietary intake (EADDI) of studied pesticides was found below the acceptable dietary intake (ADI) for both adult and children, at mean as well as 95th percentile upper bound (UB) levels. The values suggesting lower carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk to adult however children are at greater health risk.Keywords: Bovine milk, carbaryl, deltamethrin,

Title: Effects of Loose Housing Designs on Expressions of Milking Parlour Behaviours and Milk Yield of Crossbred Jersey Cows
Abstract :

Milking behaviour of dairy cows has serious impacts on their production efficiency. A number of genetic and environmental factors controls and influences milking behaviour of dairy cow. The aim of present study was to investigate the influence of housing comfort on expressivity of milking behaviours of cows in parlour, milk yield and compositions. Forty Jersey crossbred cows of similar production levels were selected and divided into 2 groups based on age, production and parity. Subsequently, cows were kept in two different types of loose house; each containing 20 animals. Two types of housing patterns were compared - (i) Traditional shed (T0) and (ii) Thermo-comfortable shed (T1). Impact of housing comfort significantly transformed the expressions of dairy cows behaviour even in milking parlour. Milking temperament scores and stepping during milking were significantly lower in cows kept in T1 compared to that of T0. Cows of thermo-comfortable shed showed more docile, calm and less nervous behaviour than those kept in traditional shed. Housing patterns significantly influenced daily milk yield (kg) being 2.86% more in T1 as compared to T0. Similarly milk compositions were better and significantly higher in T1 group of cows than that of T0. It was concluded that staying comfort of living by resignificantly modulated the expression of dairy cows behaviours even in milking parlour, demonstrated favourable milking temperament, reduced nervousness, enhanced milk yield and showed better milk compositions in Jersey crossbred cows.

Title: Clinical Study on Comparative Evaluation of Diagnostic Modalities in the Diagnosis of Hepatic Affections in Dogs
Abstract :

A clinical study was conducted on 13 dogs including six apparently healthy dogs (Gp I) and seven dogs with symptoms of hepatobilliary involvement (Gp II) to evaluate different diagnostic modalities in making diagnosis. After recording signalment and history various hemato-biochemical parameters were estimated. Radiography and ultrasonography of liver was performed in all dogs. Thereafter, fine needle biopsy and histopathology were performed in Gp II dogs. The Hb and PCV were significantly low in Gp II as compared to Gp I whereas the TLC of Gp II was significantly higher than that of Gp I. The clotting time and bleeding time were significantly higher in Gp II as compared to Gp I. The ALT, AST and ALP values of Gp II were significantly higher than that of Gp I. The A:G ratio was significantly lower in Gp II as compared to that of Gp I. Sensitivity of radiography and ultrasonography were 57.14% and 100% and respectively. Accuracy of ultrasound guided biopsy was 100 % and different diseases diagnosed on histopathology were cholangiocellular carcinoma, liver cirrhosis, papillary adenocarcinoma, cystic adenocarcinoma, hemangiosarcoma and fibroadenoma. From the present study it was concluded that all the diagnostic modalities viz. laboratory tests, radiography and ultrasonography complimented each other in making diagnosis and predicting prognosis but the final diagnosis was obtained only with histopathology.

Title: Tracheobronchoscopic Evaluation of Bacterial Pneumonia in Cattle
Abstract :

Seventy two cattle with bacterial pneumonia and twelve healthy cattle were studied in detail for haemato-biochemical examination, radiography and tracheobronchoscopy. Haematobiochemical examination revealed leukocytosis with neutrophilia. Radiographic examination showed increased pulmonary infiltration. Tracheobronchoscopic examination of affected animals revealed inflammation, haemorrhage, mucus to mucopurulent exudates in nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) collected through endoscope was subjected to cytology and cultural examination. Cytology of the affected animals showed increased total cell counts and predominant neutrophils. Pasteurella multocida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were isolated from BAL and confirmed with PCR studies.

Title: Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Critical Amino Acids and Multi-Enzyme with Low Protein and Energy Diet on Carcass and Blood Biochemical Performance of Broiler Chicken
Abstract :

The experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary supplementation of critical amino acids and multi-enzyme with reduced levels of energy and protein diet on carcass and blood biochemical performance in broiler chicken. Three hundred broiler chicks were allotted to five dietary treatments of three replications and 20 birds in each replication. The control (T0) were fed with standard diet, T1 (5% low CP and energy than standard with balancing of lysine and methionine), T2 (T1 + Multi-enzyme), T3 (10% low CP and energy than standard with balancing of lysine and methionine), T4 (T3 + Multi-enzyme).The dressing percentage and edible meat percentage were significantly more in T2 group. The breast meat percentage of the control group was comparable with T2 group. The result showed that the significantly higher (P<0.05) gizzard weights in groups receiving enzyme combination supplementation as compared to control group (T0) irrespective of the energy-protein levels. The mean value of total protein, albumin, globulin and blood urea nitrogen of all the experimental birds were found to be statistically similar with that of the control group. The treatment group T2 found to be effective and economical.

Title: Comparison of Serum Biochemical and Mineral Profiles of Cattle Reared Under Island and Coastal Ecosystem
Abstract :

The present study was conducted in the Department of Animal Reproduction Gynaecology and Obstetrics, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, OUAT, BBSR in collaboration with ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research Institute, Portblair (Andaman and Nicobar Island). Crossbred cattle with the history of anoestrus and repeat breeding were considered for the present investigation. The basic difference in serum biochemical and mineral profiles of cattle reared under two quite different ecosystems namely Island and coastal ecosystem was estimated which might be due to the variability in rainfall, ambient temperature, day light length and humidity. The incidence of different infertility conditions in both the ecosystems also might vary as per the environment. Serum samples were collected for estimations of biochemical parameters like total protein, glucose, cholesterol, Ca, P and Ca:P ratio. The overall incidence of infertility was recorded to be 47.62 % in island and 45.90 % in coastal ecosystem. No significant difference in serum levels of total protein, glucose, cholesterol, zinc, copper and manganese could be observed in between cattle reared in both ecosystems. It was concluded that the variations in humidity, ambient temperature, rain fall and day light length between Portblair, Andaman and coastal climate of Odisha, did not have much effect on reproduction of cattle.

Title: Phytosomes - A Novel Approach for Herbal Drug Delivery
Abstract :

The potential uses of large number of herbal drugs are limited due to their poor absorption and poor bioavailability after oral administration. The bioavailability can be improved by formulating an appropriate drug delivery system, which can enhance the rate and the extent of drug absorption across the lipid biomembrane. Novel drug delivery system aims to provide some control in temporal or spatial nature of the drug release in the body. The phospholipid molecular structure includes a water-soluble head and two fat-soluble tails, because of this dual solubility, the phospholipid acts as an effective emulsifier, which is also one of the chief components of the membranes in our cells. Phytosomes are advanced forms of herbal products that are absorbed and utilized in improved manner to produce better results than conventional herbal extracts. “Phytosome” is formed by complexing the polyphenolic phytoconstituents in molar ratio with Phosphatidylcholine. As far as the potential of phytosome technology is concerned, it has a great future for use in formulation technology and applications of hydrophilic plant compounds. Many areas of phytosome are to be revealed in future in the prospect of pharmaceutical application.

Title: Water Quality and Nutrient Dynamics of Biofloc with Different C/N Ratios in Inland Saline Water
Abstract :

A study evaluating water quality and nutrient dynamics in inland saline water was carried out using biofloc technology with different C/N ratios employed to raise Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. The study was carried out for 60 days in FRP with no water exchange. Salinity, temperature, Dissolved oxygen, pH, nutrients, Biofloc Volume and Total Suspended Solids were monitored. All biofloc units indicated reduction in alkalinity at 40th day except the treatment with highest (25:1) C/N ratio, pH and alkalinity was not significant different among various treatments. Dissolved Oxygen was found to be significantly decreasing with increasing C/N ratios. The least Dissolved Oxygen was recorded at higher C/N ratios of 20:1 and 25:1 at the end of experiment. The Total Ammonical Nitrogen (TAN) and NO2–Nin C/N ratios 15:1 and 20:1 were found to have a significantly decreasing in trend after 20th and 18th day respectively. The NO3–N, PO43-–P, BVF and TSS in biofloc were shown an increasing trend in all the experiments. The present study elucidates the suitability of optimum C/N ratios in biofloc for maintaining the water quality to raise L. vannamei in inland ground saline water. The finding could help in reducing the environmental concern saline waste water discharge from the shrimp pond to the land.

Title: Development of Fibre Enriched Chicken Nuggets Using Combination of Wheat Bran with Dried Apple Pomace or Dried Carrot Pomace
Abstract :

This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of incorporation of wheat bran (WB) with dried apple pomace (DAP) or dried carrot pomace (DCP) on quality attributes of chicken nuggets. Raw emulsion was stuffed in rectangular moulds, cooked in electric oven at 165°C for 40 minutes and nuggets were prepared by slicing cooked emulsion to 2-3 cm3 size. Colour scores increased with increase in DAP level in WB + DAP treated nuggets. A steady decrease in scores for all other sensory attributes was noticed in both WB + DAP and WB + DCP treated nuggets with increase in fibre level. Hardness and shear press value increased whereas springiness and cohesiveness decreased with increase in fibre level. Gumminess and chewiness of WB + DAP treated nuggets increased with increase in fibre level while gumminess and chewiness of WB + DAP treated nuggets showed a variable trend. Cooking yield and emulsion stability of fibre enriched nuggets were significantly higher whereas moisture, protein, cholesterol content and pH were significantly lower than control. Insoluble, soluble and total dietary fibre content increased drastically in treated nuggets. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) value and microbial counts increased significantly during refrigerated storage in all the products. It is concluded that healthier and dietary fibre enriched chicken nuggets with refrigerated storage stability up to 15 days can be prepared using combination of wheat bran (2%) with dried apple pomace (6%) or dried carrot pomace (4%) each

Title: Modeling Vaccination Programs in Outbreaks of Hemorrhagic Septicemia in India
Abstract :

Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) is an acute septicemic endemic disease of buffalo and cattle in India with a case fatality rate of up to 80%. This disease causes an estimated economic loss of USD 792 million per year in India. Vaccination and control programs of HS can be understood by mathematical models. The main objective of our study was to design a mathematical model to analyze the effect of vaccination in controlling outbreaks of HS in India. We used posteriori model building approach to create and run the model for HS with the help of an outbreak data from Murshidabad district, West Bengal, India. The best possible transmission coefficient (β) to imitate the outbreak was found to be 0.335 and the best possible basic reproduction number (R0) was found to be 1.011. Introduction of the vaccination campaign from 5th to the 20th day of the HS outbreak reduced the proportion of the susceptible animals from 0.99 to 0.40 on the last day of the campaign. We concluded that animal vaccination modelling for eradication of HS by mass regional or nationwide vaccination campaigns can be understood by simple mathematical models.

Title: Storage Quality and Shelf-life of Native Desi Chicken Meat Pickle at Room Temperature (32 ± 5 ºC)
Abstract :

Pickle from native desi chicken meat was prepared and stored at room temperature (32±5ºC) in polyethylene teraphthalate (PET) bottles. The samples were evaluated for physico-chemical parameters, microbial quality and sensory attributes at regular intervals of 0, 5, 15, 30, 45,60, 75 and 90 days of storage. Non significantly increase in pH values were observed with increasing storage period and value remained below 5.0 up to 60 days of storage period. Non significantly increase in titrable acidity (% acetic acid) and free fatty acids (as % oleic acid) values were observed with increasing storage period. However, significantly decreased in moisture (%) values were observed with increasing storage period. A significant (P<0.05) and progressive increase in Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA) values (mg malonaldehyde / kg) were observed with increasing storage period and increase in TBA values between 0 and 60 days of storage did not turn out to be statistically significant. Microbiological counts were nonsignificantly increased between day 0 to 60, thereafter significantly (P<0.05) increased with the advancement of storage period and throughout the storage period, all microbial counts were within the acceptable limits. Sensory evaluation scores indicate that native desi chicken meat was very acceptable up to 60 days of storage and thereafter native desi chicken meat pickle was moderately acceptable between 60 to 90 days of storage at room temperature (32±5°C).

Title: Urine and Milk of Dairy Animals as an Indicator of Hydrofluorosis
Abstract :

The South-Western region of Punjab is endemic for hydrofluorosis and the livestock consuming fluoride rich water exhibit dental mottling and skeletal fluorosis. The present study was conducted in fluoritic areas of Mansa district of Punjab with an aim to find out the concentration of fluoride in urine and milk of dairy animals in relation to varying levels of fluoride concentration in drinking water of fluorotic areas and non fluoritic areas. For this, eight urine samples and six milk samples were collected from livestock consuming water having fluoride concentration upto 8 ppm. Urinary and milk F level was significantly high in dairy animals from the fluorotic area, ranging from 10 to 30 mg/l and 0.4 to 0.8mg/l respectively as compared to animals from non fluorotic area that varied from 3-4 mg/l F in urine and 0.04 to 0.08mg/l F in milk.

Title: Prevalence of Wound and Associated Risk Factors of Donkeys in Merawi District,North-Western Ethiopia
Abstract :
A cross sectional study was conducted from October 2014 to April 2015 to determine prevalence of wound and associated risk factors in working donkeys in and around Merawi district, Amhara region, Ethiopia. A total of 384 randomly selected donkeys were physically examined for any external body injury/wound. Simultaneously, donkey owners were interviewed with a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire to extrapolate information regarding possible risk factors associated with wound occurrence. The overall prevalence of wound was 38.3%. The occurrence of wound varied significantly among donkeys with different age categories (χ2 = 43.027, p < 0.05) and with different body score conditions (47.5%, χ2 = 53.8, OR = 34.89, CI = 8.4-144.6). However the occurrence of wounds didn’t vary significantly among sex of the animals, type of pack saddle used and type of load carried (p > 0.05). In terms of working nature, donkeys working for more than 10kms per single trip showed
higher prevalence of wound (50.0%, χ2 = 9.39, p < 0.05) than those usually working for nearer distances (<10kms). There was a signifi- cant difference in the severity of wound among affected donkeys carrying different loads (χ2 = 26.71, p < 0.05).Questionnaire survey among the 384 respondents showed only 51% of the respondents usually seek for veterinary help for wound management. Generally, the study has clearly indicated wound as a prevailing welfare problem of working donkeys in and around Merawi district. Hence, implementing a comprehensive donkey health and welfare improvement program should be a priority for concerned stakeholder.
Title: Dose Sparing Effects of Butorphanol and Diazepam or Midazolam Premedication on Propofol Total Intravenous Anaesthesia in Dogs
Abstract :

The objective of the study was to evaluate & compare the dose sparing effect of atropine-butorphanol-diazepam (A-B-D) and atropine-butorphanol-midazolam (A-B-M) combination as basal anaesthesia on induction and maintenance dose of propofol used as Total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) in dogs. Thirteen dogs were randomly divided into group I (n=7) & group II (n=6), wherein atropine, butorphanol, diazepam/midazolam were given as preanaesthetic drugs, while, induction and maintenance of anaesthesia was done with propofol. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded after induction of anaesthesia, at regular 15 minute intervals, up to 45 minutes. The physiological parameters were recorded before giving any drug and thereafter at regular 15 minute interval post induction. In midazolam-butorphanol group, the induction and maintenance dose of propofol was non-significantly higher than in diazepam-butorphanol group. Both diazepam-butophanol and midazolam-butorphanol have dose sparing effect on induction and maintenance dose of propofol, however, diazepam-butorphanol combination is slightly better than midazolam-butorphanol combination.

Title: Surveillance of Major Canine Pathogens in Feral Dogs and Big Cats at the Domestic-Wildlife Interface in Panna Tiger Reserve, India
Abstract :

The present study was conducted at Panna Tiger Reserve of Madhya Pradesh for sero-surveillance for canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus (CAV) infections in feral dogs. Biological samples were also collected from the wild carnivore species which were immobilized or died during the study period. Serum samples were subjected for detection of IgG antibodies against CPV, CDV and CAV infections. Additionally biological samples of wild carnivores were subjected to molecular diagnosis of CPV and CDV genes. Seroprevalence for CPV, CDV and CAV infections was observed as 3.5%, 4.4% and 0.89%, respectively, whereas for mixed infections of CPV+CDV, CPV+CAV, CDV+CAV and CPV+CDV+CAV, it was observed as 48.2%, 1.7%, 4.4% and 36.6%, respectively. Sex wise, age wise and distance wise seroprevalence was non-significant in the present study. Seroprevalence for CPV, CDV and CAV infections in cats was observed as 50%, 100 % and 0%, whereas in wild carnivores, it was observed as 100%, 90% and 0% respectively. PCR based diagnosis in the wild carnivore also revealed CDV positive cases. Serological and genomic evidence of pathogens in dogs-cats of buffer villages and wild carnivores of Panna tiger reserve indicated that the viruses may pose a high risk of spillover to wild carnivores. Study also indicated that dog population is immuned to major infectious diseases but can be a threat to the compromised wild carnivore species including tigers.

Title: Assessment of Ichthyofaunal Diversity of River Sutlej in District Ludhiana, Punjab (India)
Abstract :

The aim of the present paper was to describe the first complete and comprehensive picture on ichthyofaunal diversity of river Sutlej. The findings of the investigation will be an imperative part of the ecological database from river Sutlej. The field data were collected fortnightly from the fish market. The different diversity indices viz., univariate and multivariate analyses were analyzed by PRIMER-E statistical package. A total of 60 species belonging to 43 genera, 17 families and 7 orders were recorded during the investigation. The Margalef richness index (12.14), Shannon-Wiener index (3.871) and Simpson index (0.979) was observed to be highest during Nov. 2019 and seasonally during post-monsoon season. The present study provides a baseline database with respect to fish species diversity for planning effective conservation measures to obtain sustainable fish production.

Title: Gastrointestinal Helminthic Challenges in Sheep and Goats in Afro-Asian Region: A Review
Abstract :

Sheep and goats, being hardy and prolific in their growth, play a crucial role in cultural and socioeconomic life of rural poor under privileged people in Afro-Asian countries by providing meat, milk, wool and hide to them. Gastrointestinal helminthic infections are worldwide problem in ruminants. They results considerable loss in them causing mortality and poor production. Various helminthes types like trematodes, cestodes and nematodes are prevalent in different climates and geographical regions depending on rearing systems, intermediate host’s availability and management practices. Epidemiology of helminthic diseases, though variable at times, is determined by various factors like treatment, climate and poverty (socio-economic and traditional practices). The study oversees gastrointestinal helminthic challenges in goats and sheep faced in Afro-Asian region in last decade. Methodology involves exhaustive exercise of screening and massive literature hunt which included published research, both abstracts and full length papers on the subject in last 10 years in addition to authors own observations. The diseases like Fasciolosis, Dicrocoelosis, Amphistomosis in trematodes, Monieziosis, Avitellinosis in cestodes and Haemonchosis, Trichostronglylosis, Oesophagostomosis, Trichuriosis, Strongyloidosis in nematodes were still serious challenges in the region threatening the small ruminant production. Frequent reports on Marshallgia, Ostertagia, Nematodirus, Stilesia, Thysaniezia spp. from this region showed emerging threats. Infections like Camelostrongylus, Graphidiops, Parabronema and Skrjabinema spp. were scarcely distributed. The paper reviews scientific work and developments of last 10 years on occurrence, distribution and epidemiology of common gastrointestinal helminthic infections of sheep and goats in Afro-Asian region with future research prospective in light of newer scientific approaches

Title: Effect of Levels of N-fertilizer and Cutting Height on Nutrient Content and Nitrogen Recovery Rate of Elephant Grass (Pennisetum purpureum L.) in Mersa, Ethiopia
Abstract :

This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of nitrogen fertilizer rates (NFR) and cutting height (CH) on the nutrient contents and nitrogen recovery of elephant grass when grown in Eastern Amara Region of Ethiopia. The experiment consisted of two factors: Factor A: Nitrogen (4 levels) and Factor B: Cutting height (3 levels). Experiments were laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications. The results indicated that nitrogen and plant height significantly affected dry matter yield (DMY) of Pennisetum purpureum L. in which N application of 161 kg ha-1 and cutting height of 15 cm showed the highest leaf while leaf to stem ratio did not affected due to these two factors. Similarly, application of N and cutting height significantly influenced on nutrient contents in which N application at the rate of 69 kg ha-1 and cutting at the height of 15 cm brought the highest crude protein content whereas NDF and ADF contents were higher at cutting height of 22.5 cm with the lowest application of N (69 kg ha-1). Nitrogen recovery rate did not positively correlated with increased levels of N fertilizer applications as the maximum value (473.79 %) was recorded for those treated at the rate of 69 kg ha-1. Therefore, from this study it can be conclude that N application at the rate of 69 kg ha-1 and harvesting at a cutting height of 15 cm might be optimum for better nutrients content, greater DM yield and efficient N recovery rate of Pennisetum purpureum L.

Title: Survey and Performance Evaluation of Malpura Sheep in Farmers’ Flocks of its Native Tract
Abstract :

Data on growth, wool and milk yield of Malpura sheep maintained under farmers’ flocks in its native tract were recorded and analyzed. In breeding tract of Malpura sheep, more than 80 percent farmer’s family members were found illiterate. The average weight of adult rams was 49.17 ± 0.53 kg and of the lactating ewes was 34.36 ± 0.18 kg. Location significantly affected body height in the all age groups, while for other traits an erratic trend was noticed. The least squares means of body weight at weaning and hoggets stage were 13.09 ± 0.15 and 22.55 ± 0.34 kg, respectively. The wool yield of animal was higher (P<0.01) in March clip (755 g) followed by that in September – October (481 g) and was lowest in July (444 g). The week of lactation significantly affected (P<0.01) daily milk yield and maximum milk yield was in 4th week of lactation. The overall performance of Malpura in farmers’ flock was found satisfactory under prevailing harsh climatic conditions of semi-arid tropics.

Title: Morphological and Morphometrical Studies on the Skull of Binturong (Arctictis binturong)
Abstract :

The binturong or bearcat is the largest species of the family Viverridae. It is uncommon in much of its range and has been assessed as vulnerable on the IUCN red list. The size of the head was small, narrow and light in proportion to the body. The skull of the binturong was dolichocephalic as per the cephalic index (56.25). There was no prominent internasal suture and the orbits were incomplete with optic foramen present near the ventral surface. The mean skull length, skull width, skull base length, cranial length, cranial width, cranial height, were 14.95±0.10 cm, 8.47±0.10 cm, 15.07±0.02 cm, 11.16±0.09 cm, 6.56±0.11 cm, 3.16±0.08 cm, respectively. The mean facial length, facial width, maxilla length, maxilla height, distance between infraorbital foramen, diameter of infraorbital foramina, nasal length, nasal width were 4.95±0.08 cm, 6.14±0.12 cm, 4.46±0.01 cm, 3.83±0.02 cm, 4.68±0.10 cm, 0.49±0.07 cm, 2.94±0.03 cm, 1.97±0.11 cm, respectively. Scanty literature available on morphological and morphometrical studies of the skull of binturong. Therefore this present study was aimed to establish a morphometric database that will eventually guide the use of these measurements for diagnosis and treating different disorders.

Title: Effect of Thuja occidentalis and Levamisole on Sperm Motion Characteristics and Morphology in FMD Vaccinated Holstein × Sahiwal Bulls
Abstract :

To assess the effect of Thuja (Thuja occidentalis) and Levamisole on the spermiogram of FMD vaccinated crossbred bulls, 24 adult Frieswal (Holstein × Sahiwal) bulls were divided into four groups viz. GC (control; no vaccination), GV (vaccinated), GL (vaccinated + Levamisole) and GH (vaccinated + Thuja). The bulls of GV, GL and GH groups were vaccinated with FMD vaccine. Four injections of levamisole were administered to the bulls of GL group at weekly interval starting from one week prior to the FMD vaccination. Homoeopathy medicine (Thuja) was given orally to the bulls of GH group consecutively on four days (on 4, 3, 2 & 1 day, respectively) before FMD vaccination. Average rectal temperature in vaccinated bulls increased significantly than in non-vaccinated bulls after 24 hrs of FMD vaccination. In GH, it was similar to GC in 36 h, however, became normal in all groups in 48 h of vaccination. Average VAP and VSL values were higher (p<0.05) in GC than in the other groups. Bulls of GH had higher (p<0.05) initial sperm subjective and CASA progressive motility and linearity than in GV. After six weeks VSL values continued to be significantly higher in GC than in GL but it was similar in GV and GH. Total sperm abnormalities were within the prescribed limit of semen preservation up to first week after vaccination in all the groups. The results of the present study indicated that Thuja was able to prevent deterioration in sperm kinetic parameters subsequent to FMD vaccination in crossbred bulls.

Title: Emerging role of statins in tissue engineering and therapeutics —A review
Abstract :
Statins are a group of secondary metabolites secreted by several microorganisms as a defense mechanism. They inhibit hydroxymethyl glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMGCoA) reductase enzyme in the cholesterol synthesis pathway and are an acceptable therapy for hyperlipidemia in human. More recently, however, statins have been shown to have multiple effects, called pleotropic effects, which are independent of their cholesterol-inhibiting action. In somatic and stem cells, statins influences the cellular proliferation, survival, differentiation, regeneration and repair which can be harnessed in ex vivo systems for cell expansion and/or differentiation of somatic and stem cells. Incorporation of statins in the biomaterials for scaffold production has improved the cell attachment and directed differentiation of stem
cells into target cells to enhance the functionality of the tissue engineered construct.
Thus, statins have generated a fresh impetus in its use in tissue engineering,
regenerative medicine and therapeutics. This review discusses the sources, mode of action and emerging roles of statins in tissue engineering and therapeutics.
Title: Effect of Shelter Management on Lactating Crossbred Cows During Summer Under the Agro-Climatic Condition of Konkan Region of India
Abstract :An experiment was carried out on nine lactating crossbred cows (Jersey x local) were randomly allotted into three housing system in switch over design. The treatments were asbestos (T1) roofing, paddy straw thatched roof (T2) white painted asbestos roof (T3) during hot and humid season of Konkan. The variation in rectal temperature, respiration rate and pulse rate was recorded in the morning and evening through out the experiment. Temperature humidity index was more in microenvironment of thatched roof shed followed by white painted asbestos roof and asbestos roofing. Milk samples collected from experimental cows were analyzed for milk constituents. The use of paddy straw thatched roof shed significantly (P<0.05) reduced rectal temperature, pulse rate and respiration rate of cows. Thatched roof shed had significantly (P<0.05) incremental effect on the milk yield and milk composition of cows than the cows in white painted roof shed and asbestos roof shedding. The study revealed that paddy straw thatched roof shed effectively improves environmental temperature, humidity and during summer in the agro-climatic conditions of Konkan region of India.
Title: Impact of A1/A2 forms of Cow’s Milk on Human Health-A review
Abstract :
Milk derived peptides may adversely affect the biological health of humans by increasing the risk of dependency on insulin to overcome the occurrence of diabetes. The higher occurrence of the diabetes relies on the relationship of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and the consumption of variants A1 and B beta –casein from cow’s milk. The production of BCM-7 is more in A1 milk than A2 milk and the difference is basically due to position 67 of the beta casein chain. However, proline in A2 is substituted by  histidine in A1 milk casein chain. Deleterious effects of A1 milk in the process of digestion in human stomach and intestines
have not been reviewed earlier. It is an effort to review the aspect thoroughly and bring minor details into focus to have better understanding of the milk particularly in perspective of human health.
Title: Diagnosing Subclinical Endometritis in Postpartum Murrah Buffaloes Using Cytobrush Technique
Abstract :
A total of 150 postpartum (28 to 45 days) apparently healthy buffalo with normal calving history and free from peripartum disorders from college livestock farm and organized dairy farms in and around Jabalpur were screened. After recording history all the animals were subjected to gynaeco-clinical examination, White side test and endometrial cytology by cytobrush technique. On the basis of polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) percentage the animals were divided into different groups of normal, clinical and sub-clinical endometritic buffaloes. Endometrial cytology by cytobrush technique in different groups (normal, clinical and sub-clinical endometritic buffaloes) revealed PMN percentage to be 4.34±1.85, 35.35±3.43 and 21.17±0.45%, respectively. The difference between the groups was signifi cant (p<0.05). Fibroblasts count was recorded as 0.20±0.09 and 12.33±1.61% in subclinical
and clinical endometritic buffaloes while fi broblasts were not observed in endometrial smears of normal buffaloes. The difference was signifi cant (p<0.05) between the groups. It was concluded that endometrial cytology by cytobrush technique was easy and accurate method to diagnose subclinical endometritis in postpartum Murrah buffaloes.
Title: Isolation, plasmid profiling and antibiogram of Salmonella from poultry meat and environmental sources
Abstract :
Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and its prevalence in the animals acts as a continuous threat to man. The present study was carried out to report the isolation along with the serotypes, phage types and antibiogram pattern of Salmonella among poultry meat and environmental sources in the India. A total of two hundred samples from poultry meat (100), poultry feaces (100) were processed for the isolation of Salmonella. All the isolates were subjected to antibiogram studies against 16 antimicrobials. Representative isolates of isolated Salmonella were phage typed. Out of two hundred samples only three (one poultry meat and two poultry feaces) were positive for Salmonella. The confirmed isolates were subjected to serotyping at National Salmonella Centre (Vet), India. The results indicated that S. Rough was found in poultry meat and S. Typhimurium and S.Berta was found in poultry feaces. A plasmid of 21 kb was consistence in all the isolates. All the isolates obtained in the present study were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing against 16 different antibiotics employing disk
diffusion technique in which ampicillin and sulphafurazole showed 100%
resistance in comparison to furazolidone. On the other hand all isolates were
sensitive to nalidixic acid. Highest level of antimicrobial resistance was recorded for isolates from poultry feaces. Fifty percent or more resistance was observed among these isolates for as many as 5 antimicrobials including sulphafurazole (100%), colistin (100%), ampicillin (100%), co-trimaxazole (50%) and furazolidone (50%).
Title: Incidence of Colibacillosis in Poultry in Gonda District in North Eastern Plain Zone of Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken with the objective to study the incidence of E. coli infection in broiler chicken in Gonda district of Uttar Pradesh. For this study a total number of 483 naturally dead broiler chickens from 8 different private farms of Gonda district were collected during June 2018 – May 2019. The overall incidence of colibacillosis was 38.09% (184 samples were positive out of 483 samples). The gross change of liver was found as enlarged, congested and covered with thick yellow/white serofibrinous covering. Heart was also covered with thick yellow/white serofibrinous covering. Among tested 483 samples from 8 private farms from Gonda district, 184 (38.09%) were found to be suggestive of E. coli giving typical large (2-3 mm) lactose fermenting pink coloured colonies on Mac Conkey’s agar plate. They again produced characteristic ‘metallic sheen’ on EMB agar. On Gram staining during morphological study, they produced pink coloured, rod shaped ones (that is gram negative) with characteristic arrangement. All these isolates (from district Gonda) showed typical biochemical reaction which were positive to Indole test, M.R. test, T.S.I. agar test, nitrate reduction test and negative to VP test and H2S production test. Among 184 E. coli isolates 98.36% were negative to citrate utilization test and 97.82% to urease activity test. Out of 184 isolates of E. coli 179 were motile. They all fermented D-glucose, lactose, manitol. Among 184 isolates of E. coli, 154 (83.69%) isolates, 158(85.86%) isolates and 144 (78.26%) isolates had shown fermentation of sucrose, dulcitol and salicin respectively.

Title: Expression of L-Selectin in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of Crossbred Cows Affected with Subclinical Mastitis
Abstract :

L-Selectin (SELL) linked with innate immune mechanism involved in neutrophil migration through endothelium to the site of inflammation. Early recruitment of neutrophils at the site of infection is essential to counteract infection at the earliest in conditions like sub-clinical mastitis (SCM). The present study was framed to evaluate the expression pattern of SELL in naturally occurring SCM in crossbred animals using real time PCR technique. Analysis of data on total leukocyte count indicated leucocytosis condition in SCM affected crossbred cows. Relative expression of SELL on peripheral blood leukocytes revealed a significant 3.16 folds down regulation in SCM affected cows when compared with healthy crossbred cows (P<0.05). The possible reason for leukocytosis in SCM animals might be due to down regulation of SELL on leukocytes reducing their ability to transmigrate through blood vessel to infection site. The result of present study revealed a definite role of SELL in SCM which could be explored for therapeutic aspects in near future.

Title: Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection in African Grey Parrot and its Antibiogram Study
Abstract :

Case study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a seven years old, male African grey parrot reared in aviary in Meerut, died 48 hours after exhibiting clinical signs is reported. The gross examination of carcass revealed heavy ectoparasitic infestation and necropsy examination revealed inflammed respiratory tract, airsaculitis and congestion of liver, spleen and intestine. Microbiological examination of the tissue samples revealed Pseudomona aeruginosa infection, which was found susceptible to quinolones i.e. ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin, intermediately susceptible to aminoglycosides i.e. gentamicin and streptomycin, but resistant to cephalosporins i.e. ceftriaxone and cefotaxime/clavulanic acid, β-lactam/ β-lactamase inhibitor combinations i.e. amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin/cloxacillin, tetracyclines i.e. oxytetracycline, macrolides i.e. erythromycin and chloramphenicol in culture sensitivity test. These antibiotic resistant bacteria can pose threat to in contact immunocompromised aviary workers. Thus necessary biosecurity measures should be implemented in the aviaries to avoid environment associated infectious diseases.

Title: Age Wise Histological Studies on the Major Lymphoid Organs in Various Chicken Genotypes
Abstract :
A total number of eighteen day old Hansli chicks and eighteen day old Vencobb broiler chicks were divided into three age groups viz. group I (up to 1 month), group II (1-3 months) and group III (3-6 months) with six birds in each age group. It was revealed that the thymus was surrounded by a capsule and comprised of peripheral darker cortex and central lighter medulla. There was presence of lymphocytes, reticular cells, plasma cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, dendritic cells and erythrocytes in both the cortex and medulla of thymus in both the birds in all the age groups. The spleen was surrounded by a dense irregular connective tissue capsule. The splenic white pulp had lymphocytes of various sizes, dendritic cells, macrophages and blood vessels. The splenic red pulp consisted of splenic cords and venous sinuses. The splenic cords had erythrocytes, reticular cells, lymphocytes of various sizes, heterophils and plasma cells. The wall of the bursa consisted of innermost tunica mucosa, middle tunica muscularis and outermost tunica serosa. The follicle-associated epithelium of the plicae was pseudostratified ciliated columnar type with areas of simple cuboidal cells. There was presence of lymphocytes of various sizes, reticular cells, plasma cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and fibroblasts in both the cortex and medulla of bursal follicles. The collagen, reticular and elastic fibres were reported in different regions of thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius in both the birds.
Title: Effect of Phytogenic Mixture Supplementation on Carcass Characteristics and Cost of Production in Broiler Chickens during Winter Season
Abstract :

In present experiment 288 day-old commercial broiler chicks were subjected to eight dietary treatments consisting of three replicates of twelve chicks in each replicate were reared for a period of 6 weeks in winter season. The dietary treatments includes: T0- Negative control, T1-control, T2-0.5 % Amla + 0.5 % Ashwagandha + 0.25 % Turmeric powder, T3-0.25 % Amla + 0.5% Ashwagandha + 0.25% Turmeric powder, T4-0.125% Amla + 0.5 % Ashwagandha + 0.25 % Turmeric powder, T5- 0.5 % Amla + 0.25 % Ashwagandha + 0.25 % Turmeric powder, T6-0.5 % Amla + 0.125 % Ashwagandha + 0.25 % Turmeric powder and T7-0.5 % Amla + 0.5 % Ashwagandha + 0.125 % Turmeric powder. Standard managemental practices were followed during the experimental period. Supplementation of phytogenic mixture consisting of 0.5 % amla and 0.5 % Ashwagandha with 0.25% or 0.125 % turmeric powder (T2 and T7) gave best results and improved the giblet percentage, eviscerated weight percentage and drawn percentage in winter season. The cost of production of drawn weight (`/kg) of broilers at six weeks of age was reduced as much as ` 10.23 (T2) and ` 9.48 (T7) in winter season. The study concluded that addition of 0.5 % amla and 0.5 % Ashwagandha with 0.25% or 0.125 % turmeric powder can be effectively supplemented as an alternative to antibiotics growth promoter in poultry ration in winter for improving the carcass characteristics and such ration was found more economical in comparison to that having antibiotic growth promoter

Title: Apocrine Secretory Adenoma in a 2.5 year Old Male Great Dane Dog
Abstract :
Apocrine glands are the major type of sweat gland in dogs, and distribution of
eccrine sweat glands is limited to footpad (Goldschmidt and Shofer, 1992). Apocrine sweat gland tumors are rather common in dogs and tend to occur on the head, neck and limbs. The Golden Retriever is a breed that shows a predisposition to such tumors (Kalaher et al., 1990). The tumor was greatly resembles its human counterpart and originate in the secretory part of eccrine sweat glands (Nibe et al., 2005).
Title: Effect of Gooseberry Pulp and Seed Coat Powder as Natural Preservatives on the Storage Quality of Chicken Nuggets
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Gooseberry pulp powder (GPP) and Gooseberry seed coat powder (GSCP) treatment on the quality attributes of vacuum packaged spent hen meat nuggets stored at 4±1°C for 25 days. On the basis of preliminary trials and relevant literature, three different levels of incorporation i.e. 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% were incorporated in chicken nuggets formulation replacing lean meat and samples were evaluated for physico-chemical, microbial, proximate and sensory qualities at periodic interval of 5 days. Vacuum packaging in combination with GPP and GSCP treatment had significantly (P<0.05) inhibited lipid oxidation in spent hen meat nuggets. The treated samples exhibited significantly (P<0.05) low total plate count, pyschrophilic, yeast and mould, coliform count as compared to control. Based on sensory evaluation, at the end of storage study on 25th day 0.5% GPP added nuggets exhibited higher overall acceptability than other samples. It can be concluded that GPP, GSCP and vacuum packaging have a potential for development of functional spent hen meat nuggets.

Title: Factors Influencing Early Layer Economic Traits in Rhode Island Red Chick
Abstract :
Rhode Island Red (RIR) chicken is a brown-egger chicken. At Central Avian Research Institute, it is being used to develop strains viz. selected (RIRS) control (RIRC) and white (RIRW) for backyard poultry farming. Investigation was carried out to assess the influence of various factors on early layer economic traits in Rhode Island Red
chicken. Two hundred eighty six straight run chicks were obtained from 11 sires and 44 dams in four hatches. Early layer production traits viz., chick weight (CW), body weights at 16 and 20 weeks of age (BW16 and BW20), age at first egg (AFE), egg weight at 28 weeks (EW28) and part period egg production up to 28 weeks of
age (EP28)were recorded. Percent fertility and percent hatchability on total egg set and total egg transferred basis were 76.98, 61.44 and 79.85%, respectively. Least squares ANOVA revealed highly significant effect ( p<0.01) of hatch on BW20, EP28 and effect of sire on chick weight and significant effect of sire ( p<0.05) on BW16. The overall least squares means of CW, BW16, BW20, AFE, EW28 and EP28 were 34.50±0.47g, 1294.27±24.38g, 1562.32±25.65g, 136.79±1.52 days, 43.52± 0.76 g and 31.54±1.68 eggs, respectively. The pullets of first hatch revealed highest BW20 (1732.76±43.70 g) and EP28 (42.85±2.55 eggs). Present investigation revealed influence of sire and hatch on early layer economic traits and thereby suggested consideration of their role in planning breeding programmes for improvement of layers for economic traits in RIR.
Title: Egg Production and Egg Quality Characteristics in Direct and Reciprocal Crosses using CARI Nirbheek and CARI Shyama
Abstract :

The present study was carried to study the direct and reciprocal crosses of native breed chickens namely Kadaknath (KN), Aseelpeela (AP), and CARI Red (CR) by comparing the efficiency of egg production, egg weight, and external and internal egg quality traits at 40th week of age. The reciprocal crosses CR×KN and CR×AP showed significantly (P<0.01) lower egg weights compared to their counterpart cross KN×CR (CARI- Shyama) and AP×CR (CARI- Nirbheek). Egg quality traits such as albumen index, Haugh unit, albumen weight, and yolk index were significantly (P<0.01) higher in the reciprocal cross at 40th week of age, whereas, others such as shape index, shell thickness, and yolk weight were comparable (P>0.05) among the crosses. Reciprocal crosses CR × KN and CR × AP had almost similar total egg production to their direct crosses KN × CR and AP × CR at almost all ages except 36th to 40th week of egg production which was significant (P<0.05). It was concluded that, reciprocal crosses have similar egg production with almost equal or better egg quality parameters to their direct crosses. The present study aims at the elucidating effect of reciprocal crossbreeding by using CARI Red as the male line in producing elite crosses for improvement in the production capacity of rural poultry in India.

Title: Molecular Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Multidrug Resistant E. coli from Rabbit
Abstract :

In the present study a lung sample was collected from autopsied rabbit, which was suspected to have died due to E. coli infection and cultured on MacConkey agar. Itrevealed typical cultural and biochemical characteristics of E. coli. Molecular confirmation of E. coli was carried out using 16s RNA (ECO1) universal eubacterial primers with positive 585 bp amplicon. A total 26 Antibiotic disc used for antibiotic sensitivity test. Out of 26 Antibiotic disc, only two antibiotics (Imipenem and Cefoxitin) sensitive against isolated E. coli. Phenotypic characterization of ESBL by combine disk diffusion method. The difference between zone of inhibition is 20 mm around the combined disk containing clavulanic acid then the corresponding disk with Ceftazidime and cefotaxime is indicate positive for ESBL producing E. coli. Upon genotypic conformation of ESBL, the isolate was found positive for CTX-M1, CTX-M2, and TEM and negative for CTX-M9, SHV and OXA genes.

Title: Use of Homeopathic Medication for Treatment of Underdeveloped Ggenetalia in Heifers - A Field Level Study
Abstract :The study was carried out in 150 heifers; out of them 90 were buffalo heifers and 60 were cow heifers with an average age of 3-4 years. They were presented with a chief compliant of not conceiving. On clinical observations all heifers were having smaller size of external and internal gentiles and they were under weight. They were diagnosed as underdeveloped gentiles and treated with homeopathic medicines. On an average one month after the treatment the 120 heifers started showing the signs of estrus and immediately they were bred with artificial insemination and later they got conceived. The 24 heifers shown the signs of estrus in second cycle and they got conceived after insemination. However 6 heifers could not responded to treatment and advised for culling. It was observed in this study that homeopathic medication used for treatment of underdeveloped genitals can be an alternative treatment for initiating non functional ovaries to functional.
Title: Transmission Electron Microscopic Studies on the Skin of Goat (Capra hircus)
Abstract :

The present study was conducted on skin of goats of either sex to study the age wise changes in the ultrastructure of different components of skin. It was observed that the epidermis consisted of keratinocytes and non-keratinocytes. The stratum corneum was a multicellular structure in lateral neck region. The cell membrane was serrated and arranged in an over lapping manner giving compactness to the skin. The cells of stratum granulosum had oval to oblong nuclei. The cytoplasm showed ample amount of keratohyaline granules mostly located in the peripheral zone. The cells of stratum spinosum had oval nuclei with numerous secretory granules in the cytoplasm. The skin at ventral thoracic region showed presence of melanocytes in the cells of stratum basale. The plasma membrane of stratum basale cells showed gap junction, tight junction and intermediate junction. Electron microscopically, the cells of stratum spinosum in ventral neck region showed indented nuclei with one broad pole and another narrow pole. The special cells such as Merkel cells and melanocytes were located in the deep epidermal or epidermo-dermal junction. The papillary layer of dermis of dorsal neck region during the present study showed circular axons. The acini of the sebaceous gland were composed of large central cells and peripheral small cells, surrounded by connective tissue. The sweat glands were composed of columnar cells with elongated nuclei and euchromatin. The present study would form a baseline data on the transmission electron microscopic study of skin of goat which would be helpful in future research prospective.

Title: Detection and Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis from Blood and Milk of Bovines
Abstract :

Bovine tuberculosis, a chronic disease of animals is caused by species of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and it remains a potential threat to animals as well as humans. Differentiation of the species of MTC is required for epidemiological and diagnostic purpose. The present study evaluated the presence of different species of MTC in bovines using gyrB-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In this study, blood and milk samples from 50 milch animals which were positive reactors of comparative intradermal tuberculin test were collected. Screening of MTC was done by IS6110-PCR using primers INS1/INS2 specific for MTC. The positive samples were further identified using gyrB- Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Out of 50 positive reactors to CITT, only 4 (8%) animal were positive for MTC by IS6110-PCR. And gyrB-RFLP analysis using RsaI and SacII showed two positive for M. bovis and two animals for M. tuberculosis. Thus, gyrB-RFLP could be used as an additional tool in differential diagnosis of mycobacterial diseases thereby able to differentiate species of MTC

Title: Comparative Economical Analysis of the Treatment Adopted for Canine Parvo Virus Infected Dog
Abstract :

In the present study, 50 dogs screened using Scan Vet Parvo rapid diagnostic kit for canine parvovirus (CPV) Infection and 34 (68%) found positive among them. Out of 34 CPV-positive dogs, 28 dogs were randomly divided in four different treatment groups for determining the efficacy of treatments along with its economies. The groups I, II, III and IV dogs were treated with antimicrobial agent Inj. Cefotaxim, Metronidazole, acyclovir and Inj. Cefotaxim + Acyclovir, respectively with similar supportive drugs in all the groups for five days. The case fatality rate was recorded 0% in group I and IV whereas it was 57.14% and 42.85% in groups III and II. Based on statistics, it was found that the treatment with cefotaxim alone was found more economical and equally efficient besides the combined use of cefotaxim + Acyclovir but combine treatment could also be hasten the recovery from the CPV infection.

Title: Leptospirosis a Neglected Re-emerging Zoonoses in India: An overview
Abstract :
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease of worldwide economic importance affecting both humans and animals. It is bacterial disease caused by spirochete of genus Leptospira. The symptom ranges from flu-like illness to acute kidney failure, jaundice in humans while it causes abortions, stillbirths, reduced milk production in animals. Rodents, domestic and wild animals act as carrier and excrete live organism is their urine. It is an occupational disease affecting farmers, veterinarians, slaughterhouse workers, etc those who are in direct or indirect contact with the carrier animals. The diagnosis is done by direct and indirect laboratory methods for detection of infectious agent and its antibodies. The disease can be controlled through vaccination of domestic animals, control of rodents, strict and proper environmental hygienic measures.
Title: Effect of Pre and Postpartum Alpha-tocopherol Supplementation on Body Condition and Some Udder Health Parameters of Jersey Crossbred Cows at Tropical Lower Gangetic Region
Abstract :

Alpha-tocopherol supplementation to dairy cows has beneficial effect on udder health and maintenance of body condition which needs to be studied for Jersey crossbred cows under tropical lower Gangetic region. Survey was conducted on a total of 191 respondents and out of which 19 healthy animals were selected for this experiment. This experiment was done to see the effect of pre and post Alpha-tocopherol supplementation for Jersey crossbred cows @ 1g/day/cow. Three comparable groups viz. T1 (30 days pre and post partum period; 7 dairy cows), T2 (30 days pre and 60 days post partum period; 6 dairy cows), however, no supplementation was done in control group (6 dairy cows) animals. Statistically analyzed data revealed significantly (p<0.01) lower body condition in control group than T1 and T2 group animals during post partum period, but T1 and T2 were statistically similar (p>0.05). However, animals of group T2 recovered body condition of cows numerically earlier followed by T1 and control group. There was no significant difference between body condition of dairy animals of all group during dry period (p>0.05). Statistically analyzed data revealed significantly (p<0.01) higher pH and electrical conductivity (EC) in control than T1 and T2 groups during post partum period but T1 and T2 were statistically similar (p>0.05). In addition to this correlation coefficient also suggested that better udder health (p<0.01) and reduced body condition loss post partum (p<0.01) can be achieved by Alpha-tocopherol supplementation @ 1g/day/cow for 30 days pre and 60 days post partum period for Jersey crossbred cows at tropical lower Gangetic region.

Title: Histological Changes in Archived Piglet Tissues from a Herd Sub Clinically Infected with Porcine Circo Virus Type 2 (PCV2) Preceding a Fulminant Episode of Stillbirths and Neonatal Mortality
Abstract :

This study reports the histological lesions in archived formalin fixed piglet tissues from a herd subclinically infected with PCV2 that progressed to showing PCV2 associated systemic disease and later experienced a major fulminating episode of PCV2 induced reproductive failure characterized with abortions, mummified fetuses, still births and neonatal mortality. Lymphoid cell depletion in one or two lymph nodes were observed in subclinical infection. In PCV2 associated systemic disease multiple lymph nodes revealed variable degree of lymphoid cell depletion and necrosis with multinucleate giant cells, syncytia formation and intracytoplasmic inclusions. Histopathological changes in other organs included multifocal, severe lymphoid depletion and extensive necrosis in spleen; multifocal coagulative necrosis in Peyer’s patches; diffuse lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia in lungs; multifocal necrotizing hepatitis in liver. A progressive shift in lesion type was noticed when the infection progressed from subclinical infection to PCV2 associated systemic disease. PCR assay performed with DNA extracted from formalin fixed tissues showed specific amplification product of 620 base pairs, confirming the presence of PCV2 ORF2 genome in the tissues

Title: Effect of Replacement of Conventional Feeds by Prosopis juliflora Pods and Citrullus lanatus Seed Cake on Nutrient Utilization in Marwari Goats
Abstract :

A study was organized to evaluate the effect of replacement of barley and cottonseed cake by mesquite Prosopis juliflora pods (PJP) and watermelon seed (WMS) cake, respectively in complete feed with sixteen Marwari buckling goats. They were divided into four groups of four animals in each. Four complete feed designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 were prepared. T1 served as control having all the conventional ingredients whereas barley of control was replaced by mesquite PJP in T2, cottonseed cake was replaced by WMS (Citrullus lanatus) cake in T3 and both barley and cottonseed cake were replaced by mesquite PJP and WMS cake in T4, respectively. The DM intakes, digestibility of DM and gross nutrients, digestible nutrient intake, feed efficiency, were worked out for all the groups. Significant effects of treatment on DM intake, digestibility of CP were observed whereas effects on digestibility of DM, EE, CF and NFE were non-significant. It is concluded that both barley and cottonseed cake could be safely and effectively replaced by the mesquite PJP and WMS cake alone or in combination in the complete feed of goats.

Title: Time Series Investigation of Milk Production in Major States of India Using ARIMA Modeling
Abstract :

In India, white revolution was started during 1970’s with Operation flood programme. After this revolution, production of milk in India had tremendously increased. Contribution of diary sector has continuously increased in Indian Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Livestock sector has emerged as an essential growth driver of the Indian wealth. This study is associated with time series data of five major milk producing states in 2017-18 in India. The milk production projection has been made using Auto Regressive Integrated Moving average model (ARIMA) for year 2024-25. From the forecasted figures, Uttar Pradesh would be leading states of India in milk production with 37.68 MMT in year 2024-25. Whole India milk production would reach 252.948 MMT in year 2024-25. This projection helps in formulating national agricultural policy as well as proper planning for products into dairy sector.

Title: Evaluation of Various Enzymes Supplementation on Nutrient Utilization and Efficiency Parameters on Rice Gluten Meal Based Diets in Broilers
Abstract :

A biological experiment of 42 days duration was undertaken in day old chicks (n= 384) divided into 12 dietary treatments as per 3x4 factorial design having 4 replicates per treatment with 8 birds in each. Twelve experimental diets were prepared by incorporating control, two different levels of rice gluten meal (RGM) consisted of (15 and 17.5%), without and with three different types of enzymes xylanase, protease and multienzymes. The nutrient utilization in terms of nitrogen retention, apparent metabolizable energy of the diets, dry matter and gross energy metabolizability were significantly (P<0.01) lower at 17.5% level as compared to 0 and 15% RGM levels. The dry matter metabolizability and nitrogen retention of the birds were significantly (P<0.01) better in protease enzyme supplemented groups compared to control and other enzyme supplemented groups. The interaction of RGM and enzymes showed no significant (P>0.05) difference in nutrient utilization between different dietary treatments and control in gross energy metabolizability, calcium and phosphorous retention. The protein and energy efficiency ratios of birds were not influenced by RGM feeding, whereas significant (P<0.05) improvement were observed in protease supplemented birds. Thus, it may be concluded that protease enzyme supplementation was found best in RGM diet to improve their feeding value and it may be used to increase the effective and safe inclusion level from 15 to 17.5% in broiler diets.

Title: Comparative Study of Ultrasonography Techniques in Predicting Histopathological Lesion of Canine Tumours
Abstract :

Present study was to evaluate and standardize different ultrasonography techniques to predict malignancy of canine tumours. The study was conducted on 28 canine patients (20 females and 8 males) with visible tumour masses with age ranging from 5 to 13 years of age and body weight from 11 to 37 Kg, for a period of 8 months. The ultrasonographic variables for different techniques (B-mode, Colour Doppler and stress elastography) were measured and recorded. The tumour masses after excision were submitted for routine histopathological examination. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and paired “t” test using IBM SPSS statistical packages. The B-mode and Colour Doppler ultrasonography had a low to moderate sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in predicting the malignancy of canine tumours. The stress elastography was a reliable and non-invasive technique to predict the malignancy in case of canine tumours with highest level of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy.

