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Title: Effect of Minosel Tablet on Blood Parameters of Goat Kids Raised under Poor Maintenance and Nutrition
Abstract :

As vitamins and minerals had significant effects on growth, reproduction, yield and the immune systems of animals, present study is conducted to research the impact of Minosel oral tablets, a combination of vitamins and minerals, on certain blood parameters of goat kids raised under poor nutrition and maintenance conditions. The experiment was conducted in 20 kids of both sexs of 3-10 days of age having 2-5 kg of body weight and they were raised under poor nutritional and management conditions in Van. After the systematic clinical examinations of ill grown animals, blood samples from each animal Were collected before and after the administration of oral tablets for analysis of certain blood biochemical parameters viz. glucose, total protein, urea, ALP, ALT, AST, LDH, calcium, and vitamins A, D and E. Minosel oral tablets (Teknovet, Turkey) were orally administered to ill-grown animals. Vitamin D and vitamin E levels were found to be statistically significant (P<0.05) while other blood parameters were statistically insignificant (P>0.05). As a result, applying Minosel oral tablets prophylactically to newborn kids may cause some vitamin and mineral deficiencies; in order to repair the destruction of some tissues and organs, supplemental treatments may be needed in addition to these vitamins and minerals.

Title: Growth Response of New Zealand White Rabbits to Dietary Probiotic and Vitamin C under Tropical Humid Climate
Abstract :

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing Lactobacillus casei and vitamin C on growth performance of New Zealand White rabbits affected by heat stress during summer seasons between March and May in Kerala state, India. Twenty four two month old rabbits (average body weight 0.91kg) were distributed to four groups of six rabbits each. The treatments were control group (C) fed basal diet alone, L group fed basal diet along with Lactobacillus casei (106 colony forming units per g of feed), V group fed basal diet along with ascorbic acid (200 mg per kg feed), and LV group fed basal diet along with L. casei and ascorbic acid at the same rate as in V and L. The Temperature humidity index (THI) values in the rabbitry and rabbit fecal cortisol values (n=6 per group) were estimated to assess the heat stress level in rabbits. As per THI values, animals were exposed to stress (THI > 27.8) in the afternoon hours during the entire experimental period. The V, L and VL rabbits had lower mean cortisol level than control during the period of very severe and severe heat stress (1-9th experimental week- March and April). The groups did not differ for body weights during the period of very severe and severe heat stress (March and April). The V, L and VL rabbits had similar 21 week final weights but those of the L and VL rabbits were 25.52% and 32.29% higher than the control. The rabbits in the V, L and VL group showed 38.51%, 49.19% and 61.13% (P<0.05) higher overall mean daily body weight gain and 23.89%, 31.48%, 40.33% higher overall mean feed efficiency than the control. Dietary supplementation of the probiotic or ascorbic acid did not affect (P>0.05) the overall feed intake. Cost of production (Rupees) per kilogram live weight on feed basis was lowest for VL animals followed by L and V animals respectively.

Title: Pathology of Mycotic Tracheitis in Poultry
Abstract :

A case of mycotic tracheitis in an adult Rhode Island Red bird of about 20 weeks of age is described here. The bird had a history of dyspnoea, gasping and was dull prior to death. On postmortem examination lungs showed multiple circumscribed granulomatous nodules in the lungs and the trachea was occluded with caseous plugs. Microscopically there were fungal hyphae penetrating the tracheal mucosa together with a caseative plug having central necrotic mass adhering to the tracheal wall, foci of severe congestion and hemorrhage, fungal granuloma surrounded by mononuclear cell infiltration, giant cell, fungal hyphae and fibrous tissues were recorded. The fungal hyphae were also demonstrated by Grocott’s methanamine silver stain.

Title: Impact of Climate Change on Livestock Production: A Review
Abstract :

Climate change is seen as a major threat to the survival of many species, ecosystems and the sustainability of livestock production systems in many parts of the world. Green house gases (GHG) are released in the atmosphere both by natural sources and anthropogenic (human related) activities. An attempt has been made in this article to understand the contribution of ruminant livestock to climate change and to identify the mitigation strategies to reduce enteric methane emission in livestock. In Indian subcontinent, heat stress is the most important climatic stress. Heat stress adversely affecting productive and reproductive performance of livestock, and hence reducing the total area where high yielding dairy cattle may be economically reared. The livestock sector which will be a sufferer of climate change is itself a large source of methane emissions contributing about 18% of total enteric methane budget. Ruminant livestock such as cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats contributes the major proportion of total agricultural emission of methane .In India, although the emission rate per animal is much lower than the developed countries, due to vast livestock population the total annual methane emissions from Indian livestock ranged from 7.26 to 10.4 MT/year. In India more than 90% of the total methane emission from enteric fermentation is being contributed by the large ruminants (cattle and buffalo) and rest from small ruminants and others. Generally CH4 reduction strategies can be grouped under two broad categories such as management and nutritional strategies. Although the reduction in GHG emissions from livestock industries are seen as high priorities, strategies for reducing emissions should not reduce the economic viability of enterprises if they are to find industry acceptability.