Title: Histomorphochemical Characterization of Harderian Gland of Goat (Capra hircus)
Abstract :

The present study was conducted on six young goats of local mixed breed of either sex to study the histology and histochemistry of the Harderian gland. The Harderian gland was tubulo-acinar gland, consisting of both serous and mucous secretory end pieces. The secretory units were surrounded by myoepithelial cells. Aggregates of lymphoid tissue and a patch of hyaline cartilage were noticed in the interstitial tissue. The duct system was comprised of intralobular and interlobular ducts. The histochemical studies showed a positive reaction for presence of glycogen, both acidic and neutral mucopolysaccharides and presence of weakly acidic sulfated mucosubstances, hyaluronic acid and sialomucins in the secretory units and goblet cells in the interlobular ducts.

Title: Absence of Polymorphism in Booroola (FecB) Gene in Indian Muzzafarnagari Sheep Breed
Abstract :

Booroola (FecB) gene is also known as Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1B (BMPR1B) gene, expressed in oocytes and granulosa cells. BMPR1B gene has been characterized by a point mutation at 746th position (A to G) leading to a non-synonymous substitution of Glutamine with an Arginine at 249th position (Q249R) produced ‘hyperprolific’ Booroola sheep. This mutation was associated with prolificacy in sheep with increase ovulation rate. In the present study, DNA was isolated from blood samples collected from the Muzzafarnagari sheep breeds (n = 200) maintained at LFC (Livestock farm complex) of DUVASU, Mathura, U.P. The AvaII/PCR-RFLP assay of 190 bp amplified product of FecB gene revealed only ++ genotype (190 bp uncut, 100%) with + allele (1.0) in screened sheep population. The studied region of the FecB gene showed monomorphic pattern revealed that FecB A (wild type; +) allele seems to be fixed in screened sheep population. Consequently, we could not perform association analysis with reproduction trait. Therefore, it would be suggested to further screening the status of this SNP along with other fecundity genes in large diversified population to exploit it under marker assisted selection.

Title: A Field Survey of Feeding and Breeding Practices at Peri-Urban Buffalo Farms of Surat City of Gujarat
Abstract :
A survey was conducted during April, 2014 to December, 2015 and data were collected from randomly selected 50 buffalo farm owners through personal interview with the help of pre-tested structured schedule from peri-urban areas of Surat city of Gujarat. The present study revealed that majority of respondents (86%) followed stall feeding system. The 82% respondents did not cultivated green fodder crops and 62 & 90% respondents fed green non-leguminous and shedha grass to their milking buffaloes, respectively. Majority of respondents fed homemade plus compound cattle feed as concentrate to their milking buffaloes, based on milk production, mainly during milking. The 62% respondents fed concentrate to their animals after soaking in water while, 38% respondents fed concentrates as such. Majority of respondents practiced to feed green/dry fodders as such to their buffaloes. Majority of respondents did not fed concentrates to their young calves while, 54% respondents fed concentrates to their heifers. Only 42% respondents provided mineral supplements to their buffaloes. All the respondents detected heat in their animals by observing the symptom of bellowing and mucus discharge (84%) and bred their buffaloes by artificial insemination (52%) between 12-18 hours after heat detection (84%). The 12% respondents bred their buffaloes after 2 to 3 months of calvinand 64% respondents followed the pregnancy diagnosis but only 38% did it either from Livestock Inspectors or Artificial Insemination workers during three months of pregnancy. Majority of respondents followed treatment of anoestrous/repeaters in their buffaloes.
Title: Effect of Feeding Cow Urine Ark and Aloe Vera on Performance and Carcass Traits of Broilers
Abstract :
A study was carried out to find the effect of feeding Cow urine ark and Aloe vera extract on performance and carcass traits of broilers. For Performance Quality, Body Weight of birds were weighed on weekly basis till 6 weeks of age. Weight gain in different groups of broilers was calculated on weekly basis. Evaluation of Feed Intake was done on the basis of feed offered and left over feed recorded at the end of that week.Feed efficiency ratio (FER) and Performance index (PI) were also calculated.To study the carcass traits, two broilers in each replicate were slaughtered on termination of experiment. For Organ weight percentage various visceral organs like liver, heart gizzard and giblet were weighed.Carcass yield percentage were evaluated by recording dressed weight and eviscerated weight. Aloe vera extract causes significant increase in body weight gain, feed consumption, FER and performance index of broilers.Significant increase was also reported in carcass trait of bird
Title: Traditional Health Management vis-à-vis Rearing Practices Followed By the ‘Black Bengal Goat’ Farmers in Nadia District of West Bengal, India
Abstract :

For securing the livelihood of the farmers, the role of small ruminant especially the goat are well established fact. The farmers of Nadia district of West Bengal, which is also the native tract of the Black Bengal goat, reared goats by following traditional practices. A study was conducted to find out the practices followed by the farmers for rearing goats in Nadia district. Data had been collected from 150 respondents belonged to three blocks of Nadia district in West Bengal state of India. Semi-structured interview schedule and PRA techniques were used to collect primary data. ‘Effectiveness Index Scores’ were calculated to identify the effectiveness of several traditional practices followed by the farmers for controlling ailments of Black Bengal goats. Majority of the activities pertaining to goat farming was performed by women farmers but in terms of ownership, the male dominance was observed. Farmers were following different traditional knowledge for curing and/or suppressing ailments of goats. Documentation of locally available plant’s leaves, herbs or material for treating ailments like goat diarrhea, PPR, bloat, FMD etc., was done through the study and their effectiveness as perceived by the farmers were also analyzed. Farmers used to rear their animals in the close confinement of their own household. From the study it can be concluded that, the farmers of Nadia district were maintaining goats as a safeguard of financial insecurity and utilizing locally available ingredients effectively to cure common ailments of the goat.

Title: Effect of Area Specific Mineral Mixture Feeding on Reproductive Performance and Milk Yield in Crossbred Cattle Reared under Intensive Farm Condition
Abstract :

The present study to find out the effects of supplementation of the area-specific mineral mixture on productive and reproductive performances of crossbred cows during pregnancy to lactational transition phases including the birth weight of calf, first postpartum estrus, conception rates, milk yield, and milk composition. For these purposes, 18 pregnant crossbred cows were selected and divided into two groups viz., Control-T0 (N=9) and Treatment-T1 (N=9) supplemented with 0 and 30 g ASMM/animal/day starting from 3 months prior to the expected date of parturition to till first post-partum oestrus, respectively. Milk samples were taken fortnightly. Overall mean birth weight of calf born in T0 and T1 group was 20.14 ± 1.70 and 19.56 ± 1.09, respectively and there was non-significant (P>0.05) difference between the two groups. The onset of first post-partum heat was 108.13 ± 16.23 days and 92.29 ± 9.95 days respectively. Conception rate post-partum heat was 22.22% and 77.78% respectively. The overall mean of total fat % in T0 and T1, was 4.01 ± 0.20 and 5.40 ± 0.22, total solid % was 13.03 ± 0.31 and 14.72 ± 0.37 %, solid not fat 9.02 ± 0.14% and 9.22 ± 0.31% and total ash was 0.62 ± 0.03% and 0.65 ± 0.02%, crude protein was 3.35 ± 0.10% and 3.63 ± 0.14%, respectively and was statistically non-significant (P>0.05) among the groups. Overall Milk yield was 9.42 ± 0.54 and 10.76 ± 0.37 kg/days, respectively, and was statistically significant (P < 0.001). This study indicated that dietary supplementation of the area-specific mineral mixture in the crossbred cattle, improved the productive and reproductive performances during last trimester to first post-partum oestrus.

Title: Evaluation of Selected Essential Oils as Biocontrol Agents Against Listeria monocytogenes
Abstract :

The increased concern towards food safety led to application of natural extracts as antimicrobial agents to control food borne pathogens. The aim of the present study was to determine antimicrobial activity of the four essential oils viz., cinnamon bark, cinnamon leaf, clove bud and garlic oils against Listeria monocytogenes by agar well diffusion method. All these essential oils were characterized by Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) to know the chemical constituents present in them. Out of these four oils, L. monocytogenes was found to be sensitive to cinnamon bark oil, followed by cinnamon leaf oil, clove bud oil and garlic oil. Further, all these oils were evaluated to know minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the cinnamon bark oil alone was found to be effective with a MIC of 1% against L. monocytogenes. The present study findings suggest that plant based natural extracts might be used as antimicrobial, flavouring and food biopreservative agent.

Title: Assessment of Livestock Production Technologies and Package of Practices through Multivariate Typology: A Case of Maharashtra, India
Abstract :

The study was carried out in four different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra. A typology was developed applying multivariate statistical techniques i.e. Cluster analysis (CA) to classify groups of farm households with similar farm characteristics into four homogenous clusters, (i) households possessing small landholding, a larger high yielding dairy stock with small goat flock size (37.5%), (ii) households having small landholding with a small stock of high yielding dairy animal and small goat flock size (39%), (iii) households having large landholding with large high yielding dairy stock and small flock size (13.5%) and (iv) households possessing small landholding with small high yielding dairy stock and large flock size (10%). An assessment in terms of awareness, knowledge and adoption of dairy technologies and goat production practices were carried out across the clusters which was found significantly high within the household of cluster 3 and 4. The overall adoption index was found to be 65.16 per cent across the whole clusters. Multiple regression analysis revealed that total SAU, flock size, occupation, innovative proneness, scientific orientation, awareness of technology and knowledge of technology contribute positively (P<0.01, P<0.05) to the adoption of technology. The coefficient of determination was found (R2 =0.66) across the whole clusters.

Title: Differential Expression Profile of TGFβ2 in Immune and Visceral Organs of ggamiR-142-3p Knockdown Chicken Embryo
Abstract :
Differential expression of gga-miR-142-3p microRNA of haemopoeitic origin during immune organ development and functional stages in chicken embryos opens the new avenue towards understanding its pivotal role during embryonic developmental stages. To decipher the role of gga-miR-142-3p, in-ovo knockdown was carried out with locked nucleic acid (LNA) modifi ed antimiR- gga-miR-142-3p via, intravenous route at developmental and functional stages of these immune organ and visceral organs. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that predicted gene TGFβ2 have conserved binding sites at 3’UTR for gga-miR-142-3p which is involved in immune response and signal transduction during the embryonic developmental stage in the chicken embryos. TGFβ2 was evaluated as validate targets of gga-miR-142-3p by employing qPCR SYBR green based technology which was evidenced by aberrant expression of targeted gene, which could alter the postnatal development and functions of these immune organs and may lead to immune compromised chickens.
Title: Doppler Echocardiographic Reference Parameters in Healthy Labrador Retriever Dogs
Abstract :

Thirty-one clinically healthy Labrador retriever dogs of both sexes (18 males and 13 females) were selected for determining Doppler echocardiographic reference values. 2 D and Pulse wave Doppler echocardiography was carried out by using GE Logiq P5 Color Doppler machine. The effect of body weight, age and sex on various doppler echocardiographic parameters were recorded. Twenty four dogs were in body weight range of 20-40 kg and 7 dogs in 40-60 kg range. To study the effect of age on various Doppler echocardiographic measurements, dogs were divided into 4 age groups (1-2, 2-3, 3-5 and >5 years of age). The mitral A wave peak velocity (MA) and ME:MA ratio were significantly (p<0.05) affected by body weight. The pulmonic valve velocity and pulmonic valve pressure were significantly (p<0.05) affected and there was significant negative correlation of pulmonic valve peak velocity (Pulmonary V max) and pulmonary pressure with body weight with r2 values of 0.160 and 0.120 respectively. Mitral valve (MV) deceleration time was significantly (p<0.05) affected by age. The tricuspid valve deceleration time (TVDecT) was significantly (p≤0.01) higher in dogs > 5 years of age. Tricuspid A velocity was significantly (p≤0.01) higher in 2-3 year age group dogs as compared to dogs belonging to age group 3-5 years and > 5 years of age group. The pulmonic valve velocity and pressure were significantly affected by age. The tricuspid valve TE: TA ratio was significantly (p≤0.05) affected by gender and the ratio was significantly (p≤0.05) higher in males as compared to females.

Title: Effect of Different Rearing Systems on Heamato-biochemical Parameters of Kadaknath Chicken
Abstract :

Kadaknath is an important chicken breed of India. It is also known as Kalamashi due to its black-colored meat. The present study was planned to investigate the effect of different rearing systems i.e. intensive, backyard and scavenging system on heamato-biochemical parameters of Kadaknath. The experiment was conducted in the Department of Livestock Production and Management, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry and Amilki village in Rewa (M.P.). Day old 90 male chicks reared under electrical brooder up to 15 days of age were randomly distributed in equal number into intensive, backyard and scavenging rearing systems where they kept for 98 days. Heamatological studies revealed that the mean value of RBC, Hb, PCV, MCHC was significantly (p<0.05) higher in intensive system. The enhanced heamatological profile in intensive rearing system may be due to consumption of some bioactive nutrients in the feed supplements. Mean value of WBC, and DLC was significantly (p<0.05) higher in scavenging system, which indicated more chances of subclinical infections in scavenging system followed by backyard and intensive system. The mean value of glucose (mg/dl), total protein (g/dl), albumin (g/dl) and albumin globulin ratio, SGOT (IU/L), SGPT (IU/L), cholesterol (mg/dl), creatinine (mg/dl), bilirubin (mg/dl), blood urea nitrogen (mg/dl) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in intensive system. All these variations in biochemical parameters in Kadaknath birds may be due to the effect of different rearing systems and their feed habits.

Title: Clinico-pathological Studies on Atopic Dermatitis in Dogs
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to record the clinico-haematological, biochemical and serological changes in atopic dermatitis in canines amongst the various dermatoses cases presented at the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, GADVASU, Ludhiana. Fifty two atopic dermatitis affected dogs were enrolled in the study with chief complaint of intense pruritus, erythema and alopecia. Prevalence of atopy among various dermatoses was 27.90% which mainly occurred during monsoon. Labrador, Toy breeds and German Shephard of 1-3 years of age were affected more. Dogs suffering from atopic dermatitis showed pruritus (100%), erythema (82.69%), alopecia (75.00%), hyperpigmentation (36.00%), scales/crusts (25.00%), lichenification (21.15%) and excoriation (19.60%). The lesions in atopic dermatitis were mainly located at groin (88.40%), abdomen (78.80%), neck (76.90%), perioccular region (75.00%), axilla (71.10%), muzzle and paws (69.20%), ear pinna (67.30%), limbs (48.07%) and tail (7.60%). Haematobiochemical study revealed significant changes in TLC, neutrophilia, eosinophilia and total protein. Serological estimation revealed significant increase in levels of IgE in the serum of atopic dogs.

Title: Content
Abstract :

Contents February Issue 2020

Title: An Overview on Reproductive Disorders in Indigenous Female Equids
Abstract :
Reproductive disorders causing reproductive failure in equids put great challenge in achieving the goal of successful breeding every year and subsequent birth of live foal. Economic losses due to reproductive disorders are caused in terms of reduced fertility, longer calving interval, low life time production and increased expenses on medication as well as breeding. In India, major reproductive problems reported in mares are infertility, abortions, reproductive tract infections and dystocia. Other less common reproductive problems are placental retention, placentitis, vaginitis, still birth and poor perineal conformation.
Title: Prevalence of Egg Shell Apex Abnormalities in Commercial Layer Chicken of Namakkal Region of Tamil Nadu
Abstract :

Egg shell plays a major role in determining the quality of commercial layer chicken table eggs. Many factors are involved in causing abnormalities of egg shells, particularly in the apex part of eggs. The present investigation was aimed to study the prevalence of Mycoplasma associated eggshell apex abnormalities (EAA) in commercial layer chicken of Namakkal poultry zone of Tamil Nadu. Flock history and clinical samples from live and dead birds were collected from 24 flocks belongs to 14 different farms with the history of showing egg shell abnormalities. Collected clinical samples were subjected for detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) and Mycoplasma synoviae (Ms) by culture and polymerase chain reaction. Among the 24 flocks Ms and Ms + Mg infection were observed in 16.6 and 12.5 per cent of flocks respectively. In EAA affected flocks 0.65 to 1.35 per cent of eggs showed shell defects at the apex (pointed end). The incidence of the condition was increased in large flocks (ie., above 10,000) under peak production of laying from 25 to 40 wk of age and winter seasons.Egg production drop and mortality were ranged from 2.0 to 7.7 and 0.05 to 0.35 per cent respectively. Four out of 14 farms experienced EAA like defects in their previous flocks. Antimycoplasmal drugs were given periodically however periodic mycoplasmalmonitoring was not carried out. The study indicates the prevalence of mycoplasma associated EAA in commercial layer flocks is increasing and should be controlled by proper monitoring and enhancing biosecurity measures.

Title: Effect of Age on Physico-Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Indigenous Kodiadu Goat Meat
Abstract :
The study was conducted to study the effect of age viz., young (6-9 months) and adult (2 years) on physico-chemical characteristics,
proximate composition, amino acid, fatty acid and cholesterol content of Kodiadu goat meat. The Longissimus dorsi muscle was collected from these animals and the physico-chemical characteristics viz., pH, water holding capacity, instrumental colour,
muscle fi bre diameter, myofi brillar fragmentation index and nutritional composition viz., proximate composition, amino acid, fatty acid and cholesterol content of two different age groups were studied. The results obtained in this study indicated that the meat of young goat had higher water holding capacity, Lightness (L*), moisture, threonine, glutamic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, ecosapentaenoic acid, docosohexanoic acid, total poly unsaturated fatty acids and total P/S than adult. Based on the quality and nutritional composition it was concluded that meat of young animal (6-9 months) had superior meat quality than the meat of adult animals
Title: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Antibiofilm Potential of Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Essential Oil for Application in Meat Products
Abstract :

The current study was carried out to examine in-vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant and antibiofilm efficacy of Peppermint essential oil (PEO) for its potential application in meat products. Antimicrobial activity was measured by using zone inhibition assay (ZOI) and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against ten food borne pathogens including four Gram-positive viz. Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus and six Gram-negative viz. Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa whereas antioxidant assay was measured using 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2-2- azinobis-3 ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Maximum zone size was observed for Proteus mirabilis whereas, MIC values ranged from 5000-20000 ppm for all tested organisms. The oil was found to be more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Antibiofilm activity (%) was also performed against pure cultures of two pathogens i.e. Listeria monocytogenes and Proteus mirabilis as positive control. The results exhibited that with application of PEO, biofilm formation of both Listeria monocytogenes and Proteus mirabilis was inhibited by 45.80% and 73.01%, respectively in contrast to their respective controls. ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity of PEO was measured at five different concentrations and values were ranging from 17.24-49.07% for ABTS whereas 35.16 – 60.70% for DPPH under investigation. It can be concluded that peppermint essential oil possesses potent antimicrobial, antioxidant and antibiofilm activity and can be further used as a natural alternative for preservation in meat industry

Title: Tube Cystostomy in Male Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis) Suffering From Retention of Urine
Abstract :

To evaluate tube cystostomy for the management of obstructive urolithiasis, 35 buffalo calves suffering from retention of urine were randomly selected for the study. Diagnosis was made on the basis of a history of anuria, clinical signs, abdominocentesis and ultrasonographic examinations. The confirmed cases of obstructive urolithiasis were managed by surgical tube cystostomy technique with Foley’s catheter. In all the affected buffalo calves, anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics along with urine acidifiers (ammonium chloride) were given. The affected buffalo calves had higher Heart rate, Respiration rate, but normal Rectal temperature. Haemoglobin (Hb), Packed cell volume (PCV), Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, phosphorus and potassium, Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) levels were higher, whereas calcium, total plasma protein, albumin, globulin and albumin:globulin (A:G) ratio were lower than normal reference value and plasma sodium, magnesium and alkaline phosphatase values were within normal reference range. Urine analysis revealed high pH and low specific gravity. Staphylococcus spp., E.coli and Streptococcus spp .were the most common organisms isolated from the urine of affected animals, which were sensitive to cephalosporine and fluoroquinolone groups of antibiotics. The overall recovery rate was 91.42%. It may be concluded that tube cystostomy was treatment of choice and feasible method for the surgical management of obstructive urolithiasis in field conditions. The oral ammonium chloride may be beneficial for the medical dissolution of urethral calculi.

Title: Treatment of Secondary Immune Mediated Hemolytic Anaemia of Dogs in Chennai, Tamil Nadu
Abstract :

Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) is the most common autoimmune disease in dogs. This study was conducted to evaluate prednisolone and azathioprine therapeutic protocols for the management of secondary IMHA in dogs. The anaemic dogs brought with clinical signs such as pale or icteric mucous membranes were screened for IMHA by saline agglutination and spherocyte count and confirmed by flow cytometry. The positive cases were further subjected to haematology, biochemistry, coagulation profile, MAT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of underlying secondary causes like Babesia spp, Ehrlichia canis and Leptospira spp (secondary IMHA). Thirty two cases were positive for IMHA, out of which thirteen cases were primary (Idiopathic) IMHA (17.3 %) and remaining nineteen cases were secondary IMHA (82.7 %) due to underlying causes such as Babesia gibsoni (13), Ehrlichia canis (3) and Leptospira spp. (3) respectively. Immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and prednisolone in combination with azathioprine and specific therapy of etiological agent with supportive therapy was used. Significant increase in Hb, PCV, RBC and thrombocyte count, significant decrease in leucocyte, neutrophil, monocyte and total protein and significant increase in ALT activity was recorded after therapy. There was an apparent clinical improvement in all the dogs which survived till day 28 days, with significant improvement in hemato-biochemical profiles. Prednisolone was found to be effective in the management of canine secondary IMHA than prednisolone combined with azathioprine.

Title: Effect of Body Condition Score (BCS) on Production Performance of Sahiwal Cattle
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out with the total of 18 Sahiwal cattle of 1st to 4th parity were selected for the study and distributed into three different groups based on their pre calving BCS (before 15 days of expected date of calving) namely G1 (2.50 - 3.00), G2 (3.25 - 3.75) and G3 (4.00 and above) with six animals in each group. The average fortnight milk yield increased up to 60th day and thereafter declined up to 90th day in G1, G2 and G3 group of animals, which was significant (p<0.05) up to 75th day. G3 group animals had highest average fortnightly cumulative Milk yield (Kg) in entire study period. Highest 305 days predicted lactation milk yield (2462.66 Kg /lactation) and average peak yield (16.50 Kg/ animal) was obtained in G3 group animals and the lowest predicted lactation milk yield (1870.68 Kg/lactation). The 305 days predicted lactation milk yield in G2 group animals was 2356.75 Kg /lactation and average peak yield was 14.90 Kg/ animal. The G3 group animals also attained their peak yield in 46 days compared to G2 and G1 group animals with 51 and 54 days, respectively. The persistency of milk production was highest in G2 group animals with 65.63 % followed by G3 and G1 group animals. The studied revealed that BCS had a significant (P<0.05) effect on post-partum estrus and service period in experimental animals

Title: Next-Generation Sequencing as Diagnostic Tool in Veterinary Research
Abstract :

The field of genomics has been revolutionized by next generation sequencing. NGS technology is likely to play an important role in the field of veterinary medicine and animal husbandry. The feasibility of sequencing genomes at a much faster rate and with greater precision has been made possible with the advent of newer methods. In the current review, we describe the various sequencing methods available and also discuss select areas of biology where application of next generation sequencing would open a whole new avenue in veterinary research.

Title: Genetic Polymorphism of Leptin Gene in Relation with Reproduction Traits in Hariana Cows
Abstract :

Leptin gene is considered as marker of production and reproduction traits in dairy or beef cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic polymorphism in LEP gene in Hariana cows and their associations with reproduction traits. The blood samples were collected from 62 Hariana cows and analyzed in order to identify LEP/BsaAI (BTA 4, intron 2 and exon 3) genotypes using PCR-RFLP method. The allele frequencies observed were 0.37 and 0.63 for A and B LEP variants and genotypic frequencies were 9.67, 54.8 and 35.5 for AA, AB and BB genotype variants, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that SNP LEP/BsaAI significantly affected gestation period and dry period in analyzed population of cows. Observations of this investigation advocated that leptin is a candidate gene, which affects reproduction traits and might be implemented in breeding strategies to improve the reproductive performance of Hariana cattle breed.

Title: Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Helminths of Sheep in Aeolian Plains of Haryana
Abstract :

The epidemiological study of gastrointestinal parasites was carried out in unorganized sheep farms in aeolian plains of Haryana from March, 2018 to February, 2019. A total of 1080 faecal samples were examined, out of which 899 (83.24%) were positive for helminthic infections. The different helmiinths observed were strongyles (80.93%), Strongyloides spp. (28.24%), Trichuris spp. (7.31%) and Moniezia spp. (1.02%). Infection was non-significantly higher in adults (83.34%) as compared to young (76.67%). Males showed a non-significantly higher infection (89.79%) as compared to females (82.59%). Significantly higher (p<0.05) infection was observed in monsoon (98.88%) as compared to winter (74.17%), spring (78.88%) and summer (82.72%) season. Significantly higher (p<0.05) infection (100%) was observed during month of August and September while lowest infection was observed during month of November (56.67%). Coproculture studies revealed that Haemonchus contortus was predominant parasite during all the seasons, followed by Strongyloides spp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. No trematode eggs were identified during study period

Title: Carcass Traits and Leather Quality Characteristics of Blackhead Ogaden Sheep Fed Different Proportions of Roughage and Concentrate Ratios
Abstract :

An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of varying level of roughage to concentrate ratios on carcass traits and leather quality characteristics of Blackhead Ogaden sheep aged 2 years (20.8±1.8 initial body weight). Twenty four lambs were blocked into 6 groups of four lambs based on initial body weight and randomly assigned within group to 4 diets. Roughage composed of natural grass hay and haricot bean hauls (50:50 ratio) and concentrate mixture composed of wheat bran (69%) and 31% of oil seed meal (noug seed cake and cottonseed meal in the ratio of 1.1:1) were offered at roughage (R) to concentrate (C) ratios of 60R:40C, 50R:50C, 40R:60C, and 30R:70C. Roughage and supplement were offered separately and percentages of the two feeds were determined based on ad libitum consumption of individual animal on dry matter (DM) basis. After the completion of stall feeding, animals were slaughtered for carcass parameters and leather quality evaluation. Slaughter body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage as a proportion of slaughter body weight, empty body weight, and total usable products are greater in group consumed 30R:70C than 60R:40C ration (P<0.05). Fat content and elongation percentage of leather produced from sheep consumed 60R:40C was higher (p<0.05) than 30R:70C. However, the other chemical and physico-mechanical quality of leather were not affect by the treatment diet (P>0.05). Thus, we conclude that feeding of roughage and concentrate at the ratio of 30R:70C could be recommended as better feeding strategy for better performances of finishing sheep.

Title: Appraisal of Feeding Practices Followed by Dog Owners in Ferozepur and Fazilka Districts
Abstract :

The present study, was conducted on 132 dog owners,sixty eight (38 from urban and 30 from rural), andsixty four (32 from urban and 32 from rural) from Ferozepur and Fazilkadistricts respectively and views regarding the feeding and management of their pets were recorded. Quantity of food items fed to dogs such as milk, veggie, and dal were higher (P<0.05) in urban areas of Fazilka whereas rice consumption was higher (P<0.05)in urban area ofFerozepurdistrict. In rural areas of Ferozepur, the quantity of rice, veggie and meat offered to the pet dogs was higher (P<0.05) than that offered in rural Fazilka.The amount of bone offered was higher (P<0.05) in the rural Fazilka.Consumption of milk is significantly (P≤0.05) higher in rural area and is 113% higher than urban area of FerozepurVeggies is the only food item which was fed significantly (P≤0.05) in higher amount to the dog of urban areas (45.94g) in contrast to rural areas (15.63g) of Fazilka district.Milk, milk product, curd, sweet and dal given by rural dog owners to their dog was highest in Ferozepur district than Fazilka district. The microbiological parameters such as SPC and Coliforms were also well below the prescribed limits of the cooked dog foods.Based on the data available, it is clearly indicated that feeding practices followed by the dog owners in both districts has variable trends. Moreover, significant variations were observed in rural and urban area of the same district.

Title: Influence of Urea Molasses Mineral Blocks having Bentonite as Binder on Haemato-Biochemical and Serum Mineral Profile of Crossbred Calves
Abstract :

The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of supplement of UMMB containing variable levels of urea and bentonite on haemato-biochemical and serum mineral profile of crossbred calves. Twenty four male crossbred calves were divided into four equal groups following complete randomized design and fed individually for 120 days. In group T1, 70% of CP requirement was met through feeding of concentrate mixture and remaining CP was fed through urea molasses mineral block (UMMB) and ad libitum wheat straw (control). In group T2, T3 and T4, the feeding regimen followed was same as that of control except that UMMB was replaced with UMMB-A, UMMB-B, UMMB-C which vary in physical. Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120 day of experimental feeding to determine haemato-biochemical and serum mineral concentration. The mean values for Hb (mg/dl), PCV (%), glucose (mg/dl), total protein (g/dl), albumin, globulin (g/dl), A:G ratio, urea (mg/dl), creatinine, SGOT (IU/L), SGPT (IU/L) level was comparable (P>0.05) among the different dietary treatments. the serum minerals (Ca, P, Cu, Fe, Zn) concentration was also statically similar among the different groups. However, periodical significantly (P<0.05) higher values were observed for Hb (mg/dl), PCV (%), glucose (mg/dl), total protein (g/dl), albumin, globulin(g/dl), A:G ratio, urea (mg/dl), creatinine, Ca and P at 60 and 120 days of post feeding but it was comparable and lies in the normal physiological range. It was concluded that haemato-biochemical parameters of cross bred calves were not influenced by supplementation of urea molasses mineral blocks.

Title: Shelf-Life of Developed Instant Idli Mixes Incorporated with Chicken Meat Powder
Abstract :
A study was conducted to evaluate the shelf life of developed instant rice idli mix incorporated with 20% chicken meat powder (CMP) and instant semolina idli mix incorporated with 30% CMP under laboratory conditions. The control sample of rice idli mix was prepared using rice grit, salt, spice mix, sodium bicarbonate, citric acid, sodium carbonate and dry curry leaves and the control semolina idli mix was prepared by replacing the rice grit with semolina. The products were packed in low density polyethene bags and stored at an ambient temperature (30±2oC) for 90 days and samples were drawn at an interval of 0, 15th, 30th, 60th and
90th day to assess their shelf life. TBA values of CMP incorporated idli mixes were higher than their controls during storage. Moreover, TBA and pH values increased in all idli mixes during storage up to 90 days at an ambient temperature (30±2oC). The reconstituted idlies had desirable organoleptic properties as indicated by the taste panel studies. It is concluded that the rice idli mix incorporated with 20% CMP and semolina idli mix incorporated with 30% CMP could be stored for 60 days and 90 days, respectively, without any significant deterioration in microbiological quality and with acceptable sensory attributes.
Title: Real Time Ultrasonography for Determining Viable Foetal Numbers in Goats
Abstract :
Twenty-five (25) does in dorsal recumbency were scanned by 3.5 MHz transabdominal sector transducer. Each doe was scanned separately by tilting the doe in right and left side. All the animals were scanned twice between 37-119 days post breeding. One goat showed foetal resorption on its second scan so only 24 goats were considered for calculation of litter size. There was non-significant difference (P = 0.7427, t 0.01 =0.332) between actual and sonographically observed values of litter size and the correlation coefficient between the two was 0.725 (P< 0.01) which is positive and highly significant. The accuracy of detecting single fetus was
83.33% (10/12); twins was 80% (8/10) and triplets was 50% (1/2). In total 37 kids were born viz 12 singles, 11 twins and 1 triplet to 24 goats. The average actual litter size of goats was 1.54±0.120 kids while as by ultrasound it was 1.6 ± 0.129. It was concluded that real-time transabdominal ultrasonography is accurate and practical method for predicting foetal numbers and foetal viability in goats.
Title: Azolla Cultivation to Produce Sustainable Feed Ingredient: Chemical Composition and its Impact on Performance of Broiler Chickens
Abstract :

Present study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1, fresh azolla was cultivated, harvested and analysed for nutrient composition, condensed tannins (CT) and obtained dried azolla meal (DAM) for incorporation in broiler ration. In phase 2, feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of DAM supplementation as alternative feed ingredient in broiler ration. Day-old broiler chicks (180) were purchased, weighed individually and allocated into six treatments(T0, T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) groups supplemented with DAM @ 0.0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 percent, respectively. Each group has 3 replicates and 10 chicks per deep litter pen. Experimental birds were fed their respective diets for 35 days. The DAM contains 86.94, 22.98, 3.13, 13.64, 13.06, 40.37, 1.23, 0.79 and 0.09 percent of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fibre (CF), total ash, nitrogen free extract (NFE), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and condensed tannins (CT), respectively. The weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) at weekly intervals did not differ significantly (P>0.05) irrespective of groups except feed intake. It was concluded that DAM incorporation up to 5.5% of diet is a good source of nutrients and as an alternative sustainable feed ingredient for broilers without affecting performance.

Title: Comparison of Radiography, Ultrasonography and SNAP cPL in the Diagnosis of Acute Pancreatitis in Dogs
Abstract :

The study was aimed to compare various diagnostic modalities in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in dogs. Forty dogs with history of acute onset of vomiting, abdominal pain and anorexia were screened for acute pancreatitis by radiography, abdominal ultrasound and confirmed by SNAP cPL (Canine pancreatic lipase) kit test. Fourteen (0.375 per cent of gastrointestinal cases) dogs found to be positive for acute pancreatitis by abdominal ultrasound were selected and further subjected to radiography to rule out the underlying causes of acute pancreatitis and confirmed by SNAP cPL test. Out of fourteen dogs, four dogs (29 per cent) having specific radiographic changes gas filled intestinal loops with loss of serosal details, SNAP cPL was positive in nine dogs (64 per cent). Abdominal ultrasonography revealed hypoechoic pancreas, hyperechoic surrounding fat saponification, enlarged or irregular pancreas and dilatation of biliary or pancreatic duct as the major changes in acute pancreatitis dogs. Ultrasound was found to be superior to radiography in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis and SNAP cPL was found to be effective in confirming only in acute stages of pancreatitis

Title: Age Specific Role of Myostatin Intron-2 Gene on Body Weight of Magra Sheep
Abstract :

The economic success of small ruminant based livestock production system depends on the factors affecting the muscular growth. Therefore, the present study was carried out in one of the potential ovine meat genotype, i.e., Magra sheep breed, to investigate the role of growth regulating myostatin (MSTN)gene on body weight of Magra lambs at different stages through single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP’s) based marker.Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood of randomly selected Magra sheep (N=74) maintained at Livestock Research Farm, CSWRI, Bikaner campus through spin column method. A 311bp fragment comprising intron 2 region of MSTN gene was amplified through designed homologous primers (GenBank accession number JN856480) at an annealing temperature of 54°C. Initial screening of collected specimen was carried out through single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) based marker on 8% non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels to detect the polymorphic individuals. Sequencing and clustal analysis was carried out in order to detect SNP’s responsible for genetic variation among individuals. The three conformational patterns detected were observed to be the result of substitution of five different nucleotides substitution in the amplified fragment. Association analysis revealed significant role of heterozygotic SNP’s conformation (CTAAA/TATGT) on body weight of Magra sheep at 3 and 6 months of age in comparison to homozygotic genotypic pattern, TATGT/TATGT. The present study concluded that genetic variability in intron- 2 region of MSTN gene in Magra lamb significantly affects body weight at specific stages of life.

Title: Quality Evaluation of Preferred Meat Product in Bareilly City
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the existing quality of the most preferred meat product in Bareilly city in Uttar Pradesh. According to survey of 15 road side shops and restaurants in city, chicken and mutton Seekh Kabab was found most preferred RTE meat product, agreed by 66.66% of the retailer. The Kabab samples were collected aseptically and their quality was evaluated, and found that the protein and fat percentage varied significantly (P<0.05) among samples and ranged between 11.13-13.12% and 7.34-9.55% respectively. The oxidative stability of fat is reflected by TBARS value which was found significantly (P<0.05) variable among samples, raged between 1.64-2.28 mg malonaldehyde/kg. The total plate count (TPC) observed ranging between 5.62-6.53 log10 CFU/g, which were above acceptable standard limits for processed meat products for all the samples. Therefore it could be concluded that, there is need to improve the processing and handling practices involved in Kabab preparation and marketing in Bareilly City to secure public health.

Title: Seasonal and Periodical Rhythmicity of Economic Traits and Various Genetic Parameter Analysis in Sahiwal Cows Under Sub-Tropical Environment
Abstract :

The immediate response of animals to fluctuations in any managemental practices or environmental temperature is an alteration in their physiological responses. For those who failed to deal with, their production performance is affected to a great extent. In the present investigation, seasonal and periodical rhythmicity of economic traits and genetic parameters analysis for growth and first lactation traits of Sahiwal cows were performed. Analysis of variance revealed significant effect of period on all growth traits (P≤0.01) and first lactation traits under investigation. Effect of season of birth was significant (P≤0.05) on W6, W12, W18 and W24 whereas BW, W30 and WFC were not significantly affected. Furthermore, season effect was found to be non significant on different first lactation traits except FCI (P≤0.05). The estimates of heritability for BW, W6, W12, W18, W24, W30, WFC, AFC, FL305DMY, FLL, FCI and FSP were 0.12 ± 0.28, 0.67 ± 0.34, 0.49 ± 0.33, 0.19 ± 0.29, 0.19 ± 0.30, 0.42 ± 0.32, 0.43 ± 0.22, 0.11 ± 0.09, 0.26 ± 0.11, 0.09 ± 0.02, 0.02 ± 0.05 and 0.03 ± 0.03 respectively. The genetic and phenotypic correlations amongst most of the growth and first lactation traits were higher in magnitude. Therefore these results indicated that genetic associations and effect of environmental variations could be effective for formulating selection criteria on the basis of early expressed economic traits in Sahiwal cattle.

Title: Effect of Season on Biochemical Profile of Osmanabadi Goat under Agro-Climatic Conditions of Chhattisgarh Plains
Abstract :

The current study was undertaken at Goat Unit of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Durg located within the campus of College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anjora, Durg. Blood samples were collected from 20 adult female goats every month during summer (n=80), rainy (n=80) and winter (n=80) season to investigate the blood biochemical parameters in Osmanabadi goat. The results obtained during the investigation revealed the significant seasonal variation (P< 0.01) in all the biochemical parameters studied, i.e. serum glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, Albumin: Globulin ratio and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). The mean total serum protein for summer was significantly higher (P< 0.01) than rainy and winter season. A similar trend was recorded in case of serum globulin and BUN values, but the reversed trend was observed in the mean values of serum albumin, A:G ratio and serum glucose. Thus, the observations of the study could able to establish the seasonal variation in biochemical parameters and could serve as reference values for Osmanabadi goat reared under the agro-climatic conditions of Chhattisgarh plains lies in the central zone of India.

Title: Effect of Ovsynch Estrus Synchronization Protocol on Fertility in Crossbred Ewes
Abstract :

The present study was designed to test the comparative efficacy of Ovsynch estrus synchronization protocols during two different phases’s i.e. breeding and out-of-breeding season in crossbred ewes. During both phases a total of 60 ewes were randomly divided into four groups (n=15 in each group) viz. Group I (Control out-of-breeding season), II (Treatment out-of-breeding season), III (Control breeding season) and IV (Treatment breeding season). The Ovsynch protocol (Group II and IV) consisted of buserelin acetate on day 0, cloprostenol sodium on day 5 and buserelin acetate on day 7 intramuscular (im). Blood sampling was carried out for estimation of plasma progesterone concentration in due course of study. Trans-rectal real-time B-mode ultrasonography (USG) was done for early pregnancy diagnosis at day 25 post-mating with reconfirmation on day 45. The results of the present study showed that the Ovsynch protocol was almost equally effective in induction of estrus resulting in better pregnancy rate and subsequent fertility during both seasons. The progesterone concentration did not vary significantly among all groups (P<0.05) on day 14, 25 and 45 post-mating. Thus, the Ovsynch protocol could be advised for improvement of reproductive efficiency during breeding as well as out-of-breeding season in crossbred ewes throughout the year.

Title: Clinico-pathological Evaluation of PPR in a Flock of Ganjam Sheep and Goat in Odisha
Abstract :

Present study was aimed to investigate the mortality among a flock of Ganjam sheep and goat during December, 2016 in Odisha. These breed of small ruminant mostly reared in nomadic pattern by certain “Gola” community with native tract mostly in south-eastern and eastern-ghat of agroclimatic zones in Odisha with hot and humid climate. Clinical signs and gross lesions as observed among the animals were indicative of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR). There was nearly 90% morbidity and 42.22% mortality. Higher mortality was recorded among the weaners (~ 63%) followed by kids (~ 42%). Blood examination revealed anemia with significantly (p ≤0.05) decrease in total erythrocyte counts (TEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) through t-test. Affected animals showed leucocytosis with nutrophillia and lymphopaenia. Statistically significant (p ≤0.05) alterations in various serum biochemical parameters were evident in morbid animals. At necropsy, typical lesions were erosive as well as hemorrhagic lesions in buccal mucosa, abomasums and intestine along with fibrinous bronchopneumonia. Histopathological changes were mostly infiltrations of inflammatory cells, syncytia and presence of intranuclear and /or intracytoplasmic eosinophillic inclusions in epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, lungs and hepatocytes.

Title: Cyto-Differentiation of Pyloric Part of Glandular Stomach in Prenatal Goat
Abstract :

The study was conducted on 36 developing abomasum of healthy and normal embryos/ foeti of goat. Embryos/foeti were assigned into three group viz. group I (0-50 days of gestation), group II (51-100 days of gestation) and group III (101-150 days of gestation). The wall of glandular stomach, the pyloric part, was composed of epithelium, pleuripotent blastemic tissue and serosa upto 44 days of gestation. Tunica muscularis became separable at 46 days of gestation. The epithelium was stratified type up to 50 days and gradually changed to pseudostratified columnar to simple columnar type from 76 days of gestation. However, stratification of the epithelium was noticed at few places till term. Thin strands of muscularis mucosae were observed at 82 days of gestation. Gastric pit, the fore runner of gastric gland was reported first at 70 days. The body of the gastric glands were very short. Process of proliferation, coiling and lumen formation were faster in pyloric gland. The cells of pyloric gland contained undifferentiating, mucous secreting and sporadic parietal cells. Well differentiated mucous secreting cells were noticed at 121 days of gestation. Reticular, collagen and elastic fibers came into sight at 38, 100 and 100 days of gestation, respectively. Combined thickness of lamina propria, muscularis mucosae and submucosa and tunica muscularis was more in pyloric gland region than other region of the abomasum.

Title: Contents Vol. 10, No. 4, August 2020
Abstract :
Title: Recovery of Different Cumulus Oocyte Complex (COC) Grades from Bovine Ovaries by Aspiration Method
Abstract :
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the aspiration method for recovery of cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) from
bovine ovaries at slaughter. A total of 829 cattle ovaries were collected from slaughter house, out of which 2,935 COCs were
aspirated out. The mean number of COCs recovered was 3.54 per ovary. The COCs recovered were graded variously as A, B,
C and D grades. Grade ‘A’ and ‘B’ COC’s were 38.77% and 27.02% respectively, and the average culture grade (Grade A and
B COC’s together) recovery was 65.79%, representing 2.33 COCs per ovary. The number and percentage recovery of A and B grade COCs were higher than that of C (18.13%; 0.64/ovary) and D (16.08%; 0.57/ovary) grades. The aspiration method adopted in the present study was found to be effi cient for recovery of ample amount of COCs and yield good quality culturable oocytes for subsequent in vitro studies. The aspiration method also allows greater visual assessment of follicles, their selection and assortment for quality COC yield.
Title: Contents
Abstract :


Title: A Study on the Prevalence and Some Epidemiological Features of Gastrointestinal Impaction Disorders in Cattle and Buffaloes of Punjab Area
Abstract :
This study to document the prevalence and some epidemiological features of gastrointestinal impaction in cattle and buffaloes
was conducted by undertaking key informant interview (interviews of farmers and visits to dairy farms), case study analysis (observation of cases registered under randomly selected state veterinary hospitals and polyclinics) and retrospective study in various parts of Punjab state. Interview of farmers and visits to dairy farms revealed, overall prevalence of gastrointestinal impaction in cattle and buffaloes to be 0.58 percent (cattle - 0.31%, buffaloes - 1.16%) with signifi cantly (p<0.01) lower prevalence in organised dairy farms as compared to unorganised farms. The annual case incidence of gastrointestinal impaction among cases referred to veterinary hospitals and polyclinics of Punjab was 4.88 percent (cattle - 6.82%, buffaloes - 3.83%) being signifi cantly higher during the month of May (10.44%), April (7.62%) and June (7.61%) attributable to scarcity of green fodder, feeding of wheat straw along with hot and dry climate. Through retrospective analysis of cases admitted at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, the annual case incidence was found to be 13.67 percent (17.77% in buffaloes and 9.11% in cattle) with majority (58.0%) of gastrointestinal impaction cases associated
with foreign body syndrome, and its sequel like diaphragmatic hernia and reticular abscess. The data so generated would be a
basis for further research
Title: Efficiency of Dietary Supplementation of Flavonoid (Quercetin), Vegetable Oil and Its Combination on Growth Traits and Feed Conversion in Broilers
Abstract :

The study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of dietary supplementation of Flavonoid (Quercetin) compound, vegetable oil and its combination on feed intake, growth traits and feed conversion in broiler chickens. Four dietary treatments were assigned in to 192 Vencob-400 strain broiler chicks for the 35 days duration (7th-42nd days). The treatments were control (T1) without any supplementation, whereas T2, T3 and T4 supplemented with Quercetin (1g kg-1), vegetable oil (>10% of ME recommendation) and combination of Quercetin with vegetable oil, respectively. Each group comprised of four replicates (12 birds in each). All the treatment groups were fed similar corn soya based basal diet. Daily and weekly feed intake throughout the experimental period was found comparable among the dietary treatment groups except the period of 4th week, where higher (P<0.05) feed intake was observed in control (T1). During starter phase weekly body weight gain (g/bird/week) and weekly growth rate (g/bird/d) was significantly (P<0.01) differ amongst the group, which was highest in T4; while these parameters were found comparable in finisher phase. However, the cumulative weight gains and cumulative growth rate were significantly (P<0.01) higher in T3 and T4 group. Similarly, Quercetin supplementation (T2) had also revealed higher cumulative weekly weight gain and growth rate over control group (P<0.01). The feed conversion ratio was revealed better (P<0.05) in T4 group during 4th and 6th week and also for overall experiment. Thus, the supplementation of Quercetin or vegetable oil or its combination in broilers had shown a better growth performance and improvement in feed conversion ratio.

Title: Haematological Parameters and its Relationship with Faecal Egg Count and FAMACHA© Score in Haemonchus contortus Naturally Infected Goats
Abstract :

Haemonchus contortus is considered as main gastrointestinal parasite causing anaemia and hypoproteinemia in ruminants. The aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between haematological parameters with duo of faecal egg count and FAMACHA© score in goats predominantly infected with Haemonchus contortus. A total number of 100 goats were divided into five groups [Group I (EPG 100-300), II (EPG 400-600), III (EPG 700-1000), IV (EPG 1100-1200) and V (EPG 1300 and above)]. Results revealed a highly significant (P<0.01) negative correlation between EPG and FAMACHA© score with haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and total erythrocyte count (TEC). Mean values of Hb, PCV and TEC were declined in groups with increase in EPG and highly significant (P<0.01) differences were observed between all groups. Highly significant (P<0.01) and negative correlations were observed between TLC, lymphocyte, monocyte with duo of EPG and FAMACHA© scores whereas correlations between EPG, FAMACHA© score with both of neutrophil and eosinophil were highly significant (P<0.01) and positive. However, EPG and FAMACHA© score with basophil were showed significant (P<0.05) and negative correlation. The mean values of TLC were declined in groups having higher worms load. In DLC, the mean values of both neutrophil and eosinophil were elevated but lymphocyte and monocyte values were decreased with the increase in worm burden. Significant (P<0.01) differences were observed in values of TLC and DLC between all groups but, no significant difference was observed for monocyte between group-I and II and for basophil between group-II and IV; and group-III and V.

Title: Performance of Lactating Crossbred Cows under Different Housing Systems During Summer in Konkan Agro-ecological Conditions”
Abstract :
An investigation was carried out on nine lactating crossbred cows (J×L) cows
which were allotted randomly into three comparable shelters in switch over design. Three different type of shelters were, 1- Asbestos roofing; 2- Paddy straw thatched roof house; 3 - White painted asbestos roof. Temperature humidity index was higher in macro -environment followed by thatched roof shed, white painted asbestos roof and asbestos roofing. Thatched roof shed had significant (P<0.05) incremental effect on the milk production and milk composition of cows than the cows in white painted roof shed and asbestos roof shed during summer. Overall paddy straw thatched roof shed effectively ameliorates environmental temperature, humidity and THI during summer season in the Konkan region.
Title: Contents Vol. 10, No. 5, October 2020
Abstract :
Title: Nutritional Value and Physico-chemical Properties of Dog Diet in Sub-mountainous Zone of Punjab
Abstract :

A total of 50 samples of dog diet were collected from six districts i.e. Gurdaspur, Pathankot, Ropar, Mohali, Hoshiarpur and Nawanshahr of sub-mountainous zone of Punjab. These samples comprise of milk, chapatti, pulses, fruits, meat, eggs, vegetables etc. The collected samples were evaluated for proximate analysis (Crude protein (CP), ether extracts (EE), total ash (TA), acid insoluble ash (AIA) and crude fiber), minerals (calcium and phosphorus), physiochemical properties (pH, free fatty acids and peroxide value) and microbiological counts (total plate count, coliform count and staphylococcus count). The crude protein (CP), ether extracts (EE), total ash (TA), acid insoluble ash (AIA) and crude fiber values were in the range of 11.37-27.1%, 2.45-15.07%, 1.5-9.47%, 0.01-0.85%, 1.4-6.0% respectively. The pH, free fatty acids, peroxide value, total plate count, coliform counts, staphylococcal counts were in the range of 3.68-5.06, 0.08-0.41%, 0.29-1.13 meq/Kg, 2.14-2.51 cfu/gm, 1.07-1.53 cfu/gm and 0.22-0.64 cfu/gm respectively.

Title: Applied Anatomy of the Maxillofacial and Mandibular Regions of the Indian Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra)
Abstract :
The study involved the measurements of some clinically important landmarks for regional anesthesia in the maxillary and mandibular regions of blackbucks. The mandibular parameters studied will provide important clinical landmarks for the regional anesthesia of mandibular nerve block. The observed data were also discussed with regard to their application in proper tracking of the infra-orbital, mental and mandibular nerves to aid in regional anesthetic procedures during treatment and manipulations of various clinical affections of this region. There was no information on the regional applied anatomy of maxillofacial and mandibular regions of blackbuck in available literatures. Therefore, this study was designed to provide information on clinically important parameters and landmarks of the head region. This information may aid for performing regional anesthesia conducted in upper (maxilla) and the lower (mandible) jaw bones of the Blackbuck 
Title: A Study on Different Dairy Farming Systems and Their Productivity in Kerala
Abstract :

The study conducted was among farmers who were members of dairy co-operatives in different agro- climatic zones of Kerala with the objective to identify dairy farming systems and to document productivity. It was observed that small holders operated 83.80 per cent of the farms. Eight farming systems based on cropping patterns were identified. Mixed farming was the largest system with 50.0 per cent of the sampled units while systems based on mono cultures of paddy, coconut or rubber constituted 27.20 per cent and homestead farms accounted to 20.6 per cent of the studied farms. The average peak yield ranged from 14.63±0.37 (litres) in small farms to 18.64±0.54 (litres) in large farms. Test day yields were 9.61±0.30 in small farms and 12.58±0.68 in large farms. Peak yields, test day yields and predicted lactation yields differed significantly between types of farms (P<0.01). Service period (128.53±7.96 days) and inter calving period (408.53±7.96) were significantly shorter (P<0.01) in large farms than in small or medium farms.

Title: Influence of Alteration in Far-Off Period Feeding Management on Water Intake, Water and Dry Matter Efficiency, Relative Immunoglobulin Level in Dairy Cows at Tropical Climate
Abstract :
Proper changes in feeding management during dry period in periparturient dairy cows have shown better performances in terms of health, production, and dry matter intake. A study was performed on 14 healthy Jersey crossbred dairy cows which were separated into two groups viz. treatment and control group. Alteration in feeding management was done during far off period in treatment group than control group cows however, the cows of both the groups received similar feeding regimes in close up period as per the standard farm management practices. The statistically analyzed data revealed significantly higher (P<0.001) water intake, ratio of water to dry matter intake in treatment group animals as compared to that of control group cows. Data revealed numerically higher blood plasma Brix% in treatment group animals however, there was significantly no difference (P>0.05) among treatment and the control group animals. Correlation coefficients suggested positive and high correlation (P<0.01) among water intake, dry mater intake, and milk yield and udder health status of dairy cows. In conclusion, based on this study it can be stated that the alteration in far-off period may be suitable for increased water intake, thereby increasing dry matter intake, reducing negative energy balance of dairy cows. In conclusion, it can be stated that proper reduction of concentrate supply during far-off dry period may be done to achieve improved performance of dairy cows in tropical region.
Title: Effect of Different Litter Materials on the Performance of Broiler Chicken
Abstract :

The present study attempts to analyze the effect of different types of litter materials on the performance of broilers. Total 300 unsexed day-old broiler chicks (Cobb-400) were used on a completely randomized design in five treatments with four replicates, each consisting of 15 broilers. The treatments comprises of saw dust, wheat straw, rice husk, river bed sand and sandy soil (Balu ret) as litter materials. Standard feeding and management practices were followed during the experimental period. The effect of different treatments on growth parameters of broilers i.e. body weight, bodyweight gains, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed on regular interval of time. The results showed that feed conversion ratio was significantly different (p<0.05) among the litter types selected during 3rd and 4th week of experiment and other parameters were non-significant during the growing interval of broilers. The present study investigated the effect of different litter materials on broiler chicken performance may be viable for use of unconventional litter materials for broilers production due to cheap and locally available to the poultry entrepreneurs.

Title: Patho-morphological Changes in Kidneys of Slaughtered Sheep and Goats in Jammu Region
Abstract :

The study was conducted in government recognized and unorganised slaughter houses of sheep and goats in Jammu from the month of July 2013 to June 2014. In the present study, 300 kidney samples of sheep (150) and goats (150) were collected from these abattoirs for determining the patho-morphological changes. Prominent gross lesions in kidney affection included haemorrhage, infarction, hydronephrosis, amyloidosis and nephritis. Histopathological examination revealed massive interstitial haemorrage, MNC’s infi ltration, atrophy of glomeruli with presence of pinkish amyloid material, hypercellularity of glomeruli and tubular necrosis.

Title: Prevalence of Various Reproductive Disorders in the Foothills of Himalaya
Abstract :

The study was carried out to investigate the incidence of reproductive disorders in Assam region of India. A total of 554 crossbred cows were screened and survey was made to rule out prevalence of reproductive diseases. The risk factors such as age and parity were also taken into account to find the relation with occurrence of reproductive disorders. The anestrus (51.12%), repeat breeding (RB; 33.71%), retention of fetal membrane (RFM; 5.06%), dystocia (4.50%), abortion and cervico-vaginal prolapse (2.81%) were recognized as major reproductive disorder in Assam. Age had non-significant (P>0.05) effect in the prevalence of the diseases. However, incidences of anestrus, dystocia and RB, abortion, cervico-vaginal prolapse and RFM were found highest in age group of ≤ 3 and 4-7 and ≥ 8 years, respectively. Parity had significant effect on incidences of anestrus (P<0.05) and RB (P<0.01) however, had no significance effect on other disorders. The result specified adverse climatic condition, low pH of soil, poor managemental practices by dairy producers had contributed in the occurrence of reproductive disorders. Therefore, knowledge regarding the prevalence and factor associated with reproductive diseases could be fruitful to alleviate the problem.

Title: Effect of Molasses Feeding on Biochemical and Hormonal Parameters in Sahiwal and Karan Fries Heifers
Abstract :
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of molasses feeding on biochemical and hormonal parameters in Sahiwal and Karan Fries heifers under two feeding regimes, i.e. feeding regime-1, as per the NRC (2001) and feeding regime-2 having 15 % higher energy (supplementation of molasses) than NRC (2001). Twelve healthy heifers (18-24 month) of each Sahiwal
and Karan Fries were selected from Livestock Research Centre (LRC) of ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute (ICARNDRI). An initial 15 days were maintained as adaptation period for both feeding regimes. Actual experiment was conducted from 16th day onward for next 15 days. Blood samples were taken on 1st, 7th, 14th, 15th, and 16th day of each feeding regimes and
analysed for various biochemical and hormonal parameters. The plasma glucose, Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxin (T4) were significantly (p<0.05) higher during feeding regimes-2 as compared to feeding regimes-1 in both the breeds, while the plasma BUN levels were signifi cantly lower during feeding regimes-2. The plasma NEFA level was found to be higher during feeding regimes-1 as compared to feeding regimes-2 in Sahiwal heifers. It is concluded that molasses supplementation in feed enhances the growth performance and reduces the non esterifi ed fatty acid in both Sahiwal and Karan Fries heifers.
Title: Investigation and Therapeutic Management of Hymenolepiosis in Wistar Rats from Chhattisgarh
Abstract :

The present investigation was aimed to know the cause of sudden mortality among Wistar rats in a rat colony. The dead rats (n=20) were subjected to necropsy examination. Intestinal lumens were examined to know the presence of parasites or parasitic body parts. Intestinal faecal contents were collected for identification of the parasitic eggs. Intestinal tissues were collected for histopathological examination. Necropsy revealed the presence of cestodes in the intestinal lumen. The intestines were found to be haemorrhagic and filled with serous and blood tinged contents. The cestode worms were identified as Hymenolepis diminuta based on gross morphological examination of the adult worms and microscopic examination of the eggs. Histopathology revealed necrosis of enterocytes, blunting of villi, degeneration and necrosis of villous and crypt epithelium. The diseased rats were observed for clinical signs and symptoms. Clinically, the rats showed inappetence, dullness, depression, loss of body weight, rough hair coat and a typical hunchback posture. The affected rats were treated by oral administration of Praziquantel, Pyrantel Pamoate and Febantel combination (kiwof plus tablet, Savavet) at a dose rate of 6 mg/kg body weight. The rats were cured after anthelmintic treatment. The present study highlighted the occurrence of hymenolepiosis that caused high mortality among Wistar rats. This study emphasizes the necessity of rapid and specific disease diagnosis and treatment to control the mortality among affected rats and to prevent and control the further spread of parasitic infection among susceptible rats and in the personnel in close surroundings of the infected rats.

Title: Layers’s blood profile changes after consumption of designer diet and holy basil (Ocimum Sanctum) leaves
Abstract :
A biological experiment of six weeks duration, followed by several laboratory
investigations were carried out to study the effect of designer layer mash (DLM)
containing full fat flaxseed, oil rich sardine fish, Holy Basil leaf meal (BLM),
vitamin E and Organic selenium (Sel-plex), on haematology of layers. Both
designer diet and BLM had significant effect on haematology of layers. They also
exhibited a synergistic effect. The RBC levels in hens were significantly increased
both by the DLM and BLM supplementation. The WBC count was increased
significantly by DLM alone, but not due to BLM. The Hb level was not influenced by any of the dietary treatments.
Title: Morphological Traits of Pubertal and Pregnant Frieswal Heifers Under Field Conditions
Abstract :
Present study was conducted in U. S. Nagar district of Uttarakhand on 131 Frieswal heifers reared by 127 farmers under 5 AI centres to study the farmers profile and factors affecting on morphological traits of Frieswal heifers. Data on socioeconomic characteristics were collected from the farmers using questionnaire. Body measurements were taken when the animal was standing comfortably and evenly on her feet on hard plain ground. Maximum of the respondents were educated (73.23 %), owned small herd size of 3AUE (44.09 %), possessed up to 5 acres land (44.09 %) and very few (23.62 %) were landless. Least-squares means (cm) of 47 pubertal and 62 pregnant heifers were 118.7 ± 1.7 and 134.1 ± 1.9 for BL, 114.5 ± 1.3 and 121.3 ± 1.2 for HAW, 143.1 ± 2.3 and 162.7 ± 2.4 for CG, 150.9 ± 3.0 and 173.5 ± 3.0 for PG, 41.0 ± 0.9 and 43.8 ± 0.9 for FL, 29.7 ± 0.9 and 31.7 ± 0.9 for FW, 17.4 ± 0.3 and 19.1 ± 0.4 for EPL, 67.3 ± 1.2 and 70.3 ± 1.1 for HE, 33.6 ± 0.8 and 37.3 ± 1.2 for HK, 109.1 ± 1.2 and 115.0 ± 1.2 for HPB, 112.6 ± 1.4 and 119.6 ± 1.1 for HHB, 3.08 ± 0.07 and 3.83 ± 0.07 m2 for BSA, 5.15 ± 0.23 and 5.62 ± 0.24 mm for SFT and 227.0 ± 9.3 and 331.7 ± 10.9 kg for EBW, respectively. Land holding had significant effect on HAW, HE and HK in pubertal heifers. Whereas, stage of gestation had significant effect on BSA, SFT and EBW in pregnant heifers.
Title: Isolation of bacteriophages against Salmonella Enteritidis and their partial characterization
Abstract :
Salmonellosis is a very important disease affecting both humans and animals.
With the onset of drug resistance in Salmonella, use of phages for therapy seems
to be an alternative approach in combating this problem. In the present study,
sixteen phages against Salmonella Enteritidis were isolated from a total of 84
dairy and poultry sewage samples and upon characterization of phages at fixed
pH 7 and different temperatures, it was found that the phages could survive at
varied temperature conditions and were also sustaining at pH 7.
Title: Development of Dietary Fibre Enriched Chevon Rolls by Incorporating Corn Bran and Dried Apple Pomace
Abstract :
A study was undertaken to develop dietary fi bre enriched chevon rolls using dried apple pomace (DAP) at 2, 4 and 6% levels and corn bran (CB) at 3, 6 and 9% levels. Combinations of DAP and CB were also tried. DAP at 6% level, CB at 3% level and their combination (DAP +CB) at 2% + 3% levels were found to be organoleptically acceptable and selected for further study. Addition of fi bre resulted in a signifi cant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in moisture and protein content while no signifi cant difference was found in fat and ash content. Crude fi bre content increased signifi cantly in treated rolls and highest crude fi bre content (1.68%) was noticed in rolls containing DAP. pH decreased signifi cantly in rolls containing DAP and its combination. Water holding capacity and emulsion stability of chevon rolls increased signifi cantly as a result of fi bre incorporation which also resulted in a signifi cant increase in cooking yield. Polyphenolic content increased in fi bre enriched rolls and highest polyphenolic content of 49.22 mg/100 g was found in DAP added chevon rolls. It is concluded that organoleptically acceptable and health enhancing chevon rolls enriched with dietary fi bre and antioxidants like polyphenols can be prepared by using 6% dried apple pomace and 3% corn bran alone or in combination (2% dried apple pomace + 3% corn bran).
Title: Pharmacokinetics of Cefquinome on Single Intravenous Administration in Marathwadi Buffalo Calves by Microbiological Assay Technique
Abstract :

Experiment was performed on six healthy Marathwadi buffalo calves of either sex of age above 6 months and weighing between 80 to 120 kg to study the different pharmacokinetic parameters after single intravenous administration @ 2 mg/kg body weight by microbiological assay technique. After intravenous administration of the drug, blood samples (4 ml each) of buffalo calves were collected from external jugular vein using disposable needles in clot activator tubes at different time intervals. The schedule of blood collection for pharmacokinetic studies after intravenous administration was at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30 min and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hrs. The serum levels of cefquinome were estimated by microbiological assay technique using large glass plate. Different Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated as described by different scientists. The peak serum concentration, elimination half life, volume of distribution, total body clearance, absorption half life and area under curve values found were 1.74 ± 0.151 mcg/ml at 2.5 min of sampling time, 1.97±0.14 h, 3.97 ± 0.83 L/kg (Vd(B)) and 2.86 ± 0.34L/kg (Vdss), 1.11 ± 0.13 L/kg.h-1, 0.10 ± 0.02 h, and 1.93 ± 0.23 μg/ml/hr respectively. The bioavailability of cefquinome in buffalo calves was found to be 100 %. It may be concluded that the elimination half life of cefquinome was 2.54 h in Marathwadi buffalo calves indicating the repeating of doses at 12 to 15 h intervals in Marathwadi buffalo calves and the loading dose would be double than the maintenance dose of cefquinome after intravenous administration.

Title: Comparison of Calving and Conception Rate after Timed Artificial Insemination (AI) with Estrus Synchronization Protocols in Crossbred Cows under Field Conditions
Abstract :

This study was performed in 48 cross bred cows to evaluate the comparative efficacy of different estrus synchronization protocols with fixed time artificial insemination. Animals were allocated into four groups i.e. Group I: (n=12, Two Injection Prostaglandin system) Cloprostenol Sodium 500 μgm on day 0 and day 14 and AI was done 48 and 72 hours from second dose. Group II: (n=12, Heat-synch) day 0 Buserelin acetate 20 μgm, day 7 Cloprostenol sodium 500 μgm, on Day 8, Estradiol benzoate (1 ml) and AI on day 10. Group III: (n=12, Ov-Synch) day 0 Bruserelin acetate 20 μgm, day 7 Cloprostenol sodium 500 μgm, Day 9 Buserelin acetate 20 μgm and A.I. on day 10. Group IV: (n=12, Ov-Synch plus Indigenous progesterone sponge) on day 0 Buserelin acetate 20 μgm along with insertion of progesterone sponge with 1.20 gm natural progesterone, day 7 Cloprostenol sodium 500 μgm and removal of progesterone sponge, day 9, Buserelin acetate 20 μgm and AI on day 10. Inj. Buserelin acetate 20 μgm was administered on day 6th from AI in Group II, III and IV. Pregnancy was detected per rectally on day 40 after AI. In present study, estrus ratio was higher in Group II (91.66%) followed by group IV and Group III. Conception rate was significantly higher in Group III (100%). The calving percentage was significantly lower in group I and highest in Group III (100%), the difference in conception and calving rate suggests the minimum embryonic losses in Group I, but no embryonic loss was recorded in Group III, IV and II.

Title: Therapeutic Evaluation of Levofloxacin and Lugol’s Iodine for Subclinical Endometritis
Abstract :

Study was conducted in cross-bred cows (>60 days-in-milk) to evaluate various therapeutic regimens for Subclinical Endometritis (SCE). A total of 60 animals tested positive for SCE by Endometrial Cytology (EC) were divided into five groups with equal number. Therapeutic regimens viz. 0.3% Lugol’s iodine I/U (G-I), Lenovo-AP I/U (G-II), Meriflox I/M (G-III), Meriflox I/M + AI (G-IV) and No treatment + AI as control (G-V), each treatment opted for 3 days. In G-I, II and III, Whiteside test (WST) of Estrual Mucus and Artificial Insemination (AI) was done on subsequent estrus to evaluate recovery and conception rates, respectively. However, in G-IV and G-V, AI was performed on concurrent estrus to evaluate conception rate. Treatment efficacy was analyzed by recovery rate based on negative WST at next estrus (G-I, II, III) and conception rate evaluated based on pregnancy diagnosis after two months of AI in all groups. Group-I, II and III revealed recovery rate of 83.3%, 50% and 100% as well as conception rate of 50%, 50% and 66.7%, respectively. However, no difference was found in conception rate of G-IV (33.3%) and G-V i.e. control (33.3%). Further, treatment cost calculated per animal was `-9 for Lugol’s iodine, `-135 for Lenovo-AP and `-230 for Meriflox. In conclusion, Meriflox (Levofloxacin) by intramuscular route and AI on subsequent estrus can be recommended for treatment of SCE, and to improve conception rate. Apart from being economical, Lugol’s iodine laden with enormous benefits can be advocated as alternative treatment option via intrauterine administration for SCE.

Title: Effect of Alginate, Citric Acid, Calcium Chloride and Cinnamon Oil Edible Coating on Shelf Life of Chicken Fillets under Refrigeration Conditions
Abstract :
In present study chicken, fi llets were coated with sodium alginate, calcium chloride, citric acid and cinnamon oil coating solution by three methods viz., spraying, brushing and dipping and shelf-life of coated meat were observed. Effi ciency of coating material and suitability among three methods of application were determined through shelf-life studies of coated meat under refrigeration conditions. Based on the results of physico-chemical, sensory and microbial characteristics, spraying method had lower Tyrosine Value, Thiobarbituric Acid number, Standard Plate count, Drip loss and higher sensory scores compared to other methods of application. Extract Release Volume and Water Holding Capacity decreased signifi cantly with storage period in all the samples. However, spraying had comparatively higher water holding capacity and lower Warner Blatzer Shear Force Value than control and other methods of application. Hunter color values did not differ signifi cantly with storage and between treatments. Chicken breast sprayed with coating solution extended the shelf life of chicken breast upto 5 days compared to 3 days for control.
Title: Adult Body Weights and Morphometric Traits of Ganjam Goats of Odisha and Prediction of Body Weights from Body Measurements
Abstract :

Present study was carried out in Chhatrapur, Rambha, Khallikote and Jirabadi clusters of All India Coordinated Research Project on goat improvement in Ganjam district of Odisha from 2015 to 2017 to study the body weight and measurements of Ganjam goats, their correlations, and predictability of the body weight from body measurements. Data on body weight (kg), body length(cm), wither height(cm) and chest girth(cm) were recorded in adult Ganjam goats having one to four pairs of permanent incisor (PPI) teeth. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used. The mean body weight ranged from 22.5 kg to 30.6 kg, mean body length ranged from 63.0 to 69.6 cm, mean wither height ranged from 67.3 to 71.8 cm and mean chest girth ranged from 68.6 to 78.0 cm. All the correlations were found to be positive, moderate to high in magnitude and statistically significant (P<0.01). All the predictive models developed with each of the three body measurements were found to be statistically highly significant (P<0.01). The best-fitted regression equations were -23.68+0.29*BL+0.16*WH+ 0.25*CG for 1 PPI age group, the equation: -34.82 + 0.48 *BL + 0.42*CG for age group 2 PPI, the equation: -28.13+0.47*BL+0.33*CG for age group 3 PPI and the equation: -33.33+ 0.14*BL+0.18*WH+0.54*CG for 4 PPI age group. Chest girth was the dominant predictor variables among the three linear body measurements for all age groups except 1 PPI age group which had body length as the principal predictor.

Title: Formulation and Preparation of Densified Complete Feed Blocks with and without Condensed Tannins: Impact on Performance of Haemonchus contortus Infected Goats
Abstract :

Present study was planned to screen locally available tanniferous tree leaves for their chemical composition, presence of condensed tannins (CT), potential source of CT and suitable leaf meal mixture (LMM) was formulated for incorporation in the densified complete feed blocks (DCF). Two types of blocks (with and without CT; CT-DCF and DCF, respectively) were formulated and prepared. Twelve adult male goats of similar age and body weight (27.51 ± 0.86) were divided in 3 groups (4 in each) in completely randomized block design (CRD) for feeding of 75 days. Goats of T1 (no infection) and T2 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3 /goat) were offered DCF blocks while the goats of T3 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3 /goat) offered CT-DCF. Initial body weights (kg) of goats did not differ significantly (P<0.05) irrespective of groups, however, final body weight at the end of feeding trial were significantly lower in T2 compared to T1 and T3. Daily feed intake was significantly (P<0.05) lower in T2 as compared to T1 and T3. Intakes of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, digestible crude protein, digestible organic matter and total digestible nutrients (Kg/100 Kg bwt.) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in T1 and T3 as compared to T2. The faecal egg counts (FECs) per gram faeces were significantly lower (P<0.05) in T3 than that of T2. It may be concluded that CT-DCF serve a promising complementary alternative feeding strategy to control H. contortus infection in goats as socio-economic, farmers and environmental friendly sustainable approach.

Title: testing
Abstract :


Title: SWOT Analysis of Small Ruminants Rearing of Bakarwal Tribe in District Rajouri of Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract :
Small ruminants play an important role in the rural economy of Jammu and Kashmir, as they are primarily reared by resource poor and under-privileged rural population. Every rural household is associated with livestock. Small ruminants rearing in the upper reaches of Jammu and Kashmir is a basic livelihood for Bakarwals who migrate with the livestock to green pastures. The
present study conducted in District Rajouri of Jammu and Kashmir State was an endaveour to know about the livestock profile of the respondents, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats faced by bakarwals while rearing the small ruminants. Thus, the main objective of this study is to make a SWOT analysis based on the evaluation of some important parameters of sustainability of small ruminants in the farm conditions.
Title: Canine cataracts and its management:An overview
Abstract :
A Cataract, is an opacity within a lens. Out of various eye disorders CATARACT “Clouding of eye lens” is a major problem encountered in canines, and ophthalmic surgery offers great potential for relief of distress and improvement of quality of life. Like a camera eyes have a clear lens inside them that is used for focusing the light. Surgical removal of cataract is a treatment of choice, if restoration of vision is desired. These surgeries are most frequently performed by veterinary ophthalmologists worldwide. Because of required training, operating microscope and microsurgical ophthalmic instruments, cataracts and lens removal is not performed by most veterinarians in clinical patients.
Title: Comparative Evaluation of Therapeutic Modules for Treatment of Parvoviral Gastroenteritis in Dogs
Abstract :

The present study was conducted on 18 clinically affected dogs of different breeds and age. All the dogs were divided into three groups A, B and C consisting of 6 animals in each one. Group A dogs were given standard therapy. In group B dogs were treated with immune plasma besides standard therapy. In group C dogs were treated with amino acid infusion besides standard therapy. In group A 3 out of 6 dogs (50%) showed complete recovery from dehydration and other clinical signs on day 4 post-treatments, while remaining 3 dogs (50%) recovered on day 5 post-treatments. In group B 4 dogs (66.66%) recovered completely from dehydration and other clinical signs on day 3 post-treatment, while remaining dogs (33.33%) recovered on day 4 post-treatment. In group C 5 dogs (83.33%) recovered completely from dehydration and other clinical sign on day 2 post-treatment, while remaining dogs (16.66%) recovered on day 3 post-treatment. It has been concluded that among various treatment groups, group C (Amino acid + Supportive therapy) was found to be superior as all six (6) dogs recovered day 3 post-treatment.

Title: Study on Alteration of Critical Water Quality Parameters and Selected Metabolic Response of Labeo rohita Fingerling Subjected to Transportation Stress
Abstract :

The changes in physico-chemical characteristics of ambient water during transportation of fish causes stress and mortality. In this prelude, the present investigation involved the measurement of Physico-chemical characteristics of water (TAN, pH, and dissolved oxygen), biochemical parameters (serum total protein; serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, SGOT) during simulated transportation of Labeo rohita fingerlings using water additives. Four treatments of water additives were used in combination as T1 (1g glucose + 2g sodium chloride)/L, T2 (2g glucose + 2g sodium chloride)/L, T3 (1g glucose + 4g sodium chloride)/L, and T4 (2 g glucose + 4g sodium chloride)/L along with a control group, an experiment was conducted in triplicate. Before and after 12 h transportation, water quality and serum sampling were carried out. The analysis of the water quality parameters and serum sample showed a significantly higher (p<0.05) level of total ammonia nitrogen, lower pH, lower serum total protein, and higher SGOT activity in the control group after transportation. Whereas, a significantly (p<0.05) lower stress response and water quality values were observed in the treatment group indicating the potency of water additives in ameliorating the transportation stress, and in turn increases the survival rate of the IMC, Labeo rohita fingerlings after the transportation.

Title: Sero-Epidemiological and Therapeutic Aspects of Brucellosis (Brucella Abortus) in Cattle & Buffaloes
Abstract :
The present study was envisaged to record the seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle and buffaloes in Chhattisgarh, India by employing the three serological tests viz. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT) and Indirect-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (I-ELISA) and to compare their sensitivity and specificity. The study also aimed to assess the therapeutic efficacy of combination of long acting oxytetracycline and streptomycin in brucellosis infected cattle. A total of 250 serum samples; 176 from cattle and 74 from buffaloes were screened for presence of Brucella antibodies by RBPT, STAT and Indirect ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in Chhattisgarh state of India by RBPT, STAT and I-ELISA was 13.0% 19.8% and 31.2% respectively in cattle whereas 16.2%, 14.8% and 20.2% respectively in buffaloes.
Cattle of >6 years age group showed highest seroprevalence followed by 4-6 years and lowest in 0-2 years age group. On the contrary, buffaloes of 4-6 years age group showed highest seroprevalence followed by >6 years age group. Seroprevalence was higher in crossbred than indigenous cattle and more in female animals in cattle and buffaloes. Sensitivity of RBPT and STAT was recorded 47.14% and 57.14%, while specificity was recorded 98.88% and 96.11% respectively. Thus, STAT was found to be more sensitive but less specific than RBPT. In this study, overall agreement of RBPT and STAT with ELISA was found to be 84.4% and 85.2% respectively. The therapeutic study of brucella infected animals revealed that long acting oxytetracycline and streptomycin combination had a significant decrease in the antibody titre on the 30th day of post treatment.
Title: Successful Medical Management of Pregnancy Toxemia in Goats
Abstract :

Pregnancy toxaemia is a metabolic disorder that occurs in does and ewes during the late stage of pregnancy. Pregnant does that have low energy levels and having multiple numbers of fetuses are more susceptible to toxaemia. The present study was carried out in twenty five goats in advanced stage of pregnancy with the history of anorexia, torticolis, grinding of teeth, salivation and rigors. On clinical examination of animals, they were dull, depressed with tachycardia, tachypenia, opisthotonus and pale conjunctival mucous membrane. The biochemical parameters revealed hypoglycemia and hypocalcemia. Urine samples were collected and urine analysis revealed positive for ketone bodies. The goats were successfully treated with 25% dextrose i/v as a bolus, multiple electrolytes solution containing 5% dextrose i/v, glycerin orally and Vitamin B-complex injection intramuscularly and all the twenty five animals survived. Out of 25 animals medical termination of pregnancy was done in 21 cases and four animals delivered a live kid.

Title: Punyakoti Test: A Seed Germination Inhibition Test for Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Graded Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :
A simple non- invasive technique which was developed on the basis of ancient Egyptian knowledge called as Punyakoti test (Veena, 1997) was used to detect early pregnancy at day 26 post insemination. The present study was carried out to evaluate the accuracy of Punyakoti test, a seed germination inhibition test for early pregnancy diagnosis in graded Murrah buff aloes. The urine samples were collected from 20 buff aloes early in the morning on day 26 post insemination and were subjected to pregnancy diagnosis using this test. Urine was diluted with distilled water in sterile petri dish in the ratio of 1:14 and 15 good quality wheat seeds were added to each petri dish. A signifi cant inhibition of seed germination a er 48hrs and shoot length a er 5 days was taken as criteria for declaring true pregnancy and confi rmation of pregnancy was done by rectal palpation on days 45-60 post insemination. A significant difference (P<0.05) was noticed between pregnant
and non-pregnant buffaloes regarding germination inhibition percentage and shoot length (cm) which was recorded as 70.66 ±1.63; 3.33 ± 0.074 and 45.99 ± 1.84 ; 5.44 ± 0.17, respectively. This test was 66.66 per cent accurate in diagnosing pregnancy but 90.90 per cent accurate in diagnosing non-pregnant animals.
Title: Influence of Aloe barbadensis (Miller 1768) Extract on White Blood Cells Counts a Immunological Parameters of Adult Heterobranchus Bidorsalis (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1809)
Abstract :
Aloe barbadensis extract was incorporated in the feeds of adult Heterobranchus bidorsalis at concentrations of 0.0, 25.0, 50.0, 75.0, 100.0, and 125.0 mg/Kg of feeds in triplicates. Fresh gel was mixed with feeds and sundried. The fish werefed at 6% body weight divided into two rations per day. The fish were fed for 14 days before being analysed for hematological parameters such as total white blood cell count, lymphocyte, neutrophils counts, eosinophils counts, basophils counts as well as monocyte counts. The monocytes and eosinophils were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the treated fish while basophils were not encountered at all. The neutrophils and lymphocytes being the immune responsive leucocytes were increased in circulation due to Aloe barbadensis exposure. Aloe barbadensis extract
is therefore recommended as fish supplements at concentration of 50.0 to 75.0 mg/Kg of feeds for adult Heterobranchus
Title: Goat Rearing Practices of Ahir Community in High Rainfall Zones of South Gujarat
Abstract :
The Ahirs are non-nomadic and resourceful people of South Gujarat having ample traditional knowledge of goat keeping. The study was done to document existing goat management practices of Ahirs in Valsad and Navsari districts of South Gujarat by selecting 300 Ahir goat keepers by multi stage random sampling technique. The data regarding socio-economic status, feeding and housing management were collected by interview schedule and tabulated for statistical analysis. Results revealed that majority of the respondents (67.67%) were in middle age category with an average age of about 50 years. Majority of the respondents (94%) were marginal land holders with an average land holding of 0.68±0.03 hectare. Average fl ock size was 47.13±1.79 heads and about 68% of Ahir respondents reared large animals along with goats. Goats were reared by the practice of 2 to 8 hour daily browsing which required 1 to 10 km daily travelling, whereas browsing duration and travelling was signifi cantly (p<0.01) affected by the seasons. Majority of the Ahirs were high adopters of cleanliness, site selection, ventilation and drainage in goat shed. However, low level of adoption was observed in provisions of feeding space, overhang length and slate gapping in goat shed. Majority of the respondents kept kids in separate enclosures (wada). Almost all the respondents sold kids at 6 to 9 months of age, on cash payment basis to butchers and not on the basis of body weight.
Title: Sensory attributes of chevon patties extended with soy protein
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to prepare soy protein (soy crumbles) extended chevon meat patties to determine effect on sensory attributes of the product. The sensory characteristics such as appearance, flavor, texture and juiciness of soy protein extended chevon patties were studied at different storage interval under refrigeration temperature and exhibited non significant variation upto 30% soy protein added patties. While overall acceptability for 30% soy extended chevon patties was significantly higher than the control and other treatments (p<0.5). All Sensory attributes decreased significantly (p<0.05) with advancement of storage period.
Title: Nucleotide variability in partial promoter of IGF-1 gene and its association with body weight in fast growing chicken
Abstract :
Present study was carried out to unravel the variability in the nucleotide sequence of the promoter region of the IGF-1 gene and to delineate the association of polymorphism with body weight, in fast growing chicken. It was observed that the IGF-1 was monomorphic and being monomorphic, no association was observed with body weights in fast growing chicken
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Abstract :

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Title: Effect of Phytase Enzyme Supplementation in Low Energy-Protein Layer Diet on Egg Quality Traits
Abstract :An experiment was carried out using 200 hundred Athulya birds divided into 10 treatments (T1-T10) to find out the effect of phytase enzyme on egg quality traits supplemented at 0, 500 and 1000 units/kg in low energy, low protein and low energy- protein layer chicken diets containing available phosphorus of 0.30 per cent from 21 to 40 weeks of age. A standard layer ration was offered to birds in T1. Experimental diets from T2 to T10 were formulated with two levels of crude protein (18 and 16 percent) and two levels of metabolisable energy (2600 and 2400 ME kcal/kg diet). During the laying period the data on egg quality traits viz. Shape index, shell thickness, albumen index, yolk index and Haugh unit score were measured at the end of every four week. The egg quality traits viz., Shell thickness, albumen index, yolk index and Haugh unit score showed significant (P<0.01) difference among treatments. However, shape index value did not reveal any difference.
Title: Down-Regulation of Rho GTPase-Activating Protein 7 (DLC1) in Tear Film and Modulation of Rho GTPase Dynamics by Rosuvastatin in Dogs Suffering from Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca
Abstract :

Rho GTPases activity in tear fluid as well as ocular surface epithelium (OSEC) during progression of Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and their modulation with Rosuvastatin in dogs was studied. Based on Schirmer’s tear test, KCS cases were staged as early (n= 21) and late KCS (N=14). Tear and ocular surface epithelial cell samples were collected from all cases for protein and gene expression studies. Rho GTPase activity in different stages of KCS was evaluated by tear fluid 1D-SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF/MS, western blotting and corneal tissue immuno-histochemistry (IHC). Protein expression studies showed increased expression of Rho GTPases in early and late KCS. Effect of Rosuvastatin on progression of KCS was evaluated on 12 client owned dogs divided into two groups A (control group) and B (treatment group) having six dogs in each. Group A dogs were treated with topical eye drops alone whereas, group B animals were treated with topical eye drops and Rosuvastatin orally @ 0.2 mg/kg B.W. 14 days. Tear proteomic study revealed significant down-regulation of Rho GTPase-activating protein 7 (DLC1) and up-regulation Rho modulators and Ras-related Rab proteins in KCS cases. Group B dogs showed better response in terms of corneal clarity both clinically and photographically compared to group A. Expression of Rho GTPase proteins was increased in group B compared A post treatment. On Real-Time PCR assay, mRNA expression of RhoA and GDI2 was contained post Rosuvastatin treatment in OSCEs. Rosuvastatin treatment reduced the gene expression of Rho GTPases and blocked the progression of KCS in dogs.

Title: Antibiotic resistance pattern among different Listeria species isolated from mutton and chevon
Abstract :
In the present study, Listeria were isolated and confirmed from 50 mutton and 50 chevon samples and their antibiotic resistance pattern was studied against 18
commonly used antibiotics. Out of 100 samples 4 Listeria isolates are evealed )
resistance against cephotaxime and cloxacillin. Similarily, resistance was observed to cephotaxime, chloramphenicol, cloxacillin and oxytetracycline among two L. welshimeri isolates isolates) whereas L. innocua isolates were resistant resistant to cephotaxime, cefoperazone, cloxacillin, oxytetracycline and gentamicin. Potential transmission of multidrug-resistant from food animals to humans is a serious concern in zoonotic pathogens like Listeria
Title: Circulative Oxidative Stress Indices and Ameliorative Potential of S-Adenosyl Methionine in Canine Sarcoptes Infestation
Abstract :

Present study describes the rhythm of oxidant/antioxidant status of dogs affected with sarcoptic mange and ameliorative effects of antioxidant (S-Adenosyl Methionine) supplementation on oxidant/antioxidant status of dogs affected with sarcoptic mange. Study was undertaken on twelve client owned dogs presented at TVCC, DUVASU, Mathura, confirmed to be suffering from sarcoptic mange, which were randomly divided in two groups (group 1 and 2) irrespective of age, sex and breed, comprising of six dogs each, while six healthy dogs were taken as control. Group 1 dogs were treated with only Doramectin @ 0.4 mg/kg body weight subcutaneous weekly for 5 treatments along with standard treatment of pyoderma, whereas group 2 were additionally given S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) @ 20 mg/kg body weight orally for 28 days. In the present investigation dogs with sarcoptic mange were found in a state of oxidative stress as indicated by significantly elevated Total Oxidant Status (TOS) and Oxidative Stress Index (OSI) values and significantly reduced Total Antioxidant Capacity (T-AOC) values as compared to healthy dogs. The dogs of group 2 showed better clinical recovery and marked ameliorations in TOS, T-AOC and OSI values in comparison to group 1 at the end of therapy. On the basis of findings of present investigation, it is concluded that administration of SAMe in addition to standard therapy can mitigate these alterations expediting the clinical recovery of diseased dogs and therefore can be recommended as an adjunct therapy with miticides for management of canine sarcoptic mange.

Title: Effect of Dietary Combination of Probiotics and Prebiotic on Performance Indices and Haematological Parameters in Pearl Guinea Fowls (Numida meleagris)
Abstract :

The study aims to evaluate the effects of a commercial probiotics and prebiotic combination on performance indices and haematological parameters of guinea fowls. A total of forty (n=40) day-old pearl guinea fowls raised to 12-week-old were used for the study. The fowls were wing-banded, weighed individually and randomly allocated into two groups of 20 fowls each, with each having two replicates. Experimental fowls were fed grower diet supplemented with 0.5 g of probiotics and prebiotic combination per kg feed for 8 weeks, while the control fowls were fed a grower diet that was not supplemented. Feed consumption and water intake were recorded daily, chest circumference, body weight, percentage weigh gain and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly, while blood samples were collected in the last week of the experiment to evaluate the haematological parameters. All birds were kept under similar environmental, managerial and hygienic conditions. The results revealed that experimental fowls had significantly (P < 0.05) higher feed consumption, water intake, total protein, packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb), but lower total leucocyte count (TLC) compared with control. No significant difference was observed in other haematological parameters and performance indices between the two groups. In conclusion, 0.5 g/kg diet of prebiotics and probiotic combination improved erythropoiesis and nutritional status of guinea fowls; however, the results of performance indices suggest that this dose may not be optimum, thus necessitating the need for more research using other dosages.

Title: Scanning Electron Microscopical and Morphometrical Studies on Ruminal Papillae of Sheep Fed on Concentrates
Abstract :
The objective of this study was to explore the time course of morphological
alterations of rumen papillae after changing the diet from hay (ad libitum) to a
mixed hay/concentrate diet. A total of 24 sheep were subjected to different periods of mixed hay/concentrate feeding ranging from 0 weeks (control; hay ad libitum) to 12 weeks (1-1.5 kg hay plus 780 g concentrate per day in two equal portions). Macro- and mesoscopic examinations, as well as scanning electron microscopical techniques were employed to study the rumen papillae of the different groups. Scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M) examination revealed that time and change of diet has greatly influenced ruminal papillae. This influence was expressed by the pronounced change of the papillae from small, tongue shaped when the animals were fed on hay to large, heavily cornified, finger_ and foliate_ shaped when fed on concentrates for 4-6 weeks. Morphometric analysis indicated that the increase in the length and number of papillae was also correlated to the duration of feeding
concentrates for 4-6 weeks. The total surface of papillae increased in the 2 days concentrate-fed sheep to 2 folds of that of hay-fed sheep and reached the maximum value (4 folds) within 4 weeks of concentrate feeding. It is concluded that the most of the adaptation events were significantly established in 4-6 weeks; changes in 12 weeks were similar, but less developed
Title: Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Quality Attributes of Chicken Meat Cutlets
Abstract :
Present study was envisaged to assess the effect of various cooking methods viz. deep fat frying, oven cooking, air frying, and oven cooking followed by shallow frying for preparation of chicken meat cutlets. Three different treatments as per prestandardized formulations viz. Control, T1 (chicken meat cutlets with 30% meat emulsion) and T2 (with 3% refi ned wheat fl our) were cooked by various cooking methods and subjected to various physico-chemical, instrumental colour and textural attributes and sensory quality attributes. Under deep fat frying and oven cooking, cooking yield of treatments were recorded signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher than control. Treatments scored better on various dimensional parameters such as increase in height, decrease in length and decrease in breadth irrespective of different cooking methods. The increase in height was recorded highest for T2 irrespective of cooking methods. The fat percent for T1 and T2 was recorded signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher for deep fat frying (T1) and combination of oven and shallow frying. Flavour scores had been signifi cantly (P<0.05) improved for T2, whereas T1 and C were comparable under different cooking methods. T2 showed signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher overall acceptability scores than C and T1. Thus oven cooking followed by shallow frying was found optimum for preparation of chicken cutlets.
Title: Effect of Different Cryoprotectants in Cryopreservation of Dog Semen: A Review
Abstract :

Several canine practitioners are facing limited success in canine artificial insemination using poorly assessed frozen dog semen due to unestablished set of semen evaluating parameters and semen diluents. The types of cryoprotectants plays import role in formulation of good semen diluents in canine semen cryopreservation which limits spermatozoa structure and viability in assisted reproductive technology. The cryopreservation process causes change in osmotic pressure and ice formation in spermatozoa which lead to cryoinjury and loss of viability and membrane integrity in post-thaw spermatozoa. This causes poor sperm quality and so poor fertility. The efficient cryoprotectants are those which penetrate deeper of spermatozoa and non-toxic. Glycerol and ethylene glycol are the most commonly used cryoprotectant for dog spermatozoa and other cryoprotective agents have been tested only sporadically. Hence, selection of better cryoprotectants based semen diluents and evaluation parameters of post-thaw semen is very much important for successful canine breeding to achieve dissemination of genetic material even after death, overcome quarantine restrictions, prevent venereal infections and semen exchange without moving stud dogs for breeding, etc. Therefore, establishing an efficient cryopreservation technique for dog sperm would be an essential resource for better dog breeding systems. The present article present the details reviews on cryopreservation of dog semen, different cryoprotectants and semen evaluation parameters for determining better production of quality dog semen.

Title: Pharmacokinetics of Amikacin after Repetitive Intravenous Administration in Healthy Goats
Abstract :

Pharmacokinetic of amikacin was carried out in clinically healthy female goats of Sirohi breed following multiple once daily dose (@ 10 mg/kg bwt I/V) for five days. Concentrations of amikacin in blood plasma were estimated by microbiological assay technique and various kinetic parameters were calculated using two compartment open model. The minimum therapeutic concentration (≥ 1.0 μg/ml) was maintained up to 12 h in both 1st and 5th day of drug administration. The drug was detectable up to 24 h. Significantly higher plasma concentrations of the drug appeared at 0.042, 0.83, 0.50, 0.75, 2, 4, 8, 12 h except 0.166, 0.25, 1.0, 1.5, 6, 24 h on 5th day as compared to 1st day of drug administration. Following multiple once daily I/V administration, the values of the extrapolated zero time concentration of the drug during distribution phase (A), theoretical zero time concentration (Cpo), mean residential time (MRT) and elimination of drug from central compartment (Kel) remained non-significant, while significantly lower value of elimination rate constant (β), significantly increased value of elimination phases (B), area under curve (AUC), area under first moment curve (AUMC) and total body clearance (ClB)were observed in 5th day as compared to 1st day of amikacin administration. From these kinetic parameters, the loading (D*) and maintenance (D0) doses of 07.02 ± 0.36 and 05.91 ± 0.15 mg/kg bwt I/V, respectively were calculated for maintaining the therapeutic concentration (Cp∞ min = MIC) of 1.0 μg/ml at the dosage interval of 12 h.

Title: Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Clinical Setting and Dairy Farm Environment of Jammu
Abstract :
A study was carried out to assess the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus and the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the dairy farm environment of Jammu district and the clinical setting in the SKUAST- J, R. S. Pura vis-à-vis their phenotypic and genotypic characterization for the antimicrobial pattern and the mecA gene producing ability. A total of 60 samples of environment comprising of dust and clinical setting swabs were collected and analysed using standard bacteriological methods. The S. aureus isolates were further processed to identify and characterize MRSA, with an aim to ascertain the characteristics that might be associated with the virulence and resistance of MRSA, making use of conventional and molecular methods. Polymerase chain reaction was employed to identify 533bp mecA gene from MRSA isolates. The results revealed a prevalence of S. aureus 14/30 (46.7%) and 18/30 (60%) in dairy farm environment and clinical settings, respectively. From 32 positive S. aureus dust swabs, 6 (18.75%) were found to be MRSA. This study revealed resistance of S. aureus to Penicillin G, Ampicillin and Streptomycin. However, sensitivity to Cephalothin, Amikacin and Gentamicin was found. The present study revealed that Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA transmission can occur from infected farms, dairy and clinical environments to
animals. However, future studies are required to elucidate the transmission potential and magnitude of the problem.
Title: Effect of Feeding Rice Based Distillers Dried Grains Solubles with and without Enzymes on Gut health of Broiler Chickens
Abstract :

A biological experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding rice based distillers dried grain with solubles (rDDGS) without or with different enzymes on gut health in broiler chickens for 42 days. The experiment was conducted as per 3x4 factorial completely randomized design. A total of 384 broiler chicks were divided into twelve different treatments with 4 replicates for each treatment and each replicate consisted of 8 chicks. Two levels of rDDGS were taken (12.5 and 15%). Protease, xylanase and multienzymes supplementation under different treatments were done. The jejunum histomorphometry in terms of villus height (VH) and their ratio with villus depth (VD) were found significantly (P<0.01) lower at 15% rDDGS level compared to control and 12.5% levels. The xylanase and protease enzyme supplementation significantly (P<0.01) increased the VH and their ratio with VD as compared to control and multienzymes supplemented group. The interaction effect rDDGS and enzyme supplementation was found on VH and VD ratio, where higher ratio was observed at 12.5% rDDGS level with protease enzyme and lower ratio was observed at 15% rDDGS level without enzyme supplementation. The microbiology of the gut in terms of total viable count (TVC) of crop and jejunum significantly (P<0.01) decreased upon increasing rDDGS levels compared to control, whereas reverse effect was observed on Lactobacillus. Thus, it may be concluded that enzymes supplementation improved histomorphometry and microbiology of the gut in broiler chickens at inclusion level of 12.5% rDDGS.

Title: A Methodological Pathway to Quantify Perception of the Participants in Animal Fairs with relevance to National Dairy Mela at NDRI Karnal, Ind
Abstract :
Mela is the Hindi language word for fair, which is a traditional media to learn, earn, participate and share information. The paper describes perception scale development process and identification of different prospects of perception of the participants by administrating the tool on 60 randomly selected participants, during the three-day event of national dairy meals from 25th to 27th February 2015 at NDRI, Karnal. Final scale consisted of 20 statements (14 positive and 6 negatives) for which the t-values were found to be significant at one percent level of significance at 18 df and Cronbach’s alpha value of reliability was 0.851. Two other reliability tests were accomplished and Cochran's test of ANOVA was performed to test the signifi cance level of all 3 reliability test and it was signifi cant at 1 percent level (p<0.001). Content validity of the scale (S-CVI value) was 0.831. PCA extracted 4 prospects viz., ‘recognition prospect’, ‘learning prospect’, ‘get better prospect’, and ‘supportive prospect’. This methodological pathway viz., t-values cut-off for selection of statements based on the degree of freedom rule, reliability triangulation, Cochran's test for reliability signifi cance and extracting the latent constructs through PCA, can be followed by stakeholders for constructing different types of psychological scales. The attributes identified ed through PCA can be utilized in effective management and planning for organizing successful animal fairs.
Title: Effect of Probiotic Supplementation on Feed Consumption and Nutrient Retention in CARIBRO CROSS Broilers
Abstract :
Three hundred (300) unsexed day-old ‘CARIBRO CROSS’ broiler chicks were distributed randomly into three treatment groups T1(control), T2 (probiotic-supplemented in the feed) and probiotic-supplemented in the water (T3) having 6 replicates in each treatment. Two replicates of each group contain 16 birds each and the rest four of each group contain 17 birds each. The probiotic contained Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus Plantarum, Streptococcus faecium, Bifi dobacterium bifi dus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The probiotic was incorporated at the rate of 100 g/ton of feed during starter phase (0 – 4 weeks) and 50 g/tonne of feed during finisher phase (5 – 7 weeks) in feed probiotic group. However, the probiotic was given at the rate of 1 g/L of water during first week of age and thereafter 1 g/4L of water up to 7 weeks of age in water probiotic group. The basal diet was formulated for starter (23.46 % CP, 2800 ME Kcal/Kg) and finisher phase (20.07 % CP, 2900 ME Kcal/kg) separately. The chicks consumed significantly (p < 0.01) less amount of feed under water probiotic group followed by feed probiotic group and the highest in control group during starter phase, finisher phase and overall experimental period. The retention of nutrients was higher in probiotic fed in feed group then in water but treatment differences were not significant (p > 0.05). It was concluded that probiotic supplementation reduce the feed consumption of CARIBRO CROSS chicks.
Title: Serological Prevalence of Abortifacient Agents in Female Mijaheem Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Saudi Arabia
Abstract :

Sera from 378 female Mijaheem camels of different age groups were collected from different parts of the country. All of them were simultaneously tested serologically for specific antibodies against brucellosis, chlamydiosis and coxiellosis while 368 of the same serum samples were also tested for toxoplasmosis and neosporosis, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The results were statistically analyzed to determine the prevalence rate of each of these abortifacient agents and the association of the geographical location and age of the animal with the prevalence. The overall serological prevalence was 16.67% for brucellosis, 49.18% for toxoplasmosis, 13.32% for neosporosis, 10.05% for chlamydiosis and 42.36% for coxiellosis. Statistical analysis revealed significant associations between the serological prevalence of each of the studied abortifacient agents with the location of the animal, and there was also a significant association with age in the case of toxoplasmosis and chlamydiosis. The results indicate that the causative agents of brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, chlamydiosis and coxiellosis are widespread among indigenous Mijaheem camels in Saudi Arabia, and that their prevalence varied with region and age group. These different agents should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of infectious abortion in Saudi Arabian camels.

Title: Effect of Complete Feed or Ggrazing with Supplementation on Ggrowth and Carcass Characteristics in Nellore Ram Lambs
Abstract :An on farm trial was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore ram lambs fed either complete feed or grazing with supplementation. One hundred Nellore ram lambs were randomly divided into two equal groups viz. G1 and G2 and the experiment was lasted for 120 days. The G1 lambs were maintained on conventional grazing for 6-8 h/d and supplemented with 200 g concentrate /animal/day, while the G2 lambs were fed complete feed comprising of black gram straw and concentrate mixture (60:40 ratio) intensively. Average daily gain was higher (P <0.01) in G2 lambs (93.85 g) than in G1 lambs (80.24 g). Feed efficiency (kg feed/kg gain) was higher (P <0.01) in G2 lambs compared to G1 lambs. The pre-slaughter, empty body and hot carcass weight of lambs was similar in both groups. Dressing percentage on live weight and empty body weight was significantly (P <0.01) higher in lambs fed complete feed compared to grazing lambs. Dissected lean content was significantly (P <0.01) higher, whereas bone content was significantly (P <0.05) lower in G2 lambs compared to G1 lambs. The per cent distribution of primal cuts i.e. leg, loin, rack and fore shank and brisket was higher (P <0.01) in the G2 lambs compared to G1 lambs, while shoulder and neck were lower (P <0.01) in G2 lambs. It is concluded that the complete feed comprising of black gram straw improved growth, feed efficiency and production of quality meat economically in Nellore ram lambs.
Title: Assessment of Antimicrobial Activity of Pomegranate Leaf Extract against Bacterial Isolates of Otitis Externa and Diarrhea of Dogs
Abstract :
Bacterial pathogens were isolated from cases of otitis externa and diarrhoea in dogs at Durg and Raipur districts of Chhattisgarh. All isolates were further subjected for antibiogram profile using commonly used antibiotics. Total 105 bacterial isolates were obtained which included Staphylococcus sp.and E. coli as predominant pathogens followed by Proteus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Micrococcusand Salmonella. In cases of otitis externa, ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic (67.27%) followed by Gentamicin (61.81%), Cephalaxin (40%), Chloramphenicol (32.72%), Amoxycillin (21.81%), Ampicillin (20%), Doxycycline (16.36%), Penicillin (12.72%) and Erythromycin (3.63%). However, Chloromphenical (72%) was reported as the most effective drug against bacterial isolates of diarrhoea followed by Ciprofloxacin (70%), Gentamicin (52%), Cephalaxin (40%), Doxycyline (30%), Ampicillin (14%), Amoxycillin (6%) and Erythromycin (2%).Cold extract of pomegranate leaves was then assessed for antibacterial activity against all isolates by disc diffusion and tube dilution methods. The zones of inhibition of pomegranate leaves extract (PLE) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus, Klebsiella, E. coliand Salmonella were 18.8 ± 0.050, 5±0.70, 7.8±0.73, 16.2±0.86, 15.6±0.92 and 15.2±0.86 mm respectively. The zone of inhibition with Staphylococcus was significantly higher (P<0.05) than other bacteria. The minimum bactericidal concentration against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, E. coliand Salmonella were 33.33±8.34, 66.66±16.68, 66.66±16.68 and 33.33±8.34 mg/ml respectively. Staphylococcus aureus showed maximum sensitivity to pomegranate leaf extract amongst all the organisms studied, followed by Klebsiella, E. coliand Salmonella. Although, Proteus
and Pseudomonas were refractory to PLE, but moderate sensitivity was noticed even against few multidrug resistant isolates.
Title: Evaluation of Dose-Dependent Cytotoxic Effects of Graphene Oxide-Iron Oxide Nanocomposite on Caprine Wharton’s Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Abstract :
Present experiment was aimed to study the cytotoxic effects of Graphene oxide-iron oxide nanocomposite on caprine Wharton’s
jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs). Ex vivo caprine WJ-MSCs were isolated and cultured. Cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of GO-Fe2O3 nanocomposite (10 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml) were analyzed by observing cell morphology, cell viability, growth kinetics, population doubling time and colony forming unit (CFU) assay in caprine WJ-MSCs. Morphological alterations in nanocomposite-treated cells (50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml GO-Fe2O3) were distinct as compared to lower dose (10 μg/ml GO- Fe2O3) and control group. Cell viability assay indicated a highly signifi cant (P<0.01) decrease in live cell number when they were exposed to 100 μg/ml and 50 μg/ml GO- Fe2O3 nanocomposite and these effects were intensifi ed with time (24 h & 48 h post-exposure). Retarded growth rate and signifi cant (P<0.01) increase in population doubling time (PDT) of exposed cells (50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml) were observed as compared to control group and low dose treatment group (10 μg/ml). Colony forming unit (CFU) assay indicated that cells treated with 50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml nanocomposite formed less number of clones than control group and 10 μg/ml treatment group. On the basis of results, we conclude that lower doses (10 μg/ml) of the nanocomposite are safer in caprine WJ-MSCs however with increasing doses of nanocomposite (50 μg/ml & 100 μg/ml) the potential toxicity increases. Present study reports the tolerable doses of GO-Fe2O3 nanocomposite which will
help in future applications like tracking, imaging and differentiation of caprine WJ-MSCs.
Title: Assessment of Incidence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) in Penaeus vannamei in Maharashtra and Gujarat
Abstract :

The occurrence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in Penaeus vannamei samples were collected from Maharashtra and Gujarat farms. In the present study, shrimp samples from various shrimp ponds from two districts of Maharashtra and two districts of Gujarat were collected over a period of one year (February 2016 to April 2017). A total of 4513 shrimp samples were assessed for the presence of EHP by molecular characterization. Out of shrimp samples analysed, 31.2% samples were positive for EHP. The screening of EHP was done by single step and nested PCR targeting spore wall protein gene (SWP) of EHP resulting in product size of 514 bp and 148 bp for EHP respectively.