Title: Personal, Socio-Economic Characteristics of Dairy Animal Owners and their Relationship with Knowledge of Dairy Husbandry Practices in Surat District of Gujarat
Abstract :

To study the knowledge of dairy animal owners in improved dairy husbandry practices a field survey in Surat district was conducted during March, 2013 to January, 2014. Data were collected through personal interview from randomly selected 300 dairy animal owners from randomly selected five talukas out of nine talukas of Surat district with the help of pre-tested structured schedule. The present study revealed that majority of the dairy farmers were belonged middle to old age group, literate, nuclear type of family having more number of children making big size family. Majority of the respondents were from scheduled tribe and other backward category having medium level of extension contacts and mass media exposure with membership in one organization. Majority of the respondents were falling under marginal to small categories farmers with small herd size and they possessed agriculture and livestock as their livelihood. The education, caste, land holding, animal holding size, extension contact and mass media exposure of the respondents were positively and significantly related, whereas vocational diversification was negatively related with knowledge of dairy farmers regarding improved dairy husbandry practices in the study area.

Title: The Transverse Septum Morphology of the Farmed Adult African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus B.) from Eastern Nigeria
Abstract :

The morphology of the adult African catfish transverse septum was studied to establish its functional anatomy as there is dearth of information on it from available literature. The fish sourced from commercial aquaculture was immobilized and the specimen- transverse septum dissected out, and investigated using haematoxyline and eosin stain. Grossly, the septum transversum was a milkish white membranous sheath separating the pericardial cavity from the thoraco-abdominal cavity. Histologically, the septum transversum was lined by simple squamous cells. The subepithelial region was composed mainly of loose irregular collagen fibres. Reticular fibres were also observed. Muscle tissue of mainly skeletal fibres and scant smooth muscle cells were seen embedded irregularly in the loose areolar tissue. Nerve fibres and blood vessels were also contained in this loose areolar tissue that formed the matrix of the septum transversum.

Title: Effect of Mincing on the Quality  Characteristics of Chevon Cutlets
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of mincing and added water on the quality characteristics of chevon cutlets. The lean meat was minced once, twice and thrice, respectively through 4 mm plate to evaluate the effect of mincing on physic-chemical and sensory parameters. A significant effect of mincing was observed with the highest scores for juiciness and texture for the products developed from twice minced lean meat. Thus, good quality chevon cutlets could be prepared by mincing the lean meat twice and with incorporation of 5% shredded potato and 3% added water from tough and less palatable chevon.

Title: Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Canola Meal on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and its Economic Efficiency in Finishing Pigs
Abstract :

Present study investigated the effects of dietary increasing levels of solvent-extracted canola meal (CM) as a substitute for soybean meal as an energy and amino acid source in finishing pigs. A total of 192 finishing pigs (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc; initial body weight of 48.62 ± 3 kg) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments on the basis of BW. There were 4 replicate pens in each treatment with 12 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0, 4, 8 and 12% canola meal. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 35 days. Dietary inclusion of increasing levels of canola meals had no effects (P>0.05) on growth performance and ATTD of nutrients and energy. Total feed cost per pigs was linearly reduced (P<0.05) with increase in dietary canola meal level. However, dietary inclusion of canola meal has no effects (P>0.05) on total weight gain (TWG), total feed intake (TFI) and feed cost per kg weight gain (FCG). These results indicates that up to 12% canola meal can be included in finishing pig’s diet without any adverse effect on growth performance and ATTD of nutrient. In addition, finisher pigs feed cost can be reduced with dietary inclusion of canola meal.