Title: Microbial quality of pork nuggets incorporated with fish flesh under refrigeration
Abstract :
Meat nuggets were prepared with pork (80%) and fish flesh (20%) under
standardized processing conditions and were stored under refrigeration in
aerobically packaged conditions with control samples of control-I (100% pork) and control-II (100% fish flesh). The samples were taken at regular interval of 7 days and analyzed for the microbial quality. Total plate counts showed no significant difference between treatment and controls but showed increasing trend as storage period increased. The psychrotroph and coliform counts were not detected till 14th day in both controls and treatment but showed increasing trend as storage period increased further. Yeast and mold count were not detected till 21st day and on 28th day counts of treatment was lower than control II and higher than control I. The microbial counts of the product were within the permissible limits for aerobically packaged meat products. Thus based on microbial quality, the products were safe
for consumption up to 28 days of refrigerated (4±1OC) storage in LDPE pouches.
Title: Influence of Condensed Tannins Supplementation through Leaf Meal Mixture on Urinary excretion of Purine Derivatives, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Performance ofHaemonchus contortus Infected Sheep
Abstract :
Study was carried out to assess the effect of condensed tannins (CT) containing leaf meal mixture (LMM) on feed intake, body weight changes, parasitic load, urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) and microbial protein synthesis (MP) in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. Eighteen adult male sheep of similar age and body weight (25.03±1.52) were randomly divided into three groups (negative control; NC, infected control; C and treatment; T) of six each in a completely randomized block design (CRD) for a period of 90 days. Twelve H. contortusinfected sheep were allocated into C and T groups, containing 0 and 1.5% of CT, respectively. Six non-infected sheep was taken in NC group to compare their performance with C group. Concentrate intake was significantly (P<0.000) lower in T group as compared to C group, while roughage intake did not differ significantly irrespective of groups. Final body weights were comparable (P<0.063) among all three groups. Faecal egg counts (FECs) were significantly (P<0.001) higher in C group as compared to T group. MP synthesis
was calculated by estimating urinary excretion of PD through High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Total PD excretion, absorption of PD and Microbial nitrogen (MN) supply (g d-1) were comparatively (P<0.05) higher in T group than in the C group. It may be concluded that CT supplementation (1.5%) decreased H. contortus load in sheep by reducing FECs and has a potential benefits on protein nutrition by altering partitioning of nutrients towards higher microbial yield and absence of any depressing effect on rumen MN synthesis.
Title: Estimates of Phenotypic Correlation Between External and Internal Egg Quality Traits in Gramapriya, Vanaraja and their Crosses
Abstract :

The present study was carried out with total of 211 eggs with more than 50 eggs from each genetic groups namely Gramapriya × Gramapriya (GP × GP), Vanaraja × Vanaraja (VR × VR), Vanaraja × Gramapriya (VR × GP) and Gramapriya × Vanaraja (GP × VR) to examine the phenotypic correlation between different egg quality traits in different genetic groups. The estimates of phenotypic correlation between egg weight and all the egg quality traits were highly significant (P<0.01), positive and very high in magnitude except the correlation with shape index and yolk index in the VR × GP genetic group. Also in GP × VR genetic group the estimates of phenotypic correlation between egg weight and all the egg quality traits were highly significant (P<0.01), positive and very high in magnitude except with yolk index and yolk height. Highly significant (P<0.01) correlations were observed among the various egg quality traits, except the correlation between egg length and shape index and between yolk width and yolk index where magnitudes were though high and significant but negative in direction. The estimate of correlation in VR × GP cross was positive in general, and highly significant in comparison to other genetic groups.

Title: Effect of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) Leaf and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Powder as Feed Additives on Haemato-biochemical Parameters of Broiler Chicks
Abstract :

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of tulsi and ginger as feed additives on haemato-biochemical parameters of broiler chicks. Two hundred and ten day-old chicks divided into 7 groups and each group having 30 chicks. Control group was fed on basal diet and T1 and T2 group were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% of tulsi leaf powder in the ration, respectively. Likewise, G1 and G2 group were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% of ginger powder in the ration, respectively. T1G1 and T2G2 treatment groups were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% of both herbs in combination, respectively. Approximately 5 ml blood sample was collected aseptically from wing vein of six randomly selected birds from each group at 42nd day of experiment for haemato-biochemistry. Highly significant (P<0.01) effect of tulsi leaf and ginger powder was observed on Hb, PCV, TEC, TLC, total protein, AST and ALT at 42nd day of age. Serum albumin was significantly (P<0.05) increased in treatment groups G2 and T2G2. The serum glucose and triglyceride level was significantly (P<0.01) reduced in all treatment groups except T2 as compared to control group. Highest reduction in cholesterol level was observed in T2G2 group which showed non-significant difference with G2 and T1G1 group as compared to control and other treatment groups. However, creatinine and globulin showed non-significant difference among the treatment group. It may be concluded that supplementation tulsi leaf and ginger powder as feed additives improves haemato-biochemical parameters of broiler chicks.

Title: Effect of Heat Stress on Humoral Immunity and its Amelioration by Amla Powder (Emblica officinalis) Supplementation in Buffaloes
Abstract :
The effect of amla powder supplementation on heat stress and immunoglobulin (Ig) levels of summer stressed buffaloes were investigated. The study was carried out with 24 apparently healthy Murrah buffaloes during pre-summer and summer seasons. The animals were divided into 3 groups of 8 animals each viz. Pre-Summer group (Group I); Summer Control group (Group II); Summer Treatment group (Group III). Group III animals were supplemented with amla powder @ 200 mg/Kg body wt. / day for 30 days. In summer stressed buffaloes (Group II), there was a signifi cant rise in erythrocytic lipid peroxidation level and superoxide dismutase activity along with a decrease in plasma IgM and increase in IgG levels. Supplementation of amla powder to summer stressed buffaloes was able to lower lipid peroxidation levels and superoxide dismutase activity coupled with the increase in IgM and decrease in IgG levels. It was concluded that amla powder supplementation can ameliorate the adverse effects of summer stress on humoral immunity in Murrah buffaloes.
Title: A Guide on Hemato-Biochemical Profiles of Indigenous Manipuri Cattle
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to establish a reference value of hematology and serum biochemical parameters of indigenous Manipuri cattle. The blood samples were collected from ten numbers (n=10) of apparently healthy indigenous Manipuri cattle from College Livestock Farm Complex (LFC), Jalukie, Nagaland. The hematology and serum biochemical parameters were estimated by utilizing an automated blood cell and biochemical analyser, respectively. Differential Leukocytes Count (DLC) was evaluated after staining the slides with Leishman’s stain. The overall value (Mean ± SEM) for Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW), Total Leukocyte Count (TLC), Lymphocytes, Neutrophils, Monocytes, Eosinophils, and Basophils were recorded as 32.24 ± 1.40%, 13.15 ± 0.77g/dL, 7.47 ± 0.28 ×106/μL, 43.3 ± 1.42 fL, 17.64 ± 1.02 pg, 40.64 ± 1.13 g/dL, 14.11 ± 0.44, 14.05 ± 0.94 × 103/μL, 56.75 ± 4.80 %, 31.48 ± 3.49 %, 8.75 ± 0.84 %, 5.25 ± 0.96 %, 0.625 ± 0.32 % respectively. Similarly, the overall mean value (Mean ± SEM) of Glucose, Calcium, Albumin, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Urea, Creatinine, Uric acid, Bilirubin, Cholesterol, Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT), Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST) and Alkaline Phophatase (ALP) were 55.53 ± 3.35 mg/dL, 11.23 ± 0.23 mg/dL, 2.72 ± 0.05 g/dL, 14.96 ± 1.14 mg/dL, 31.99 ± 2.45 mg/dL, 0.49 ± 0.11 mg/dL, 0.86 ± 0.07 mg/dL, 0.10 ± 0.007 mg/dL, 143 ± 9.78 mg/dL, 27.94 ± 1.76 U/L, 71.39 ± 4.19 U/L, and 62.4 ± 6.89 U/L respectively. The hemato-biochemical values were within the physiological normal ranges of cow except TLC. It can be concluded that the data of this study will be act as a guide on hemato-biochemical profiles of indigenous Manipuri cattle.

Title: Availability and Utilization Pattern of Forage Plants in relation to their Nutritive Values by Wild Elephants in South West Forests
Abstract :The study was carried out on the availability and utilization pattern of various wild plant species by migratory elephants in relation to their nutritive values. It wasobserved that migratory elephants were selective for food plants in the wilderness. Out of 52 recorded plant species, only 22 plant species were found to be utilized either fully or partially as evidenced by branch breaking, debarking, uprooting etc. Overall utilization of food plants revealed that Diospyros melanoxylon was utilized maximum (34.39%) followed by terocarpus marsupium (24.86%) among all the plants consumed by migratory elephants. Bark of Buchanania lanzan was moderately utilized (10.58%). All other recorded plants were utilized below 10 per cent. Chemical composition of some wild plants consumed by elephants revealed that crude protein content varied form 3.18 (Shorea robusta) to 21.25 (P. marsupium) g per cent. High protein content of P. marsupium leaves might be the reason for highest degree of utilization. Crude fibre content ranged from 20.0 (P. marsupium) to 54.0 (D. melanoxylon) per cent.
Title: Peri-urban Camel (Camelus dromendarius) Production System in Saudi Arabia: A note
Abstract :Several livestock production systems, ranging from nomadic, semi-nomadic, transhumant, agro pastoral to different forms of sedentary small holder and large scale commercial units ,exist in Africa and Asia. Several factors natural or man-made, beside some socio-economic changes have caused resources degradation and resulted in production systems disruption. In Saudi Arabia camel plays multiple central roles to livelihood and culture of the nomadic people notably provision of milk, meat , race and coat purposes, and source of income from sale of live camel and camel show (Mazayen) .Thus ,camels play an important role in this country. Camel production system in Saudi Arabia was affected by the socio-economic changes that took place after the petroleum era which attracts the Bedouins to settle in urban areas. With the aid of cars and vehicles, they can look after their herds around cities and towns where they live nowadays, in addition to the increasing demand in camel milk by growing urbanized population, stimulating the development of peri-urban camel dairy production. Systems of urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) take many forms in terms of integration of different activities, production intensities and production orientations. The present study is aimed at a refined characterization of the diversity in terms of production orientation, resource endowments and production strategies of the different types camel production with special emphasis on peri-urban camel production system in Saudi Arabia
Title: Serological evidence of Avian Pneumovirus infection in broiler and layer chickens in Grenada, West Indies
Abstract :
A serological survey was conducted to detect avian pneumovirus (APV) antibodies in commercial poultry birds in Grenada using a commercially available enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Sera were collected from 226 layers and 233 broilers. Age of the layers ranged from 12 to 18 months while that of the broilers ranged from 6 to 7 weeks. One hundred forty of the layers (61.9%) and 74 of the broilers (31.8%) were positive for APV antibodies. Chickens are not vaccinated for APV in Grenada and these results indicate that commercial poultry birds are exposed to this important poultry pathogen. This is the first report of serologic evidence of APV in Grenada and the Eastern Caribbean region.
Title: Identification of Lactoferrin gene Polymorphism and its association with Mastitis incidence
Abstract :
Present study was conducted in total of 350 cows of two major dairy breeds
(Sahiwal and Karan Fries) with the aim to identify genetic variation in lactoferrin gene promoter and to study its association with incidence of mastitis. Polymorphism of bovine lactoferrin gene promoter was determined by using restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Lactorferrin gene promoter was polymorphic but showed varied level of polymorphism among Sahiwal and Karan Fries cattle. Three genotypes were identified viz. AA, AB and BB in Karan Fries cattle and two genotypes AA and AB in Sahiwal cattle. BB genotype was absent in Sahiwal herd of National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. Chi square test revealed a nonsignificant association (pd<0.05) with mastitis incidence.
Title: Histoenzymic Distribution in Ileal Peyer’s Patches of Buffalo during Prenatal Development
Abstract :
The study was carried out on ileum of 15 buffalo fetuses ranging from 14.5 cm curved crown-rump length (CVRL) (93 days) to 100 cm CVRL (299 days) to elucidate the histoenzymic distribution of enzymes i.e. alkaline phosphatase (AKPase), Glucose- 6-Phosphatase (G-6-Pase), Succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and Diaphorases on ileal peyer’s patches during their prenatal development. The fetuses were categorized into three groups based on their CVRL. In Group upto 20 cm CVRL, weak alkaline phosphatase, SDH activity was observed and activity of LDH and Non specifi c esterase (NSE) was absent. In 20 to 40 cm CVRL fetuses, strong AKPase and moderate granular G-6-PD activity was observed in the villi of small intestine and developing group of lymphocytes in submucosa. In > 40 cm CVRL fetuses, strong AKPase activity was observed in dome region of the lymphoid follicle that invaded the mucosa in ileum. However, moderate SDH activity was observed at the periphery. The activity of LDH in 20 to 40 cm CVRL fetuses and also in > 40 cm CVRL fetuses was very weak. Intense activity of NADH enzyme was observed in submucosal lymphoid aggregates in group III of ileum.
Title: Effect of Transglutaminase and Egg White on Functional Properties and Microstructure of Fish Paneer from Tilapia and Common Carp
Abstract :

In this research study a high value restructured surimi gel product fish paneer was developed from the fish mince obtained from commercially low value fishes like tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The effect of protein additives (transglutaminase and egg white) on functional properties and microstructure of fish paneer was studied. Functional properties such as gel strength (23.7 kgf), water holding capacity (142%), expressible moisture content (26%) were highest in fish paneer prepared with transglutaminase (0.5%) added in surimi (tilapia: common carp, 1: 1). Folding test also revealed the highest quality of gel prepared from surimi containing transglutaminase. The egg white (1%) influenced the functional qualities positively but had lesser effectiveness than transglutaminase. The microstructure study using scanning electron microscopy images of fish paneer confirmed better effectiveness of transglutaminase (0.05%) in binding the protein molecules than egg white (1%).

Title: Study of Correlation Between Body Weight and Conformation Traits in Coloured Synthetic Dam Line Broiler Chicken at Five Weeks of Age
Abstract :
In coloured strain of synthetic dam line broiler chicken correlation between body weight and conformation traits were studied at 5th week of age. Body weight, breast angle, shank length and keel length were measured in both males and females. The genetic, phenotypic and environmental correlation between 5th week body weight and each with breast angle, shank length and keel length from sire components of variance and covariance were positively and statistically significant (P<0.01). It was concluded that individual selection for high body weight at 5th week of age would be most effective and, correlations between body weight and each with breast angle and shank length are higher in males while body weight and each with breast angle and keel length are higher in females.
Title: Effect of Supplementing Butyric Acid on Growth Performance and Carcass Quality Traits in Broiler
Abstract :

The effect of supplementing different levels of butyric acid on the growth performance and carcass characteristics traits on broiler chickens was observed in the present experiment. One hundred and eighty day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 400) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (Control, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of Butyric acid). Each treatment was replicated three times with15 birds/replicate. Growth performance e.g. feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio were observed. Carcass characteristics traits and development of digestive organs were observed by sacrificing four birds per group at the end of the trial. Weekly body weight gain was found to increase significantly in all supplemented groups on 6th week. Overall body weight gain was found higher in T3 group than other groups. The eviscerated yield (gm) and eviscerated yield (%) were represented to highest in T4 supplemented group whereas ready to cook yield (gm) and ready to cook yield (%) is also highest in T4 supplemented group than control. Digestive organ except proventricular (%) and cecal length (%) were found to differ significantly in all experimental groups. Small intestine (%), small intestine length (%) and large intestine (%) were observed to highest in T4 supplemented group than control. The results indicated that supplementation of butyric acid up to the level of 1.5% of feed improves the growth performance and feed utilization in commercial broiler without having any adverse effect on carcass quality traits in commercial broiler.

Title: Mode of Inheritance of Immunocompetence Traits in Three Japanese Quail Populations
Abstract :

In order to assess genetic attributes on immune traits of three varieties of domesticated Japanese quails developed by CARI (CARI-UJJAWAL, CARI-SUNEHERI AND CARI-BROWN) were chosen at random from the base populations and reared in individual cages to maintain sire and dam pedigree record system. Records of 160 progenies from 180 sires and 180 dams of each variety analysis carried using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) animal model. The progenies (480 birds) were exploited to predict the genetic variations in immune traits at 5th (Humoral) & 7th (cell mediated immunity) week of age. Analysis of data revealed that HA titre values was significantly (p<0.01) differed among the varieties and also the hatches. Sex had a no significant impact on the immune traits. For foot pad index test, varieties had significant (P<0.01) effect. But there was no significant effect between sex and also between hatches. Heritability estimates of the immunological traits based on the sire component of variance for antibody titre (HA) ranged from medium to high (0.25 to 0.44), and estimates were low in Foot pad index (0.011 to 0.171) in all the varieties.

Title: Evaluation of Kadaknath Chicken for Coccidial Resistance by Oocyst Count, Lesion Scoring and Oocyst Index in Eimeria Tenella Infection
Abstract :
The aim of present investigation was to study the virulence of coccidiosis in Kadaknath birds, experimentally infected with E. tenella by OPG count, oocyst index and caecal lesions scoring. Sixty one-day old unsexed Kadaknath birds were randomly divided into a control, T1 and T2 groups comprising twenty chicks under each group. At d 21 of age, birds of T1 and T2 groups were individually inoculated with 10,000 and 20,000 of sporulated oocysts of E. tenella and from the d 5 to 9 pi, faecal droppings were collected for counting OPG. Also at d 4, 7 and 14 after E. tenella infection, 2 chicks from each challenge groups were euthanized and caecal lesions and oocyst index were scored. The results indicated that in both T1 and T2 challenge group, there was an increasing trend of OPG upto d 7 pi and the peak level of OPG was found at d 7 pi. Mean OPG was signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher in T2 at d 6, 7 and 8 pi than T1. Mean caecal lesion score, oocyst index and OPG count were found to be maximum on d 7 pi for T1 and T2 groups. Lesions score was non signifi cant at 4, 7 and 14 pi. However, oocyst index was signifi cant (P<0.05) at d 7 pi. No mortality was observed in any of the treatment groups. As Kadaknath birds shed less oocyst and had lower lesion scores and oocyst index, hence, it can be concluded that this breed is less susceptible to coccidial infection.
Title: Liver Micromorphology of the African Palm Squirrel Epixerus ebii.
Abstract :
The normal liver histology of the African palm squirrel Epixerus ebii was investigated to fill the information gap on its micromorphology from available literature. The liver was covered by a capsule of dense connective tissue- the Glissons membrane. Beneath this capsule is the liver parenchyma were the hepatocyte were supported by reticular fibres. The hepatocytes in the lobules were hexagonal to polygonal in shape. Some hepatocytes were bi-nucleated. Clear spaces in the parenchyma must be storege sites for lipids in the liver. The classic hepatic lobules presented central vein surrounded by several liver cells. At the portal triad, hepatic vein, hepatic arteries and bile ducts were seen. While the hepatic arteries and veins were lined by endothelium, the bile ducts were lined by simple cuboidal cells. Nerve fibres were also seen in the region of the portal triad. Hepatic sinusoids lined by endothelium were seen in the liver parenchyma between liver lobules. The sinusoids contained macrophages. This report will aid wild life biologist in further inversigative research and Veterinarians in diagnosing the hepatic diseases of the African palm squirrel.
Title: Effect of Sodium Butyrate Supplementation on Performance, Egg Quality and Bacterial load in the Excreta of Laying Hens
Abstract :supplementation on egg production performance, egg quality, nutrient retention, excreta microflora and blood metabolites in laying hens during late laying cycle. A total of 320 Hy-Line Brown layers (65 wk old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 8 replicates with 10 birds each (80 birds per treatment). Two hens were confined individually with the cage size as 0.2 x 0.2 m. and 10 birds (5 cages) shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20% sodium butyrate. Supplementation of increasing levels of sodium butyrate showed linear reduction (P<0.05) in broken egg percentage. Egg shell strength was linearly improved (P<0.05) with increase in dietary sodium butyrate. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of sodium butyrate had greater (linear, P<0.05) retention of DM, CP and GE. Hens fed diet supplemented with increasing levels of sodium butyrate had increased (linear, P<0.05) total anaerobic bacteria and Lactobacillus spp. population.
Title: Intracellular Delivery of Histidine and Arginine Rich Cell Penetrating Peptides into HeLa cell Line
Abstract :
Most bioactive macromolecules, such as DNA and RNA, cannot permeate into cells freely from outside the plasma membrane. Cell penetrating peptides are a group of short peptide sequences that are able to transverse the cell membrane for mediating gene into living cells. In this study we demonstrate two cell penetrating peptides 5H-R9-C and 7H-R9-7H-C. These peptides are synthesized by solid phase methodology and labelled these peptides by FITC and purified them by RP-HPLC. FITC labelled peptides are efficiently internalize into HeLa cells confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Further studies are being carried out to deliver cargo molecule (siRNA, oligonucleotide and pDS RED) by these peptides. These results suggest that these peptides appear to be a promising tool for drug delivery.
Title: Effect of Different Levels of Rice Gluten Meal with and without Enzyme Supplementation on Duodenal Morphology of Broilers
Abstract :

Rice Gluten Meal availability is more, and it is also a low-cost feed source that can be used as substitute for protein sources in broiler diets. Present study evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation of rice gluten meal (RGM) with and without enzyme on duodenal morphology. 240-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to six groups with four replicates. During this experiment starter, grower and finisher period, experimental diets were fed to birds which were isonitrogenous and isocaloric formulated with different levels of RGM. They were T1 (control, without RGM and enzyme), T2 (control, without RGM and with cocktail of enzyme @100g/q feed), T3 (10% RGM), T4 (10% RGM with cocktail of enzyme @100g/q feed), T5 (15% RGM), T6 (15% RGM with cocktail of enzyme @100g/q feed). The birds of equal body weight were slaughtered on 42nd day. After thorough examination sections of duodenum were collected and processed for histomorphology. Images were taken to measure villi height and crypt depth. The present study showed the villus height was greater in the duodenum while there was a tendency for increased villus height to crypt depth ratio in the duodenum of broilers supplemented with 15% rice gluten meal. These results indicated that rice gluten meal enhanced the villus development in the small intestine of broilers

Title: Effect of Non-Genetic Factors on Persistency and Milk Production Traits in Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :
The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of different non-genetic factors viz. year, season and parity on various production traits. The 1177 lactation records of 272 Murrah buffaloes, progeny of 53 bulls that were maintained at GADVASU dairy farm, calved during 1981-2011 were studied. The overall least squares mean for persistency, 305-days milk yield and peak yield were 0.826±0.003, 2173.54±21.14 Kg and 12.65±0.09 kg, respectively. The effect of period of calving and parity was highly signifi cant (P<0.01) on persistency, 305-days milk yield and peak yield. Peak yield also signifi cantly affected by season of calving while the effect of season on persistency and 305-days was non-signifi cant. The study concluded that the production traits were mainly affected by the non genetic environmental factors such as managerial changes during years, seasonal variations and parity of Murrah. 
Title: Body Conformation in Tharparkar Cattle as a Tool of Selection
Abstract :
For present investigation, Tharparkar cows available at Cattle and Buffalo Farm, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar (U.P.) were used. Body conformation scoring was done as per modifi ed International Committee on Animal Recording (2012). Measurements were taken in centimeter (cm) before morning milking and prior to any feed intake using graduated measuring stick, vernier caliper and fl exible meter tape. In Tharparkar cattle, the average score points (ASP, under 1-9 point scale score system) for body conformation traits like stature (5.02: intermediate), chest width (4.71: intermediate), body depth (4.75: intermediate), angularity (5.60: intermediate), rump angle (5.55: intermediate), rump width (4.80: intermediate), rear leg rear view (7.39: parallel), rear leg set (5.27: intermediate), foot angle (7.09: steep), fore udder attachment (6.44: strong), fore teat placement (3.80: intermediate), teat length (4.71: intermediate), udder depth (5.71: intermediate), rear udder height (3.46:intermediate), central ligament (5.27:  intermediate), rear teat placement (5.82: intermediate), locomotion (7.20: no abduction), hock development (7.28: dry), bone structure (6.64: fi ne and thin), rear udder width (5.64: intermediate), teat thickness (2.61: narrow), muscularity (6.00: intermediate), hump size (3.98: intermediate), dewlap size (5.04: intermediate) and naval fl ap
size (3.09: intermediate) were assessed. Most of the body conformation traits in Tharparkar cows were of intermediate nature
and of desirable type, moreover, some traits also showed the presence of undesirable ASP, which expressed scope for further
improvement. Thus, present investigation gave explicit clue to bring Tharparkar cattle at par with other exotic breeds, if little effort is made to incorporate these conformation traits in selection program.
Title: Effect of Graded Levels of Niacin Supplementation on Total Mixed Ration Containing Different Non-Protein Nitrogen Sources in vitro
Abstract :
The present study was undertaken to study the effect of varying levels of niacin supplementation(0, 200, 400 and 600 ppm, respectively) on low urea based total mixed ration (TMR)replacing 10% of total crude protein (CP) of ration with different non protein nitrogen (NPN) sources by in vitro gas production technique. All the
rations were iso-nitrogeneous in nature.On the basis of higher partition factor, neutral detergent fibre degradability (NDFD%), organic matter degradability (OMD%), microbial mass production and efficiency of microbial mass production from different NPN sources. Supplementation of varying levels of niacin in low urea based TMR did not have any significant effect on microbial mass production and its efficiency. The in vitro pH and NH3 concentration was significantly (P<0.05) reduced at 600ppm level of niacin supplementation. The total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) concentration was significantly higher (P<0.05) in control TMR and lowest in uromol based TMR. Niacin supplementation produced significantly higher (P<0.05) TVFA at 200ppm level and lowest (P<0.05) at 600ppm in TMR. It can be concluded that slow release urea seems to be better option than urea and uromol as NPN supplement in the diets of ruminants when low (10% of total CP) urea based TMR is to be prepared.
Title: Analysis of antigenic response and purification of anti-BSA specific &#947; - globulin fraction from ovines
Abstract :
The serum protein electrophoresis test demonstrates a significant deviation from the normal gamma-globulin levels in different infectious states of the  animal.The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of BSA as antigen on total serum proteins and their fractions in ovines and raising antibodies against BSA. From each of the four animals considered for experimentation, pre immune as well as post immune blood samples were collected. For all serum samples, γ-globulin fraction concentrations were determined by Biuret method, after they were separated on Sephadex G -200. The gamma globulins were identified electrophoretically and the interaction of antigen and the antibody raised was confirmed by Ouchterlony double immuodiffusion method after fractions of sheep serum were obtained by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The purification of the IgG-2 fraction was performed while passing the purified fraction in DEAE (Diethylaminoethyl), A-50 column. The study revealed an increasing pattern in the total protein concentrations in general and appreciable increase in the gamma fraction in particular. Both the modules showed 95% confidence interval with students paired t-test.
Title: Meta-analysis of Prevalence of Clinical Mastitis in Crossbred Cows in India (1995-2014)
Abstract :
Clinical mastitis is a most common disease in dairy herds causing huge economic losses directly to farmers and indirectly to Indian dairy sector. However, systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of clinical mastitis in cows in India has not been published so far. The aim of the present study was to provide the pooled estimate of the prevalence of clinical mastitis in crossbred cows in India by conducting the literature search for the period of 1995-2014. Meta-analysis using data records of 17873 crossbred cows and 7737 udder quarters from total of 17 published studies was done in R software. It was found that the pooled estimates of clinical mastitis in crossbred cows under cow-basis and quarter-basis was 16.08% (95% CI 11.69, 21.72) and 11.71% (95% CI 6.60, 19.94), respectively. High variation in prevalence estimates between studies indicated that several factors infl uence occurrence of clinical mastitis. It is suggested that systematic review and meta-analysis using large number of studies and incorporating several factors can be effi cient tool to update the disease control strategy and will be best resource for researchers to improve future work.
Title: Preparation Cost of Patties from Spent Hen Meat
Abstract :Chicken patties from spent hen meat were prepared from a standardized formulation and were extended with optimized level of non meat extenders viz sorghum flour, barley flour and pressed rice flour at 5%, 10% and 5% respectively. Optimization of levels for extenders was done under different experiments based on sensory attributes and those having sensory status closer to control were selected. The cost of patties from spent hen meat after replacement of lean with selected level of non meat extenders were compared among themselves to determine the most economic preparation. It was found that extended patties were cheaper than control patties and among the extended patties least cost was for barley flour extended patties. The cost for sorghum flour extended patties and pressed rice flour extended patties were almost same but these were higher than barley flour extended patties because of higher yield and high level of replacement of lean meat in latter case. Thus it was concluded that formulation with extension of 10% barley flour at the cost of lean meat was most economic among the tested non meat extenders.
Title: Sensory Attributes of Chicken Meat Rolls and Patties Incorporated with the Combination Levels of Rice Bran and Psyllium Husk
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to prepare dietary fiber rich chicken meat rolls
and patties. The combination of two different sources of dietary fiber has been
used viz. rice bran and psyllium husk. Three different levels of rice bran and
psyllium husk viz. 10% rice bran and 2% psyllium husk, 10% rice bran and 4%
psyllium husk and 10% rice bran and 6% psyllium husk were tried. The sensory
characteristics such as colour, flavour, tenderness, juiciness, texture and overall
acceptability of fiber added chicken meat rolls and patties were studied. The
sensory scores showed a decreasing trend with increasing levels of incorporation
but 10 % rice bran and 4% psyllium husk combination was found to be suitable
Title: Effect of Area Specific Mineral Mixture Supplementation on Milk Yield and Milk Quality in Dairy Animals of Sub-mountainous Zone of Punjab
Abstract :

The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of mineral supplementation on milk yield and milk quality of dairy animals in Sub-mountainous zone of Punjab. Area specific mineral mixture was fed to lactating cattle and buffaloes of Hoshiarpur and Nawanshahar districts for 3 months at a constant dose rate of 50 g/animal/day and its effect on milk yield and its quality was analyzed at 3rd month post-treatment (last day of feeding of mineral mixture) and one month after cessation of the feeding of mineral mixture. Supplemented animals showed significant increase in milk yield as compared to un-supplemented group of animals, whereas, no significant difference was observed in milk components between the supplemented and un-supplemented groups.

Title: Evaluation of Morphometric Measurements to Estimate Body Weight in Crossbred Landly Pigs (Landrace*Desi)
Abstract :

Weight is an important index in swine meat industry. Indirect method of weight measurement involves usage of body measurements. Heart girth is known to be better correlated with body weight in pigs. A study was carried out to determine the relationship between different girths like the heart girth (measured just behind the forelimbs), middle girth (measured around mid-region of the body) and tail girth (measured just in front of the hind limbs) and live weight in Landly pigs (Landrace* Desi). Data was collected for body length, girths, and live weight in 39 pigs, both male and female and 9-10 months of age, reared in the IVRI Swine farm. Multiple linear regression method was used for analysis under GMP9. The results showed high positive correlations of weight with middle girth. Area calculated using middle girth and heart girth had the best fit and the lowest error. This can be applicable to pigs reared under field conditions.

Title: Surgical Management of Cervical Oesophageal Obstruction in a Non Descript Cow – A Case Report
Abstract :
Esophageal obstruction (Choke) occurs when the oesophagus is obstructed by food, foreign body or by presence of space occupying lesion in the oesophagus . In ruminants, acute and complete oesophageal obstruction is an emergency because it prohibits the eructation of ruminal gases and bloat develops if untreated resulting in pressure on the diaphragm and preventing blood flow to the heart. The present study reports the successful management of cervical oesophageal obstruction caused by a small cucumber in a non descript cow.
Title: Hemato-Biochemical Studies on Clinical Cases of Primary Ketosis in Buffaloes
Abstract :
The study was conducted on 145 buffaloes brought to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, LUVAS from Hisar and adjoining villages, with signs of anorexia and decreased milk yield. Urine samples from buffaloes were screened for ketosis using two tests (Rothera’s test and Keto-Diastix-strip test). The disease was confi rmed in 24 buffaloes as primary ketosis on the basis of clinical signs (selective anorexia, drastic reduction in milk yield), absence of any other concurrent disease and two urine tests. Comparison of infected was made with eight apparently healthy buffaloes kept as control. Hematological fi ndings in diseased animals revealed anemia, leucopenia, lower mean values of total erythrocyte count (TEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), eosinophilia and monocytosis whereas biochemical fi ndings shows hypoglycemia, hypocalemia, hypoproteinemia hypercholesterolemia, high triglycerides and enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity in affected animals as compared to control group.
Title: Effect of Butylated Hydroxytoluene on Sperm Viability and Acrosomal Integrity in Cryopreserved Hariana Bull Semen
Abstract :
The present study was aimed to see the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as semen additives during cryopreservation of Hariana Bull semen. Twenty four ejaculates from two Hariana bulls extended with glycerolated egg yolk tris (GEYT). Extended samples were split into three aliquots. One aliquot was kept as control while other two aliquots were supplemented with 0.5 mM (T1) and 1.0 mM (T2) of BHT. All semen samples were equilibrated and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen vapours and subsequently plunged in liquid nitrogen for preservation. The effect of BHT was determined by assessment of sperm viability
and acrosomal integrity at three stages i.e. after dilution, pre-freeze and post –thaw. Our study revealed that addition of 1.0 mM of BHT results in a signifi cant (p<0.05) improvement in sperm viability and acrosomal integrity during cryopreservation.
Title: Secular Analysis of Domestic Animals Composition in Indian Context: Recent Evidence
Abstract :

India is a developing country, where livestock sector is highly dynamic due to rapidly increasing demand for animal products in various sectors. Livestock sector contributes about 37 and 4.1 percent in agriculture and gross domestic product (GDP) respectively, of the country. It contributes in the socio-economic development of rural livelihoods. It is revealed from the investigation that in India, about 50 per cent of bovine (buffalo and cattle) population is maintained by the marginal farming households. We have argued that women have predominant responsibility for animal rearing. The productions of milk, meat and wool have increased tremendously with the increase in livestock composition. Despite the fact that exports of livestock sector have expanded in numerous times over the study period. India held strong position in exports of livestock products as poultry and dairy produce and buffalo’s meat. Study purposes that the Central Government of India should recognize and agree to implement the new programmes to expand the production behaviour of livestock products particularly in drought areas.

Title: Genetic Parameters of Growth and sow Productivity Traits of Large white Yorkshire with Desi and Tamworth with Desi Crossbred Pigs
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to estimate genetic parameters like heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlations among different growth and reproductive traits of LWY x Desi and TMW x Desi maintained at AICRP on Pigs, Livestock Farm, Adhartal, Jabalpur (M.P.). The h2 estimates for birth weight for LWY and TMW crossbreds has been recorded as 0.011±0.075 and 0.012±0.079 respectively and for weaning weight it has been recorded as 0.271±0.117 and 0.282±0.116 respectively for LWY and TMW crossbreds. The h2 estimates of body weight at different ages had low to moderate and some where higher at different age. The genetic correlation values at birth were ranged from 0.19 to 0.73 and 0.16 to 0.71 for LWY and TMW crossbreds respectively. The h2 estimates for maternal traits of LWY and TMW crossbred pigs are within the specified range. Most of the
genetic and phenotypic correlations are at higher side with positive direction.
Environmental correlations also followed the same trend where most of the values are higher for Large White Yorkshire and Tamworth crossbred Pigs.
Title: Lyme disease: Emerging and Re-emerging Metazoonoses of Gglobal Importance
Abstract :Lyme borreliosis is a tick-transmitted multisystem inflammatory disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Lyme disease has a worldwide distribution including India. Warmer weather expected to be increase emergence of common vector-borne diseases worldwide without an exception of Lyme disease. Several hundred cases are reported each year. About 10% of cases involve the more serious symptoms of arthritis and 5% experience facial paralysis, in addition to the skin rash that is characteristic of the disease. There is paucity of data on Lyme disease in India. Some study was under taken to study the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in north eastern parts of India. Therefore, India represents a particularly interesting scenario for the study on Lyme disease. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognizing the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. Here in; we review the problems and opportunities for the incidence of Lyme disease in India. Control measures are discussed in the review in the area of ticks and tick-borne zoonotic diseases (TTBDs). The disease warrants constant monitoring and surveillance because once introduced to human population it would be a herculean task to eradicate it.
Title: Incidence of Decreasing Population of House Crow (Corvus splendens) in Some Pockets of Malwa Region of Punjab, India
Abstract :

Not long ago, House Crow was the most wide-spread member of the Corvidae family in Punjab. Then, scattered observations revealed a decline in the population of this species, even so, that very few could be seen in many parts of Punjab. Till now there is no study on the House Crow disappearance from Punjab or any other part of the world. The present study was conducted for two continuous years from June 2015-May 2017 to obtain data on the current status of the House Crow population and to determine the possible reasons for their decline in three selected locations, viz. Ludhiana, Sangrur, and Bathinda districts falling in the Malwa region of Punjab. The survey showed that the population of House Crow in some pockets of Punjab has shown a considerable decline. These declines are troubling because the disappearance of House Crow means loss of cost-free scavenger services provided by them. This study could be used to predict and investigate the population of House Crow in other parts of Punjab and provide the baseline information for conservation practices to be adopted for the species in the state

Title: Effect of Melatonin Supplementation on Physiological Observations in Buffalo Calves under Summer Stress
Abstract :

A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of melatonin supplementation on physiological parameters in buffalo calves under summer stress. Twelve healthy Murrah buffalo male calves of 6 month to 1 year age group were taken for the study. Buffalo calves were divided into control (CG) and treatment (TG) group. In TG, Melatonin (18 mg/50 kg BW) was injected subcutaneously, two times at 1st and 20th day. Rectal temperature (RT) (°F), respiratory rate (RR) (breathes per minute) and pulse rate (PR) (beats per minute) was recorded by a clinical thermometer, flank movement and by palpating the coccygeal artery respectively. RT, RR and PR differed significantly (P<0.05) in CG and TG between morning and afternoon. RT, RR & PR were increased significantly (P<0.05) from morning to afternoon in both the groups. During afternoon the rectal temperature was significantly (P<0.05) lower in treatment group. In conclusion, melatonin affected the fluctuation in physiological activity

Title: Differentiation of Marek’s Disease Virus Isolates from India by Sequence Analysis of Meq Gene
Abstract :

The main aim of the present study was to investigate sequence diversity and mutations in the Meq gene of Marek’s disease viruses (MDV) isolated in India. To understand the molecular characteristics of MDV Meq gene, the sequence generated from Directorate of Poultry Research (DPR) farm and commercial poultry farms isolates were compared with published sequences of Indian isolates. Sequence analysis showed that all of the isolates contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1020 nucleotides, which encoded a 339 amino acid peptides. In the present phylogenetic study, Meq gene sequence generated from MDV strains of DPR isolate was found to share a clade with previously published DPR strains depicting homogenecity in MDV strain prevalent in DPR farm of Hyderabad. The Meq gene sequence of MDV strains amplified from commercial poultry farm found to be evolutionary closer with Ludhiana isolates. Amino acid sequence decoded from Meq gene sequence revealed that four consecutive proline repeats are three in number in DPR isolates while it ranges from 4-5 quadruple proline repeats in commercial farms samples. The published MDV strains from India has 4-5 consecutive four proline repeats in strains from the commercial farms. In the present study, a single point mutation was recorded in Meq gene sequence of DPR isolate where proline was replaced by serine at 233 positions. This mutation is recorded for the first time in Meq gene sequence of Indian isolates. The present study shows that the MDV strains from DPR farm were more virulence than other Indian isolates.

Title: Studies on Productive Performance and Biometry in Traditionally Reared Indigenous Goats of Andhra Pradesh
Abstract :

Data collected on body weights and biometrical measurements i.e., height at withers, chest girth, body length, hip width, paunch girth, face length, ear length and tail length of 1421 goats at milk teeth, 2, 4, 6 and 8-teeth of age reared under field conditions in Rayalaseema region (Chittoor, YSR Kadapa, Anantapur and Kurnool) of Andhra Pradesh were subjected to least squares analysis to study the effect of district and sex. The least squares analysis of variance revealed significant effects of district and sex on body weights and measurements at one or the other ages studied. The overall least squares mean body weights (kg) at milk teeth, 2, 4, 6 and 8-teeth ages were 13.97 ± ± 0.16,20.57 ± 0.38, 26.56 ± 0.68, 30.66 ± 0.62 and 34.64 ± 0.85, respectively. The overall least squares means for height at withers, chest girth, body length, hip width, paunch girth, face length, ear length and tail length at milk teeth age were 66.60 ± 0.29, 61.08 ± 0.25, 53.24 ± 0.25, 13.02 ± 0.08, 61.05 ± 0.27, 16.65 ± 0.10, 14.66 ± 0.08 and 14.51 ± 0.09 cm, respectively and the corresponding means at 8 teeth were 84.07 ± 0.72, 82.83 ± 0.69, 69.66 ± 0.99, 18.05 ± 0.56, 83.50 ± 0.95, 20.78 ± 0.24, 16.39 ± 0.30 and 16.56 ± 0.32 cm. The least squares mean were higher in males than in females and increased as age advances

Title: Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Microneme Gene 10 (MIC10) of Kolkata Isolate of Toxoplama gondii
Abstract :
The present study dealt with cloning and molecular characterization of MIC10 gene of T. gondii Kolkata isolate. TgMIC10 is a small microneme protein that lacks a putative transmembrane domain and appears not to remain associated with the parasite membrane after micronemal discharge. MIC10 gene of T. gondii “Kolkata isolate was PCR amplified and cloned into a TA cloning vector (Promega) to facilitate sequencing and subsequent characterization. The product revealed 597bp in size and has 99.2% homology with the published sequence. The difference was observed at 22, 210, 235, 378 and 513 positions. When the gene was deduced for amino acids, the homology was 98% with published sequence. The total amino acids number was 198 with predicted mass of 23 kDa molecular weight. The changes were observed at 8, 115 and 171th amino acid positions.
Title: Influence of Prepartum Injection of Vitamin E and Se on Postpartum Reproductive and Lactation Performance of Dairy Cattle
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of vitamin E and Selenium given prepartum on reproductive and lactation performance of dairy cattle. Twenty pregnant animals in their last trimester were randomly divided into two groups. Group I animals were kept as control and Group II animals were given two injections of vitamin E and selenium 7 days apart. First injection was given 30-60 days before the expected calving. The placental expulsion period and involution period was significant higher in Group I compare to Group II animals and there was a nonsignificant increase in clostrum production, lactational yield, lactational length and mean calf birth weight of Group II animals.
Title: Subclinical Endometritis in Postpartum Buffaloes: An Emerging Threat
Abstract :
Buffalo contributes 12.8 per cent of world milk supply. In India, buffalo accounts for 33 per cent of the milk producing animals and 45 per cent of overall milk production of the country. Optimum fertility of buffaloes is the key to economically successful dairy farming. Postpartum uterine infections have negative impact on reproductive performance leading to drastic reduction in farm return. Endometritis being one of the major postpartum disorder causing heavy losses to dairy industry. Postpartum sub-clinical endometritis is defi ned as an endometrial infl ammation occurring 21 days or more after parturition without any clinical signs whereas clinical endometritis is indicated by the presence of purulent/mucopurulent discharge. Routine methods for diagnosing endometritis involve uterine biopsy, lavage and swab but these techniques causes irritation and distortion of cells. Endometrial cytology by cytobrush technique is most effi cient and early diagnostic technique when used along with microbial assay for diagnosis of sub-clinical endometritis. Following diagnostic accuracy, one has to use appropriate therapy for management of this condition. An effective treatment is one which eliminates load of pathogenic bacteria and enhances uterine defense and repair mechanisms, and thereby halts and reverses the infl ammatory changes that impair fertility. The treatment of endometritis should not be limited to clinical or bacteriological cure but also be economical and should improve the fertility. A wide variety of therapies for endometritis have been used with variable success proving the treatment of this condition to be
still challenging.
Title: Surgical Management of Ruminal Impaction due to Indigestible Foreign Bodies in Cattle
Abstract :
A Nine year old cow was presented with the history of chronic recurrent tympany for the last 2 months. On rectal examination, foreign materials were palpated inside the rumen. Rumenotomy through le flank
approach using paravertebral nerve block was done. Around 10 kg of foreign materials were removed and the animal regained normalcy successfully.
Title: Organoleptic Quality of Chicken Meat Rolls and Patties Added with the Combination Levels of Black Gram Hull and Psyllium Husk
Abstract :
The present study was envisaged to prepare dietary fiber rich chicken meat rolls and patties. The combination of two different sources of dietary fiber viz. black gram hull and psyllium husk has been used. They were added in three different levels viz. 5% black gram hull and 2% psyllium husk, 5% black gram hull and 4% psyllium husk and 5% black gram hull and 6% psyllium husk. The sensory characteristics such as colour, flavour, tenderness, juiciness, texture and overall acceptability of fiber added chicken meat rolls and patties were studied. In general, the sensory scores showed a decreasing trend with increasing levels of incorporation but 5% black gram hull and 4% psyllium husk combination was found to be suitable organoleptically.
Title: Contents Vol. 9, No. 6, December 2019
Abstract :
Title: Therapeutic Management, Genital Changes versus Blood Biochemical Constituents of Repeat Breeder Crossbred Cows
Abstract :

The study was aimed to determine the genital changes, blood biochemical profile and efficacy of different treatment protocols in addressing repeat breeding in crossbred cattle with prolonged oestrus which was usually associated with ovulatory defects such as anovulation and delayed ovulation. For this a total of 48 repeat breeder cows with the history of prolonged oestrus and with apparently normal oestrual discharge were selected and divided into 4 groups and each comprising 12 animals. Various commonly used therapeutic techniques like administration of hCG drug with or without supportive treatment, multiple A.I. and supportive treatment alone was used in the present study. Efficacy of treatment was based on post treatment conception rate and found that the hormone hCG was the choice of drug for treatment of repeat breeding without uterine infection resulting in post treatment conception rate of 83.33 per cent which increased to 91.66 per cent when fortified with supportive treatment. In terms of genital changes occurring in repeat breeder cows under different treatment regimens in the present study it could be mentioned that there was no much variation between treatment regimens

Title: Prevalence of Canine Otitis Externa in Jammu
Abstract :To examine dogs with otitis externa in order to study the prevalence of otitis externa in dogs, a study was undertaken on 273 dogs presented at the teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex and Referral Hospital R.S Pura, Central Veterinary Hospital Talab Tillo and private pet clinics in Jammu region during the period starting on August to December (2011). The incidence of otitis externa stood at 21.97 percent (60 cases), from all the skin infections in canine population (273 cases). The influence of age, breed and sex on the incidence of otitis externa was also studied. The results of the study revealed higher occurrence of cases during the month of August (28.33 percent), followed by October (26.66 percent), and the least in December (10.00 percent). The dogs belonging to the age group of 3 years and above showed greater susceptibility (55 percent) to ear afflictions, followed by 1 to 3 year age group (25 percent), and the least (20 percent) in the age group below 1 year. German Shepherds followed by Labrador Retrievers and Cocker Spaniels were the most frequently affected breeds. Male dogs showed greater involvement than females.
Title: Prevalence of Antibodies to Coxiella burnetii in Camel Milk in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia: a Comparison with Serum
Abstract :
Antibodies against Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q-fever, were detected in lactating camels, cows and goats in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia, using an indirect ELISA test. A total of 246 milk samples collected from 69 camels. 90 cows and 87 goats were tested. Milk samples from 43 camels (62.32%), 30 cows (33.33%) and 22 goats (25.29%) were positive for anti-C. burnetii antibodies. Serum samples collected simultaneously from the same animals and tested by ELISA revealed anti-C. burnetii antibodies in 46 camels (66.67%), 38 cows (42.22) and 14 goats (16.20%). A signifi cant correlation between ELISA results in milk and serum was observed in the species tested. These results confi rm that ELISA can be used in milk instead of serum to detect antibodies against C. burnetii in lactating camels and other animals
Title: Effect of Detoxified Karanj Seed Cake (Pongamia glabra vent) Based Diets on Haematological Parameters and Body Weight Gain in Goat Kids
Abstract :
A 17-weeks study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding solvent extracted karanj (Pongamia glabra vent) seed cake (SKC) and alkali processed solvent extracted karanj seed cake (AKC) on various haematological parameters and overall body weight gains in goat kids. Twenty non-descript male kids were randomly divided into fi ve treatment groups viz., T1 (control), T2, T3, T4 and T5 consisting of four kids each, under completely randomized design to make the initial body weight uniform and non-signifi cant. The T1 group was offered groundnut cake (GNC) as a sole source of nitrogen whereas T2 and T3 group were offered SKC @ 8.09% and 16.18% of concentrate mixtures respectively to replace 25% and 50% of GNC nitrogen. Similarly T4 and T5 were fed AKC @ 8.09% and 16.18% of concentrate mixtures respectively to replace the 25% and 50% of GNC nitrogen. No adverse effect of either SKC or AKC was observed on haemoglobin, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, serum total protein, serum albumin and serum globulin. The present study also revealed no signifi cant effect of either SKC or AKC on the overall body weight gain in goat kids. These results indicates that long term supplementation of SKC or AKC up to 50% replacement of conventional nitrogen source have no adverse effect on health as revealed by body weight gain and various haematological values.
Title: Breed effect on serum lysozyme activity in indigenous breeds of Sheep
Abstract :
Serum lysozyme is widely known for its immuno-protective action. The level is an index of macrophage function and this reflects the status of Reticulo-endothelial (RE) system in the body. It is a ubiquitous bacteriolytic enzyme present in the body fluids and tissues. It acts as an important antimicrobial component in the serum and body fluids. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the effect of breed on mean serum lysozyme activity. A total of 275 animals of same age, sex and season of birth belonging to three breeds of indigenous sheep viz. Chokla, Malpura, and Muzaffarnagri were included under the present investigation. The serum lysozyme level in Chokla, Malpura and Muzaffarnagri was determined by Lysoplate assay method. Least square analysis was done to study the association of breed as well as genotype with mean serum lysozyme activity. There was significant difference (Pd<0.05) of serum lysozyme activity among the breeds.
Among all the three breeds, Chokla showed highest mean serum lysozyme activity. The mean serum lysozyme activity for Chokla, Malpura and Muzaffarnagri breed of sheep was 3.13±0.13 µg/ml, 2.39±0.14 µg/ml and 2.51±0.18 µg/ml, respectively.
Title: Influence of Biopreservatives and Vacuuming Packaging on Sensory Quality of Milk Solids based Khoa during Frozen Storage (-18±2 °C)
Abstract :

The study was carried out to find out the effectiveness of biopreservatives and vacuum packaging on the shelf-life of milk solids based khoa. Khoa samples were prepared individually by combinations of Skim milk powder (SMP) with ghee and whey protein concentrates and SMP with cream (50 % fat). The control khoa sample was prepared utilizing full cream buffalo milk (6 % fat). Natamycin at 10 ppm and nisin at 100 IU/g were added when khoa was still hot (85-90 °C). The samples without biopreservatives were packaged in simple and vacuum packaging. It was found that vacuum packaged as well as biopreservatives incorporated samples were organoleptically acceptable up to 5 months of storage at freezing temperature (-18±2 °C).

Title: Genetic Evaluation of Murrah Buffaloes for Reproductive Disorders
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out on 459 Murrah buffaloes affected with some reproductive problem with 618 calving records(out of total 1336 Murrah buffaloes) sired by 118 sires over a period of 12 years from 2007 to 2018 at GADVASU, Ludhiana. The heritability estimates for dystocia, retention of placenta (ROP), anestrus, repeat breeding (RB), abortion and postpartum abnormal discharge (PPAD) were 0.04, 0.10, 0.05, 0.074, 0.085 and 0.121 respectively. The overall means for breeding values for dystocia, ROP, abortion, anestrus, RB and PPAD were 0.4, 0.2, 0.4, 0.2, 0.078 and 11.8%, respectively. Rank correlation of abortion with ROP was very high (0.99±0.02) and with anestrus, dystocia, RB and PPAD were also high i.e. 0.98±0.03, 0.98±0.03, 0.97±0.03, 0.95±0.04 respectively. Heritability estimates of reproductive problems have indicated appreciable values, signifying that incorporation of these traits in selection program will enhance the rate of improvement.

Title: Effect of Heat Stress on Reproductive Performance, Blood Biochemical and Physiological Parameters of Sows Following Mating
Abstract :

The experiment was conducted with a total of 12 sows of different breeds (Pure Hampshire, Khasi local and Ghungroo) for evaluating the effect of heat stress on reproductive performance, blood biochemical and physiological parameters of sows following mating. The experiment was conducted at Livestock Production Farm, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya-793103, India for a period of 3 months. The animals were divided into 2 groups viz. experimental and control groups consisting 6 sows in each. The animals of experimental group were kept in continuous exposure to direct sunlight daily for 6 hours (from 9 A.M. to 3 P.M.) up to 20 days following mating and after that, they were kept separately. The animals of the control group were also kept separately in normal condition in shaded room with temperature average 71.6 oF following mating. The serum protein (9.2 ± 0.87 g/dl) and glucose values (112.25 ± 0.75 mg/dl) & the physiological parameters like rectal temperature (41.9 oC ± 0.10 per minute), respiration rate (30 ± 0.07 breaths per minute) and heart rate (82 ± 0.15 beats per minute) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in experimental group of animal than the control but the value recorded in relation to the litter size number (5.97 ± 0.19) at weaning was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in control than that of the experimental group and serum cholesterol concentration (116.65 ± 0.05 mg/dl) also increased significantly (p<0.05) in control group than that of the experimental.

Title: Awareness of Dairy Farmers about Brucellosis Disease
Abstract :
A study was undertaken to determine the awareness status of dairy farmers about brucellosis disease in dairy animals. Prestructured
and pre-tested interview schedule was presented to 115 respondents, who had visited Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, GADVASU, Ludhiana. The study revealed that the very less farmers (22.60%) were aware about this disease. Further, there was low level of awareness about routes of transmission, zoonotic aspect of the disease, need for vaccination, culling of infected animals and other preventive measures against brucellosis. However, the awareness level was positively correlated with education level, herd size and training of the farmers. So, there is urgent need to create awareness amongst dairy farmers about
various control and preventive measures against brucellosis through various educational cum awareness programmes to curtail
it as well as to minimise the economic losses occurring due to it.
Title: Effect of Chitosan Coating Enriched with Cinnamon Oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on Storage Stability of Refrigerated Chicken Meat Nuggets
Abstract :
The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the shelf-life of chitosan and cinnamon oil coated chicken meat nuggets under refrigeration conditions. Three types of coated nuggets were developed viz., Meat coated with Chitosan (1%) and Cinnamon oil (0.05%) (T1), direct addition of Chitosan and Cinnamon oil in emulsion (T2) and nuggets dipped in Chitosan and Cinnamon oil (T3) and were aerobically packaged in low-density polyethylene pouches and assessed for various storage quality parameters under refrigerated (4±1°C) conditions during 28 days of storage. T2 had slightly higher emulsion stability and yield although no significant difference (P>0.05) in between samples. T1 exhibited better storage stability as indicated by lower lipid oxidation than other treatments and the control. Texture profile studies indicated that T2 sample had higher hardness value than other samples. SPC significantly (P<0.05) increased in all the samples with control having the highest value followed by T1, T3 and T2 throughout the storage period. T2 sample exhibited lowest sensory scores and were not accepted by sensory panellist while T1 and T3 samples had better acceptability. It was concluded that chitosan in combination with cinnamon oil had synergistic effect to extend the shelf-life of products (T1 and T3)
Title: Effect of Glutamate Supplementation upon Semen Quality of Young Seasonally Sexual-Inactive Dorper Rams
Abstract :

The aim of this study was to determine if exogenous administration of glutamate to young Dorper rams is able to enhance semen quality under long-day photoperiods in northern Mexico (25° north). Dorper rams (n=10) with homogeneous live weight (LW; 56±0.9 kg), body condition score (BCS; 3.2±0.1 units) and scrotal circumference (SC; 31.9±0.38 cm) were randomly divided into two experimental groups and treated with: i) GLUT (n=5; 7 mg kg-1 LW of glutamate, every 3d × 28d, im.) and ii) CONT (n=5; 1 mL of saline, every 3d × 28d, im.). At the end of the experimental period (d28), semen was collected throughout the use of an artificial vagina; different quality and quantity parameters were evaluated. The ANOVA reveled treatment differences (P<0.05) regarding sperm concentration with the largest value observed in the GLUT-rams (4,260±95.9 × 106 cells) regarding to the CONT-rams (2,828±209.2 × 106 cells). Yet, when considering the rest of the response variables which included ejaculation latency (47 ± 15.8 sec), seminal volume (1.1 ± 0.15 ml), total number of ejaculated sperms (4024.5 ± 696.5 × 106 cells), mass motility (2.1 ± 0.3 units) and the percentage of sperms alive (57.5 ± 9.4 %), no statistical differences (P>0.05) were observed between treatments. Results of this study unveils to glutamate as an interesting molecule positively affecting the spermatogenesis process by increasing the sperm concentration of young Dorper rams during photo-inhibitory reproductive schemes. Results also denote interesting outcomes not only to other animal industries but may also embrace translational applications.

Title: Status of FecB Gene Mutation in Dorper Sheep from Jammu
Abstract :
The present study was carried out to explore polymorphism in exon-8 of FecB gene using PCR-RFLP technique in Dorper sheep. Animals maintained at Government Sheep Breeding Farm, Panthal, Jammu were studied. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples using Phenol-Chloroform-Isoamyl method. The PCR product of 140 bp was amplified using reported primers (part of exon-8 of FecB gene). PCR products was digested for the presence of FecB mutation using AvaІІ restriction enzyme. The studied samples were monomorphic and were having only one genotype (FecB++). Our study reveals that Dorper sheep population in the present study is homozygous and non-carrier of FecB mutation.
Title: Constraints perceived by dairy farmers in adoption and repayment of dairy loans
Abstract :
The present study was conducted on two villages of one block of Hoshiarpur
District of Doaba region of Punjab to find constraints perceived by dairy farmers in adoption and repayment of dairy loans. Majority of dairy farmers belong to different categories according to herd size. Most of dairy farmers considered shortage of quality breed animals, too many intermediates, of milk, high cost of feed and fodder, expensive animals, low milk production and high rate of interest, problem of financial guarantor, policy of banks, low price of milk and inadequate loan amount as the serious problem
Title: Epidemiological Study on Ticks infestations in Cattle of Jharkhand and Therapeutic Evaluation of Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin and Flumethrin
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to find out prevalence of ticks infestation in cattle and comparative therapeutic efficacy of cypermethrin, deltamethrin and flumethrin in dairy cattle of district Koderma, Jharkhand, India. Total 3890 cattle were examined out of them 1602 cattle were found infested with different species of ticks. The overall prevalence of ticks in cattle were recorded 41.18 %. Among them 876 (54.68 %) cattle were infested by Boophilus microplus followed by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, 332 (20.72%), Haemaphysalis bispinosa 261 (16.29%) and 133 (8.30%) with multiple species of ticks. Round the year prevalence of tick were recorded in the cattle and highest (65.84%) prevalence were recorded during month of September and lowest (24.22%) prevalence were in March. Prevalence was noticed higher in monsoon/ rainy season (60.53%) followed by winter season (34.21%) and summer season (28.25%). Prevalence of ticks infestations were significantly higher in young cattle (up to one year), cross breed, female, reared under intensive system. The common sites of predilection of ticks were udder, perineum, groin, and dewlap and flank region. After 28 days post treatment by cypermethrin, deltamethrin and flumethrin, reduction in mean ticks population density were 74.94 %, 78.84 % and 100%, respectively

Title: Crossectional Study on Prevalence of Bovine Schistosomiosis and its Associated Risk Factors in Dangila District, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia
Abstract :
A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to April 2015 in Dangila District, Awi Zone, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence of Bovine schistosomosis and to identify the possible associated risk factors. Simple random sampling method was used to select the animals and coprological examination using sedimentation technique was applied for the recovery of Schistosoma eggs from freshly collected fecal samples and preserved in 10% formalin. Of the total 384 cattle examined, 44(11.5%) were found to be positive for Schistosoma bovis. there was no statistically signifi cant difference observed among four kebeles; even though Dengesgta (16.3%) revealed the highest prevalence, while the lowest in Gumdrie (7.3%). There was no signifi cant difference between two breeds, sexes and three age groups, even though, the prevalence of bovine schistosomosis was recorded higher in local breed cattle(12%) than that of cross breed cattle(8.5%), in female cattle(12.6%) than that of male(9.9%), and it was higher in age group of cattle below 2 years(14.7%) than above 2 years and below 5 year of age(11.7%) and that of age group of above 5 years(10.2%). The prevalence in poor body condition (23.1%) was higher than that of medium body condition (9.7%) as well as good body condition (5.1%) and variation was statistically
signifi cant.
Title: Effect of Organic Selenium and Vitamin E Supplementation on Physico-chemical Characteristics of Broiler Meat
Abstract :
Present study was conducted to investigate the effect of organic selenium and vitamin E on physico-chemical characteristics of broiler meat. This study was a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of three levels of organic selenium (0, 0.1, and 0.2 ppm) and two levels of vitamin-E (0 and 300mg/kg). Day-old Vencobb broiler chicks (n=180), were randomly assigned in 6 treatment groups. The experiment lasted for 35 days. The six different dietary treatments were: T1- Control diet without organic selenium and vitamin E; T2- 300mg/kg vitamin E; T3- 0.1ppm organic selenium; T4- 0.1ppm organic selenium and 300mg/kg vitamin E; T5- 0.2ppm organic selenium and T6- 0.2ppm organic selenium and 300mg/kg vitamin E. Supplementation of organic selenium and vitamin E had no signifi cant effect on pH of broiler meat. Extract release volume (ERV) and water holding capacity (WHC) were signifi cantly (P<0.01) increased in organic selenium and vitamin-E supplemented groups as compared to control and was recorded highest in birds fed 0.1ppm organic selenium with 300mg/kg vitamin-E. Signifi cantly (P<0.01) decreased level of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and tyrosine value (TV) were observed in birds fed organic selenium and vitamin-E as compared to control and was least in birds fed 0.1ppm organic selenium with 300mg/kg vitamin-E. There was marked interaction between organic selenium and vitamin E for ERV, WHC, TBA and TV (P<0.01) however it was non-signifi cant for pH. Supplementation of organic selenium and vitamin E reduces the lipid peroxidation and autolysis, thus improves the shelf life of broiler meat. 
Title: Allergic Dermatitis Occurrence Pattern in Canine of Jammu Region, India
Abstract :
The study was conducted to record the prevalence of allergic dermatitis in canine amongst the dermatitis cases presented at the Veterinary Clinics and Teaching Hospital, F.V.Sc & A.H., R.S Pura, Central Veterinary Hospital Talab Tillo in Jammu region. Diagnosis was done by intradermal skin testing, IgE level, clinical score status on the basis of CADASI. Prevalence of allergic dermatitis was 1.93% (18/930) with maximum prevalence recorded in month of July (27.77%) from the cases. Amongst the allergic dermatological affl ictions in canine population, different types of dermatitis observed were atopic (61.11%), fl ea allergy (16.66%), contact allergy (16.66%) and drug allergy (5.55%). Dogs belonging to the age group of two to four year were found most susceptible to allergic dermatitis. Males were found to be more susceptible to allergic dermatitis than females. Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. were the main bacteria isolated from secondary bacterial dermatitis cases.
Title: Comparative Performance Among Different Genetic Groups of Large White Yorkshire Crossbred Pigs
Abstract :
The Present investigation was carried out to analyse the data on growth and
reproductive traits in Large White Yorkshire (LWY) crossbred pigs. A total of 1635 records of two genetic groups i.e. 50% crossbred (n=845) and 75% crossbred (n=790) LWY x Desi, spread over the 16 years (1994 to 2010) were taken from the animals maintained under All India Coordinated Research Project on pigs, at Livestock Farm, JNKVV, Adhartal, Jabalpur (M.P.) At slaughter age, 75%LWY were found to be slightly heavier than the 50% LWY crossbreds. The genetic group and year had significant effect (Pd”0.05) on almost all body weights. A significant year effect (Pd”0.05) was observed for all the traits. Littersize at birth had a significant (Pd”0.05) effect on litter weight at birth.
Title: Physico-Chemical and Sensory analysis of Probiotic Dahi Packed in Oxobiodegradable and Areca Nut Sheath Cups
Abstract :A study was carried out to evaluate the probiotic dahi and to develop eco friendly cups using areca nut sheath and to utilize it to store the probiotic dahi. The different packaging materials namely plastic cups (control), oxo-biodegradable cups and areca nut sheath cups were used to evaluate the keeping qualities of probiotic dahi. Physico-chemical properties, microbial qualities and sensory evaluation were carried out on the product stored in different containers. Statistical analysis showed there was no significant difference between different packaging materials. Sensory analysis of probiotic dahi in different packaging materials was carried out. Statistical analysis showed that the appearance and overall acceptability scores significantly differed in different packaging materials. There was no significant difference in flavor, body/texture and sourness score of probiotic dahi in different packaging materials.
Title: Study of Prevalence of Arcobacter butzleri in Chicken Meat, Mutton, Chevon, Carabeef and Milk using Conventional PCR
Abstract :

The reports of prevalence of Arcobacter butzleri in mutton, chevon and cara beef are very rare in India. The foods of animal origin included in the present study are mutton, chevon and cara beef in addition to chicken meat and milk. A total of 154 samples viz. 23 for mutton, 20 for chevon and 10 for carabeef were collected from retail meat shops, Bareilly, U.P, India; 70 samples of chicken meat were collected from CARI, IVRI, Bareilly India and 30 milk samples were collected from various milk suppliers, vendors and dairy farms, Bareilly, India. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based screening was employed in this study to determine the prevalence of Arcobacter butzleri in the collected samples. PCR assays used in the present study were standardized as per the protocol of Houf et al. (2000). The optimised PCR assay gave an amplification product of 401 bp size in 18 samples out of 154 and it was specific only for Arcobacter butzleri and not for other related bacterial DNA’s tested like that of Arcobacter cryaerophilus, Arcobacter skirrow, C. jejuni, C. coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli. While 12 of chicken meat, 03 mutton, 01 chevon, 01 carabeef, 01 milk samples were positive by PCR giving the respective prevalence of 17.14%, 13.04%, 5%, 10% and 3.22%. The overall prevalence of Arcobacter butzleri in the screened samples was found to be 11.69%.

Title: Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Atorvastatin with Silymarin and Rutin in Hepatotoxic Rats with a Special Reference to Functional Status of CYP3A4 Enzyme
Abstract :
The study was conducted to assess the functional status of CYP3A4 substrate (atorvastatin) in hepatotoxicity model treated with silymarin and rutin for a period of 14 days in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced with acetaminophen (500 mg/Kg po once daily for 3 days) in adult male Wistar rats in 3 groups. Group 1: Normal control, Group 2, 3 and 4 were administered distilled water
(5 ml/kg po once daily), silymarin (25 mg/Kg po once daily) and rutin (20 mg/Kg po once daily), respectively subsequently for 11 days from the last dose of acetaminophen. On the 15th day, a CYP3A4 substrate (atorvastatin @ 10 mg/kg po) was administered in all the groups and blood samples were collected at predetermined intervals. Pharmacokinetic interaction studies
were conducted for evaluation of CYP3A4 activity using the specific substrate atorvastatin in all the groups. Mean plasma concentration (Cmax), half-life (t1/2β), area under the plasma cconcentration-timecurve (AUC) and mean residence time (MRT) of groups 2 and 4 were signifi cantly (p<0.05) increased and elimination rate constant (β) was signifi cantly (p<0.05) decreased in acetaminophen treated group as comparison to the normal control group. The kinetic profile of silymarin-treated group 3 was comparable to group 1 for single dose study. All the pharmacokinetic parameters of atorvastatin revealed significant correlations between hepatotoxic control and rutin treated group, while silymarin treated group showed signifi cant alterations in the kinetic profile suggesting its hepatoprotective effect.
Title: Cell Mediated Immune Response of Cow Urine with Withania Somnifera and Tinospora Cordifolia
Abstract :
To study the immunomodulatory effect of cow urine ark(distillate) and medicinal herbs, evaluation of cell mediated immune (CMI) response by delayed type hypersensitivity(DTH) reaction to 2,4-dinitro chloro benzene (of experiment DNCB) in the broilers of group I(control), group II(ark treated), group III(ark and W.somnifera treated), group IV(ark and T.cordifolia treated), group V(ark, W.somnifera and T.cordifolia treated) and group VI(ImmuPlus-a polyherbal preparation treated) was carried out. The result indicated that DTH reaction in the broilers of group VI was most severe at 24 hours post challenge on 42nd day of experiment than that followed by group V, IV, III, II and I. DTH response indicates that cow urine ark and medicinal herbs are a potent immunomodulatory agent enhancing the cell mediated immune response. One of the explanations forwarded to justify the beneficial effect of cow urine and medicinal herbs in diseased stress is the non specific enhancement of immune status of the individual.
Title: Epigenetic Reprogramming of Adult Mammalian Cells into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) - An Emerging Paradigm
Abstract :

The field of stem-cell biology has been catapulted forward by the startling development of reprogramming technology. The ability to restore pluripotency to somatic cells through the ectopic co-expression of reprogramming factors has created powerful new opportunities for modelling human diseases and offers hope for personalized regenerative cell therapies. Worldwide increases in life expectancy have been paralleled by a greater prevalence of chronic and age-associated disorders, particularly of the cardiovascular, neural and metabolic systems. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are an emerging paradigm that may address this. Reprogrammed somatic cells from patients are already applied in disease modelling, drug testing and drug discovery, thus enabling researchers to undertake studies for treating diseases ‘in a dish’, which was previously inconceivable. Although there are currently several strategies to deliver reprogramming factors to induce iPSCs. In this study we have focus is on utilize plasmid vector to reprogramm because of convenience, reasonable efficiency and zero genes fingerprints and xeno free production of iPSCs. This virus-free technique reduces the safety concern for iPScell generation and application, and provides a source of cells for the investigation of the mechanisms underlying reprogramming and pluripotency.

Title: Evaluation of PPD based ELISA in the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculos
Abstract :
541 animals from three dairy farms () were firstly screened for bovine tuberculosis by tuberculin skin testing, out of which 71 (13.12%) animals were found tuberculin reactors. The serum samples of 71 tuberculin positive- 104 tuberculin negative and 363 non tuberculin tested animals were then evaluated by Purified Protein Derivative (PPD)-ELISA. PPD-ELISA yielded 57.74%, 8.65% and 24.24% seropositivity in tuberculin positive, tuberculin negative and non-tuberculin tested animals with an overall seroprevalence of 25.65% among tested sera. The relative sensitivity and specificity of ELISA with tuberculin test was 57.74% and 91.34%, respectively. The use of PPD based ELISA may be suggested in conjugation with tuberculin test for whole herd screening and culling programme especially in anergic state or advanced stages of infection.
Title: Chronic Fascioliasis as Cause of Unthriftiness in Sheep with Reference to its Impacts on Blood Constituents
Abstract :
Ten adult sheep (2-4years of age) and eight lambs (5-12 month old), of both sexes were involved in this study. Ten apparently healthy sheep (5 adults and 5 lambs) were also used as a control group. The selected animals were presented with prominent clinical signs of progressive weight loss (in adults), underweight (in lambs), profuse watery diarrhea and edematous swelling of the intermandibular space. Blood as well as fecal and feed samples were analyzed for the selected parameters. The obtained results for hematological values revealed significant decrease (P<0.05) in the total erythrocytic cell counts, hemoglobin concentration and packed
cell volume in both sheep and lambs if compared with those of the apparently
healthy ones. The mean values of mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were
significantly increased associated with significant decrease (P<0.05) in mean
corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) indicating a macrocytic
hypochromic anemia. Also there was significant increase (P<0.05) in the total
leucocytic counts with marked eosinophilia in ill thrifty sheep and lambs when
compared with those of the apparently healthy ones.
Title: Knowledge level of Gujjars of Jammu and Kashmir regarding Improved Animal Husbandry Practices
Abstract :
The study was conducted in Jammu district of Jammu and Kashmir, with a view to fi nd out the knowledge level of the Gujjars regarding improved animal husbandry practices. The data were collected from 120 Gujjar respondents belonging to R. S. Pura and Bishnah block of Jammu district with the help of structured interview schedule containing selected dependent and independent variable, through personal interview technique. Most of the respondents (70.8%) were having medium knowledge level, whereas 19.2% had low and 10% had high knowledge level. The respondents were having low knowledge about improved health care practices (41.25%) when compared with the knowledge level about improved breeding practices which was 71.75%. Age, occupation, herd size and land holding were negatively related to the knowledge level. Education, social participation, extension contact, economic motivation, mass media exposure, risk orientation and exposure to training were positively associated with knowledge level of the respondents
Title: Characterization of New MHC (Bubu) -DQB Allele in Buffalo
Abstract :
A partial 517 nucleotide long DQB cDNA was amplified and sequenced from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and was named as Bubu-DQB*2. The
Bubu-DQB*2 showed 96.6% and 92% homologies with cattle (BoLA)-DQB2 and -DQB1 sequences, respectively, whereas 95.6, 96, 90.3, 86 and 90% homologies with sheep, goat, pig, dog and human, respectively. The Bubu-DQB*2 showed 20 nucleotide changes including eight as non-synonymous substitutions compared with Bubu-DQB allele already reported. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Bubu-DQB*2 evolved earlier to the diversification of common DQB alleles of ruminants. New Bubu-DQB*2 allele might be vital to produce specific presenting molecule, which can recognise different pathogens in buffaloes.
Title: Seasonal Prevalence and Antibiogram Studies of Bovine Mastitis in Southern Haryana
Abstract :

Mastitis in bovines causes huge economical loss to the dairy industry. It affects the public health due to the transmission of pathogenic bacteria and the toxins produced by them through the food chain. The timely diagnosis of subclinical mastitis (SCM) and its proper treatment based on antibiogram have significant impact on reducing the economical loss to the dairy farmers. Therefore the present study was conducted to find out the prevalence and antibiogram pattern of the mastitis causing bacteria in Southern Haryana. A total prevalence rate of 65.79% was observed for subclinical mastitis in Southern Haryana by the screening test. The highest prevalence was observed in winter (59.49%), followed by rainy season (69.61%) and cattle were found as more susceptible to SCM when compared to buffaloes. The major Gram negative pathogens isolated were belonged to E. coli, followed by Klebsiella species and Pseudomonas species, the common organisms responsible for environmental mastitis. The antibiogram patterns of the isolates were also studied and the maximum sensitive antibiotic against mastitis was found as Chloramphenicol, followed by Enrofloxacin, Amikacin and Ampicillin. The most resistant antibiotics in the study area was found as Ceftizoxime followed by Amoxicillin as these antibiotics were frequently and indiscriminately used for the treatment of mastitis in the study area without subjecting to in vitro antibiotic sensitive test. This emphasis the need of awareness among dairy farmers regarding the hygienic managemental practices to be followed at farm level as well as necessity of conducting antibiotic sensitivity test for the treatment.

Title: Decline in Reproductive Performance in High Producing Murrah Buffalo
Abstract :
In the present investigation the average performance of various performance traits in Murrah buffaloes has been studied. Data on 1224 lactations of Murrah buffaloes scattered over 19 years from January 1993 to October 2011 maintained at organized herd of National Dairy Research Institute. A total of 522 buffaloes completed first lactation and 368, 226 and 108 animals completed second, third and fourth lactations, respectively. Following traits were studied, age at first calving (AFC), days to first service (DFS), service period (SP), pregnancy rate (PR), lactation length (LL), 305 days or less milk yield (305 DMY) and 305 days or less wet average (WA). Study revealed that average performance of AFC, DFS and SP was 43.97 ± 0.36 months, 90.10 ± 1.60 days and 139.91 ± 2.96 days. Overall average pregnancy rate was estimated as 0.36 ± 0.013 whereas it was found to be 0.34 ±
0.02, 0.39 ± 0.02, 0.33 ± 0.03, 0.38 ± 0.05 for first, second, third and fourth
parity, respectively in Murrah buffalo. The average performance of LL, 305 DMY, WA were estimated to be 284.38 ± 1.08 days, 2034.42 ± 20.79 kg and 7.29 ± 0.06 kg. It may be inferred that intense selection of buffalo for milk production if continued for long with giving due attention to reproductive traits then it is likely to cause deterioration in reproduction traits in days to come.
Title: Characterisation of Mizoram Native Cattle of Indian Origin
Abstract :
A total of 33 farmers from 11 villages of Champhai and Kolasib districts were interviewed and 237 animals of different age and sex were recorded for physical and morphometric characteristics and performance to characterise indigenous cattle of Mizoram state. Based on the maximum number of indigenous cattle revealed from livestock census, two districts were selected for survey viz. Champhai (6663) and Kolasib (4720). Animals were reared mainly on extensive management conditions. The body colour varied in different colours i.e. brown (85%), black (11%) and gray (41%). Animals were small in size with cylindrical type of body. Udder was small and milk veins were not prominent. The daily milk production ranged from 1.5 to 3.5 kg. The average milk yield was 1.54±0.11 kg. The average age at first calving, lactation length, dry period, service period, calving interval, herd life and number of calving during life time were 1160 days (28 to 42 months) 178 days (150-210 days), 132 days (120-150 days), 121 days (90-120 days), 638 days (12-24 months), 15-20 years and 8-10 calving, respectively. A pair of bullock may plough about 0.5 acre of land in 5-6 hours. Different body measurements revelead that animals are small in size. It was observed that cows had good potential for milk production in the difficult climate. There is urgent need plan genetic improvement programs to improve the productivity of indigenous cattle of the state.
Title: Repair of Humeral Fracture in a Peregrine Falcon by Nailing of an Injection Needle
Abstract :
A young peregrine falcon was presented with a right midshaft open fracture of the humerus. This report describes an innovation technique for intramedullary pinning using an injection needle as a pin device of internal fixation.
Title: Antimicrobial Profile of Clostridium Perfringens Isolates from Dairy Products
Abstract :
The aim of the present study was to observe the antimicrobial profile of isolates of Cl. perfringens from pasteurized milk and milk products (icecream and shrikhand) against 16 antibiotics. Antimicrobial profile revealed that few drugs like amikacin, piperacillin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cephoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol were showing higher sensitivity. Antibiotics like erythromycin and gentamicin were displaying intermediate sensitivity. Drugs like tetracycline, ampicillin, penicillin, co-trimoxazole and cloaxacillin showed higher resistance. While, lincomycin was observed to be almost resistance to Cl. perfringens isolates.
Title: Histology and Histochemistry of Oviduct of Adult Bakerwali Goat in Different Phases of Estrus Cycle
Abstract :
Twelve genitalia of apparently healthy, non pregnant adult Bakerwali goat were collected from local slaughter houses immediately after sacrifice. Sections were stained with different staining methods. The oviduct of Bakerwali goat was lined with pseudostratifi ed columnar ciliated epithelium in infundibulum and ampulla whereas pseudostratifi ed columnar nonciliated epithelium in isthmus. The thickness of tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis of oviduct increases towards the isthmus and was significantly higher in luteal phase of estrus cycle whereas height of epithelium was significantly higher in luteal phase but decreased towards the layer of muscles in the terminal part of isthmus. The height of lining epithelium was significantly higher in luteal phase than follicular phase in all three segments of oviduct. In the luteal phase, apical blebs with PAS positive material ere seen above lining epithelium. The cytoplasm of glandular and lining epithelium showed strong reaction with Alcian blue
and mild reactivity for bound lipids with Sudan Black B. Tunica muscularis showed moderate reaction for Alcian blue showing
presence of acidic mucopolysaccharides and mild reaction for bound lipids with Sudan Black B.
Title: Prevalence of Aeromonas spp. and its Virulence Genes in Samples of Carabeef and Mutton
Abstract :

A survey was conducted to ascertain the distribution and virulence of Aeromonas spp. (species) in carabeef and mutton samples in Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, India. Conventional method using Aeromonas isolation medium and Ampicillin Dextrin agar, PCR targeting 16S rRNA were used to identify Aeromonas spp. in meat samples. Conventional cultural method revealed 28% and 40% positives in mutton and carabeef, respectively whereas PCR assay detected 32% (mutton) and 44% (carabeef) positives suggesting that PCR has a better sensitivity than the cultural method. PCR positives were examined for the presence of toxin genes. Both aerolysin (37.5% in mutton and carabeef) and thermostablecytotonic enterotoxin (36.3%)

Title: Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) Leaf Powder on Oxidative Stress Marker in Broilers
Abstract :
The study was conducted on 72 - day old straight run commercial broiler chicks (DOC) till 6 weeks of age to investigate the effect of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf powder (TLP) on the hematological parameters of broilers. Chicks were randomly divided into four groups of 18 chicks each. Control group received standard broilers diet. Chicks in second, third and fourth group received standard broilers diet supplemented with Tulsi leaf powder (TLP) @ 0.25, 0.50 and 1 percent. Blood samples were collected at the end of 6th week from the wing vein in sterile heparinized tubes. Plasma was separated by centrifugation for determination of oxidative stress marker in broilers. Results revealed a significant effect of TLP in feeds as alkaline phosphatase level was significantly (P<0.05) lower in diets supplemented with 0.5 % and 1.0% TLP.
Title: Clinico-haemato-biochemical, Peritoneal Fluid and Rumen Fluid Alterations in Buffaloes with Peritonitis
Abstract :
This study was designed to investigate the clinico-haemato-biochemical, rumen fl uid and peritoneal fl uid alteration in buffaloes
with peritonitis. Buffaloes with peritonitis had anorexia, dehydration, abdominal distension, ruminal atony, pain, fever, reduced milk yield and loss of defecation. Pungent smelling peritoneal fluid was yielded on abdominocentesis. Hemato-biochemical alterations revealed absolute neutrophilia, increased levels of plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, globulin and fi brinogen and decreased levels of plasma sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride. Peritoneal fl uid analysis showed increased total leucocyte count, neutrophil count and total protein level. Whereas, rumen liquor of diseased buffaloes had microbial inactivity, increased methylene blue reduction time, increased ammonia nitrogen and decreased total volatile fatty acids.
Title: Effect of Tomato Pomace Supplementation on the Nutritional Value of Dog Diet as Assessed by In-Vitro Digestibility
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect on different processing techniques on nutritive value of dog food and to determine appropriate supplementation level of tomato pomace (TP) in dog food. Standardized diets were subjected to different processing techniques viz. raw, boiling and extrusion. Proximate analysis of feeds revealed that boiling of feed decreased the ether extract content of diets. The in-vitro analysis was done with two incubation phases, first gastric phase of 2 hours duration in the presence of pepsin, gastric lipase and HCl and a second intestinal phase with 4h duration in presence of pancreatin and bile salts. TP was included in diet at 0, 2.5 and 5% level. Results revealed that among different processing techniques, irrespective of level of TP in diet, best results were observed in case of extruded diets. DMD and OMD of boiled diets was lower (<0.001)than extruded diets and higher than raw diets. As far as level of TP is concerned, best results were obtained in diet without TP. However DMD and OMD was (<0.001) higher at 2.5 % inclusion level than at 5% inclusion level while CPD and EED were non-significant at 2.5 and 5% inclusion level. Parameters viz.pH, FFA, PV and aflatoxin content of prepared dog diets was with in permissible limits.

Title: Effect of Oral Supplementation of Putrescine and L-glutamine on the Histomorphology of Small Intestine and Growth Performance in Broiler Chickens
Abstract :
A work was conducted to study the effect of putrescine and L-glutamine supplementation on histomorphology of small intestine in broiler chickens. Five groups of ten chicks each in three replicates reared up to 42 days were used for this study. Putrescine and L-glutamine were orally supplemented at 0% level as control (T1), putrescine 0.05% (T2), putrescine 0.1% (T3), L-glutamine 0.5% (T4) and L-glutamine 1% (T5) from 0 day to 7 days after hatch. At 2nd and 3rd week of age, 3 birds from each groupwere slaughtered and tissue samples from small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) were collected for histomorphological studies. Statistically signifi cant (p<0.01) increase in duodenal and jejunal villi length, width,crypt length and ileal villi length and width were observed in L-glutamine fed groups than putrescine and control groups. There was no signifi cant difference in duodenal crypt length/width, jejunal crypt width and ileal crypt length/width. It can be inferred that L-glutamine promoted the intestinal villi development during early posthatch life, thus increasing the nutrients absorption and growth performance as body weight gain in broiler chickens
Title: Fracture Occurrence Pattern in Animals
Abstract :
The overall incidence of fracture was recorded as 0.95 per cent for all species of animals. The incidence of fracture in dog was 0.76 per cent. Dog was observed as the most common species presented with a fracture followed by goat and other species. The mean age was recorded to be 26.32±5.14 months. Fifteen animals (78.95%) were noticed in age group of 12-36 months. Majority of animals were non-descript (42.10%). Fracture was recorded more in male animals (77.78%). An automobile accident (42.10%) emerged to be the major cause of fracture, whereas a fall from height (31.58%) was second common cause of fracture.
The femur was found to be the most common bone (47.37%) involved in the fracture, seconded by tibia-fi bula (36.84%), which was followed by radius-ulna (15.79 %). The radiographic examination conducted in two orthogonal views revealed that 14 (73.68%) fractures were multiple whereas, 5 (26.32%) fractures were comminuted
Title: Effect of Replacing Inorganic Zinc with Lower Levels of Organic Zinc on Zinc Retention and Follicular Population in Rats
Abstract :
An experiment of 10 weeks duration was conducted on 48 weaned female rats (285.2 ± 1.95 g) of strain Sprague Dawley to study the effect of replacing dietary Zn (12 ppm) supplementation from inorganic (ZnCO3) to organic (Zn nicotinate; Zn-nic) source at lower (6 or 9 ppm) or equal (12 ppm) levels on Zn retention and ovarian follicular population. Higher Zn concentration (on day 42) in serum (P<0.01) and liver (P<0.05) was noticed with 9 and 12 ppm Zn supplementation as Zn-nic compared to other dietary treatments. Zn deposition in pancreas, muscle and kidney was comparable among the dietary treatments. In comparison to 12 ppm inorganic Zn, RBC catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities (42nd d) improved (P<0.05) with 9 and 12 ppm organic Zn. Significantly (P<0.05) highest and lowest serum progesterone concentration was observed with 9 or 12 ppm Zn as Zn-nic and 6 ppm as Zn-nic supplementation, respectively. Regular estrous cycle was observed with 9 or 12 ppm Zn supplementation as Zn-nic, while 30% rats fed on other dietary treatments showed irregular estrous cycle. The proportion of primary follicles was lowest (P<0.01) and that of corpus uteum was highest (P<0.01) with 12 ppm Zn supplementation from Zn-nic, compared to other dietary treatments. The study indicated that Zn concentration in diets could be reduced by 75% (9 ppm) when supplemented as Zn nicotinate without affecting estrous cycle and follicular population. In addition, replacement of 12 ppm inorganic Zn with 12 ppm organic Zn significantly improved its retention and follicular population.
Title: Comparative Study of Seasonal Variations on Hematological Profile in Sahiwal Cows (Bos Indicus) and Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis)
Abstract :
Six apparently healthy, non-lactating and non-pregnant Sahiwal cows and Murrah buffalo each above two years of age were selected to evaluate the effect of seasonal variations on hematological parameters. Blood samples were collected aseptically by jugular vein puncture during peak winter and peak summer seasons. The present investigation revealed the mean values of Hb, PCV, TEC, neutrophils, MCH, MCHC were significantly higher (P<0.05) in Murrah buffalo during summer season as compared to their winter season. On the other hand, in Sahiwal cows except PCV (P<0.05) other hematological parameters were found to be statistically nonsignificant
(P>0.05). The neutrophils/lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher
(P<0.05) during summer as against the winter season in case of Murrah buffalo, whereas no significant alternation was registered in case of Sahiwal cows. These findings suggested that Murrah buffalo are more prone to stress due to seasonal variations in comparison to Sahiwal cows.
Title: Effect of Temperament on Some Blood Biochemical Parameters and Growing Traits of Lambs During Fattening
Abstract :
Aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of temperament on certain metabolic parameters (cortisol, glucose, serum fructosamine, triglyceride, albumin, total protein, urea), as well as daily weight gain in fattening lambs. Eight calm (score 1) and eight nervous (score 4 and 5) German Mutton Merino ram lambs were involved in the investigation on a sheep farm. Lambs’ temperament was evaluated by a temperament test (movements of animals were assessed in 5-score system during weighing – from 1: calm, to 5: nervous - while spending 30 sec on the scale) at three times: 1st, 20th and 40th days of the 40-day experiment. The blood samples were taken immediately after temperament scoring. The calmer lambs had lower (P<0.05) concentrations of plasma cortisol (17.11 nmol/l), serum fructosamine (346.53 μmol/l), triglyceride (0.214 mmol/l), and urea (3.31 mmol/l) as well. In addition calm lambs had higher (P<0.05)daily weight gain (466.67 g/day), compared to the nervous animals (25.13 nmol/l, 503.76μmol/l, 0.275 mmol/l, 5.51mmol/l and 345.36 g/day, respectively). These results suggested that lambs’ blood biochemical parameters influenced by temperament, nervous and calm lambs differ in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, demonstrated by an increase in urea, triglyceride and serum fructosamine in nervous lambs.
Title: Determination of Sperm Transfer Time and Retention times of different Regions of Hamster Epididymis
Abstract :
Most of the scientific researches deal with the epididymal sperm maturation but not with the storage of sperms in epididymis. The present study was carried out to determine sperm transfer time, sperm retention time and sperm motility in different regions of hamster epididymis after placing ligations. Ligations were made at the initial segment of the epididymes. The total number of sperm was assessed using the haemocytometer counting method and sperm counts were taken on defined time intervals starting from the 3rd day to the 78th day of post-ligation. Total sperm count was decreased 50% by 3 days in caput and corpus regions and by 15 days in cauda region. Yet, there were a few numbers of sperm in all regions of hamster epididymis even after 78 days of post-ligation. By 15 days, sperm motility was decreased rapidlyin all epididymal regions and the majority of sperms were immotile by the 24th day of post-ligation. Both sperm counts; immotile and motile sperms in control side was significantly different compared to that of the ligated side of the epididymis (p< 0.05). Sperm emptying time was approximately 18 days in the caput alone, 14 days in the corpus and 46 days in the cauda. It is concluded that in the ligated hamster epididymis sperm transfer takes more than 78 days. The findings of the present study will be vital for future studies on mechanisms of sperm transport and sperm storage in the cauda epididymis in detail.
Title: Influence of Condensed tannins Supplementation through Ficus infectoria and Psidium guajava Leaf Meal Mixture on Nutrient Intake and Clinical Chemistry in Lambs
Abstract :
This study examined the effect of condensed tannins (CT) through Ficus infectoria and Psidium guajava leaf meal mixture (LMM) on nutrient intake, calcium and phosphorus retention and clinical chemistry in lambs. Twenty four non-descript lambs 6 months of age with average body weight 10.07±0.59 kg were randomly divided into 4 dietary treatments (CT-0, CT-1, CT-1.5 and CT-2) consisting of six lambs in each in a completely randomized block design. Blood-biochemical profile was monitored at 45 days intervals. The intake (g kg-1 W0.75) of dry matter and organic matter were significantly (P<0.05) lower in control (CT-0) as compared to CT supplemented groups. LMM was given to lambs to supply CT @ 1, 1.5 and 2% in CT-1, CT-1.5 and CT-2, respectively. The Hb and PCV levels were highest (P<0.05) in CT-1.5 followed by CT-1, CT-2 and CT-0, respectively. CT Supplementation significantly (P<0.01) reduced serum urea level in CT-1, CT-1.5 and CT-2 groups as compared to CT-0. Serum proteins differed significantly (P<0.05) among various dietary treatments. Serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine levels were comparable among all treatment groups. Similarly, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase did not differ significantly among dietary treatments. Alkaline phosphates was significantly (P<0.05) higher in CT-1.5 as compared to CT-2, however, CT-1 and CT-2 have intermediate values between CT-1.5
and CT-0. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT at moderate level (1-2 %) did not exert any adverse effect on
blood chemistry; however, some blood parameters and nutrient intake was improved considerably.
Title: Heavy Metal Contamination in Excreta of Blue Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) and Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) in Rural Areas of Punjab
Abstract :

Bird excreta are considered as bioindicator of heavy metal contamination in agricultural areas. The aim of the study was to evaluate the heavy metal concentrations in the excreta of Blue Rock Pigeon and Indian Peafowl to monitor the environment contamination in rural areas of Punjab. This study was carried out in two villages i.e Rampur Chhana (District Sangrur, location I) and Dargapur (District Patiala, location II). The excreta of Blue Rock Pigeon and Indian Peafowl were collected. After collection they were digested for metal analysis which was done through ICAP-AES. The study showed toxic level of Pb, high level above normal range of As and Ni more in the excreta of Indian Peafowl than in excreta of Blue Rock Pigeon. The concentration of B was in toxic range in excreta of Blue Rock Pigeon. It was inferred that they relied in similar environmental conditions while having exposure to different feeding habitats might have resulted in species specific heavy metal accumulation. Our studies showed that location I had more concentration of heavy metals like Pb, B and As which seems to be due to the presence of industrial units near this location. It has been concluded that more level of heavy metals in the excreta of Indian Peafowl was due to its high trophic level in the food chain. Statistical analysis showed significant difference among both the bird species which signifies the bioaccumulation of metals in the excreta of Indian Peafowl.

Title: Effect of Various Genetic and Non-genetic Factors on Reproductive Traits in Large White Yorkshire Crossbred and Tamworth Crossbred Pigs
Abstract :
The data on reproductive performance of 1850 crossbred pigs belonging to three genetic groups viz. ½ LWY-desi crossbred (845), ¾ LWY-desi crossbred (790) and ½ Tamworth-desi crossbred (215) maintained at AICRP on Pigs, Adhartal, Jabalpur (M.P.) covering period from 1994 to 2010 were subjected to least squares analysis to study the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors. The least squares means for litter weight at birth were 7.18±0.24 and 6.61±0.24 kg for ½ and ¾ LWY-desi crossbreds and 7.13±0.24 kg for ½ Tamworth-desi crossbreds respectively. The least squares means for litter weight at weaning were 55.82±2.58,
61.03±2.31 and 61.93±3.54 kg for ½ LWY-desi, ¾ LWY-desi and ½ Tamworthdesi crossbred respectively. The present investigation showed a significance influence of period and season of birth on litter traits indicated the potential for optimizing production performance of pig providing optimal environmental conditions.
Title: Serum Haptoglobin Concentration to Monitor Recovery from Postpartum Sub-Clinical Endometritis in Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :
A total of 150 postpartum apparently healthy buffaloes were screened. Out of these 30 buffaloes were found to be positive for sub-clinical endometritis were selected and divided into five groups. The group wise treatment allotted were: Group I (cloprostenol,), Group II (cloprostenol + benzathine cephapirin, single I/U infusion),
Group III (100 ìg E. coli LPS, single I/U infusion), Group IV (500 mg Oyster glycogen, single I/U infusion) and Group V (0.25% Lugol’s iodine 20 ml, single I/U infusion). All the animals were subjected to trans-rectal ultrasonography, endometrial cytology, microbial assay and blood sampling for serum haptoglobin concentration before and after treatment. Total viable bacteria count revealed non-significant (p > 0.05) difference within pre- and post-treatment samples between different treatment groups. Post-treatment total viable bacteria count significantly (p < 0.05) reduced to zero in treatment groups III and IV. Out of 30 pre-treatment uterine lavage samples obtained from all the treatment groups, 25 (83.33%) samples were found positive. E. coli 08 (30.76%) was highly prevalent followed by 07 (26.92%) Staphylococcus spp., 03 (11.53%) Streptococcus spp.,
03 (11.53%) Proteusspp., 03 (11.53%) Acinetobacter spp. and 01 (07.69%) Bacillusspp. Serum haptoglobin concentration in different treatment groups ranged from 76.62 ± 1.58 to 85.83 ± 2.12 ìg/ml prior to treatment and 26.37 ± 0.86 to 42.57 ± 9.08 ìg/ml post-treatment. Significant reduction (p < 0.05) was observed in haptoglobin concentration between pre- and post-treatment values in all the treatment groups. It was concluded that assessment of haptoglobin concentration in sub-clinical endometritic postpartum buffaloes can be used to monitor course of treatment at different points of time.
Title: Effect of Frying on Quality Characteristics of Chicken Meat Samosas
Abstract :

Present study was undertaken to assess the effect of deep fat frying on quality characteristics of chicken meat samosas. The formulation and processing conditions for preparation of chicken meat samosas were standardized. A total of three types of samosa were prepared by using various frying methods as deep fat frying (T1, 185ºC for 6 min), flash frying (T2, 185ºC for 2 min) and flash frying followed by deep fat frying (T3, 185ºC for 5 min). The developed products along with raw samosas (C) were studied for various physico-chemical, proximate parameters, instrumental colour profile and sensory analysis. T1 and T3 products were compared for sensory attributes. The pH of T3 samples was noted significantly (P<0.05) lower than T1, T2 and raw samosa. T3 samosa was recorded with highest fat percentage and calorific value. Protein content of T1 and T2 were comparable and was significantly (P<0.05) higher than T3. The T1 samples were noted with significant (P<0.05) higher flavour and overall acceptability attributes as compared to T3 samples. Thus, it can be concluded that samosa cooked by frying in refined soybean oil at 185ºC for 6 minutes had better sensory attributes with good nutritive value.

Title: Immune Response of Yak (Poephagus grunniens) Following Trivalent Oil Adjuvant FMD Vaccination Along With Immunomodulator
Abstract :
The present investigation was carried out to determine the immunomodulatory effcet of Levamisole on antibody response in
yaks using liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LPBE) following trivalent oil adjuvant FMD vaccine (O, A, Asia-1). Twenty numbers of apparently healthy and young yaks were divided into two groups viz. groups I and II comprising of 10 animals in each group. All the animals of groups I and II were treated with a single dose of broad spectrum anthelmintic, fenbendazole orally prior to vaccination. The animals of group II were injected with Levamisol, six days prior and after FMD vaccination. On 30 days of post vaccination (dpv), there was a sharp rise to the antibody titres against all the 3 serotypes in animals of both the groups and the protective antibody level (log 10 ≥ 1.8) was maintained up to 90 dpv. A drastic fall of antibody titres against all the 3 serotypes was observed at 120 dpv in animals of both the groups. However, the protective antibody titre against the three serotypes at 180 dpv was maintained in few of the animals of the experimental group II but in Group I the protective titre was found up to 150 dpv only.
Title: Sialic Acid Content in Colostrum of Two Cross Breed Dairy Goat: Effect of Breed and Lactation
Abstract :
The present study aims to investigate the sialic acid content in colostrum of two crossbred goats, Sannen ×× Beetal and Alpine × Beetal, and to compare the effect of milking time on the sialic acid content between the breeds. Colostrum samples were collected from all the animals, at an interval of 12 hours, beginning at kidding
till 72 hours thereafter. The sialic acid concentrations were estimated from the processed colostrum samples by fluorimetric method. The sialic acid content in colostrum of Alpine × Beetle and Sannen × Beetle goats ranged from 0.19 to 1.03 and 0.17 to 0.98 mg/ml, respectively. Sialic acid concentrations of colostrum in both the breeds were higher at 0 hour of milking and a gradual decrease in their levels was observed till 72 hours of milking. The mean ± S.E. sialic acid concentrations of Alpine × Beetal colostrum at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than their respective values for Sannen × Beetle colostrum. This study indicated that the breed and milking time have significant effect on sialic acid concentration of goat’s colostrum.
Title: Detection of papC Genes From E. coli Isolates of Pork Origin
Abstract :
Thirty six E. coli isolates belonging to 18 serotypes and rough strains recovered from pork were evaluated for presence of papC gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The papC gene was detected in 12 (33.3%) isolates of E. coli (serogroups viz. O1, O5, O12, O24, O49, O75, O127 and O147), however, papC genes were not observed in rough strains of E. coli. The study suggests that pork may be a potential source of pathogenic E. coli with papC gene to humans.
Title: Identification and In-silico Annotation of Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of the Candidate Gene Association with the Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor Disease
Abstract :
Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a histiocytic tumor of the dog that mainly affects the external genitalia, commonly found at tropical and subtropical zones. In the present investigation, we undertook this work mainly to perform a computational analysis of snSNP in the BTNL2 to identify the possible mutations and proposed the model structure of the mutant protein. Four deleterious mutations were identified in BTNL2 in 109 and 319 residual positions. Moreover, we constructed the homolgus structure of native and mutant proteins to predicate the stability. I-Mutant was used for routine analysis of protein stability and for the single site mutation analysis. It was found that mutation of L to S at residual position 109 and A to T at 319 residue position has shown maximum negative effect on the protein stability and considered for further analysis. The mutational effect on the protein function was analyzed by project HOPE. It was found that the wild-type residue is very conserved, but a few other residue types have been
observed at this position too. Based on conservation scores this mutation is probably damaging to the protein. The present investigation was further used for molecular expect of the CTVT infection which might be useful in diagnosis and prevention of CTVT in canine.
Title: Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella Isolated from Flies Trapped at Animal and Poultry Farm Premises
Abstract :

The aim of this study was to explore antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella species from flies trapped at livestock and poultry farm premises. A total of 36 pools of flies and 72 rectal/cloacae swabs were collected. All the flies were Musca domestica except one fly was Calliphora erythrocephala. E. coli were recovered from all the flies (100%) and fecal (100%) samples. Whereas, Salmonellae were obtained from 21 (58.33%) flies and 15 (20.83%) fecal samples. E. coli and Salmonella isolates were multi-drug resistant strains. E. coli exhibited resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (100%), cefotaxime (93.57%), aztreonam (59.63%), cefpodoxime (58.71%) and imipenem (48.62%). Salmonellae were also 100% resistant to ampicillin-clavulanic acid followed by cefotaxime (91.66%), cefpodoxime (94.44%) and imipenem (91.66%). Colistin resistance was recorded more in Salmonella (61.11%) than E. coli (12.84%) by phenotypic assays, however, mcr1 to mcr5 genes could not be detected in any of the E. coli and Salmonella isolates. Bacteria studied were ESBL (21.10%) and MBL positive. Present study is suggestive of the fact that flies harbor multidrug resistant, ESBL, MBL and colistin resistant E. coli and Salmonella strains. Extensive monitoring of indicators organisms of AMR in unconventional reservoirs like flies is needed.

Title: Effect of Aminoguanidine-Hemisulphate on Amikacin Induced Hematological Alterations in Wistar Rats
Abstract :
In the present study, haematological alterations induced by intraperitoneal administration of amikacin and the effect of aminoguanidine-hemisulphate alone and their combination was studied in wistar rats of either sex.Twenty-four healthy wistar rats divided into 4 groups (I, II, IIIand IV) were taken for the study. The intraperitoneal administration of amikacinat at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg body weight for 28 days (Group-II) caused a significant decrease in haematological parameters like Hb, PCV, TEC and TLC as compared to control-group. Although a significant increase in parameters was found in aminoguanidine treated-rats on day 15th and 29th as compared to day zero within same group. However after the co-administration of amikacin and aminoguanidine, a non-significant change was found in same parameters (Hb, TEC, PCV and TLC) as compared to control.
Title: Effect of Heat Stress on Haemato-biochemical and Endocrinological Profile
Abstract :
Present study was planned to investigate the cause of postpartum true anoestrus in buffaloes during summer through the analysis of hemato-biochemical and endocrinological profile of anoestrus buffaloes. Blood samples were collected from 50 buffaloes belonging to two groups i.e. cyclic (n=10), and summer anoestrus buffaloes (n=40) animals respectively. The samples were analysed for haematological parameters including total erythrocytes count (TEC), total leukocytes count (TLC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration(MCHC), biochemical parameters viz., glucose, total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, alanine amino transaminaseand aspartate transaminase, calcium, phosphorus, manganese, zinc, copper cobalt and hormones of the plasma sample viz., progesterone, estradiol tri-iodothyronine (T3) thyroxine (T4) and cortisol using commercially available kits. The results revealed that Hb and MCH varied significantly (P<0.05) between the groups and other haematological parameters did not vary between two groups. In biochemical parameters glucose, total protein, albumin and total cholesterol were significantly (p<0.05) lower in anoestrus buffaloes than normal cyclic buffaloes and the progesterone, estradiol, tri-iodothyronine and the cortisol concentration varied significantly (P<0.05)between two groups. It can be concluded that variation in some hematobiochemical and hormonal levels might be the cause of the anoestrus during summer stress in buffaloes.
Title: Development of Chicken Meat Powder Incorporated Instant Idli Mixes
Abstract :
A study was conducted to standardize the instant rice idli mix and instant semolina idli mix incorporated with chicken meat powder (CMP), simultaneously. The control sample of rice idli mix was prepared using rice grit, salt, spice mix, sodium bicarbonate, citric acid, sodium carbonate and dry curry leaves and the control semolina idli mix was prepared by replacing the rice grit with semolina. Three different levels of chicken meat powder viz.10%, 20% and 30% were tried for development of both rice and semolina idli mixes. The developed products were selected on the basis of sensory attributes and evaluated for their physicochemical properties. Incorporation of chicken meat powder in rice idli mix at 20% level and in semolina idli mix at 30% level were found to be optimum for development of idlies. CMP incorporation in both the idli mixes decreased the percent moisture content and increased the protein, fat and ash content signifi cantly. The percent protein content of reconstituted idlies prepared from rice idli mix incorporated with 20% CMP and semolina idli mix incorporated with 30% CMP increased signifi cantly from 3.38 to 8.28 and from 4.49 to 12.50, respectively. However, cooking yield of both rice and semolina idlies was decreased and the pH value were increased signifi cantly on incorporation of CMP. Hence, we conclude that by incorporating 20% and 30% CMP in rice and semolina instant idli mixes, respectively both the overall acceptability score and amount of nutrients were improved.
Title: Effect of Garlic and Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on Production Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Immunological Parameters of Guinea Fowls
Abstract :

A study was conducted on 120 guinea fowls to see the effect of garlic powder and chromium picolinate supplementation on growth performance, carcass characteristics and immunological parameters of guinea fowls. The birds were randomly divided into four treatment groups, having three replications consisting of ten birds each. The birds in the control group (T1) were not given any supplement, whereas, in treatments, birds were supplemented with garlic powder @ 1 % of basal diet (T2), chromium picolinate @ 1500 ppb in drinking water (T3) and chromium picolinate @ 1000 ppb in drinking water plus garlic powder @ 0.5 % of basal diet (T4) respectively. Results of trial indicated that both garlic and chromium picolinate supplementation improved body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (P<0.05) of Guinea fowls. Feed intake of birds was also found reduced (P<0.05) in all treatment groups in comparison to control. At the end of twelve week of age, the carcass traits-eviscerated weight with and without giblet and organ weights did not differ significantly between treatment groups. The abdominal fat expressed as percentage of live weight was significantly lower (P<0.05) in all treatment groups as compared to control group. Immune response as revealed by delayed type of hypersensitivity (measurement of skin thickness) and serum immunoglobulin were improved in all the three supplemented groups. Thus it can be concluded that both chromium and garlic supplementation can improve growth performance and immunity and thus can be used as growth promoters in poultry.

Title: Seroprevalence of Canine Leishmaniasis in Owned and Stray Dogs from Ggrenada, West Indies
Abstract :The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Leishmania antibodies in two populations of dogs (owned and stray) in Grenada, West Indies. Leishmainiasis caused by a hemoflagelate protozoan, is zoonotic disease that affects a wide range of animals including man. Dogs are considered main reservoir for the organism. Antibodies to Leishmania spp were determined in serum samples from 836 dogs (344 stray and 492 owned dogs) using qualitative immunochromatographic dipstick tests (ICTs) based on recombinant antigens specific for visceral leishmaniasis (Kalzar detect rapid test:In Bios, USA). Seropositivity for leishamanis spp. was detected in 23 dogs (2.7%, 95% confidence Interval (CI) 1.06%to 3.8%). Thirteen of these were stray dogs (3.7%) and ten were owned dogs (2.0%). Results from this study indicate that dogs in Grenada are exposed at a low level to leishamaniasis.
Title: Effect of Eugenol (Eugenia Aromatica) Treatment and Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) on Storage Stability of Chicken Noodles during Storage at 35±2°C Temperature
Abstract :
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eugenol treatment and modifi ed atmospheres (50 % N2 + 50 % CO2) packaging (MAP) on the storage stability of chicken noodles stored at 35 ± 2°C for 90 days. A total four treatments were assigned (i) control aerobic (C-AP), (ii) eugenol treated aerobic (ET-AP), (iii) control MAP (C-MAP), and (iv) eugenol and MAP treated (ET-MAP). All samples were evaluated for changes in pH, water activity (aw), antioxidant activity, Lovibond tintometer colour (L, a*, b*), texture profi les, sensory attributes, lipid stability and microbial quality. ET-MAP packaging were significantly (p<0.05) infl uenced oxidative stability of noodle samples. ET-AP and ET-MAP treated samples shown to had higher (p>0.05 antioxidant activity. The standard plate count (SPC) of noodle samples was higher for both aerobic and MAP controls. ET-MAP samples were exhibited greater antioxidant activity and sensory scores but lower SPC and water activity than other samples.
Title: Short Term Changes in Teats Following Machine Milking with Respect to Quarter Health Status in Cows
Abstract :
The procedures and practices associated with milking are critically important and people now-a-days are switching over to machine milking to save time and money. Milking equipments if properly maintained have a positive impact on both milk production and milk quality. However, if the equipments are not used as per the recommended standard values it may have some untoward effects on udder health. In the present study the short term effect of machine milking on teats and their relationship with quarter health status was conducted on a total of 872 quarters of 218 apparently healthy lactating cows at 10 machine milked dairy farms of Punjab. The short term effects of machine milking on teats i.e., change in colour and morphology were seen in 22.9 percent (177) and 17.43 percent (152) of teats, respectively. There was no signifi cant relationship between teat colour change and occurrence of mastitis (χ2=1.13; 01 df; P < 0.05). Out of the 177 quarters showing colour change 76 (42.9 percent) quarters showed morphological changes. A signifi cant relationship was observed between change in colour and morphology of teats, immediately after milking (χ2= 84.95; 01 df; P < 0.001).
Title: Diagnosis of Cryptococcosis in Dogs by Latex Agglutination Test and Enzyme Immunoassay
Abstract :

Cryptococcus spp. is a pathogenic fungus which is an increasingly important cause of infection, particularly in the immunocompromised hosts. Diagnosis of cryptococcosis in animals can be carried out by isolation of the fungus but this requires several days to detect and identify the organism. Detection of cryptococcal antigen by latex agglutination test and enzyme immunoassay in serum is a rapid and easy method for diagnosis of cryptococcosis. In the present study, a total of 142 blood samples were collected from apparently healthy (n=89) and diseased dogs (n=53) for diagnosis of cryptococcosis. Latex agglutination test and enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA) were carried out for the detection of cryptococcal antigen in serum. Of the 142 serum samples tested, six samples tested positive by Latex agglutination test while one sample tested positive by EIA. The sample which was positive by EIA was also positive by Latex agglutination test. The serum samples of dogs that tested positive for cryptococcal antigen were obtained from dogs suffering from symptoms like bloody faeces and vomit, emesis, chronic ear infection and discharge. Based on our findings, we conclude that the latex agglutination test in combination with the enzyme immunoassay can be used for the diagnosis of Cryptococcosis in dogs.

Title: Effect of Mitomycin-C Inactivation on Expression Pattern of Pluripotency Related Transcriptional Factors in Buffalo Fetal Fibroblasts and Wharton’s Jelly
Abstract :
Present study examined the effect of mitomycin-C (MMC) treatment on expression profi le of pluripotency genes (Oct-4, Sox-2 and Nanog) in buffalo fetal fi broblasts (BFFs) and Wharton’s jelly (BWJ) stem cells, generally used as a feeder cell support to grow the pluripotent stem cells. In a time dependent study, a variable response in relative mRNA expression of pluripotency genes was observed, expression of Oct-4 in BFF declined immediately post MMC inactivation but a signifi cant elevation (P<0.05) was noticed later on. The relative mRNA expression remained unchanged in BWJ, up to 24 h post MMC treatment and thereafter, it increased signifi cantly (P<0.05). A similar trend for the expression pattern of Sox-2 and Nanog was observed in both the cell types. MMC inactivation caused an upregulation in the expression of Sox-2 and Nanog in BFF while it remained unchanged (P>0.05) in BWJ. Results of this study suggests that MMC inactivation of the cells used as feeder support modulates the expression profi le of pluripotency genes and this alteration in gene expression pattern is variable in different cell types.
Title: Leptospirosis in Bovines: Haematobiochemical and Urine Analysis Studies
Abstract :
Keeping in view the clinical importance of leptospirosis haematobiochemical and urine analysis were carried out on 500
(cattle-398, buffalo-102) blood/serum and 304 (cattle-232, buffalo-72) urine samples of both seropositive (cattle-51, buffalo-16) and seronegative (cattle-347, buffalo-86) animals from different district of South Gujarat region. A signifi cant decrease in the values of PCV, MCH and MCHC was noted in seropositive group of cattle in comparison to seronegative group. Such difference among seropositive and seronegative groups could not be recorded in buffaloes. The mean values of ALT, AST and bilirubin registered an increase at signifi cant level in seropositive cattle in comparison to seronegative. Among buffaloes, the mean values of ALT increased and total protein decreased signifi cantly (P <0.05) in seropositive buffaloes in comparison to seronegative buffaloes. On urine analyses (n=304; cattle=232, buffaloes=72) hardly any signifi cant difference was noted in various parameter studied in either species in seropositive and seronegative animals. All the urine samples (304) collected were subjected to Dark Field Microscopy (DFM) proved to be negative for leptospires
Title: Seasonal Prevalence and Antibiogram Profile of Bacterial Isolates from Bovine Mastitis
Abstract :
The current study examines the prevalence and seasonal occurrence of major bacterial pathogens and effect of different
antibiotics on bacteria isolated from 935 bovine mastitic milk samples in northern region of India for characterization and
culture sensitivity against different antibiotics. A major proportion of mastitis samples- 412 (44%) were recorded during rainy
season, while, samples in equal shares, 276 (28%) and 247 (27%) were documented in winter and summer seasons, respectively.
Out of total 935 mastitic milk samples, 889 (95%) samples showed microbial growth, while, 46 (5%) samples were found
negative for any bacterial growth. Among total isolated bacteria, Gram positive- 471 (53%) shared a major proportion, followed
by Gram negative 341 (38%), while a small part of 53 (6%) and 24 (2%) samples yielded mixed unidentifi ed cultures and Candida species, respectively. In antibiogram study, gentamicin (91.21%), ciprofl oxacin (89.60%), enrofl oxacin (88.28%) and tetracycline (71.30%) were found to be highly effective antibiotics, while, penicillin (86%), colistin (83.30%), cloxacillin (78.62%), amoxycillin (70.71%) and ampicillin (62.51%) showed least effect against both Gram positive and negative bacteria. The present study showed that there was close association between season, bacterial pathogens and occurrence of of bovine mastitis. Overall, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and E. coli contributed as major mastitis dweller bacteria.
Title: Prevalence and Economic Significance of Hydatidosis in Cattle Slaughter at Debretabore Abattoir, North Gondar, Amhara region, Ethiopia
Abstract :
Hydatidosis, caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most important helminthzoonosis in the world. The distribution of hydatidosis is normally associated with underdeveloped countries, especially in rural communities where humans maintain close contact with dogs and various domestic animals, which may act as intermediate hosts. A crosssectional study on bovine hydatidosis was conducted in Debretabore municipality abattoir from July 2012 to September 2012 with the aim of investigating the prevalence and economic losses in cattle slaughtered for human consumption. Out of the total 384 cattle examined 106 (27.64%) were found infected with hydatidosis. From the examined animals 51 (13.28%), 34 (8.85%), 16 (4.17%) and 5(1.3%) contained hydatid cysts in their lungs, livers, hearts and kidneys respectively. Age related infection was signifi cant in that older animals were more infected (P<0.05). Assessments of hydatid cyst with body condition scoring were made; accordingly cattle with poor body condition scouring had higher prevalence (p= 54.72%), medium (33.02%) and fat (12.26%) were examined from infected animals. Plan based control measure against the source of infection of Hydatidosis should practice for decreasing tendencies in prevalence.
Title: Investigating the Effect of Meat Level and Processing Conditions on Quality Characteristics of Extruded Chicken Meat Noodles Using Response Surface Methodology
Abstract :
A three factor three level central composite design was adopted to determine interactive effects of meat level (55-65%), steaming time (12-18 minutes) and drying time (7-9 hrs) on pH, moisture, protein content, fat content and other quality characteristics (Hardness, adhesiveness, total colour change and overall acceptability) of extruded chicken noodles. Moisture, protein, fat level and total colour change was found to be increased with increase in meat level while decreased with increasing processing conditions. However hardness decreased with increasing interaction of meat level and steaming time while increased with interaction of meat level and drying time and inverse were true for adhesiveness. Overall acceptability and pH had negative correlation with interactions. pH showed increasing trend with increase in processing conditions. The models for moisture, pH, protein, fat percentage, allokramer hardness, adhesiveness, total colour change and overall acceptability had the R square values of 0.91, 0.81, 0.83, 0.81, 0.87, 0.91, 0.82 and 0.94, respectively. 120 g (60%) meat level, 15 min steaming time and 9 hrs drying time were found to be optimized level on the basis of desirability plots for the development of chicken noodles.
Title: Cytotoxic and Anticancer Activity of F. Racemosa Fruit Extract on MCF7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line by SRB Method
Abstract :

Present study was aimed to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and anticancer activity of F. racemosa on MCF7 human breast cancer cell line. Effect of ethanolic extracts of tender fruits of F. racemosa on MCF7 human breast cancer cell lines by Sulphorodamine B (SRB) assay was carried out. Three observations viz. LC50, TGI, GI 50 were recorded. The absorbance was recorded on an Elisa plate reader at a wavelength of 540 nm with 690 nm. F. racemosa showed LC50, TGI and GI50 activity at ≥ 80 μg/ ml concentration. Thus, it can be concluded that F. racemosa fruit extract hassome cytotoxic and anticancer activity (in vitro)at ≥ 80 μg/ ml concentration of plant extract on MCF7 human breast cancer cell line.

Title: Effect of Urea on Hematological and Selected Biochemical Parameters of Ggrowing Somali Lambs
Abstract :

A study was carried out to evaluate the probiotic dahi and to develop eco friendly cups using areca nut sheath and to utilize it to store the probiotic dahi. The different packaging materials namely plastic cups (control), oxo-biodegradable cups and areca nut sheath cups were used to evaluate the keeping qualities of probiotic dahi. Physico-chemical properties, microbial qualities and sensory evaluation were carried out on the product stored in different containers. Statistical analysis showed there was no significant difference between different packaging materials. Sensory analysis of probiotic dahi in different packaging materials was carried out. Statistical analysis showed that the appearance and overall acceptability scores significantly differed in different packaging materials. There was no significant difference in flavor, body/texture and sourness score of probiotic dahi in different packaging materials.

Title: NEWS
Abstract :



Associateship of National Academy of Dairy Science (India) was conferred to Dr. Vikas Vohra, Senior Scientist, National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, Karnal (Haryana) on 26th May 2014.

Title: Comparative Study of Three Different Media to Improve Semen Processing and Flow Cytometric Analysis in Bovine
Abstract :

The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of three selected semen processing media: TRIS, TALP and HTF (Human Tubal Fluid) on sperm viability in post-preparation samples to improve flow cytometric analysis. Towards this aim, PI (Propidium Iodide) dye was used to evaluate sperm viability using flow cytometer. Two Cross breed (Karan Fries, KF) and Two Indian breed (Sahiwal, SW) bulls were used for different media optimization. The average sperm viability with TRIS, TALP & HTF media in cross breed (Karan fries) bulls was observed to be 92.09 ±1.93%, 82.61±2.71%, and 79.78±2.94% respectively, whereas, for Indian breeds (Sahiwal) it was 80.03±2.29%, 77.18±1.61 % and 71.32±2.51% respectively. The results revealed that viability of semen obtained from cross breed bulls (KF) is significantly higher in TRIS media (P<0.001) compared to TALP and HTF (P >0.05) whereas for Indian breed bulls (SW), viability of semen in TRIS and TALP is similar with no significant difference (P >0.05). When compared to HTF, semen of SW bull was found to have highest survivability in TRIS (80.03±2.29% vs 71.32±2.51% in TRIS and HTF respectively; P< 0.01). Hence, it can be concluded from the present study that overall TRIS medium is best suited for semen processing and flow cytometric analysis.

Title: Effect of Cellulolytic Enzymes and Probiotics on Growth Performance of Broiler Rabbits
Abstract :
Administration of enzymes and Probiotics in fattening rabbits improved growth performance and reduced the morbidity and mortality rate. Apart from Probiotics, enzymes are most important protein molecules which catalyze and improve acceleration of feed digestion. Therefore, keeping the above points in view the present study was undertaken to study the effect of enzymes
and probiotics on body weight gain, feed efficiency and digestibility of nutrients. Thirty weaned healthy broiler rabbits with comparable body weights were selected and randomly allotted into three dietary treatments (T1, T2 and T3) of 10 animals each. The effect of enzymes and probiotics on growth performance of broiler rabbits was studied. During the 12th weeks feeding
trial, the cumulative daily weight gain of rabbits were 19.30 ± 2.52, 20.25 ± 2.46 and 19.70 ± 2.56 g /day/rabbit under T1, T2 and T3 respectively. It was observed that there was signifi cant (p < 0.05) difference between enzyme and control group. The average weekly body weight gain recorded at the end of the trial (during 12thweek) was 2097.5 ± 65, 2177.2 ± 77 and 2131.10
± 70 g rabbit under T1, T2 and T3 respectively. It was observed that there was highly signifi cant (p < 0.01) difference between enzyme and control group. Addition of enzymes helps in improving the body weight gain. Hence, can be added to rabbit feed. The following recommendations can be made from the present study that enzyme and probiotics play a very important role in development of immunity against diseases.
Title: Relationship of Body Condition Score at Estrus and Conception Rate in Graded Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :
Seventy graded Murrah parous buffaloes presented for the first postpartum AI maintained under village system of rearing free from apparent pathological abnormalities of the reproductive tract were selected to study the effect of body condition score (BCS) and size of the preovulatory follicle on conception rate. After evaluating Body condition score (BCS) by visual examination and estrus intensity based on the scorecard, Preovulatory follicle (POF) sizes were measured ultrasonographically and grouped as small preovulatory follicle (SPOF), medium preovulatory follicle (MPOF) and large preovulatory follicle (LPOF). The mean values of BCS, intensity of estrus and serum progesterone at AI and on day 10 post AI were estimated and the relation to conception rate was analyzed. Positive correlation was observed with the body condition of the buffaloes at the time of AI to POF size and intensity of estrus. The mean values of BCS in pregnant and non pregnant buffaloes did not differ
significantly and it has a nonsignificant (P>0.05) negative correlation with pregnancy status, however proper nutrition during
breeding season is necessary for acceptable reproduction. It was concluded from the present study that physiological maturity of the follicle rather than its diameter influenced the fertility in graded Murrah buffaloes under field conditions.
Title: Prevalence of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Live Bird Markets of Eastern Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :

A cross sectional study was carried out to know the status of H9N2 LPAI virus in retail poultry shops (RPSs) established in live bird markets (LBMs) of eastern Madhya Pradesh, India. A total 288 samples were collected from 4 districts of eastern Madhya Pradesh following cluster sampling method. Samples included 120 tissue samples and 168 environmental samples of live bird markets. All the samples were analysed for virus isolation by embryonated chicken egg inoculation, Hemagglutination (HA), Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) and Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RTPCR). A prevalence of 9.2 % was found in tissue samples and that of 20.8 % was found in pooled environmental samples. Out of four districts in the study, samples from three districts were found positive for H9N2 AIV. A strong positive correlation (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r = 0.92) was found between tissue and environmental samples. This study indicated presence and possible spread of H9N2 AIV in these LBMs. These LBMs might impose risk of acquiring infection to occupationally exposed individuals. Therefore, a proper vigilance is needed over the poultry supply chain especially the poultry retail shops along with general awareness about basic biosecurity measures for prevention and control of H9N2 infection.

Title: Gross Morphological and Morphometrical Studies on Heart of Chital (Axis axis)
Abstract :
The study was conducted on hearts with attached root of major trunks collected from four, approximately 3 years old chital,
brought for post-mortem examination at Centre for Wildlife Forensic and Health, Jabalpur. The heart was washed thoroughly,
weighed (353.75 ± 2.39 gm) and then fi xed in 10% buffered formalin. The right surface was formed mostly by the right ventricle
and a small part by left. About one third of left surface was formed by the right ventricle and the remaining by the left ventricle.
Cranial border was convex measuring 17.35 ± 0.15 cm. However caudal border was short and 10.65 ± 0.06 cm in length. It is
nearly straight and entirely formed by left ventricle. The right and left longitudinal grooves continued with each other at the right side of cranial border and this point of meeting was 2.89 ± 0.04 cm above the apex of the heart. Circumference of heart at coronary groove was 24.12 ± 0.42 cm. Externally the number of serration at edges of appendix of left atrium was deeper and more than the right. Internally in right ventricle three papillary muscles were observed while in left ventricle these were two in number. In right ventricle one unbranched moderator band was observed however in left ventricle these were two in number.
Title: Genetic Polymorphism of Myostatin (MSTN) Gene in Sheep Breeds
Abstract :

Myostatin (MSTN) is one of the most important growth regulatory genes that resulted in higher growth of skeletal muscles in livestock species. So the study was undertaken to identify the polymorphism of myostatin (MSTN) gene as a genetic marker for growth traits in Madras Red, Mecheri and Nilagiri sheep breeds of Tamil Nadu. The blood samples were collected from unrelated animals of Madras Red (n = 127), Mecheri (n = 101) and Nilagiri (103) breeds of sheep from different agroclimatic regions of Tamil Nadu. Part of 5’UTR, exon 1 and part of intron 1 (797 bp) of MSTN gene was amplified with suitable primers. The amplified products were digested with the Msp I and Hae III restriction enzymes. But both the PCR-RFLP results of Msp I and Hae III was found to be monomorphic in all the three breeds of sheep indicating that the MSTN gene is highly conserved and of use in evolutionary studies

Title: Carcass Traits and Meat Composition of Hansli × CSML bird under Intensive and Semi-intensive Rearing Systems
Abstract :

This study was conducted to compare the carcass traits and meat composition of Hansli×CSML crossbred chickens reared under intensive and semi-intensive rearing systems. At 18th week of age, three birds per sex from each rearing system were slaughtered. Carcasses were dissected into primal cuts. Breast and thigh meat samples were used for chemical analysis. The dressing and eviscerated yield % of birds under intensive system was significantly (P≤0.05) more than under semi-intensive system. The thigh and drumstick yield % of semi-intensive bird was significantly (P≤0.05) higher than that of intensive bird. The carcass traits of males were significantly (P≤0.05) higher than that of females. The results from the meat analysis recorded a higher protein and lower fat content in breast and thigh meat of birds under semi-intensive system. The meat samples of female birds had a higher fat content and somewhat lower protein content as compared to males.

Title: Phenotypic Characteristics of Indigenous Goat of Bundelkha
Abstract :

This experiment was undertaken to know the phenotypic characteristics of indigenous goat. The study was conducted to investigate morphometric characters of goat in four different blocks Charkhari, Jaitpur, Panwari and Kabrai of Mahoba. Characteristics of body weight, body length, heart girth, wither height, fore leg length; hind leg length, head length, ear length, ear width, horn length etc were collected from mature goat. The results indicate that the average litter size, birth weight, weaning weight and body weight gain were comparatively higher in goat of Jaitpur than those of other three blocks. The average numbers of service/conception, post partum heat period (days), age at first heat (days), age at first kidding (days), kidding interval (days), gestation length were 1.45, 49.96, 347.11, 538.03, 358.92, 150.82 respectively in Jaitpur block flock which were comparatively better than the other three blocks. The average litter size, birth weight male, female (kg), weaning weight (kg), body weight gain (g), milk yield (kg) and lactation length in Jaitpur block flock were 1.65, 1.40, 1.16, 6.31, 52.09, 100.38 and 155.96 consequently. The average milk composition of fat, protein, lactose, SNF and mineral were 5.5, 3.9, 5.7, 10.9 and 0.7, respectively in all block. The overall performance of the goat of Jaitpur block flock were comparatively better than the others which may be due to the result of selective breeding, improve feeding, housing, health management etc.

Title: Effect of Carrot Powder on the Quality Attributes of Fibre-Enriched Spent Hen Meat Cutlets
Abstract :
The present study was envisaged to develop fibre-enriched chicken meat cutlets with the incorporation of carrot powder. Chicken meat cutlets incorporating four levels of carrot powder viz. 0% (control), 2.0 % (T1), 4.0% (T2) and 6.0% (T3), were prepared by replacing lean meat with carrot powder in the basic formulation of chicken meat cutlets. The developed cutlets were evaluated for various parameters such as proximate, physicochemical, instrumental texture and colour profile, and sensory attributes. The moisture, dietary fibre, cooking yield increased significantly (P<0.05) whereas fat content decreased significantly with the increasing levels of carrot powder. The dimensional parameters were better maintained in the treated groups than control. Hardness value of the cutlet increased significantly (P<0.05) upon the incorporation of carrot powder and the values for T2 and T3 were significantly higher (P<0.05) than T1. Increasing trend was also observed in a* values with increase in the incorporation level of carrot powder which might be due to red colour of carrot powder. The overall acceptability scores of the chicken meat cutlet with 4% carrot powder was significantly (P<0.05) higher than control and other treatment products.
Title: Preparation and Functional Characterization of Decellularized Bovine Tendon Scaffolds for Tendon Tissue Engineering
Abstract :
The study was conducted to develop a naturally derived tendon tissue engineered scaffold with the preservation of the native ultra-structure, tensile strength and biochemical composition of the tendon extracellular matrix. Decellularization was achieved by using two different protocols viz. repeated freeze and thaw technique and
2% SDS. In vitro evaluation of the graft was done by H&E staining, Masson-Trichome staining, Alcian blue staining, DNA quantification analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The in vitro evaluation suggested that SDS was better than freeze and thaw technique in terms of effective decellularization. The cell removal was better in SDS group than freeze and thaw as depicted by H&E staining and DNA quantification. Also the structure and alignment of collagen fibers were preserved in SDS group. The intrinsic ultra structure of tendon tissue was well preserved based on scanning electron microscopy examination.
Title: Cryopreservation of Ram Cauda Epididymal Spermatozoa Using Different Buffers and Sugar Combinations
Abstract :

The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of different sugars and buffers combinations in the extenders viz. Tris citric acid fructose (TCF), Tris citric acid glucose (TCG), Sodium citrate fructose (SCF) and Sodium citrate glucose (SCG) on the quality of Cauda epididymal spermatozoa of ram during cryopreservation and post thaw. Spermatozoa were recovered from Cauda epididymidis by incision method. Samples showing ≥70 % progressive sperm motility were pooled. Each pooled cauda epididymal sperm sample was divided into four aliquots and spermatozoa in each aliquot were washed using isotonic buffer by double centrifugation. Washed spermatozoa in each aliquot were extended separately in the four different extenders using 20% egg yolk and 8% glycerol as cryoprotectant. The quality of spermatozoa was evaluated immediately after extension in the particular extenders (pre-freeze) and at post thaw. The percent sperm motility was significantly (p<0.05) higher for TCF (45.00±4.47) than TCG (27.50±6.55) and SCG (20.83±5.39) extenders at post thaw. The percentage of HOST reacted spermatozoa was significantly higher (P<0.05) for TCF (61.05±2.60) than SCF (45.81±4.90) and SCG (46.41±4.16) at post thaw. The percent intact acrosome was also significantly higher (P<0.05) in TCF (79.39±2.16), SCF (80.74±1.38) and SCG (78.34±2.94) than TCG (71.32±2.47) at post thaw. In conclusion, the use of fructose as energy source in the Tris extender (TCF) was found the best combination of buffer and sugar for maintaining higher sperm quality during cryopreservation of ram caudaepididymal spermatozoa.

Title: Prenatal Development of the Lingual Intrinsic Skeletal Musculature, Lingual and Von Ebners Glands of the Tongue in Goat Foetii (Capra hircus)
Abstract :
The present study conducted on the tongue of 18 goat foetii revealed that the differentiation of skeletal muscle was first noticed among the mesenchymal cells at 40 days of foetal age (CRL = 3. 40 cm). These were better differentiated at 62 days of gestational age (CRL=10.0cm) and showed continued gradual development with advancing foetal age. The typical cross striations in the lingual intrinsic skeletal muscles was first observed at 121days of foetal age (CRL = 27.50cm). The first appearance of lingual gland in the tongue of the goat foetii was observed at 62 days of gestation (CRL = 10.10 cm) and the first indication of appearance of Von- Ebner’s gland was observed in the tongue of goat foetii at 120 days ( CRL= 31.1 cm).
Title: Role of Rural Women in Decision Making Process Regarding Livestock Management
Abstract :
Livestock is generally considered a key asset for rural livelihoods. Rural women play critical, diverse roles in livestock production in the rural economies of developing countries as unpaid workers. They embark on various activities of livestock management like watering and feeding of animals, cleaning activities and milking. However, their involvement as decision makers regarding various livestock activities is still dubious. Hence the present study was conducted to determine the contribution of rural women in decision-making in livestock management. A sample of 100 female respondents was selected randomly from fi ve villages of Kathua district of Jammu and Kashmir through multistage random sampling technique. Scrutiny of the data shows that rural women’s participation was relatively high in activities like care of new born calf, care of sick animals, cleaning activities, produce and feeding of animals. However, their participation was relatively low in activities like sale of animals, breeding of animals, fodder harvesting, cultivation and maintenance of animals’ sheds. Male dominance and traditional belief system were the main factors which had affected the involvement of rural women in decision making process
Title: Effect of Feeding Artocarpus heterophyllus, Terminalia bellerica and Carica papaya Plant Leaves on Rumen Microbial Enzymes and Growth Performances in Assam Hill Goat
Abstract :

In this study, three medicinal plants viz. Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit), Terminalia bellerica (Bhumura) and Carica papaya (Papaya) were investigated for their effect on the rumen enzyme profiles and growth performances in Assam hill goat. A total of eighteen (18) Assam Hill (local) goats of 3-4 months of age were procured and reared in the Experimental Animal Shed, Department of Veterinary Physiology, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam, India. The animals were divided into three groups viz. control receiving substrate ration, T1 with plant leaves @ 5 % level and T2 groups @ 10 % level of total mixed ration (TMR). The duration of the experiment was 90 days (from March, 2016 to May, 2016). The fibre degrading microbial enzymes viz. carboxymethyl cellulase, endoxylanase, ß- glucosidase were estimated in rumen liquor of the animals during the study period and rumen liquor analysis revealed that out of the three rumen fibrolytic enzymes, Carboxymethyl cellulase showed better (P<0.05) enzyme activity in T2 group (2.83 ± 0.01 μmol glucose/ml/h). The average body weight (kg per animal) recorded in the present experiment showed significant trend (P<0.01) from 0 to 90 days of experiment where higher value (9.62 ± 0.43 kg/animal) was obtained in T2 group. From this study, it can be concluded that these three medicinal plants viz., A. heterophyllus, C. papaya, T. bellerica do not have any harmful effect on normal functioning of the rumen. Thus, the plant leaves can be incorporated in the diet up to 10% of the total mixed ration.

Title: Activity of Enzymatic Antioxidants and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Seminal Plasma of Murrah Bulls during Cryopreservation
Abstract :
Semen samples with mass motility of 4+ or more and an initial progressive motility ≥ 80% collected from murrah buffalo bulls were utilized for study. Semen samples were evaluated for various seminal attributes, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and total antioxidant capacity at fresh, pre-freeze and post-thaw stage. Seminal attributes (progressive motility, viability, acrosomal integrity and hypo-osmotic swelling response) were signifi cantly (p<0.05) higher in bull II as compared to bulls (I & III) at pre-freeze and post-thaw stage. Superoxide dismutase was signifi cantly higher in bulls (II & III) than bull I at fresh stage (p<0.05) and signifi cantly (p<0.01) higher in bull II as compared to bulls (I & III) at pre-freeze and post-thaw stage. Catalase was signifi cantly higher in bull II than bulls (I & III) at fresh (p<0.05) and pre-freeze (p<0.01) stage. Signifi cantly, higher total antioxidant capacity was noticed at pre-freeze (p<0.05) and post-thaw (p<0.01) stage in bull II and bulls (II & III), than bulls (I & III) and bull I, respectively. On the basis of our fi ndings, it could be concluded that seminal enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase & catalase) and total antioxidant capacity varied among bulls at various stages of cryopreservation. There was progressive reduction in activity of enzymatic antioxidants and total antioxidant capacity from fresh to post-thaw stage.
Title: Importance of Bovine Mastitis Associated Gene Expression Analysis – A Review
Abstract :

Bovine mastitis has for a long period severely restrained production performance in the dairy enterprise. Despite improved management approaches and veterinary services, mastitis is still responsible for a major loss of the economy to the extent of worldwide. Genetic control as in development of protective immune mechanism and disease tolerant animal is considered an economic and prophylactic technique for health improvement management. We, therefore, need to recognise thoroughly the factors regulating the association between both the etiological agents and the host’s mammary gland cells. Consequently, we need to determine differentially expressed genes during particular conditions in regard to mastitis. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing technique (RNA-Seq) has evolved as the main option for the analysis of differential gene expression setting the foundations for modern genetic research.

Title: Study on Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Bovine and Human Schistosomiasis in Bahir Dar and its Surrounding Areas
Abstract :
The study was conducted from November 2010 to March 2011 in Bahir Dar and its surrounding areas, north-western Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence of Bovine schistosomosis and its associated risk factors. A cross sectional study was conducted on coproscopical, abattoir examination to bovine schistosomosis and retrospective study three years health institution record to assess human schistosomiasis. A total of 400 cattle were examined, 300 cattle for field survey and 100 cattle for abattoir survey. From the 300 cattle, 24.3 %( n=73) were found for schistosoma bovis on coproscopic examination. The prevalence of schistosomosis with regarded to body conditions was found 10.3% (poor), 12.3% (medium) and 1.7% (good) and has also statistically signifi cant difference (p= 0.00). The prevalence of the disease was higher in local breed cattle (24.9%) than cross breed cattle (Local x Holstein-Friesian) (18.52%). The prevalence of the disease in was higher in extensive management system (25.18%) than semi-intensive management system (15.38%). However it has no statistically significant difference (P=0.201) between the two management systems. In the second part of the study, 100 cattle slaughtered at Bahir Dar municipal abattoir were examined. Out of these 22 % (n=22) harbored Schistosoma bovis in their mesenteric and portal veins and 10 % (n=10) in coproscopic examination of slaughtered animals. In the third study the infection rate of S. mansoni in human the rate decreases in three consecutive years (2000, 2001, and 2002; 45.1%, 37.0% and 9.8%) respectively. The rate of schistosomiasis was highest in young people (69.0%), adult (15.3%) and old people (7.5%).
Title: Study on the Prevalence of Ovine Fasciolosis in Ambasel Woreda, South Wollo Zone,Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia
Abstract :
The present study was carried out in and around Ambasel Woreda namely, Marye, Chafi e and Wuchalie from June 2012 to September 2012. Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence of Ovine fasciolosis. Out of 384 feacal samples examined, 137(35.68%) were found positive for fasciola. Chi-square statistical analysis technique was used to evaluate the variations between the epidemiological area (origin), age, sex and body condition. The prevalence rate of Ovine Fasciolosis with regard to Origin Chafi e (31.72%), Wuchalie (34%) and Marye (44.94%), age (young = 17.99%, and adult = 45.7%), Sex (Male = 34.6% and Female = 36.6%) and Body condition (Good = 18.71% and Poor= 47.16%), were found in the study area. According to the result the disease has a statistical signifi cance association with Age (P = 0.031) and body condition (P = 0.0164) but there was no signifi cant difference among sex groups (P = 0.381) and origin (0.246). Feacal examination indicates that fasciolosis is the most important disease of sheep in the study area by the result of coprological examination. Therefore, the present study indicated that Ovine Fasciolosis was widely distributed with high prevalence in the study area.
Title: Prevalence and Economic Significance of Cystic Hydatidosis: Bovine at Kombolcha Elfora Industrial Abattoir, North Wollo, Ethiopia
Abstract :
A cross-sectional study design was conducted out from July 2014 to September 2015 Kombolcha ELFORA industrial abattoir to assess the prevalence of hydatid cyst in slaughtered cattle through post mortem inspection procedure of visualization, palpation and incision of vital organs. During study period there were 384 cattle examined by random sampling data collection method. Among 384 examined slaughtered in the abattoir 53 (13.8%) were found harboring hydatid cyst. There were variation in prevalence rate among different geographical location could be do to strain difference of echinoccus granulosus that exist in different geographical location, culture of people, social activities and probably physiological activities of cattle, health condition and duration of exposure time were contributed for infestation. Hydatid cyst were predominantly in lung and liver representing 10% and 6% respectively, because the lung and liver posses greater capillary field which allows these organs efficiently filter the ingestion oncospher from blood liver and lung undergo sequential which is followed by pulmonary filtration action before other are invaded. Higher percentage of hydatid cyst in the lung compared to liver because lung tissue has soft consistency relatively lower reticulo endothelial cell and less abundant connected tissue.
Title: Effect of Azolla Supplementation on Growth, Immunocompetence and Carcass Characteristics of Commercial Broilers
Abstract :
One hundred and twenty, one week old, Cobb 400 broiler chickens were randomly distributed into three dietary treatments having four replicates each with ten birds. The birds of the control group (T1) were fed a basal diet (23.16% CP 1-3 weeks & 19.68% CP 3-6 weeks) while the other two groups were offered the treatment diets (T2& T3) replacing 4.50% or 5.50%, of the dry matter of the basal diet with dry Azolla pinnata powder on dry matter basis, respectively. Feeding azolla meal did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the weekly body weight gain of the birds during the experimental period. Total immunoglobulins and mercaptoethanol sensitive (IgM) antibody titer (log 2) values in response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the birds fed T3 diet compared to the other two dietary treatments at 6 weeks of age. Cell mediated immune response i.e. in vivo cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity response to lectin phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-P) determined as foot web index was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the T3 birds compared to the other two dietary treatments. Dressing percentage was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T2 compared to the other two treatment groups.
However, there was no significant difference among the treatment groups in the other carcass traits. Thus, it may be inferred that replacement of basal diet with dry Azolla pinnata meal on dry matter basis did not adversely affect the growth and carcass characteristics. Moreover, Azolla pinnata possesses promising immunomodulatory potential in commercial broilers.
Title: Comparative Efficacy of Different Binders in the Development of Chicken Meat Cutlets
Abstract :
Present study was envisaged to assess the effi cacy of different binders viz. 3% refi ned wheat fl our (T1) and 3% rice fl our (T2) replacing lean meat in the preparation of chicken meat cutlets. The developed products as well as control were assessed for various physico-chemical, instrumental texture and colour profi le, and sensory evaluation. L* values were comparable for T1 and T2 but were signifi cantly (P<0.05) lower than control. The hardness values differ signifi cantly (P<0.05) in treatments than control and recorded highest for T2 and lowest for control. The springiness of the T1 was signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher as compared to T2 but was comparable to control. The juiciness score were signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher for treatments as compared to control. Overall acceptability of cutlets with refi ned wheat fl our (T1) was signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher than control and comparable with T2. Thus it can be concluded that chicken cutlet with 3% refi ned wheat fl our was found optimum.
Title: Etiopathology and Haematobiochemical Alteration in the Anaemic Dogs of in and Around Anand Region, Gujarat
Abstract :

The present research work was undertaken to assess the etiopathology and haematobiochemical alterations in anemic dogs of Anand region, Gujarat irrespective of their age, sex and breed. Total 78 dogs were screened for anemia and blood samples were collected from a 51 anemic dogs of Anand region of Gujarat to identify etiopathology and haematobiochemical parameters alterations. Statistical analysis, interpretation, different etiology and comparison of haematobiochemical alteration with scientific literature were carried out to understand pathophysiology of disease. Amongst 78 of 51 dogs, incidence of anemia was recoded 65.38 per cent in which highest was due to liver disorders (23.53%). Incidence of anemia was observed higher in in adult group (58.83%) as well as in male (52.94%). Most clinical variants of anemic dogs showed pale mucous membrane (86.27%), hypothermia (68.63%), tachycardia (70.59%), tachypnea (74.51%) and increased capillary refilling time (64.71%). Haematological indices of anemic dogs revealed Hb, TEC, PCV, MCH, MCHC and MCV decreased significantly (p<0.01), whereas TLC increased significantly (p<0.05) as compare to healthy dogs. Serum biochemistry revealed significantly (p<0.01) increased BUN, Creatinine, Glucose, AST and ALT levels as well as decreased in total protein level in anemic case as compare to healthy ones. Different etiological factors for developing in anemia in dogs as well as hematobiochemical alterations are mentioned, which will be useful for further detailed investigations and therapeutic management.

Title: An Online Survey of Consumers of Maharashtra Concerning the Expected Change in the Meat and Meat Product Business
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to understand non-vegetarian consumer behavior, preferences, hygienic considerations and their expected changes in meat selling business. A questionnaire in Marathi language was designed with Google form for this online survey. Under these 194 (172 Male and 21 Female) respondents from all regions of Maharashtra state were surveyed. The study revealed that majority of consumers (90.21%) preferred hot, freshly slaughtered chicken meat (77.32%) which include all body parts of the carcass (56.19%) and them (70.62%) usually preferred to eat non-vegetarian food once or twice in a week. About 68.59% consumers preferred skinless chicken carcass slaughtered by any ritual method (53.76%). The study indicates that most of the consumers (70.62%) usually buy meat from the meat shop near to their residence and nearly 42.78% consumers showed concern about cleanliness and hygienic condition of the meat selling shop where from they buy non-veg products. Most of the consumers (82.38%) showed their willingness to purchase home delivery of minimal handled hygienic meat and for this they (86.17%) are ready to pay a slightly higher price. It indicates consumer concern about safety of food, but surprisingly, they are unaware of the food laws, quality guidelines, food safety standard. Almost all consumers (96.89%) agreed that there is a need to raise awareness and to educate consumers regarding this issue.

Title: Effect of Coumestrol on Efferent Ductules in Dogs
Abstract :
The present study was conducted on twelve adult stray dogs of age 2 – 3 years, weighing 14 - 18 kg and randomly divided into three groups. Animals in group I (n = 5) and group II (n = 5) were orally given 300 and 500 microgram coumestrol dissolved in di-methyl sulfoxide in the commercial dog treats on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28, respectively. Animals in control group III (n = 2) were given DMSO alone as per above schedule. Castration was done one week after the completion of the treatment. Tissues for histology and electron microscopy were fi xed in Bouin’s fi xative and Karvonsky’s fi xatives, respectively. Epithelial lining of the efferent ductules was composed of cuboidal or columnar epithelium having ciliated and non- ciliated cells. Cellular architecture of the efferent ductules was normal. Scanning electron microscopy revealed normal efferent ductules with presence of cilia on luminal surface. In conclusion, oral feeding of 300 microgram and 500 microgram of coumestrol has no adverse effects on the functioning of efferent ductules in dogs and at this dose rate, this compound cannot be used for population control of stray dogs. 
Title: Estimation of Genetic Parameters of Lifetime Performance Traits in Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :
The data on 171 Murrah buffaloes sired by 49 pertaining to lifetime performance traits were collected from history cum pedigree sheets maintained at Buffalo Research Centre (BRC), Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar over a period of 20 years from 1990 to 2009. Analysis of variance done by restricted maximum likelihood method of Harvey (1990) using mixed linear regression model with regression effect of age at fi rst calving. The overall least squares means for lifetime milk yield (LTMY), productive life (PL), milk yield per day of productive life (MY/PL), herd life (HL) and milk yield per day of herd life (MY/HL) averaged as 8607.93±481.93 kg, 1161.59±54.17 days, 5.59±0.15 kg/day, 3340.22±120.67 days and 2.55±0.10 kg/day, respectively. The effect of period and season of calving and age at fi rst calving (linear and quadratic) was statistically non-significant on all the lifetime performance traits under study except that significant effect of period of calving on MY/PL. The heritability estimates along with standard errors for different lifetime performance traits were obtained as 0.18±0.10, 0.26±0.17, 0.11±0.04, 0.26±0.20 and 0.29±0.13 for LTMY, PL, MY/PL, HL and MY/HL, respectively. The
genetic and phenotypic correlations among lifetime performance traits were positive and high except genetic and phenotypic associationship of HL with MY/HL and MY/PL. Therefore, moderate to high genetic correlations among lifetime traits indicated that selection based on any one of these traits could result into improvement through positive correlated response in all other traits.
Title: An Economic Analysis of Different Farming Systems Prevailing in Udaipur District of Rajasthan
Abstract :
The Present study was conducted in Udaipur District in Southern Rajasthan during 2013-14 with the aim to identify the existing farming systems and to study the economics and income and employment generation by different existing farming systems. Four prominent farming systems were observed in the study area, viz; FSI: Crop + Dairy (C + D); FS- II : Crop + Dairy+ Goat (C + D + G); FSIII : Crop + Dairy + Vegetable (C + D + V) and FS-IV : Crop + Dairy + Goat + Vegetable (C +D+ G + V) Girwa and Gogunda two tehsils were selected randomly for the study. FS - I was being adopted by maximum no. of farmers in Girwa tehsil while in Gogunda tehsil maximum number of farmers adopted FS-III. The total cost of farming system in Girwa tehsil was lowest in FSI and it was highest in FS-IV in both the tehsils. In Girwa tehsil the highest net returns were observed in FS-IV while in Gogunda tehsil highest net return were observed in FS-II due to internal adjustment of costs in taking goat and dairy enterprises along with crop cultivation even though the total costs in these farming systems were also higher. The return per rupee investment in both the tehsils of Udaipur district was highest in FS-IV (C+D+G+V) and On per hectare basis employment generated in Girwa tehsil was minimum in FS-III (225 man days) and maximum in FS-II (250 man days). In Gorgunda tehsil lowest employment was generated in FS-III (C+D+V) (250 man days) and in highest FS-IV (350 man days).
Title: Contribution of Carcass Cuts in Meat Production of Kadaknath, Aseel and Vanraja Breeds of Chicken
Abstract :

A comparative study was conducted to find out the differences in contribution of carcass cuts in meat production from indigenous breeds such as Vanraja, Aseel and Kadaknath breeds with respect to a broiler strain, Cobb-400. The primal cuts of Cobb-400 had significantly (P<0.05) higher weight than all indigenous breeds. Among indigenous breeds Aseel exhibited higher weight of all primal cuts except neck while lowest values were recorded in Kadaknath with the exception of wing and breast. The highest weight cut was breast in Cobb-400 and Kadaknath while in Vanraja and Aseel, the maximum values were observed for leg. Neck was recorded as lowest weight cut in all chicken breeds.

Title: Studies of Some Hormonal Parameters in Rambouillet Sheep during Seasonal Migration in Jammu Region
Abstract :
The investigation was undertaken to study some hormonal parameters in migratory Rambouillet sheep of Jammu (India) during seasonal uphill and downhill migration. Thyroid hormons and cortisol concentrations were analysed in male and female sheep of 1-2 years (young) and 2-4 years (adult) of ages. Non-significant increase of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) levels were recorded during uphill migration. Highest thyroid hormones concentrations were found immediately after reaching the high altitude in all
groups. During downhill migration, thyroid hormone levels increased non-significantly at mid station and remained high at base station as compared to the values of high altitude. Again, non-significant increase of cortisol level was recorded in both uphill and downhill migration in all the groups. The cortisol and thyroid hormone levels were found higher in young as compared to adult sheep. The cortisol levels were found higher in female animals, whereas non-significantly higher thyroid hormone levels were recorded in male animals.
Title: Effect of Different Heat Ameliorating Measures on Micro-Climatic Variables in Loose Houses During Hot Humid Season in Murrah Buffalo Heifers
Abstract :
The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of heat ameliorating measures on micro-climatic variables in the loose houses during hot-humid season. In the study different heat ameliorative measures viz. control (T0), cooling jacket (T1), cooling jacket + forced ventilation (T2) and sprinkler + forced ventilation (T3)
were utilized to ameliorate the thermal stress in Murrah buffalo heifers (n = 24). Daily maximum and minimum temperatures relative humidity (RH) and temperature humidity index (THI) of both micro and macro climate were measured at 10.00 am and 2.00 pm of Indian Standard Time (IST) by using maximum and minimum and
dry and wet bulb thermometer. Significantly (P<0.05) lower maximum temperature was observed in T3, T2 and T1 groups (29.93 ± 0.19, 30.43 ± 0.18 and 31.27 ± 0.19oC, respectively) as compared to T0 group (32.25 ± 0.19oC). However, significantly (P<0.05) lowest minimum temperature was found in T3, T2 and T1groups (25.28 ± 0.22, 25.81 ± 0.23 and 26.60 ± 0.23oC, respectively) and higher minimum temperature in T0 group (27.60 ± 0.22oC). We observed significantly (P<0.05) lower RH in T3 and T2 groups (69.84 ± 0.57 and 71.93 ± 0.51%, respectively) than those of T0 (77.18 ± 0.49) at 2.00 pm. During the peak hot period significantly (P<0.05) lower temperature humidity index (THI) was reported in T3, T2 and T1 groups (78.89 ± 0.24 and 79.43 ± 0.25 and 81.39 ± 0.23, respectively) as compare to T0 group (82.36 ± 0.20). Therefore, it can be concluded that forced ventilation with
sprinklers or cooling jacket is an important mean to protect animals from thermal stress under loose houses during hot-humid season.
Title: Effect of Ovsynch Estrus Synchronization Protocol on Certain Mineral Profile of Cyclic Murrah Buffaloes in Summer and Winter Season
Abstract :
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Ovsynch estrus synchronization protocol on plasma Zn, Cu, Ca and P levels in cyclic Murrah buffaloes during summer and winter season. The buffaloes were categorized in to two groups: 1) summer (n = 20) and, 2) winter (n = 18). Estrus cycle of buffaloes were synchronized with Ovsynch protocol (Pursley et al. 1995) as per standard procedure followed by artificial insemination (AI) at 8 and 24hrs after second GnRH treatment. The blood samples were collected on the day of start of protocol (d0) and day of AI (dAI) for the estimation of minerals concentration. The pregnancy was confirmed through
sonography on day 45 post-AI. Levels of Zn were lower (P<0.05) in summer as compared to winter season (1.0 ± 0.1 vs. 1.5 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.1 vs. 1.9 ± 0.1 ppm, respectively) whereas Cu, Ca and P levels showed no seasonal variation. Pregnant and Non-pregnant buffaloes had significant lower (P<0.05) concentration of Zn on d0 and AI in summer as compared to winter season (0.9 ± 0.1 vs 1.6 ± 0.2 and 1.2 ± 0.2 vs. 1.7 ± 0.1ppm, respectively and1.1 ± 0.1 vs. 1.5 ± 0.1 ; 1.3 ± 0.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.1 ppm, respectively). The pregnant and non-pregnant buffaloes exhibited similar mineral profiles in both seasons. In conclusion, plasma mineral concentrations remain lower during summer as compared to winter season in buffaloes that could be responsible for lower fertility in summer.


Title: Composition of goat milk in Grenada, West Indies: A preliminary study
Abstract :
Goat farming is a common practice on the island of Grenada, West Indies. In the years post-Hurricane Ivan (2004), the dairy goat industry has been gradually evolving into a commercial entity, in order to provide goat milk and milk products to the community. Vital to the sustainability of this industry is the maintenance of a high-quality and reproducible product. However, there are no data available on the current composition of goat milk in Grenada. This preliminary study was undertaken to assess the composition of goat milk to assist farmers in the further development of the Grenada goat milk industry. Using a commercial milk analyzer, 115 goat milk samples from four Grenada parishes were analyzed. The results gave an average of dairy goat milk composition in Grenada, including values for fat (4.53%), protein (3.47%), non-fat solids (9.07%), lactose (4.91%), and total solids (13.60%). Milk values were significantly different among the four parishes, with St. Patrick having the lowest values and St. Andrew the highest. Additionally, there was no significant difference between values derived for Grenada versus those recently reported in the neighboring island of Trinidad. The composition of goat milk in Grenada and the differences among parishes is hypothesized to be influenced in
large part by nutrition. Future plans are underway 1) to advise goat farmers on the husbandry and feeding of goats to optimize the quality of milk and 2) to perform updated analyses on the milk composition postimplementation.
Title: Effectiveness of different hCG and GnRH based protocols in progesterone primed goats on estrus induction and reproductive outcomes in out-off-season goats
Abstract :
We evaluated whether Gonadotrophin releasing hormone incorporation to the Human chorionic gonadotropin protocol improves the sexual response during the natural anestrous season in goats. Thirty-two adult multibreed anovulatory goats (n = 8, four groups), received 20 mg progesterone i.m. on d-1; on d0, all goats received 7.5 mg prostaglandin F i.v. and control group (CG) 0.5 mL of saline i.m., hCG group (GH) 100 IU of hCG i.m., hCG+GnRH group (GN) 100 IU hCG i.m. + 8.4 µg of GnRH at once, and hCG+GnRH-24h group (GN24) 100 IU hCG i.m. + 8.4 µg of GnRH 24 h apart. GN, GN24 and GH depicted estrus and ovulatory activity, favoring the GH (25%, 25% and 100% for both variables, respectively). Regarding pregnancy rate, the largest values (P<0.05) were observed in GH (12%, 12% vs 75%, respectively). A protocol based on P4+PGF+hCG was the best option to induce and synchronize estrus as well as ovulation regarding the administration of GnRH during the natural anestrous season in goats.
Title: Smallholder Pig Farming for Rural Livelihoods and Food Security in North East India
Abstract :

Smallholder pig farming is an important livelihood resource for the poor and tribal people in India. However, the smallholder pig farms are faced with a number of problems. The present study thus aimed to build up the capacity of the smallholder pig farmers by some interventions on knowledge build up, pig variety replacement, shelter management and veterinary services in Tripura, a State of North East India. Two-stage stratified random sample survey on 178 smallholder tribal farmers using pre-designed, semi-structured questionnaires was conducted to collect information before and after the interventions. The majority of the beneficiaries (83.71%) belonged to either low or medium income groups, of which 14.04% of the beneficiaries were the poorest group in the present study. After the shelter management and adoption of improved husbandry practices, a good and very good conditions in and around the pig shelters were recorded among 71.34% and 24.16% of the beneficiaries, respectively. Non- descriptive, local pigs (50%) were replaced by high yielding indigenous or exotic or crossbred pigs in the study area. Previously, 86.51% of the farmers reared pigs for fattening purpose, while 92.13% of the farmers practiced breeding of sows for piglet production after the intervention. The present interventions have brought significant impact (p<0.05) on rearing factors as well as socio-psychological factors. The implementation of ‘piglet production farming system’ augmented food security by 148 days.

Title: Biochemical Changes of Ketosis in Cows at Post Parturient Period
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to determine biochemical changes in apparently healthy control and ketotic cows. Fresh urine samples were collected from 350 post-parturient cows to screened urinary ketone bodies by using Modified Rothera’s test and urine Diastix test. Total forty cows showing clinical signs of ketosis were included for biochemical studies (before and after treatment). It was observed that serum glucose was significantly (P<0.01) lower as compared to helthy animals. While, serum ketones and urine ketones levels were significantly (P<0.01) elevated. Similarly, total serum protein, globulin and albumin levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in ketotic cows. It can be concluded that group treated with Decadurabolin (Nandrolone Decanoate) in association with parenteral dextrose give excellent recovery rate in Ketosis.

Title: Effect of Prepartum Concentrate Supplementation on Blood Biochemical Profiles of Native Ewes in Coastal Odisha
Abstract :
Present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of concentrate supplementation on the periparturient blood biochemical profiles of native ewes, two months before expected date of lambing in coastal Odisha. Forty (40) pregnant ewes were randomly distributed into two treatment groups (T1 and T2) based on their body weight, age and parity. First group (T1) was maintained on grazing only, while the second group (T2) was supplemented with a balanced concentrate mixture @ 200 g/sheep/day along with grazing. Blood samples were collected one month before and one month after parturition for analysis of serum glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea and creatinine. Significant (P<0.05) increase was observed for serum glucose and globulin, both before and after parturition in (T2) (before: 56.65 ± 1.86 mg/dl and 5.08 ± 0.59 g/dl; after: 53.93 ± 1.62 mg/dl and 4.04 ± 0.32 g/dl) as compared to T1 (before: 51.23 ± 1.90 and 4.12 ± 0.45g/dl; after: 45.88 ± 1.57 mg/dl and 3.25 ± 0.45 g/dl). Non significant results were observed for rest of the biochemical parameters studied between the control and the treatment both before and after lambing. It was concluded that prepartum concentrate feeding @ 200 g /day/ewe is required to maintain the glucose and globulin level in ewes after compensating the energy needs of growing foetus and colostrum production in mammary gland.
Title: Study of Incidence of Reproductive Disorders in Murrah Buffaloes in Relation to Non- Genetic Factors through an Animal Model
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out on 459 Murrah buffaloes affected with some reproductive problem with 618 calving records (out of total 1336 Murrah buffaloes) over a period of 12 years from 2007 to 2018 at GADVASU, Ludhiana. The overall incidence of dystocia, retention of placenta (ROP), anestrus, repeat breeding (RB),postpartum abnormal discharge (PPAD) and abortion w.r.t. total number of animals were 0.9, 0.3, 3.3, 9.3, 12.3, 13.3 and 6.2%, respectively and w.r.t. affected animals were 2.8, 9.8, 27, 35.7, 38.8 and 18.1%, respectively. Parity of calving had significant effect (P<0.05) on ROP and anestrus. Season had significant (P<0.05) effect on dystocia and ROP. Period had highly significant effect (P<0.01) on dystocia, anestrus, RB and abortion while significant effect on PPAD. Results indicated that incidence of RB, PPAD and ROP increases as the animal become older. Further incidence of dystocia are higher during first and last parities whereas incidence of anestrus are more during earlier parities (in heifers). Incidence of ROP and PPAD are more during rainy season. Incidence of dystocia and anestrus are more during winter season whereas incidence of abortion are more during summer season. Overall incidence revealed a reduction in reproductive disorders in latter periods showing progressive improvement in management of reproduction problems over period.

Title: Influence of Pregnancy, Parity and Stage of Lactation on Milk Yield and Composition in Crossbred Dairy Cattle
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to explore the effect of pregnancy, parity and stage of lactation on milk yield and milk composition in crossbred cattle maintained at Livestock Research Station, Thiruvazahmkunnu, Palakkad, under Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University. The farm is located at latitude, longitude and altitude of 11o21’ N, 76o21’ E and 60-70 m above sea level and having a mean annual rainfall of 2,570 mm. Milk samples from 44 crossbred cows in different parity, stage of pregnancy and lactation were collected for seven consecutive days and composition was analyzed using Ekomilk Ultra pro milk analyzer (Milkana KAM 98-2A). The overall mean milk yield, fat, SNF, protein and lactose were 7.9 kg, 3.6%, 8.1%, 3.2% and 4.2%, respectively. Pregnant cows had significantly (p<0.05) lower milk yield (6.06 vs 8.30 kg) and significantly (p<0.05) higher lactose (4.35 vs 4.23%) and SNF per cent (8.28 vs 8.01%) when compared to non-pregnant cows. Order of parity didn’t have any influence on milk yield nor on the milk constituents. The mean milk yields during the three stages of lactation (<100 days, 100-200 days and >200 days) were 9.23, 7.57 and 6.52 kg/day, respectively, with peak yield being observed during the first stage of lactation (<100 days). The stage of lactation had significant effect (p<0.05) on milk yield and fat per cent whereas the other components were not influenced by the stage of lactation.

Title: Polymorphism of the Ovine Calpastatin (CAST) Gene and its Association with Productive Traits in Nellore Sheep
Abstract :

Calpastatin is a candidate marker for carcass and growth traits. The purpose of this work to study MspI polymorphism in the CAST gene in three strains of Nellore sheep breed viz., Jodipi, Brown and Palla and to find its relation with growth traits. The frequencies of M and N alleles in Nellore Jodipi, Nellore Brown and Nellore Palla were 0.83 and 0.17, 0.81 and 0.19, 0.76 and 0.24, respectively and genotype frequencies of MM, MN and NN genotypes were found to be 0.68, 0.31 and 0.01 in Nellore Jodipi; 0.64, 0.34 and 0.02 in Nellore Brown and 0.56, 0.40 and 0.04 in Nellore Palla, respectively. The PIC values for Nellore Jodipi, Nellore Brown and Nellore Palla are 0.24, 0.26 and 0.30 respectively, suggesting considerable amount of variation exist in these populations. Diversity estimates (FIS) were negative for the three populations of Nellore sheep i.e., Jodipi (-0.114), Brown (-0.105) and Palla (-0.097) indicating that there is no differentiation among the three populations. The χ2-test values revealed that all the three populations are in Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium. The association between genotypes and body weights revealed significant differences among three genotypes (MM, MN and NN) only for birth weight; while non-significant differences were observed among three genotypes for average daily gains

Title: Effect of Storage Temperature and Packaging Material on the Quality of Kashmiri Fireen
Abstract :
Kashmiri Fireenis a cereal based Indian dairy product, very popular in Kashmir region of the country. Kashmiri Fireen was prepared from milk, wheat semolina and sugar as per pre- standardized method and packed in three different packaging materials and stored at refrigerated (4 ± 1oC) and ambient (25 ± 1oC) temperature for a period of 20 days. The product was subjected to the microbiological study and sensory evaluation at regular intervals of 5 days for determination of its storage stability. Significant variations were noticed during refrigerated storage as well as at ambient temperature in the sensory and microbiological quality of Kashmiri
Fireen. The product exhibited progressive increase in microbial growth in terms of standard plate count, yeast and mold count and coliform count. It was observed that the product packed in aluminium foil with low density polyethylene (LDPE) laminates showed best results in terms of preservation for 20 days. The sensorial acceptability and microbiological quality of the product remained good and within the prescribed acceptability limits for 20 days at refrigerated temperature and 10 days at ambient temperature while using aluminium foil with low density polyethylene (LDPE) laminates as packaging material. The study revealed that packaging of Kashmiri Fireen in aluminium foil with low density polyethylene (LDPE) laminates combined with its storage at refrigerated (4 ± 1oC) temperature enabled prolonged preservation of the product for 20 days.
Title: Genetic and Non-Genetic Parameters of First Lactation Milk Yield, Composition and Energy Traits in Karan-Fries Cat
Abstract :

Records of 1471 Karan-Fries cows from 102 sires with five or more daughters per sire during the period 1989-2013 were used to study genetic and non-genetic parameters for First lactation 305-days or less milk yield (FL305MY- kg), First lactation 305 days or less wet average (FL305WA- kg), Average test day milk yield (ATDMY- kg), Average test day fat percentage (ATDFP-%), Average test day fat yield (ATDFY-g), Fat based energy per kg (FBE/kg-cal) and Fat based energy per first lactation 305 days or less milk yield (FBE/FL305MY–kcal). The non-genetic parameters were analysed by fixed linear model. Heritability and phenotypic/genetic correlations were estimated by paternal half sib correlation method and sire variance and covariance, respectively. Period of calving was significant for all the traits. Season had significant effect on all the traits except ATDFP and FBE. Age group was significant for ATDFP only. The FBE/FL305MY had positive and significant (P<0.01) genetic and phenotypic correlations with FL305MY, FL305WA, ATDMY and ATDFY. The positive phenotypic correlation of ATDFP and FBE/kg with composition and energy traits revealed selection for an increased fat percentage will improve the concentrations of other constituents in milk. Higher estimates of heritability, significant genetic and phenotypic correlation between FL305MY and FBE/FL305MY revealed that any of the two traits can be used for genetic evaluation of Karan-Fries bulls when genetic improvement is sought.

Title: Hospital Prevalence of Canine Hemolytic Anemia in Punjab
Abstract :
The present study was conducted on anemic dogs presented to the small animal clinics of the department of Veterinary Medicine GADVASU Ludhiana, Punjab from September 2014 to August 2015. Total number of the cases screened randomly in this period were 1749 and among them 214 cases were having haemolytic anemia and the prevalence was 12.25%. The most prevalent causes of haemolytic agent was Ehrlichia canis in this study followed by Babesia gibsoni, primary immune-mediated haemolytic anemia, neoplasia, Babesia canis and toxicity.
Title: Plasma iron, Hemoglobin and Packed Cell Volume during Puerperal Period in Beetal Goats
Abstract :

The present research work was undertaken to study the puerperal hematological changes in Beetal at different stages of parity in Jammu region, J&K. Thirty six adult Beetal goats were categorized into 3 parity groups viz. group-A (1-3 parity), group-B (4-6 parity) and group-C (7-8 parity). Blood samples were collected 3 and 1 week before and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks after kidding. The hemoglobin, PCV and plasma iron was analyzed from the collected blood samples. Analysis of haematological parameters viz. Hb and PCV revealed significant decline during the 1 week before and 1 (p<0.001) and 4 (p<0.005) weeks after kidding compared with 16 weeks after kidding. Prevalence rate of anaemia in goats having Hb level <8 g/dl and PCV level <22 per cent was highest 1 week after followed by 1 week before and 4 weeks after kidding. Low plasma iron levels were observed during peri-partum period. No significant difference in levels of Hb and PCV among various parity groups was observed. Physiological conditions- late pregnancy and early lactation are accompanied with marked decrease in Hb and PCV levels

Title: Effect of Dietary L-Carnitine Supplementation with Animal Fat on Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chicken
Abstract :
Study was carried out to find out the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on carcass characteristics in Venncobb broiler chicks fed with diet containing animal fat. Eighty day old commercial broiler chicks were randomly allotted to two treatment groups (T1 and T2) with four replicates of ten chicks each. The birds were fed with standard broiler chicken ration (BIS, 1992) containing 5% animal fat. T1 was the control, while T2 was supplemented with L-carnitine (900 mg/kg feed). At the end of 42 days, five birds from each treatment were slaughtered in order to determine carcass traits and organ weights. The results revealed that the supplementation
of L-carnitine lowered the abdominal fat content of birds. However, L-carnitine supplementation had no effect on the body weight gain, slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, giblet yield percentage and weight of internal organs.
Title: Study on Neuroendocrine Disrupting Potential of Cadmium in Rats and Evaluation of Role of Green Tea
Abstract :

The protective role of green tea extract was studied in neuroendocrine disrupting actions of cadmium. Twenty four weaned Sprague dawley male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 rats in each .Group 1 served as Sham control, Group 2 was treated with CdCl2 @5mg/kg b.wt. per orally for 3 months, Group 3 was treated with Green tea extract(1.5%) and Group 4 with CdCl2 + green tea extract. The serum testosterone, Tri-iodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) hormones were monitored at monthly interval. At the end of 3 months rats were sacrificed and testes were collected for estimation of thio barbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS), reduced GSH, protein carbonyls and sperm count. Before sacrifice, rats were subjected to elevated plus maze (EPM) and morris water maze (MWM). Administration of CdCl2 resulted in decrease of serum testosterone, T4 hormones, testicular GSH, sperm count and increase in serum T3 and testicular TBARS and protein carbonyls while, number of entries and time spent in open arm of EPM increased and the total distance travelled in MWM increased. Treatment with green tea significantly ameliorated (p<0.05) toxic effects of CdCl2 by restoring biochemical and hormonal profile to normal. It is concluded that green tea extract exhibits neuro-endocrine protective property in CdCl2 induced neuroendocrine disruption.

Title: Constraints Faced by the Households in Existing Farming Systems in Chittorgarh and Banaswara Districts of Southern Rajasthan
Abstract :
Chittorgarh district from Agroclimatic zone IV-A and Banswara district from zone IV-B was selected for the study of integrated farming systems, as these districts have high potential for development of agriculture and livestock. Multi stage random sampling plan was used in two villages of two different tehsil from each district in such a way that one has highest proportion of irrigated
area and other one have highest share of rainfed area to total net sown area. Fifteen households from each village were selected. Thus a total sample of 120 households was selected, representing 60 households from rainfed and 60 households from irrigated farming systems. There were four farming systems prevalent in the rainfed and irrigated condition of Chittorgarh and Banswara districts. Farming system (FS-I) describes crops + vegetables and crops + dairy cattle forms FS-II. Crops + dairy + goats constituted the FS-III. Crops either supported by poultry or orchards were the part of FS-IV in both the situations of the selected districts. In rainfed and irrigated area of Chittorgarh and Banswara districts households reported as lack of timely availability of good quality seeds, followed by lack of availability of agricultural labour in peak season, low price of farm produce at the time
of harvest and high cost of quality seeds. Constraints faced by households in livestock enterprises in Chittorgarh and Banswara districts were low productivity, non-availability of green fodder, lack of A.I and veterinary facilities and high cost of feed and fodder were the most important constraints.
Title: Prevalence of Tropical Theileriosis in Cattle in Chhattisgarh State
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to record the prevalence of Bovine Tropical Theileriosis (BTT) caused by the protozoan parasite, Theileria annulata in cattle. Animals were screened on the basis of clinical signs like fever, anorexia, with or without superfi cial lymph node enlargement, blood smear and lymph node biopsy examination for presence of Theileria annulata. Out of 150 cattle screened, 35 (23.33%) were found to be positive for Tropical theileriosis. The prevalence of Tropical theileriosis was higher in female (25.45%) than male (17.5%). The prevalence of Tropical theileriosis in cattle in respect to age showed highest prevalence (24.34%) in adult cattle of above 3 years age, followed by 23.80 % in the age group of 1 to 3 years and 14.28% in 0 to 1 year. The prevalence of Tropical theileriosis in respect to breed was maximum in HF cross (29.85 %) followed by 23.33 % in Jersey cross, 15.38 % in Sahiwal, and 14.81% in Gir.
Title: Effect of Solid State Fermentation (SSF) Biomass Supplementation on Growth Performance of Kid
Abstract :
Present study was carried out to study the eff ect of solid state fermentation (SSF) biomass on growth performance of Surti growing kids. Fourteen kids (4-7 months age) weighing around 9 kg, were randomly divided in two groups of 7 each. All the kids were fed rations containing 50 % jowar straw and 50% compound concentrate mixture. Animal of group 1 served as control and were off ered TMR (total mixed ration) without biomass, while animals of another group were off ered solid state fermentation (SSF) biomass @ 4% in the TMR, All the experimental kids were weighed at weekly intervals and body measurements (height at wither, body length and heart girth) were taken fortnightly in the morning for two consecutive days before feeding and watering for the entire experimental period of 90 days. Average total gain (ATG) during 90 days experimental period was 4.47 and 5.23 kg with average daily gain (ADG) of 46.53 and 54.42 g in control and treatment groups respectively. The results revealed an improvement of about 17% in average daily gain though remained statistically similar between the two groups.
Title: Prevalence and Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Mastitis in Dairy Cattle in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a dreaded pathogen in human and veterinary medicine. MRSA as a cause of mastitis in dairy cattle has got profound economic and serious public health significance. A total of 111 dairy cattle were screened for mastitis by CMT from six dairy farms of Jabalpur. The 85 mastitis milk samples were screened for MRSA by bacterial culture method using cefoxitin for enrichment. The MRSA strains were identified and characterized by phenotypic and genotypic methods for virulence determinants and methicillin resistance. The MRSA strains showed β-haemolysis as a predominant haemolysis pattern. The strains were positive for mecA gene which is considered as a gold standard for the confirmation of methicillin resistance. The prevalence of MRSA mastitis in dairy cattle was 16.47%. The MRSA strains were positive for the virulence factors associated with pathogenicity. The economic and public health implication of the finding is discussed.

Title: Comparative Anatomical Studies on the Uterus of Pati and Chara-Chemballi Ducks during their Laying Periods
Abstract :
In the present investigation, twelve eachPati and Chara-Chemballi ducks were utilized at 42 weeks of age. The uterus was collected immediately after death and studies were made on it. The uterus was a sac- like dilation between the isthmus cranially and the vagina caudally and was located just ventral to the synsacrum. The length, breadth, thickness and weight of uterus of Chara-Chemballi ducks were signifi cantly higher than Pati duck. The mucosa of uterus of both Pati and Chara-Chemballi duck showed many leaf shaped folds. These folds were mainly primary, secondary and tertiary types. In some primary folds concave surface were also present. The surface epithelium of uterus was pseudostratifi ed ciliated columnar in both Pati and Chara- Chemballi ducks. The mean height of lamina epithelialismucosae of uterus was 28.058±0.367µm in Patiduck and 33.228±0.234 µm in Chara-Chemballi duck. The surface epithelium and glandular epithelium showed moderate PAS positive reaction in both Pati and Chara-Chemballi ducks. Histologically, there is no signifi cant difference between thePatiand Chara-Chemballi ducks. However, the height of lamina epithelialis mucosae of oviduct was significantly higher in Chara-Chemballi duck than Pati duck.
Title: Development of an Improved Rabbit Model of Spinal Cord Compression by Embolectomy Catheter
Abstract :
The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the efficacy of epidural balloon inflation into the unroofed spinal cord for the creation of a experimental spinal cord injury model in rabbits. Ten New Zealand white rabbits were used for this study. Before operation and after anasthesia with 60 mg/kg ketamine and 6 mg/kg
xylazine. A midline skin incision was done on the lumbar skin at the level of L1-L4 lumbar vertebrae. Paravertebral muscles were bluntly dissected bilaterally. A microhemilaminotomy was done in the right L3 lamina close to the midline. An arteial embolectomy catheter was inserted into the spinal column between the bone and dura mater to the level of L1-L2 intervertebral space. The microballoon was gradually inflated by using a volume-controlled microballoon inflation syringe over a period of 3 minutes. The microballoon was
deflated 8 minutes later and removed completely from the epidural space. All rabbits were paraplegic after the operation. In conclusion, this experimental study demonstrated that the microballoon inflation technique is a very successful method for the evaluation of spinal cord injury in rabbits. Unroofing of the spinal column is extremely important because decompression may be an effective treatment in spinal cord injury. A suitable spinal injury model was created, that is minimally invasive, uniform and easily reproducible.
Title: Colour-coded and Pulsed Doppler Sonography of Testicular and Prostatic Artery in Dog
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to measure the various indices of Testicular and Prostatic Artery in Dogs at Different Age using Colour-coded and pulsed Doppler Sonography. Colour-coded and pulsed Doppler sonography was used to study the blood fl ow of the testes and prostate gland in a total of 6 mongrel male dogs at different age starting from 4 weeks of age. After detection of the vessels by colour-coded Doppler sonography, the blood fl ow patterns were determined by pulsed Doppler sonography and measured the Peak systolic Velocity
(Vmax) , the end-diastolic velocity (Ved), the pulsatile index (PI) and resistance index (RI) in relation to their age. Results: The physiological testicular fl ow pattern was monophasic with a high diastolic fl ow While the prostatic blood fl ow pattern was biphasic. Vmax, Ved, PI and RI of testicular artery show variation with age of mongrel dogs. The results of the present investigation demonstrate that the colour-coded and pulsed Doppler sonography give additional valuable information which improves the andrological diagnostics in the dog.
Title: Prevalence and Risk Factor Identification of Calf Coccidiosis in and Around Bahir Dar Town in Amhara Regional State, North West Ethiopia
Abstract :
A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to April 2015 in and around Bahir Dar town to determine the prevalence of Coccidia infection in calves and to identify associated risk factors. Fecal samples were collected from a total of 384 randomly selected calves with the age of under 2 years. Collected fecal samples were examined for the presence of Eimeria oocyst by fl otation technique. Out of 384 calves, 73 (19.01%) were found to be positive for Eimeria oocyst. Analysis of potential risk factors has revealed that; there was statistically signifi cant difference (P< 0.05) in the prevalence of coccidia infection to different age groups of animals, fecal consistency, origin, body condition, hygienic status and management system. However, the difference was not statistically signifi cant (P>0.05) between coccidia infection with sex and breed of calves. In conclusion, the present fi nding has demonstrated that calf coccidia are one of the most important pathogens in calves in the study area. Therefore, further epidemiological investigations are required to determine the Eimeria species composition and different agro ecological risk factor on the occurrence of the disease.
Title: Standardization of Acidity Level in Hurdle Treated Chicken Croquettes using Lactic Acid
Abstract :
Study was conducted to standardize the acidity level of hurdle treated chicken croquettes (treated with humectants in combination
of 0.5% carrageenan + 5% texturized soya protein) using lactic acid. Three different treated meat batters having pH 6.0 (T1), 5.6 (T2), 5.2 (T3) along with control (C) were prepared using chicken meat along with other ingredients in required quantity. The products were examined for different physico-chemical quality, texture & colour profi les and sensory quality. It was revealed that water activity was significantly (P<0.05) lower in T3 than in T2, T1 and control. Product pH, emulsion stability and cooking yield was significantly (P<0.05) lower in T3 as compare to other treatments and control. The colour profile showed a significantly lower L value and lower a* value in T3 as compare to C, T1 and T2.,while the texture profile exhibited a significantly (P<0.05) lower value for hardness, springiness, stringiness, chewiness, gumminess and resilience and cohesiveness in the T3 product as compared to other batches. The evaluation of sensory attributes showed a significantly higher score for flavour, juiciness and overall acceptability in respect of T2. Hence it was concluded that meat batter having pH 5.6 was the preferred pH for the preparation of chicken meat croquettes.
Title: Effect Trigonella foenumgraecum and Tinospora cordifolia feed additives on Carcass Traits of Broilers in Konkan Climatic Conditions of India
Abstract :

The different types of feed and combination of feeds are the major element in growth and getting high net return from the poultry. Feed additive plays important role in improving the efficiency of feed utilization and animal performance. The current study attempted to determine the influence of herbs i.e. fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum), guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) and in combinations of both at different levels in diet of broilers. The experimental trial was conducted with one hundred sixty two unsexed day-old Vencobb-400 broilers chicks. The nine treatments were given with three replication and each replicates had six birds. The herb stem powder were fed for six weeks at 0, 0.1 and 0.2 per cent level of each herb in combinations. In order to evaluate the seasonal variation it was conducted throughout the year viz. summer, rainy and winter. The chicks were fed with maize crumble at 0-4 days then starter feed from 5-21 days and 21-42 days with finisher feed. All the birds were managed under uniform managemental conditions in three seasons of Konkan climatic conditions. The experimental results showed that the significant increased dressed weight, dressing per cent, giblet, breast, drumstick thigh and meat to bone ratio in broiler fed with 0.2 per cent fenugreek seed and guduchi stem powder during winter season than rest of the treatments and seasons. It would be suggested that the supplementation of broiler chicks’ diets with 0.2 per cent fenugreek seed and guduchi stem powder improved the carcass characteristics of broilers.

Title: Physico-chemical Properties of Mutton Patties Prepared from Munjal and Harnali Breeds of Sheep
Abstract :

Meat obtained from Munjal and Harnali breeds of sheep were used for preparation of patties and were analyzed for quality attribues. The breed effect on the product quality was analyzed to produce a detail picture in reference to the parameters like physicochemical, textural, sensory characteristics. It was found that Munjal and Harnali breeds have no significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on physico-chemical and functional properties of patties. The color parameter indicated that L* and a* values have no significant (p ≤ 0.05) difference but b* values have significant (p ≤ 0.05) difference. However the Texture Profile Analysis and sensory panel scores indicated a lower quality attributes for the products prepared from the Harnali breed in comparison to Munjal. Hardness, gumminess, chewiness, firmness and toughness of patties have significant (p ≤ 0.05) difference. The microbial count indicated more than 6 log cfu/gm after 20 days of storage indicating a shelf life of less than 20 day in refrigerated storage.

Title: Molecular Detection and Therapeutic Management of Exudative Epidermitis in Swine
Abstract :
Of 343 swine examined, 34 (9.91%) were found to be affected with exudative epidermitis from which 39 S. hyicus and 6 S. aureus isolates were recovered. Out of 39 S. hyicus, 34 S. hyicus isolates were found to be positive for virulence genes of which, 6 isolates (17.64 %) were positive for exhA gene and 28 isolates (82.35 %) were positive for exhD gene with an exhibited band size of 316 bp and 588 bp respectively in PCR. Early recovery of swine with exudative epidermitis was found with amoxyclav with supportive therapy than ceftriaxone and tazobactam combination with supportive therapy though the recovery rates with both the antibiotics were 100 per cent.
Title: In vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Efficacy of Condensed Tannins Containing Tree Leaves Extract of Jammu Province
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to assess the antioxidant potential and antibacterial efficacy of lyophilized condensed tannins (CT) extract from locally available tree leaves (Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Ficus religiosa, Leucaenea leucocephala and Psidium guajava) against bacterial species (viz. Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus). Antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1-Diphenyl-2- picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and total reducing power assays. Lyophilized CT extracts of P. guajava and E. jambolana showed significantly (P<0.05) higher antioxidant potential compared to standard ascorbic acid and other CT sources. Antibacterial efficacy was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) using micro dilution method. The MIC and MBC values of CT extracts were significantly (P<0.05) higher for F. religiosa and L. leucocephalla then that of A. nilotica, E. jambolana and P. guajava. The MBC value for S. enteritidis was lower than E. coli and. S. aureus. Lower MIC and MBC values against E. coli, S. aureus and S. enteritidis in CT extracts of different sources showed better results compared to E. faecalis which showed statistically non-significant difference among all CT sources. It may be concluded that all CT sources possess antioxidant and antibacterial efficacy and were found to be effective against E. coli, S. aureus and S. enteritidis except E. faecalis and the comparison among the CT sources, E. jambolana and P. guajava were found to be most potent CT source as well as potent alternative antioxidant and antibacterial agents.

Title: Immunoreactivity of PAX 6, Recoverin and Calbindin Activity in the Retina of Buffaloes with Ageing
Abstract :

The present study was conducted in retina of 15 buffaloes and samples were categorized into group I (1-5 yrs), group II (6-10 yrs) and group III (10 yrs above). Immunopositive reaction for Pax6 in retinal pigment epithelium was strong in group I, mild to moderate reaction in group II buffaloes and no reaction in group III buffaloes. Strong immunopositive reaction against recover in was noticed in rods and cones, their nuclei of outer nuclear layer and binucleate cells of inner nuclear layer in group I and II buffaloes. Whereas moderate reaction was observed in the similar cells of retina in group III buffaloes. Strong Immunopositive reaction against calbindin was observed in the horizontal and amacrine cells of retina in group I and group II buffaloes and moderate reaction was observed in group III buffaloes

Title: Seroprevalence of Bluetongue Virus in Small Ruminants of Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh, India by Competitive ELISA
Abstract :
Bluetongue is an infectious, noncontagious, vector borne viral disease causing heavy morbidity and mortality. Disease is prominent in sheep with apparent clinical signs while goats and bovines may serve as reservoir hosts. Most of the times fi eld veterinarians diagnose bluetongue based on clinical signs only. The serological tests like competitive ELISA (c- ELISA) are helpful in diagnosis and prevalence studies of bluetongue. Serosurveillance of bluetongue virus in sheep (n=350) and goat (n=100) of Krishna district (AP) was conducted
using commercially available c-ELISA kit. The results revealed that among 450 serum samples, 62.66% (63.71% in sheep and 59% in goat) were detected positive for bluetongue virus antibodies.
Title: Prevalence of Arthropods Intermediate Host Infected with Parasitic Larval Stage in and Around Ranchi
Abstract :
The study was conducted to find out the prevalence of different arthropod intermediate hosts infected with different parasitic larval stages in and around Ranchi. A total of eighteen hundred different arthropods intermediate host viz., Ticks, Mites, and Ants (600 each) were examined microscopically to find out the prevalence of parasitic stage of different parasite. 3.17 % ticks were found infected with different parasites, out of which 2.29% Hyalomma and 4.40% Boophiluswere found harbouring parasites. Amongst oribatid mites,
overall prevalence was found to be 2.83 %.with the percentage of infection in Oppiaspp .and Mesostigmata oribitid mites were 2.52% and 4.07% respectively. Amongst ants, 26 (4.33%) were found infected with parasitic larval stage. The percentage of infection in Camponotus compressusand Myrmicaria brunnea ants were
5.79% and 4.97% respectively.
Title: Prevalence of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites in stray dogs (Canis familiaris) from Grenada, West Indies
Abstract :

In the present study, fecal samples from 445 stray dogs, collected during July 2008 to December 2012 were examined for gastrointestinal parasites. Fecal samples were collected throughout the six parishes of the country, under the national rabies control program. Fecal samples were examined for gastrointestinal (GI) parasites by flotation technique. Out of 445 dogs 394 (88.5 %) (95% Confidence interval (CI) 84.54% to 91.46%) dogs were found infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites. The results revealed the presence of at least one parasite egg of 73 % Ancylostoma spp., 15.7 % Trichuris vulpis, 3.8% Toxocara canis, 1.4% Coccidia spp. and 1.1% Strongyloides spp. The prevalence of the GI parasites according to stray dog age groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05, χ2). There was no significant difference between male and female dogs (p>0.05, χ2). Analyzing the prevalence of GI parasites in various age groups the results showed that dogs under 12 weeks of age had a higher prevalence than juveniles (12-24 weeks) and adults (over 24 weeks). The presence of zoonotic parasites in stray dogs in Grenada, poses possible risks of contamination of the environment which may have public health implications

Title: A Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence and Identification of Major Ixodid Tick Parasites of Cattle in Gondar Town, North West Ethiopia
Abstract :
A cross- sectional study was conducted from November, 2015 to April, 2016 in Gondar town with the objective to estimate the prevalence of ticks, to investigate their genera and assessing association with the different risk factors such as breed, sex, age, body condition scores, and management system. Adult ticks were collected from 384 cattle from local and cross-breed
cattle. Out of the total of 384 cattle examined, 287(74.7%) were found to be infested by one or more genera of tick parasites. A total of 919 adult ticks, which belongs to four genera of ticks were collected and identifi ed using stereomicroscopy. In this study Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Amblyomma, and Boophilus were identifi ed as 27%, 26%, 25.3%, and 21.7% respectively.
The prevalence of male and female animals was found to be 136 (68%) and 151 (82.06%) respectively. According to their management variation animals kept in extensive and intensive farming system were infested with 207 (76.1%) and 80 (71.4%) respectively. The prevalence in local and cross breed was 180 (77.58%) and 107 (70.39%) respectively. The prevalence in young and adult animals was found to be 104 (72.3%) and 183 (76.25%) respectively. Based on their body condition score of animals, poor 176 (75.8%), medium 71 (80.68%) and good body condition 40 (62.5%). In this study there was statistically significant association of infestation rate with the sex of the animals (P<0.05) and x2=10.042. Special attention should be given to the control and prevention of ticks.
Title: Storage Quality and Oxidative Stability Attributes of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) Seed Powder fortified Ghee Residue Burfi
Abstract :

Ghee residue is one of the important by-products of the dairy industry, the potential of which has not been commercialised and is otherwise discarded, which leads to loss of many nutrients, anti-oxidants and flavour compounds. Recognizing its vital importance, the present study was carried out to standardize the formulation and to evaluate the acceptability of the burfi. Initially, burfi was prepared by incorporating ghee residue in the proportion of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by replacing respective proportions of khoa from which 40% ghee residue and 60% khoa was optimised in the formulation. Further, different levels of gram flour (3%, 6% and 9%) were tried in the formulation of ghee residue burfi. Based on sensory parameters, optimum level of gram flour was found to be 3%. The addition of gram flour enhanced the textural attributes of the product. Further, jackfruit seed powder (JSP) was added at 1%, 2% and 3% and shelf-life studies were undertaken. The various levels of JSP non significantly decreased the pH, TBARS and FFA content of the burfi samples. An increase in the most of sensory parameters was seen at 3% of gram flour. The total phenol and total flavonoid content were found to be in the range of (1.71-3.34 mg/g GAE) and (0.46-6.12 mg/g Quercetin) respectively. The shelf-life of the products were reported to be 15 days without any marked loss of physico-chemical, microbial and sensory quality. Considering the nutritional content of the product, it shall prove to be beneficial in providing energy and protein content to the malnourished section of the society.

Title: Effects of Storage Type and Inclusion of Sodium Propionate on Microbial Profile of Feed Ingredients Commonly Used in Pig Diets
Abstract :
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of storage type and inclusion of antifungal agent (sodium propionate) on microbial profile of feed ingredients commonly used in pig diets. Total of six feed ingredients (corn, wheat, soybean meal (SBM), corn DDGS, fish meal and poultry by-products) were stored in granary or feed bin with or without antifungal agent (0.30% sodium propionate) for 8 weeks period and microbial profile were investigated at the beginning of the experiment (week 0) and at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of
storage. At the beginning of the experiment, microbial profile of all feed ingredients were not different ( p>0.05) among ingredients stored in granary or feed bin with or without sodium propionate. Irrespective of storage type and addition of sodium propionate, salmonella was not detected in any of all feed ingredient during 8
weeks of storage period. Inclusion of sodium propionate reduced ( p<0.05) populations of staphylococci in corn (2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks), wheat (8 week), SBM, DDGS, fish meal and poultry by-product (4, 6 and 8 weeks). Clostridia populations were reduced ( p<0.05) in sodium propionate added corn, SBM, DDGS, fish meal, poultry by-products (4, 6 and 8 weeks) and wheat (6 and 8 weeks). Coliforms populations were reduced ( p<0.05) in all sodium propionate added ingredients at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of storage, whereas the inclusion of sodium propionate reduced total anaerobic bacteria in fish meal, (2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks), poultry by-product (2 and 4 weeks), SBM (4 and 6 weeks) and corn, wheat, DDGS (4, 6 and 8 weeks).Yeast and mold count were reduced ( p<0.05) in wheat, SBM, DDGS, fish meal and poultry by-products (week 4, 6, and 8) and corn (week 6 and 8). However, storage type (granary vs. feed bin) had no effects ( p>0.05) on populations of staphylococci, clostridia, coliforms, total bacterial count, yeast and mold counts during any storage period. The results obtained in the present study indicated that microbial profile of feed ingredients was not affected by storage type (granary vs. feed bin), but the inclusion of sodium propionate improved the microbial profile of all feed ingredients commonly used in pig diets.
Title: Optimization of Dietary Protein and Energy Requirement of Kadaknath Chicken During the Starter Phase
Abstract :

The 300 day old Kadaknath chicks were randomly distributed into five treatment groups A, B, C, D and E with three replicates having 20 birds in each and reared up to 6th weeks. The treatment groups were viz., control group A: birds fed diet CP 18%, ME 2700 kcal/kg, Methionine 0.38%, Lysine 0.85%; B: diet CP 19%, ME 2800 kcal/kg, Methionine 0.40%, Lysine 0.90%; C: diet CP 20%, ME 2900 kcal/kg, Methionine 0.48%, Lysine 1.00%; D: diet CP 21%, ME- 3000 kcal/kg, Methionine 0.45%, Lysine 1.10%; E: diet CP 22%, ME 3100 kcal/kg, Methionine 0.50%, Lysine 1.20 %. The body weights and weight gain in group D were significantly (P<0.01) higher than other treatment groups except group B at 6th week. The significantly lower feed intake was observed in group D compared to control group at 1st and 3rd weeks. The feed conversion ratio was significantly (P<0.01) better in groups B (3.74±0.06), D (3.70±0.10) and E (4.18 ±0.13) compared to control group (4.70±0.25). The antibody titres against Ranikhet disease were non-significant in all treatments at 3rd and 6th weeks. The cost of production in rupees per kg live weight was recorded lowest in group D (217.56) followed by groups B (218.62), C (255.39), E (256.23) and A (261.11). It may be concluded that the rearing of Kadaknath chickens under intensive system fed starter diet containing ME 3000 kcal/kg, CP 21%, Lysine 1.10% and Methionine 0.45% recorded best growth performance, better immune response and lowest cost of production at the end of 6th week.

Title: Assessment of in situ Feeding Regimen of Dairy Cattle of R.S. Pura Block of Jammu District, India
Abstract :
Study was conducted with the objective of assessing the in situ feeding regimen of dairy cattle managed by marginal livestock farmers of R S Pura block of Jammu District. Three well inhabited villages of R S Pura block were selected. In each village, 10 dairy farmers (herd size 2-5 dairy cattle) were randomly selected as respondents for survey and for feed sample collection. Results indicated that cattle farmers are primarily agriculturist of middle age with formal education up to primary level and with land holdings of marginal or small size. Dairy cattle of respondents were mainly 2-5 years in age. Almost two-third of the surveyed animals were non-pregnant multiparous animals. More than half of the surveyed animals were medium milk producers, whereas 27.78% producing more than 10 lts per day. The feeding during post kharif period was green berseem fodder and paddy straw based, supplemented with wheat bran, cotton seed cake and/or commercially available compounded feed. Feeding regimen in post-rabi season is mainly based on maize fodder with paddy straw. Wheat bran, mustard oil cake and compounded feed are the major supplements. No farmer was providing mineral mixture to the livestock; however, all of them
were supplementing diet with salt. It may be concluded that except berseem, there is dearth of leguminous fodder in dairy cattle
diet of surveyed region and therefore conservation of berseem as hay needs to be encouraged to ensure year round availability
and mineral supplementation needs to be increased especially in diets of high milk yielders.
Title: Fatty Liver Haemorrhagic Syndrome (FLHS) in Broilers
Abstract :

Fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) in poultry is a metabolic disease. An outbreak of fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) was detected by post mortem examination of broilers in a commercial farm. There was severe loss of production and sudden deaths with moderate mortality. Post mortem of the dead birds were performed and histopathological examination was done as per standard procedure. At necropsy, dead birds had pale combs and wattles with significant liver lesions. The liver was enlarged, friable and greasy, yellowish brown with firm fatty layer deposits and haematoma was noticed in abdominal cavity. Fat vacuoles were seen in liver sections which was also confirmed by special stain. Multiple factors like high dietary energy and stress of production may have precipitated the FLHS in broilers.

Title: Multi Drug Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from Canine Pyoderma
Abstract :
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an important opportunistic pathogen of companion animals, especially dogs. Four dogs with a long-term inflammatory skin disorder due to infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius(MRSP) are described. Bacteria was isolated from the skin swab samples from diseased animal and characterized with the different biochemical test and identification strips. Antibiotic resistance pattern has been examined. All strains were shown multidrug resistance pattern and found sensitive
only for Amikacin. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was also found coagulase positive and methicillin resistant strain.
Title: Comparative Gross Anatomy of the Sternum in Peacock (Pavo cristatus), Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and White-breasted waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurlus)
Abstract :

Comparative gross anatomical studies were conducted on the sternum of peacock, turkey, duck and white breasted waterhen. In peacock and turkey the sternum was quadrilateral strongly concave plate like whereas, in duck and white-breasted waterhen, it was rectangular in shape. The spina sterni was large, quadrilateral in shape with a large foramen at its root in peacock and turkey. In duck and white breasted waterhen the spina sterni was pointed and no foramen was present in it. Processus lateralis cranialis was hamulus shape, directed cranio-laterally and did not extend up-to the spina sterni in peacock, whereas in turkey it was dagger shaped, extended beyond the apex of spina sterni. In duck, the processus lateralis cranialis was hook like and lag behind the spina sterni. In white breasted waterhen it was large, triangular shaped and extended up-to the base of spina sterni. In peacock, two foramen pneumaticum medianum were present on the mid line at the dorsal surface of body of sternum. In duck single median pneumatic foramen was present on the mid line close to anterior border of sternum. The processus thoracicus was absent in duck and white breasted waterhen. The processus caudalis lateralis was long and narrow, widened out in its terminal in peacock and turkey, but in duck and white-breasted waterhen, the process was clasp like. In peacock, turkey and duck this process did not reach up-to the caudal end of the metasternum but in white–breasted waterhen, it reached beyond the caudal end of the metasternum.

Title: Occurrence of Intestinal and Caecal Coccidiosis in Rajasri Birds
Abstract :

Coccidiosis in poultry is still considered as one of the main diseases affecting performance of poultry reared under intensive production systems. Coccidiosis was diagnosed in Rajasri birds upon routine postmortem examination conducted at Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science, Hyderabad. PM examination of 423 birds conducted during a period of one month, out of which 136 birds were diagnosed with intestinal coccidiosis (32.15%) and 120 birds with caecal coccidiosis (28.36%). Clinically birds showed weakness, somnolence, ruffled feathers, pale comb, mucoid bloody diarrhea and death. Coccidiosis was initially diagnosed on the basis of faecal smear examination and histopathological alterations in intestines. Gross examination of birds showed pale muscle, dehydrated and emaciated carcass. Extremely ballooned intestine and caeca and haemorrhages in intestinal mucosa were seen. Upon opening of the small intestines and caeca, watery ingesta mixed with mucus and blood was observed. Faecal smears made from duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum revealed coccidial oocysts. Histopathological examination of intestine and caecum revealed coccidia lifecycle stages with destruction of different layers of the intestine and caecum with infiltration of heterophils and mononuclear cells (MNC).

Title: Effect of Niacin Supplementation on in-vitro Rumen Fermentation Pattern in crossbred Cattle
Abstract :
An in vitro experiment was conducted to study the effect of supplementation of different levels of niacin (0, 300, 400, 500, 600,
700 and 800 ppm) on rumen fermentation and digestibility. The substrate comprised of concentrate mixture, maize fodder and wheat straw (40:20:40). Results revealed that TCA-ppt. N (mg/100 ml incubation media) and TVFA concentration (meq/100 ml incubation media) were signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher at 600 ppm (17.56; 7.28) as compared to control (12.12; 6.38). The molar proportion of propionate was also higher at 600 ppm (26.52%) as compared to control (25.87%). The total gas (ml) production increased in a linear fashion whereas methane level decreased signifi cantly (P<0.05) with graded levels of niacin. The NH3-N (mg/100 ml incubation media) decreased signifi cantly (P<0.05) from 15.26 (control) to 10.71 (600 ppm). The IVDMD (%) and IVOMD (%) also increased from 44.04 to 48.04 and 53.91 to 57.38, at 0 and 600 ppm niacin supplementation, respectively. The three higher levels of niacin viz. 600, 700 and 800 ppm had comparable fermentation parameters viz. digestibility, total gas, methane, TCA-ppt. N, TVFA, acetate, propionate and butyrate. It was concluded that 600 ppm niacin level is comparatively better than other niacin levels
Title: Assessment of Pre and Final Year Undergraduate Veterinary Students Information Literacy Competencies and Attitude towards e-Learning
Abstract :
The study was conducted to assess the information literacy competencies of pre and final year undergraduate veterinary students and their attitude towards e-learning. The 120 pre-final and final year veterinary students studying at Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana were selected randomly and data was collected with the help of a
structural questionnaire consisting of 25 items with respect to concept identifi cation, search strategy, document types, search tools, use of results and e-learning. The study revealed that only 12.5% of the veterinary students belonged to high knowledge level category whereas majority of them 68.3% (P<0.01) possessed low knowledge towards information literacy competencies. A high percentage of veterinary students lacked the necessary knowledge and skills to identify main concept and significance of words (52.5%), to opt appropriate search strategy (83.1%), to select required document types (42.1%), to utilize efficient search tools (73.8%) and to evaluate and use results (68.8%). Only 18.3% students had ability to use computer as experts. About 62.5% respondents used search engines as e-learning tool. About 87.9 and 89.7% male and female respondents possessed favourable attitude towards use of e-learning tools. Gender and OCPA had no significant association with knowledge level as well as e-learning attitude of veterinary students. The study revealed notable gaps among students towards information literacy competencies and e-learning, hence, teaching of credit-bearing Information Literacy courses is imperative to enhance undergraduate veterinary students’ knowledge and information seeking skills.
Title: Effect of Lactation Order on Morphological Traits of Teat and Udder in Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of lactation order on morphological traits of teat and udder in Murrah buffaloes. A total of 59 buffaloes were selected for the study which were milked twice daily (morning and evening) by hand milking method. From date of calving to 7th month of lactation, the udder morphological traits viz. teat length, teat diameter, distance between teats, udder dimension, udder depth and height of udder from the ground were recorded fortnightly by using measuring tape and vernier calliper. The teat length (cm) of left fore quarter in 7th lactation order was signifi cantly (p<0.05) higher (9.43 ± 0.19) than fi rst (6.77 ± 0.11), second (7.93 ± 0.07) and third (7.91 ± 0.17) lactation orders. The teat diameter (cm) of left fore quarter in 1st lactation order was signifi cantly (p<0.05) lower than all other lactation orders. The distance
between right fore and left fore teats in 5th lactation order was signifi cantly (p<0.05) higher than 8th lactation order. Further, the udder depth rear in 9th lactation order (20.05 ± 0.27) was signifiantly (p<0.05) higher than 8th lactation order (17.11 ± 0.32). The height of udder base from the ground was signifi cantly higher in fi rst lactation order than subsequent parity except for 2nd lactation order. It was concluded that udder morphological traits of Murrah buffaloes varied from lactation to lactation order as the age advanced which could be deciding factors for selection of precious dairy animals to maximize the profi tability at farm.
Title: Microbiological Analysis and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Water for Wild Animals in Nandankanan Zoo, Odisha
Abstract :

The incidence and prevalence of bacterial pathogens affecting zoo animals is increasing due to consumption of contaminated water containing the various persistent bacterial pathogens with increased antimicrobial resistance. The consumption of this antimicrobial resistance water causes transmission of several water borne bacterial diseases. Hence to save the lives of wild animals and to protect the ecological balance of our environment, a critical routine systemic analysis of supplied water with good monitoring practice and development of a database for routine screening of the water for captive animals is very much essential. So, the experiment was conducted to assess the microbial load in the form of CFU/ml and the identification of antibiotic resistant bacteria by antibiotic resistance test (ABST) in the supplied water from the enclosure pools at Nandankanan Zoo, Odisha. It was found that several bacterial isolates like E. coli, Pseudomonas spp, Salmonella and Corynebacterium spp are exclusively present in this contaminated water based on the cultural, morphological and biochemical characterization. Under antibiotic sensitivity test (ABST), tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was found resistant for E.coli in all the collected samples of wild animal species including birds and reptiles. Cephalothin and Sulfisoxazole were moderately resistance to E. coli in case of birds whereas Gentamycin and Neomycin were moderately resistance to the sample collected from Lions enclosure.

Title: Effect of Non-Genetic Factors on Somatic Cell Count in Tharparkar Cows under Hot Arid Region of Thar Desert Area
Abstract :
The study was conducted to determine the effect of non-genetic factors on Sub-Clinical Mastitis (SCM) and to investigate the relationships between these factors with Somatic cell count (SCC) in Tharparkar Cattle raised at Livestock Research Center, Chandan, Jaisalmer in Thar desert of Rajasthan, India. Quarter wise milk samples were collected and examined by somatic
cell count to check the status of subclinical mastitis. Data were collected from the record register maintained at farm and data evaluated by Parity, Stage of Lactation and Season of calving by the SPSS packet program. On analysis of variance result revealed that the parity had highly significantly (P<0.01) effect on SCC. Higher incidence of SCM was in later parities in comparison to primiparous animals. No statistical difference was found between different stages of lactation. Season of calving had significant (P<0.05) effect on SCC. Lower incidence of SCM and SCC were revealed in summer and winter season of calving as compared to the autumn and rainy season of calving groups. So it can be concluded from the present study that the non-genetic factors like parity, stage of lactation and season of calving have a significant effect on Milk SCC. Thus, dairy farmers are advised to spend more time on their herds and given extra care to their animals in later parity stage, early stage of lactation and in the autumn or rainy season of calving to prevent the infection of sub-clinical mastitis.
Title: Cloning and Sequencing of Thioredoxin Reductase (trxB) Gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Isolated from Poultry
Abstract :
Thioredoxin reductase (TrxB) is a flavoprotein which acts as an integral part of Thioredoxin (Trx) system. This Trx system produces reducing equivalent in various oxidation-reduction reaction which ultimately targets in various metabolic processes inside cell. TrxB must be playing role in combating various stress conditions confronted by Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) inside its host. The aim was to clone and sequence Thioredoxin reductase (trxB) gene of ST strain E2375 and to construct a phylogenetic tree based on the information obtained after aligning the trxB sequence with other serovars of ST. Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) strain E2375 was procured from National Salmonella Centre, Indian Veterinary Research institute, Bareilly, India. Genomic DNA was isolated from the bacteria followed by amplification of Thioredoxin reductase(trxB) gene by PCR. The gene was restriction digested and cloned into a vector pET28c(+). The cloned trxB plasmid was transformed into NEB 5-alpha cells. The gene was sequenced and submitted in the gene bank. After multiple alignment analysis of that sequence by
BLAST, a phylogenetic tree was constructed with the help of MEGA4.0 software. The sequence of trxB was found to be highly
conserved among the salmonella serovars.
Title: Pathomorphological Changes in Various Organs of Experimentally Induced Salmonellosis in Mice
Abstract :
In the study, a total of 36 BALB/C mice divided into twelve equal groups were used. Eleven groups were administered 50 μl of inocula containing 107 CFU prepared from eleven isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium, administering one isolate in each group.
One group was kept as negative control and each mouse in this group was given 0.5 ml of normal saline per os.The study was conducted for 15 days during which symptoms viz., ruffl ed feathers, hunched posture, etc., exhibited by the mice were observed and deaths were recorded. At necropsy, gross lesions of moderate to severe focal hepatic necrosis characteristic of Salmonella infection were observed. In some cases, brain and spleen were congested. No signifi cant gross lesions were observed in heart, lung and kidney. Salmonella was isolated from liver, spleen and brain of mice that died1st to 4th day post- exposure. Surviving mice were sacrifi ced on 14th day post- exposure, three of these had necrotic foci on the liver and Salmonella was isolated from all of these mice.
Title: Comparison of Growth Performance of Goat Kids Under Supplementation with Different Probiotics
Abstract :

This study was conducted to assess the comparative growth performance of goat kids supplemented with yeast as individual probiotic and yeast based combined probiotic preparation. Fifteen male crossbred Malabari goat kids of three months age and having body weights in the range of 8.5 kg to 10.5 kg were selected, dewormed and divided randomly into three treatment groups each having 5 animals (Average body weight of each group being 9.5-9.6 kg). The first group of goats (T1) was kept as control and was not supplemented with any probiotics. The second group of goats (T2) was supplemented with yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae while the third group (T3) was supplemented with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae based combined probiotic containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii. The final body weights of both the probiotic supplemented kids (T2 and T3) were significantly (P<0.05) higher than unsupplemented kids in control (T1) group. The body weight among both the yeast (T2) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae based combined probiotic supplemented groups also differed significantly (P<0.05). Similarly, goat kids fed Saccharomyces cerevisiae based combined probiotic preparation had higher average daily weight gain over individual yeast fed and control goats.

Title: Association of Different Genetic Variants of Alpha S2-Casein Gene (CSN1S2) with Milk Production Traits in Cattle
Abstract :

The present experiment has been planned to study the association of different genetic variants of αS2-Casein gene (CSN1S2) with lactation length (days), fat (%) and protein (%) in Malvi, Nimari, Sahiwal and HF crossbred cattle. The analysis of variance for different genotypes of αS2-casein gene in four breeds of cattle was found significant (P<0.01) for lactation length (LL) trait. Significantly higher LL was recorded in AA genotype of HF crossbred, while, the lowest LL was noticed in AB genotype of Nimari. The mean LL between AA and AB genotype of Malvi, Sahiwal and HF crossbred cattle showed non-significant difference. The higher mean fat (%) was noticed for AA genotype than AB genotype of Malvi and Nimari, however, in HF crossbred higher fat (%) was observed for AB genotype. The mean fat (%) between AA and AB genotypes showed non-significant difference in Malvi, Sahiwal and HF crossbred cattle but the mean protein per cent was significantly higher in Malvi and Nimari and non-significantly higher in HF crossbred for AB genotype as compared to AA genotype. Among the different genotypes of all four breeds of cattle, significantly higher protein per cent was recorded in Nimari for AB genotyped animals.

Title: Protective Role of L-ascorbic Acid in Oxidative Stress Induced by Repeated Oral Administration of Bifenthrin in Wistar Rats
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to evaluate the modulatory role of L-ascorbic acid against oxidative stress in bifenthrin intoxicated rats. Rats were divided into four groups with six rats in each group. Group I animals received corn oil and served as control while as group II animals were orally treated with bifenthrin @ 5.8mg/Kg/day. In group III, vitamin C was orally administered @ 60mg/Kg/day where as group IV received both vitamin C and bifenthrin @ 60mg/Kg/day and 5.8mg/Kg/day respectively. After 30th day of treatment, blood samples were taken and analysed for oxidative stress parameters. Significant (P<0.05) increase in MDA levels was observed in bifenthrin treated animals as compared to control and vitamin C treated animals. Blood glutathione level decreased significantly (P<0.05) in bifenthrin intoxicated animals as compared to control. Similarly, the activities of antioxidant enzymes viz., SOD, GSH-Px, GST and CAT decreased significantly (P<0.05) in bifenthrin treated rats as compared control. Ameliorative group receiving both bifenthrin and L-ascorbic acid significantly restored the normal values of various oxidative stress parameters except GST

Title: Biometric Studies on Frieswal Heifers Born Under Field Conditions
Abstract :
A total of 58 Frieswal heifers from fi ve different artifi cial insemination (A.I.) centres were selected to study 14 biometric traits.
The overall least- squares means for 58 heifers were 117.3 ± 2.1 cm for BL, 109.7 ± 1.5 cm for HAW, 141.4 ± 2.8 cm for CG, 146.4 ± 3.1 cm for PG, 40.9 ± 0.9 cm for FL, 27.9 ± 1.0 cm for FW, 18.1 ± 0.4 cm for EPL, 65.7 ± 1.2 cm for HE, 34.3 ± 1.6 cm for HK, 105.7 ± 1.5 cm for HPB, 110.7 ± 1.7 cm for HHB, 4.61 ± 0.26 mm for ST, 224.3 ± 11.3 kg for BW and 3.02 ± 0.09 m2 for BSA respectively. Higher values for various biometric traits were observed in Pantnagar A.I. centre. Higher values for various traits were observed in heifers reared by farmers having herd size up to 3 AUE, and also for the heifers reared by landless farmers. Land holding also had a signifi cant effect on FW. However, there was no signifi cant effect of AI centre, education level and season of birth on any of the traits and the majority of the heifers of this age group were pregnant
Title: Growth Performance, Behaviour and Faecal Consistency of Kids Fed on Guar Meal
Abstract :
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Guar meal, an unconventional feed on growth performance, behavioural traits, faecal consistency in kids (3 months old) with an average body weight of 9.46 ± 0.15 Kg divided into three equal groups (D1, D2 and D3) following completely randomized design. Experimental diets were formulated by replacing ground nut cake (GNC) from the control (D1) group, with guar meal at 50 (D2) and 100% (D3) level in the concentrate mixture. Dietary replacement of GNC with unconventional protein source (GM) either at 50 or 100% had no negative influence on dry matter intake and feed conversion ratio. ADG was signifi cantly (P<0.01) higher in D2 group but comparable to that of D1 group. No signifi cant difference was observed in behavioural aspects in kids fed on three different rations. The percentage of time spent on eating was recorded highest in all the groups. Faecal consistency score was significantly (P<0.05) higher in kids fed D3 ration compared to those fed D1 and D2. Guar meal based diets were found to be more economic than conventional type. 
Title: Nutrient Digestibility and Plane of Nutrition of Different Varieties of Normal and High Quality Protein Maize (HQPM) Fodder at Pre-cob and Post-cob Stage in Lactating Sahiwal Cows
Abstract :

The objective of the study was to evaluate the nutrient intake and digestibility of four different varieties (HTHM 5101, DHM 117, HM 5 and Shaktiman/900M Gold) of normal and three (HQPM 5, HQPM 7, HQPM 9/ Vivek) HQPM fodder at pre-cob and post-cob stage in lactating sahiwal cows. Thirty-two multiparous Sahiwal cows in early to mid lactation were selected from herd maintained at ILFC, Mathura and were divided into eight group of four animal each. The seeds of experimental varieties were procured from International Maize and Wheat Centre (CIMMYT) New Delhi and the fodders were cultivated under identical conditions in different plots.. Each group was fed with different variety of maize along with basal diet.. Two digestibility trials of seven days were conducted both at the end of feeding of pre and post cob stages of fodder respectively.. The variety DHM 117 have shown higher (P<0.05) DCP and TDN intake at both pre and post-cob stages of the fodder. The digestibility of DM, OM and CP was significantly (P<0.05) higher for DHM 117 whereas, in post cobs stage the normal varieties (DHM 117, HM 5, and HTHM 5101) exhibited higher DM and OM digestibility. However, the digestibility of DM, OM and CP was lower for HQPM 9 and HQPM 5 varieties at both stages respectively. From the present study varietal effect was observed and the variety DHM 117 have shown higher intake and digestibility at both pre and post-cob stages however long-term study with large number of animals is advisable. for recommendation.

Title: Utilization of Animal Power for Low-Density Briquettes Production
Abstract :

Draught animals have been the backbone of Indian agriculture through ages for supplying draught power. Animal operated implements available in the country are primarily meant for field operation and haulage. Therefore animals remain idle for a considerable period for which the farmer continues to provide fodder and shelter. It is estimated that the annual use of animals is limited to 300-350 hours only but the potential use of animal in a year is nearly 1800 hours. To achieve this target an appropriate, cost effective and easy to operate biomass briquetting machine operated by animal power rotary mode unit was developed. The machine was tested to produce low density briquettes by different biomass like charcoal, paddy husk, pigeon pea stalk and saw dust. On the basis of proximate analysis charcoal briquette has highest calorific value of 4480 Kcal/kg followed by pigeon pea stalk, saw dust and paddy husk having calorific value of 4200, 3890 and 3200 Kcal/kg respectively. The highest machine efficiency was 88.33 % for charcoal briquette followed by 85.76%, 86.00% and 83.20% for paddy husk, pigeon pea stalk and saw dust briquette respectively.

Title: Dietary Supplementation of Ascorbic Acid on Hemato-Biochemical and Hormonal Parameters in Swamp B
Abstract :

Effect of ascorbic acid on hemato-biochemical and hormonal profile of swamp buffaloes were investigated during summer and post summer months. Eighteen swamp buffaloes (Avg. b.wt.336.24±10.27kg, age 3.5 years) were divided randomly into three groups of six each. The animals were supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA) at the rate of 0, 10 and 15 g/animal/day for 150 days and designated as T 1, T2 and T3. Blood was collected on 0, 30th, 60th, 90th, 120th and 150th day of the experiment and analysed. Results indicated that the value of haemoglobin (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and thyroxin was higher (p<0.05) in T3 as compared to T1 and T2 groups. The value of Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) was significantly (p>0.05) higher while total leucocytic count (TLC), neutrophil, eosinophil, total protein, AST (Aspertate aminotransferase) and ALT (Alanine aminotransferase) was lower in T2 and T3 as compared to T1. Across the treatment T2 and T3 showed significantly (p<0.05) higher tri-iodothyronine and lymphocytes and (p<0.05) lower serum glucose and cortisol concentration as compared to T1. From this study, it is concluded that dietary supplementation of AA modulated hemato-biochemical and hormonal parameters in beneficial ways in swamp buffaloes to cope up thermal stress during summer and post summer months. The dose rate of AA 15 g/day/animal found to be more effective than 10 g/d/animal.

Title: Quality Evaluation of Milk Products Retailed in Hisar City of Haryana State
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to determine the chemical quality and microbiological safety of some selected milk products retailed in Hisar city of Haryana state. Samples of burfi, paneer, rasogolla and gulabjamun were collected three times from five different sweet shops of Hisar city. The chemical and microbiological analysis of samples were carried out and compared with Indian standard (IS) as given by Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS). Significant (P<0.05) deviation in moisture, titratable acidity and lactose content of burfi from specification were observed. Chemical analysis of paneer, rasogolla and gulabjamun also indicated a variation from the specification. Microbiological safety was assessed by determining standard plate count (SPC) and coliform counts. SPC of rasogolla samples was reported significantly (P<0.05) higher than specification. The coliform count was found under specified limit by BIS. The higher bacterial load indicated poor hygiene practices during preparation and packaging of products and which may cause serious health hazards to consumers.

Title: Isolation and Identification of Microorganisms from the Upper Respiratory Tract of Equines in Himachal Pradesh
Abstract :

The present investigation was conducted to identify different bacterial agents associated with the respiratory infections of equines in the submountaineous region of Himachal Pradesh. Nasal swabs were collected from a total of 119 animals, including horses (n=59) and mules (n=60), exhibiting respiratory disease manifestations (n=20) as well as apparently healthy animals (n=99); and subjected to routine cultural, staining and biochemical examinations for the identification of the isolated bacteria. The bacterial genera thus isolated and identified included Staphylococcus spp. 12 (38.71%), Corynebacterium spp. 6 (19.35%), Bacillus spp. 3 (9.68%), Streptococcus spp. 2 (6.45%), Micrococcus spp. 2 (6.45%), Pseudomonas sp. 1 (3.23%) and others 5 (16.13%) from the 15 samples from diseased equines; and Staphylococcus spp. 83 (44.62%), Corynebacterium spp. 30 (16.13%), Bacillus spp. 33 (17.74%), Micrococcus spp. 12 (6.45%), Streptococcus spp. 6 (3.23%) and others 22 (11.83%) from the 81 samples from apparently healthy animals, whereas, 23 samples were bereft of any bacterial growth. Further speciation of Staphylococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp. and Bacillus spp. was also carried out by means of biochemical tests.

Title: Comparative Evaluation of Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus of Livestock Origin for Antibiotic Sensitivity, Biofilm Formation and Virulence in Galleria mellonella
Abstract :

The objectives of the study were to isolate and identify livestock associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) and methicillin sensitive S. aureus (LA-MSSA) from clinical mastitis cases and to compare their antibiotic susceptibility, biofilm formation and in vivo pathogenicity in Galleria mellonella larva model. A total of 60 milk samples were collected from cows suffering from mastitis and processed for isolation and identification of S. aureus using standard conventional methods. All the recovered S. aureas isolates were subjected for detection of MRSA and/or MSSA employing phenotypic (Cefoxitin disc assay) and genotypic (the mecA gene PCR) assays. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of LA-MRSA and LA-MSSA test isolates was determined using disc diffusion method, biofilm formation by 96 well microtiter plate assay and pathogenicity testing in G. mellonella larvae. On microbiological, biochemical and PCR analyses, 14 S. aureus isolates were confirmed. Of these, 4 were tested as LA-MRSA and the remaining 10 isolates were LA-MSSA. Comparative evaluation suggested that MRSA isolates were resistant to different classes of antibiotics and were equally lethal to G. mellonella larvae. However, bioflim forming ability was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the MSSA test isolates. An association of biofilm formation and pahogenicity testing was not observed between LA-MRSA and LA-MSSA test isolates. Further, LA-MRSA were resistant to different classes of antibiotic and were more lethal to G. mellonella larvae. These preliminary observations are of great concern as the LA-MRSA infections in the community have been documented and warrant in depth research for such pathogens.

Title: Study of Different Risk Factors for Canine Parvovirus infection by Haemagglutination Assay
Abstract :

Haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in canine is caused by different etiological agents like canine parvovirus, E.coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Coccidia and Giardia, among these agents canine parvovirus is the most important. Canine parvovirus binds to the sialic acid receptors which are present on the RBC’s, so haemagglutination test is used to detect canine parvovirus. In this study a total (n=102) of faecal samples from canines having haemorrhagic gastroenteritis were taken. All the 102 samples were subjected to haemagglutination assay and the prevalence of CPV was studied. Host associated risk factors like age, sex, breed, vaccination and seasons responsible for occurrence of canine parvovirus infection are recorded. Out of the 102 samples haemagglutination assay detected 41 samples as positive and a percent positivity of (40.19%) was recorded by this diagnostic test. Age wise prevalence was (69.23%) in (0-6 month) age group which is more than (7-12 month) (13.33%) and more than a year group (5%). Sex wise prevalence was more in males (47.94%) than in females (20.78%). Breed wise prevalence was more in Labrador (78.57%) followed by Doberman Pinscher (62.50%) lower prevalence was reported in Pomerarian and German shephered breeds. Non vaccinated canines showed a high prevalence of (42.70%) and in vaccinated canines no disease prevalence was detected. In the season wise prevalence, spring season showed more prevalence (54.76%) followed by summer season which showed (37.5%) prevalence and the least prevalence of (11.11%) was recorded in the winter season. Study showed that Haemagglutination assay is a good diagnostic test for the study of canine parvovirus where modern facilities of molecular diagnosis and the costly faecal ELISA test kits are not available.

Title: Effect of Feeding Compressed Complete Feed Block Containing Guar Meal on Blood Biochemical Profile of Crossbred Calves
Abstract :
A study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding compressed complete feed block (CCFB) containing 5% guar meal on the blood biochemical profi le in the crossbred (CB) calves. Twelve growing crossbred male calves (6-10 months old), were selected
and divided into two groups (six in each) by using paired random design. The control group (T1) was fed CCFB alone while treatment group (T2) was fed with CCFB containing 5% guar meal. Both the diets were iso-nitrogenous and were formulated to meet the requirement of 600 g/d average daily gain. The study was conducted for 120 days. Blood was collected to harvest the serum and serum metabolites were analyzed using standard protocol. The mean values for Hb (mg/ dl), serum glucose (mg/ dl), total protein (g/dl), albumin (g/dl), globulin (g/dl), A: G ratio, SGOT, SGPT (IU/L) and serum urea-N (mg/dl) of all the experimental CB calves were found to be statistically similar with that of the control group. It is concluded that the inclusion of guar meal at 5% in CCFB has no any adverse effect on the blood biochemical profi le in the CB calves in long term feeding.
Title: Histopathological and Molecular Investigation of Natural Cases of Bovine Tuberculosis Infection in Cattle
Abstract :

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), a chronic infection in cattle caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis/bovis, that impacts productivity and represents a major public health threat. Although the considerable economic costs and zoonotic risk consequences associated with the disease, accurate estimates of bTB prevalence are lacking in many countries, including India. Therefore, in the current study for collection of tubercular lesions the postmortem examination of 100 cattle was conducted. All major viscera and regional lymph nodes were examined and incised. Histopathology was performed in the cases where gross lesions were suggestive of tuberculosis. PCR was performed on the tissue and faecal samples by using IS6110 insertion sequence, Mycobacterium tuberculosis/bovis complex PCR kit. In 12 animals, nodular lesions with casseating mass suggestive of tuberculosis were observed in the lung tissue. All the 12 lung impression smear and only five faecal smear showed acid fast bacilli stained by Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Histologic features comprised a classic granuloma as a characteristic lesion of tuberculosis composed of a central caseous necrosis with mantle of macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, epithelioid macrophages and Langhan’s giant cells and were observed in all 12 cases. All the tissue samples and 11 faecal samples were positive for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex using IS6110 sequence. 8 tissue samples and 4 faecal samples were positive by using Mycobacterium tuberculosis/bovis complex PCR kit. It can be concluded that there was good agreement between histopathology, acid fast staining and PCR. It can also be concluded that faecal samples which are easier to collect should be preferred for diagnosis of TB by PCR in cattle.

Title: Effect of FecB Gene on Body Weight in Black Bengal Goat
Abstract :
FecB gene is first described gene which has been found to increase ovulation rate and litter size in sheep. But, work related to genetic mechanism and genetic markers for caprine proliferation has not been done so much. The present study was aimed to screen Black Bengal goat population for polymorphism of FecB gene and to study its effect on body weight at different growth stages. DNA samples from 96 animals were isolated and subjected to PCR. Amplified fragments obtained were allowed for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for the detection of single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) variants. Among all samples, three different SSCP variants were found which were marked as AA, AB and BB. The highest genotype frequency was observed for AB (0.38), which was followed by BB (0.33) and AA (0.29). Least-square analysis of variance showed significant (P<0.01) effect of genotype on body weight at birth only. The least square mean of body weights at birth for genotype BB (01.17±00.03 kg) was significantly lower than that of genotype AA (01.43±00.03 kg) and genotype AB (01.36±00.02 kg). It was also observed that genotype had non-significant effect on body weight at 4-week, 8-week, 12-week, 24-week, 36-week and
48-week of age. These results indicate that effect of FecB on body weight was limited at birth only. No significant effects were found on growth rate at later stage of life. FecB gene was hitherto linked to prolificacy. So, the effect of FecB gene on other traits has important bearing if the research is continued further with more number of species specific primers at other loci.
Title: Inuence of Non-Genetic Factors on Birth Weight of Tellicherry Kids Reared under Intensive Goat Farming in Tamil Nadu
Abstract :
A study was conducted in sixty numbers of tellicherry kids at a well managed private farm, Chennai in 2014. The factors assessed were sex of the kid, type of birth (single, twin and triplet), age of the doe and weight of the doe at the time of kidding. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS statistical package program (SAS, 1998). Diff erence between two means was evaluated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The overall least squares mean of birth weight and type of birth in Tellicherry goats was 1.95±0.08 and 2.27±0.09 respectively. Our fi ndings revealed that type of birth, sex of the kids and age and weight of the doe exerted a significant effect (P<0.001) on birth weight of kids. It was concluded that farmers should consider the age as well as weight of the dam before breeding for be er birth weight of kids.
Title: Pathology and Molecular Diagnosis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae Infections in Broiler Chickens from Western Maharashtra, India
Abstract :

Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae are worldwide in distribution including India and causes heavy economic losses to the poultry industry. The present study confirms the incidence of M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae infections by gross and microscopic pathology and PCR in broiler chickens. Incidence of pathogenic Mycoplasma spp. in broiler chickens with respiratory lesions was found to be 26.66%. Out of total 60 flocks, 6 flocks (10%) were found positive for M. gallisepticum and 12 (20%) were positive for M. synoviae. The incidence of M. synoviae was found to be higher than M. gallisepticum. Catarrhal tracheitis, focal pneumonic consolidation of lungs and airsacculitis were consistent lesions in M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae positive broiler chickens. However, synovitis/arthritis was not observed in any of the flock positive for M. synoviae. Incidence of E. coli amongst broiler chickens with respiratory lesions was found to be 40% by PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene and was higher than Mycoplasma spp. Mixed infection of M. gallisepticum and E. coli was detected in 3(9.09%) flocks, M. synoviae and E. coli in 4 (12.13%), M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae in 1(3.03%) and M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae and E. coli combined infection was detected in 1 (3.03%) flock. Mixed infection of M. gallisepticum and E. coli, M. synoviae and E. coli and M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae and E. coli revealed moderate to severe lesions of chronic complicated respiratory disease.

Title: Evaluation of Vitamin D3 - Calcium Therapy in Rachitic Dogs
Abstract :

This study was designed to evaluate the influence of treatment on clinical signs, cortical indices (CI) of radius and ulna (measured radiographically), and serum concentrations of the Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and osteocalcin (OC, bone biomarker) in 12 rachitic dogs. The dogs were treated with vitamin D3 @ 20, 000 IU/kg body weight (BW) intramuscularly at a weekly interval along with daily oral Ca supplementation @ 25 mg/kg BW for two months. Dogs were re-evaluated at 30th and/or 60th day post-treatment. Nine apparently healthy dogs were kept as control for comparison of CI and biochemical parameters. Data were analysed by paired and two-sample t-tests. Results showed appreciable improvement in most of the clinical signs within the 1st month of treatment. When compared to control group, at day 0, serum P concentration did not vary significantly (p<0.05), CI and serum concentrations of Ca, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and OC were lower (p<0.05), while ALP was higher (p<0.05) in rachitic dogs. Moreover, during the treatment period, serum P concentration did not change significantly (p>0.05) while serum Ca increased (p<0.05) and ALP decreased (p<0.05) from the baseline values. There were significant differences between the pre- and post-treatment values of CI and Ca to P ratio (p<0.05). Serum concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and OC increased post-treatment at day 60 (p<0.05). In this study, treatment with vitamin D3 and Ca stimulated bone remodelling, as demonstrated clinically and by significant increase in the serum concentrations Ca, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and OC.

Title: Effect of Different Dietary Oil Sources on Enrichment of Omega -3 Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Japanese Quail Meat
Abstract :

An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of inclusion level of different feed ingredients rich in omega-3 fatty acids tooptimizethe production of omega-3 enriched Japanese quail meat. The feeding trial was conducted in Japanese quail broiler chicks for five weeks (0 - 5 week) period. The experiment had six treatments (T1-PO 4%; T2 LO 4%: T3 LO 3% + SO 1%; T4 LO 2% + SO 2%; T5 LO 1% + SO 3%; T6 SO 4%) with various inclusion levels of different sources of omega-3 fatty acids (linseed oil / sardine oil) with six replicates in each treatment and each replicate had ten birds. Inclusion level of 3 % linseed oil and 1 % sardine fish oil was optimum for producing omega-3 fatty acids enriched Japanese quail meat. Japanese quail meat was enriched with ALA- 12.67%; EPA-2.11%; DHA-2.16% and n-3-16.95% (% of total fatty acids). Omega-3 fatty acids were enriched by 9.79 times and Omega-6 : Omega-3 ratio was narrowed by 9.8 times than that of control which is ideal for human consumption.

Title: Study on the Prevalence and Economic Significance of Bovine Fasciolosis at Gondar Elfora Abattoir, Gondar, Ethiopia
Abstract :

A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and economic significance of bovine fasciolosis at Gondar Elfora abattoir, Gondar Ethiopia from November 2018 to April 2019. A total of 384 cattle were selected by systematic random sampling techniques for postmortem examination at Gondar Elfora abattoir. Out of these 90 (23.4%) cattle were found positive for fasciolosis. The prevalence of fasciolosis in poor body conditioned cattle were known to be 30.8% followed by medium body conditioned (22.7%) and good conditioned animal (15.2%) . Statistical analysis of the data showed the presence of significant difference (P=0.028) on the prevalence of fasciolosis on the basis of body condition score. Higher prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in the study area was observed in older than adult animals 28.7% and 19.5% respectively. There was statistically significant association among age of the animal and prevalence of bovine fasciolosis (P=0.037). The predominant Fasciola species identified was Fasciola hepatica 57 (14.8%) followed by Fasciola gigantica 21 (5.5%) and mixed species (Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica) 12 (3.1%). The total annual economic loss due to bovine fasciolosis in Gondar Elfora abattoir was calculated as 1,919,640 ETB (65,922 USD). The economic loss due to bovine fasciolosis at the study area showed that fasciolosis is an economically important disease in the Gondar Elfora abattoir. Hence, a combination of anthelminthic and vector control measures have to be used to ensure a satisfactory degree of control in the long run.

Title: Endocrine Status of Serum Testosterone, Estrogen and Thyroid Hormones in High Fertility Breeding Buffalo Bulls and their Male Calves
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to assess the endocrine status of serum testosterone, estradiol and thyroid hormones in good fertility breeding buffalo bulls and their male calves. Fifteen buffalo bulls were categorized into good fertility bulls on the basis of semen evaluation and reproductive history. Thirty one male calves were selected from these fi fteen buffalo bulls. Average testosterone concentration was higher (p<0.05) in adult buffalo bulls than male calves (2.93 ± 0.44 ng/ml versus 1.20 ± 0.35 ng/ ml). Similarly estradiol concentration in adult buffalo bull was (p<0.05) higher (51.66 ± 2.54 pg/ml) as compared to male calves (15.352 ± 2.47 pg/ml). Serum TSH was found higher (p<0.05) in adult buffalo bulls(18.83 ± 4.15 µIU/ml) than their male calves (7.08 ± 2.48 µIU/ml) but serum concentrations of T3 and T4 were similar in adult buffalo bull and their male calves (5.84 ± 0.60 ng/ml and 4.96 ± 0.52 µg/dl versus 3.73 ± 0.38 ng/ml and 3.34 ± 0.29 µg/dl, respectively)
Title: Prevalence and Financial Losses of Lungworm Infection in Sheep in South Wollo Zone, Ethiopia
Abstract :

This cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2013 and March 2014 to determine the prevalence of lungworms in sheep in two districts of South Wollo zone, Amhara region, Ethiopia. Alongside the financial losses encountered due to lungworm infection in sheep during retrospective study in Dessie municipal Abattoir was also assessed. A total of 477 fecal samples collected from sheep were examined using modified Baerman technique. Out of which 218 were found to be positive (45.71%). The lungworm species were Muellerius capillaris 212(23.48%), Dictyocaulus filaria 39(8.18%), Protostrongylus rufescens 28(5.87%) and mixed infection 39(8.18%) either with two or three species. The prevalence of lungworm infection was significantly different between sexes (χ2=32.2, P= 0.000), age groups (χ2=72.561, p=0.000) and body conditions (χ2=113.66, p=0.000). Prevalence was significantly higher in female sheep (57.94%), sheep of above 3years of age (69.01%) and poor body condition (89.62%) than males, sheep of less than 3years of age (<1 year, 1-3years) and medium/good body conditions, respectively. Moreover, sheep showing respiratory clinical syndromes, kept under extensive management system and sampled during wet season showed statistically significant variation (p<0.05) when compared with those sheep without respiratory syndrome, kept under semi-intensive management system and sampled in dry season, respectively. The mean annual financial losses by organ condemnation and carcass weight reduction due to lungworm infection in sheep slaughtered at Dessie municipal abattoir were estimate to be 7445549.6 ETB, equivalent to 402462.1USD.

Title: Haemato- Biochemical Alterations in Subacute Oral Toxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Wistar Rats
Abstract :
The present study was carried out to determine the extent of haemato-biochemical alterations in 28 days repeated dose oral toxicity of sodium fl uoride (NaF) at three dose levels in Wistar rats. The administration of NaF caused dose dependent reduction (p ≤ 0.01) in the levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and lymphocyte percent while an increase in mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and neutrophils of all the rats belonging to group II (5 mg/kg body weight, per os), group III (25 mg/kg body weight, per os) and group IV (50 mg/kg body weight, per os) as compared to rats of control group (group I). Macrocytic- normochromic anaemia was recorded in NaF intoxicated rats. Biochemical alterations were dose dependent elevation (p ≤ 0.01) in plasma enzyme activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in group II, III and IV in comparison to rats of control group. Hyperglycaemia (p < 0.01) was recorded in rats of group III and IV. Hypoproteinaemia (p < 0.01) and hypoglobulinaemia (p < 0.01) were seen in Wistar rats of group II, III and IV as compared to control group. Moreover, increased (p < 0.05) albumin to globulin ratio, blood urea nitogen, creatinine and uric acid levels were observed in the intoxicated rats of group II, III and IV as compared to control group. Thus, it is concluded that 28 days subacute toxicity of NaF in wistar rats has adverse effects on haemato-biochemical profi le. 
Title: Effect of CIDR on Conception Rate in Repeat Breeding Cattle Inseminated with Liquid Semen
Abstract :
A trial was conducted to study the effect of CIDR on conception rate (CR) in repeat breeding (RB) Vrindavani cows following insemination with liquid semen. After insemination with liquid semen, the experimental RB cows were divided into two groups: group-I (n=13) was treated with CIDR between day 5 and 18 post-insemination, while group-II (n=12) was kept as negative control. Pregnancy diagnosis was done on day 60 post-insemination by per rectal palpation. Conception rate (%) in CIDR treated group was 5/13 (38.46%), whereas, it was 2/12 (16.67%) in the control group. Though the increase of CR by 21.79% in the CIDR treated group was statistically non-signifi cant as compared to the control
Title: Seroprevalence of Bluetongue among Sheep Population of Odisha
Abstract :

Serum analysis was performed during October 2015 to April 2016 to ascertain the prevalence of bluetongue (BT) virus infection among sheep population in Odisha. Samples were collected randomly from apparently healthy sheep from 10 different agro-climatic zones of Odisha. Serum samples were screened for BT virus (BTV) antibodies using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) at Division of Virology, IVRI, Mukteswar. Out of 217 samples screened, 60.36% samples were found positive for BTV infection. The prevalence of BTV antibodies in different agro-climatic zones ranged from 38.09% to 100%. This seroprevalence picture of BT, first of its kind, unfolds this viral infection among sheep population in Odisha.

Title: A PCR Assay for Identification of Buffalo Origin of Tissue by Amplification of the mt. D-loop Gene
Abstract :

The present study was carried out with aim to develop and standardize the protocol for species-specific PCR assay for detection of tissue of buffalo origin. Muscle tissue samples from viz: cattle (postmortem), buffalo, sheep, goat and pig were used to extract the DNA and the good quality DNA samples having OD260:280 of 1.8-2.1 were used in this study. Species-specific primers for buffalo was designed through homology comparisons of the mitochondrial gene regions from these species using Megalign (DNA- STAR) and designed primer pairs were tested for their specificity by BLAST analysis. The PCR conditions were optimized in terms quantity and concentration of various components for PCR mix and annealing temperature. The developed assay was evaluated for its species specificity and sensitivity. Efficacy and reliability of developed assay was also validated on known samples, samples from meat admixture and samples subjected to diverse heat treatment viz: boiling, autoclave and microwave. The developed species-specific PCR assay resulted in amplification of DNA template exclusively from buffalo samples and resulted in amplified PCR product of 742bp. Sensitivity of the assay was determined by making 10-fold serial dilution of genomic DNA, which showed that only 10ng of absolute DNA content, was required for PCR amplification and successful identification of tissue of buffalo origin. Thus, it was concluded that developed species-specific PCR assay is effective in identification of tissue of buffalo origin.

Title: Replacement of Animal Model for Propagation of Classical Swine Fever Challenge Virus by Adaption in the PK-15 Cell Line
Abstract :

Classical swine fever (CSF) challenge virus has been adapted in PK-15 cell line from infected splenic suspension of the challenge virus maintained hitherto by pig to pig passages. Confirmation of viral presence was done by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT). A reasonably good titre of 106.5 TCID50/ml was obtained at 6th passage level. The cell culture adapted challenge virus at a dose of 105.0 TCID50 produced CSF symptoms in pigs from 2nd days post infection (dpi) onwards and succumbed to the infection between 11-12 dpi. Cell culture adapted CSF challenge virus offers advantage to inoculate exact virus particles over the traditional tissue suspension (20% w/v) in potency testing. Adapted challenge virus will replace the use of pigs for propagation of challenge virus; hence follows 4 R’s (replacement, reduction, refinement and rehabilitation) principle. This challenge virus can be attenuated by further serial passages and can be used to develop indigenous live attenuated cell culture based vaccine.

Title: Retrieval and Recovery Rate of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Oocytes Through Aspiration Technique
Abstract :
The objective of the present study was to retrieve good and excellent quality of oocytes from the ovaries of buffalo having unknown reproductive history by using the aspiration technique. The retrieval as well as recovery percent was recorded. Total nine hundred and twenty ovaries were collected during the period of study, on an average 20 ovaries were collected per slaughter. Buffalo cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC’s) were retrieved by aspiration technique and further graded on the basis of cellular investment and homogenicity in to grade A, B, C and D. The mean recovery rate (i.e. no. of oocytes/ ovary) was 2.20 ± 0.08, while that of grade A, B, A+B were 0.82 ± 0.03, 0.53 ± 0.03 and 1.35 ± 0.06, respectively. The mean retrieval percent of Grade A, B and A+B COC’s were 37.10 ± 0.67, 23.74 ± 0.62 and 60.83 ± 0.84, respectively. The present finding led to the conclusion that aspiration technique seems to be a very promising technique for retrieval of developmentally competent oocytes from surface follicles and not from the deeper cortex which contained developing oocytes. By using aspiration technique, less amount of tissue debris obtained which may otherwise have adverse effect on the oocytes maturation and subsequent development of poor quality of embryos in vitro.
Title: A Retrospective Study of Tumors of the Nasal and Paranasal Regions of Dog in Grenada, West Indies
Abstract :
This retrospective study on tumors of canine nasal and paranasal regions covered the period from 2001 to 2014. It involved review of biopsy and necropsy reports submitted to Pathobiology laboratory of the St George’s University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Grenada, West indies. Out of a total 987 dogs with neoplasia in various sites of the body, 14 (1.4%) were diagnosed in nasal and paranasal regions. The type and number of these tumors were in descending order as follows: Transmissible venereal Tumor 4 (29%), Adenocarcinoma 4 (29%), Chondrosarcoma 3 (21%), Squamous cell Carcinoma 2(14%), and Adenosquamous Carcinoma 1(7%). Majority of dogs affected with tumors in nasal and paranasal regions were local mixed breed referred to as Pothounds (7), others were Collie/mix (1), and a few were pure breeds: Rott weiler (3), Pitbull (1), German shepherd (1) and Doberman (1). The mean and median age of the affected dogs was 8 years with a range of 2.5 years to 14 years. As far as authors are aware, there is no published report on neoplasms in the nasal and paranasal regions of dogs from Grenada and the wider Caribbean. This is the fi rst report on neoplasia of nasal and para nasal regions of dogs from Grenada.
Title: Salmonella Load in Rui Fishes and Suggestive Remedies in Cooking Process of Bangladeshi Dish
Abstract :

Bangladesh is a riverine country. At present we are 4th top producer of fish in the world Rice and fish in our main food. Among fishes, Rui (Labeo ruhita) is the most popular and tasty fish for Bangladeshi people. The major fisheries sectors of Bangladesh support not only the domestic needs but also contributes to world export markets. It fulfills a major portion of the protein requirement of the general mass. Bangladeshi people cooks this fish in several ways, without marinate and marinate it will salt & turmeric powder and then fry it and boil it and making most of their daily dish. But a lot of Bangladeshi specially the children are infected by typhoid for which Salmonella sp. is responsible. Food is one of the carriers of Salmonella

Title: Haemodynamic and Electrocardiographic Changes Following Epidural Ropivacaine with or without Dexmedetomidine in Black Bengal Goat
Abstract :

The aim of this study to find out the effect of ropivacaine and its combination with dexmedetomidine in goats on systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and electrocardiographic changes. A total of 10 clinically healthy goats of 1-3 years aged and weighing between 10-15 kg were used for the present experiment. All the animals were randomly divided into two groups of five animals each. Ropivacaine (0.75%) @ 1 mg/kgbwt was epidurally administered in the lumbosacral space in group I whereas, the animals of group II were given dexmedetomidine @ 2 μg/kgbwt in combination with ropivacaine hydrochloride (1 mg/kgbwt). Haemodynamic parameters viz. SAP, DAP and MAP revealed non-significant alterations in group I, whereas, group II showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in SAP and MAP at different intervals of observations. Electrocardiogram revealed bradycardia in group II with prolongation of RR intervals, QT intervals and width of QRS complex, whereas, in group I these changes was variables which of little significance. In conclusion, the ropivacaine in combination with dexmedetomidine was synergistically decreasing the systolic arterial and mean arterial pressure within normal physiological limits and transient changes in ECG. Hence ropivacaine along with dexmedetomidine can be used in cardiovascular compromised animals.

Title: Evaluation of Diuretic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Dolichos biflorus Seeds against Ethylene Glycol Induced Renal Stone in Experimental Rats
Abstract :
Aqueous extracts of seeds of Dolichos biflorus was evaluated for its diuretic activity against experimentally induced renal stone in rats. The animals were grouped into seven groups of six animals each. Hyperoxularia was induced by giving ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride to a final concentration of 0.75 % and 2% in
drinking water for a period of 28 days. The first group of animals served as negative (healthy) control and received normal distilled water. The second group served as positive (untreated) control and no extract was given to this group. Rest groups received aqueous extract of Dolichos biflorus at a dose of 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mg/kg. The urine volume was recorded for all the groups after every seven days for about 28 days. The extracts treated groups showed increase in total urine production and the extract treated group (300 mg/kg) showed significantly and markedly increased the urine output (p < 0.01). There was significant (p < 0.01) decrease in pH of positive control rats as compared to extract treated rats. Urinary pH also showed dose dependent effect, the higher the dose the lesser the decrease in pH of urine. The extract treated rats showed lesser decrease in pH as compared to positive control rats. Crystals in urine also varied with dose of extract and lesser crystals were found in rats treated with higher dose of extract and maximum crystals were found in positive control group. These findings suggest the possible traditional use of this plant in nephrolithiasis as diuretics.
Title: Animal Welfare Practices followed by Dairy Farmers of Kathua District of Jammu and Kashmir State
Abstract :
As we all are aware that safe and quality milk is being produced from healthy animals using management practices that are sustainable from an animal welfare, social, economic and environmental perspective. This study was carried out to fi nd out the common animal welfare practices being practiced by randomly selected 120 dairy farmers in the four blocks of Kathua district of Jammu and Kashmir state of India. For the study, a door to door survey was conducted using semi-structured interview schedule to collect primary data on various dairy animal welfare practices like calf rearing, feeding, housing, breeding, health care and milking welfare keeping in mind the “Five Freedoms” concept for animal welfare. Data from the study revealed that 100 percent of the farmers took care of the calves at the time of birth, provided colostrums (44%) after the removal of placentaand fed milk to their calves for more than four months after birth, but as far as total calf welfare was concerned they were not practicing cutting, ligation and disinfection of naval cord as required. They were also providing necessary amount of greens and concentrates to their animals and in some parts of district, they had maintained the standards of feeding welfare by exposing their animals to green pastures. Majority of the respondents had constructed a separate (54%) and well directed (61%) houses for their animals. Height of the shelters was suffi cient (67%) and had kacha fl oor (51%) in their animal sheds. Regarding the breeding welfare practices, majority of the respondents were practicing artifi cial insemination method and also got their animals examined after 90 days of insemination, which was a good breeding welfare practice. Majority of them had provided proper prophylactic measures to their animals from contagious diseases for their health welfare. They were milking their animals twice a day in the same place where they usually tied them. Majority of them were following good milking welfare practices by
cleaning their hands, utensils and udder of the animal before milk
Title: Efficacy of Indirect Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay and Passive Haemagglutination Test for the Diagnosis of Bovine Herpes Virus -1 (BHV-1) Infection
Abstract :
A total of 255 sera were collected from unvaccinated crossbred (174) and indigenous (81) cattle and buffalo having history of respiratory and reproductive disorders. All the sera sample were subjected to indirect ELISA and passive haemagglutination (PHA) test for the detection of BHV-1 antibodies. Indirect ELISA and PHA test detected significantly (P<0.01) varied prevalence of BHV-1 antibody i.e. 60.39 % and 35.69%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of PHA test in comparison with indirect ELISA was 55.19% and 94.06%, respectively. Moderate agreement (kappa = 0.442) was noticed between ELISA and PHA for the diagnosis of BHV-1 antibodies. Significantly (p< 0.01) higher prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies was observed in crossbred (70.11%) as compared to indigenous cattle and buffalo (46.91%). Hence, it is be concluded from present investigation that the indirect ELISA could be reliable and sensitive test than PHA test to screen BHV-1 antibody.
Title: Effect of Fibrolytic Enzyme on Nutrient Utilization and Rumen Fermentation Pattern in Sheep
Abstract :
Effect of fibrolytic enzyme supplementation on nutrients utilization of sheep was studied. Twelve male Patanwadi sheep (12-15 month) were randomly divided in two groups of 6 each. Sheep were fed rations containing 50 % wheat straw and 50% compound concentrate mixture. A fibrolytic exogenous enzyme @ 0.025% was added to the ration of animal fed TMR. At the end of 14 weeks experimental period, animals were kept on digestion trial and three animals of each group were used for rumen fermentation analysis. There was no difference in final body weight between the groups due to enzyme treatment. There was non-significant difference on intake of dry matter and organic matter and also digestibility of DM, OM, CF and EE were not affected by treatment. However, the digestibility of CP and NFE were observed significantly (p<0.05) higher in treatment group as compared to control group. There was no significant effect on pH, TVFA, ammonia-N and NPN concentrations. However, the Total-N and protein-N concentration were significantly higher in treatment group as compared to control group. The daily feed cost was ` 6.04 and 5.90 under T1 and T2, respectively (P>0.05) which was somewhat lower in T2 in comparison to T1. It could be concluded that fibrolytic enzyme have no effect on feed intake, body wt gain, digestibility except protein utilization.
Title: Characterization of Exon4 of FSTN Gene and its Association with Growth Traits in PD-1 Broiler Chicken
Abstract :
Follistatin play vital role in biological processes which includes cell proliferation, differentiation, and skeletal muscle growth. The present study was carried out to study polymorphism of exon4 of follistatin gene and its association with body weight in PD-1, a broiler line of chicken. A product of 225 bp of exon-4 was amplified and structural variability was studied using polymerase chain reaction, single strand confi rmation polymorphism and sequencing method. This study revealed that the FSTN gene was monomoprphic at exon4. Growth data was also analyzed, the growth performance of male and female differed
significantly at six week of age.
Title: Draftability of Kutchi Camel under Agro Climatic Condition of Middle Gujarat
Abstract :

Present study was conducted on five clinically healthy adult Kutchi camels (B.wt. 450-550kg) with the objective to assess the effect of different payloads (L1-1500kg, L2-2000kg and L3-2500kg), under different seasons (S1- hot dry, S2-hot humid and S3- winter) and work rest cycles (WR1: 2h (W) - 1h (R) - 2h (W) - 1h (R) + 2h (W) and WR2: 1h (W) - 15 min (R) - 1h (W) - 15 min (R) - 1h (W) - 1h (R) - 1h (W) - 15 min (R) - 1h (W) - 15 min (R) - 1h (W). The Kgf, Hp, power output (W), stride (no/100m), time (sec/100m), stride length (m) and duration of stride/sec were recorded significantly (p<0.05) higher under L2 and L3 as compared to L1 under different work rest cycles, whereas speed (m/sec) declined significantly (p<0.05) under L2 and L3 as compared to L1. The no of strides/sec did not differ under any pay loads under different work rest cycles. The Hp, power output (W), speed (m/sec) and number of stride/sec increased significantly (p<0.05) under S2 and S3 as compared to S1 whereas time (sec)/100 m and duration of stride/sec declined significantly (p<0.05) under season S2 and S3 as compared to S1. The stride length (m) recorded significantly (p<0.05) high in S2 an compared to S1 and S3. The Kgf did not alter in any season.

Title: First report of Maedi-Visna and Caprine Arthritis- Encephalitis viruses in Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract :

Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) in sheep and Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats, two genetically related diseases caused by small ruminant lenti viruses (SRLVs). These viruses are reported to pose serious economic threats in industrialized countries. The present study reports the epidemiological presence of antibodies by using ELISA test against these viruses in small ruminants in Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh. The seropositivity was recorded as 4.28% against MVV and 4.5% against CAEV with an overall seropositivity of 4.32%.

Title: Gross and Histomorphological Studies of Liver in Neonatal Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
Abstract :

Rabbit is a laboratory animal and is used to conduct wide variety of experiments for the welfare of human as well as animals. Liver is the main organ of metabolism and study of xenobiotics is usually carried out in this particular organ. The present study was conducted on six rabbits (non-descript) between 0-3 days of age, procured from laboratory of department of Microbiology, college of Veterinary Science & A.H. Jabalpur. The liver was carefully dissected out and fixed in 10% formalin. After gross measurements tissue samples were processed and 5-6 μm thick paraffin sections were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin stain and silver impregnation method for histological studies. Mean weight, length, width and height of liver were 16.30±0.37gm, 2.52±0.05 cm, 2.15 ±0.04 cm and 1.07 ±0.03cm respectively. The liver was comprised of two main lobes, right and left, that are separated by a deep median cleft. There were five lobes viz., Left Lateral, Left Medial, Right, Caudate and Quadrate lobes. The extent of the caudate process was bigger than that of the papillary process and the smallest structure in length and height was quadrate lobe. Histologically Mitoses was observed in the liver cells. The cell outline was indistinct and cytoplasm showed extreme variation in appearance as vacuolated, granular, deep staining or pale. There was presence of haematopoietic cells (megakaryocytes) in the stroma of liver.

Title: Effect of Replacement of Wheat Straw with Maize Cobs with or without Physico-Chemical Treatment on Degradation of Dry Matter, Truly Digestible Organic Matter and Production of Microbial Biomass of Composite Ration In Vitro using Goat Rumen Liquor
Abstract :
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of replacement of wheat straw by different levels of maize cobs in composite ration on in vitro degradation of dry matter, truly digestible organic matter and production of microbial biomass in order to determine its level of supplementation in ruminant ration. Wheat straw was replaced by maize cobs @ 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100% level to formulate composite rations. The different formulae of composite rations were used for in vitro gas production studies using goat rumen liquor with wheat straw. In physical treatment only soaking was done while under chemical treatment application of urea, molasses and combination of both urea and molasses were applied before conducting in vitro studies using goat rumen liquor. Proximate composition, fi ber fractionation and calcium and phosphrous content of all the composite rations were estimated. The in vitro degradability of maize cobs based diets is better than wheat straw based composite ration. There was no signifi cant (P>0.05) improvement in per cent IVDMD of maize cob based diet by water soaking irrespective of the soaking period, however, a signifi cant (P<0.05) improvement in in vitro degradation parameters were observed with urea-ammoniation of maize cobs. No benefi t of molasses treatment either in isolation or in combination was observed over maize cobs utilization as compared to urea-ammoniated maize cobs. It is concluded that feeding value of maize cobs is similar to wheat straw as indicated by IVDMD while urea-ammoniation appears to be the ‘treatment of choice’ for improving nutritive value of maize cobs.
Title: Medical Management of Rumen Collapse in Cows
Abstract :

Rumen collapse or rumen void is a syndrome usually observed in cattle affected with other primary diseases. It is a sequelae to other primary diseases due to total anorexia for several days. Recently purchased and calved animals brought into Large Animal Outpatient Medicine Unit, Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital, with the history of prolonged anorexia, mastitis and metritis were screened for rumen collapse. A total of 20 cases were included for the study. Animals were subjected to clinical, physical, rectal, haematological and biochemical examination. Anamnesis included were anorexia in all cases, high rise of temperature 15(75%) and high coloured urine 14(70%). An rumen collapsed in case of recently purchased animals were 12(60%). Clinical signs were anemia 18(90%), enlarged lymph node 17(85%), decreased rumen motility 17(85%), decreased or suspended rumination 16(80%). Rectal examination revealed a small sized rumen (rumen collapsed). Rumen fluid examination revealedvery few live protozoa or complete absence of protozoal motility and increased in MBRT (Methylene blue reduction test) time. The haematological examination revealed reduced level of Hb, PCV and RBC level. Biochemical examination revealed reduced level of total protein and other parameters were remain in the normal range. The suggestive of the primary diseases involved were hypocalcaemia, theileriosis, anaplasmosis, mastitis, septic metritis, indigestion and babesiosis. The animals were firstly treated for primary diseases followed by rumen cud transplantation and oral administration of rumenotorics bolus.

Title: Production Cost of Mutton Nuggets Developed by Incorporating Flaxseed Flour, Blend of Essential Oils and their Selected Combinations
Abstract :

In the present study, production cost of mutton nuggets formulated with pre-optimized level of flaxseed flour (8%) (T-1), blend of essential oils (0.25%) (T-2) and their selected combination (4% flaxseed flour + 0.25% blend of essential oils) (T-3) were studied in comparison to that of the control. Optimization of levels for flaxseed flour and blend of essential oils was done under different experiments based on sensory attributes and those having sensory status closer to control were selected. It was found that the production cost of 1 kg product was ` 428.16, 392.41, 436.01 and 418.16 for control, flaxseed, essential oil (EO) and combination of flaxseed and essential oil incorporated mutton nuggets, respectively. Thus, it was concluded that formulation with 8% flaxseed flour at the cost of lean meat was most economic among the various other combinations.

Title: Effect of Feed and Feeding Strategies on Oocytes Development in Labeo rohita:A Histomorphological Study
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to study the effect of different diets and feeding strategies on the development of oocytes during the pre spawning and post spawning period in Labeo rohita. The study showed the presence of oocytes in different developmental stages viz., primary growth phase, secondary growth phase, maturation phase, post ovulatory phase and atretic oocytes during both pre spawning and post spawning period. The primary growth phase comprised of oogonia stage, chromatin nucleolus stage, early perinucleolar stage and late perinucleolar stage, whereas, the secondary growth phase was differentiated as cortical alveolus stage, early vitellogenic stage and late vitellogenic stage, and early and late types of atresia. The percentage occurrence (92-28 %) of these different stages varied during pre spawning and post spawning period respectively The study revealed that (65%) of the oocytes were in the vitellogenic and maturation phases during pre spawning period, while as perinuclear stage and atretic oocytes (27.6%) were seen during post spawning period. All the developmental stages showed more active oocytes in the ovaries of fish fed with vitamins and minerals indicating that diet influences the reproductive efficiency of the fish

Title: Effect of Different Doses of Poultry Manure and Cow Dung on the Growth of Indian Major Carp, Catla catla
Abstract :
In view of the beneficial and some harmful impacts of use of livestock manure in fish farming, the present experiment was designed to assess the growth of Catla catla under the influence of low, medium and high doses of cow dung and poultry manure. Experimental water in tubs were treated with low (TC1)@ 10,000kg/
ha, medium (TC2) @ 15,000kg/ha and high (TC3) @ 20,000 kg/ha doses of cow dung and also with low (TP1) @ 8,000kg/ha, medium (TP2) @ 10,000kg/ha and high (TP3) @ 12,000 kg/ha doses of poultry litter, respectively along with control (T0). The control were maintained on conventional feed without nutrient input. Recording
of length and weight to know specific growth rate (SGR) and condition factor (CF) was done initially and after 60 days at the end of the experiment. Fish were also observed for mortality throughout the experiment to calculate the survival rate. The treatment with poultry manure and cow dung caused significant change (P<0.05) in length when compared to T0. Maximum increase in length of fish was observed in TC1 and TP2 throughout the experiment period. While in TC3, no growth was recorded till the end of experiment. Maximum weight gain was also observed in TC1. Highest values of SGR% and CF were seen in TC1. Maximum survival rate (%) was recorded in T0 and TC2 followed by TC1.
Title: Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) for Leptospirosis in Association with Acute Renal Failure in Dogs
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out in the Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, GBPUA&T, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India. Total of 100 sera samples from azotemic dogs were subjected to Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) using Leptospira culture in Leptospira lab, Department of Veterinary Bacteriology and Mycology, IVRI, Izatnagar, Bareilly (U.P.) All the sera samples were tested against L. interrogans: Serovars icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona, canicola, autumnalis, grippotyphosa and javanica. Out of 100 sera samples, 20 (20%) were found positive (+) for different serovars of Leptospira interogans and 3 (3%) were doubtful (±) at an antibody titre ≥1:100. The serovars identified were L. autumnalis (17/100), L. icterohaemorrhagiae (8/100), L. gryppotyphosa (4/100), L. canicola (2/100), L. javanica (2/100) and L. Pomona (1/100). The highest prevalence of Leptospira was observed for serovars L. autumnalis (17%), followed by L. icterohaemorrhagiae (8%) and least for L. pomona (1%).

Title: Prevalence, Cyst Characterization and Economic Importance of Bovine Hydatidosis in Addis Ababa Abattoirs Enterprise, Ethiopia
Abstract :
A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, cyst fertility and economic importance of bovine hydatidosis in cattle slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoirs Enterprise, Ethiopia. The study revealed 20.16% (98/486) occurrence of hydatidosis based on t