Title: Effect of Phytase Enzyme Supplementation in Low Energy-Protein Layer Diet on Tibial Mineral Contents
Abstract :

An experiment was carried out using 200 hundred Athulya birds divided into 10 treatments (T1-T10) to find out the effect of phytase enzyme on tibial mineral contents. Phytase was supplemented at 0, 500 and 1000 units/kg in low energy, low protein and low energy- protein layer chicken diets containing available phosphorus of 0.30% from 21 to 40 weeks of age. A standard layer ration was offered to birds in T1. Experimental diets from T2 to T10 were formulated with two levels of crude protein (18 and 16 percent) and two levels of metabolisable energy (2600 and 2400 ME kcal/kg diet). After the laying period, four birds from each treatment were randomly selected, slaughtered and data on tibial mineral contents viz. tibial ash. calcium and phosphorus were measured. The tibial mineral contents viz. tibial ash. calcium and phosphorus showed significant (P<0.01) increase among phytase supplemented treatments.

Title: Influence of Season on Biochemical Attributes of Bhadawari Buffalo Bull Semen: Effect of Temperature and Humidity
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to establish the seasonal variations in semen biochemical indices in Bhadawari bull. Four fertile, healthy adult Bhadawari bulls aged between 2 to 4 years were used as semen donors. The study was conducted over a period of six months and divided into three seasons as winter season (February- March), dry summer season (April-May) and wet summer season (June-July). Sixteen semen samples were collected in each season (four ejaculates from each bull) by using Artificial Vagina and seminal plasma were harvested by centrifugation. The results of the study showed gradual and significant rise in values of ALT, AST, ALP, cholesterol and triglycerides and decline in values of amylase with increase in ambient temperature and THI. Amylase showed negative correlation and other indices showed positive correlation with ambient temperature and THI. The ambient temperature and THI showed positive correlation with biochemical attributes except amylase while humidity showed negative correlation. It could be concluded from the study that temperature and THI of season significantly affects the semen biochemical attributes of Bhadawari bulls.

Title: Biotechnological Approach to Improve the Nutritional Availability in Livestock and Consequence for Reduction the Environment Pollution by Implement of Transgenic Phytase in Animal Feed
Abstract :

Phytases are hydrolytic enzymes that initiate the release of phosphate from phytate In recent years the application of the phytase enzyme have been studied intensively. Phytase enzymes have a wide distribution in plants, microorganisms, and in some animal tissues. Many strategies have been developed for improving phosphate and mineral availability in feed. However in recent years, expression of transgenic microbial phytase in plants can be successfully applied as animal feed supplementation for innovative means of delivering phytases to non-ruminants to inflation of bioavailability of mineral such as calcium, magnesium, zinc copper, enhance the utilization of phytate bounded phosphorus and reduce P pollution of animal excreta. Moreover, improved biotechnological processes in the production of transgeneic plant contain microbial phytase can eliminate the costs associated with phytase production, purification, and supplementation for commercial use. In current study we discussed about the comprehensive descriptions on source of phytase, expression profiling and their potential application in animal feed. Hence it is concluded that molecular farming in the production from microbial sources of stable phytase in feed could open a new venture for commercial purposes.

Title: Evaluation of the Heatsynch protocol in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) during hot summer season
Abstract :

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Heatynch protocol on plasma estrogen concentration in Murrah buffaloes and to evaluate if the Heatsynch protocol induces estrus in Murrah buffaloes. All treated animals responded to the treatment by displaying obvious signs of estrus. The mean plasma estrogen concentration among the individual buffalo was 191.9 ± 68.3 pg / ml after Estradiol benzoate (EB) injection. The plasma progesterone profile of these animals indicated that out of 16 animals 8 animals were acyclic before Heatsynch treatment (8/16) as plasma progesterone concentrations in these animals were basal (<0.24±0.01 ng/ml) for most of the sampling period during the course of treatment. Following Heatsynch treatment only two buffalo out of sixteen were acyclic (2/16) on the basis of their plasma progesterone profile. These results indicated that Heatsynch protocol is useful in inducing cyclicity in acyclic buffaloes. The seven buffalo out of sixteen (7/16) were conceived after treatment with Heatsynch protocol in summer. So, the treatment might have potential field application value to overcome poor estrus symptoms in summer.

Title: Standardization of Shredded Potato and Added Water Levels in the Development of Chevon Cutlets
Abstract :

The objective of the present study was undertaken to standardize the levels of shredded potato and added water in the development of chevon cutlets. The lean meat was minced twice through 4 mm plate. The cutlets were prepared with the incorporation of shredded potato at 0, 5, 10 and 15% level and added water at 0, 3, 6 and 9%, respectively replacing the lean meat. A significant effect of mincing was observed with the highest scores for juiciness and texture for the products developed from twice minced lean meat. Cutlets prepared with the incorporation of 5% shredded potato were found to have better scores for almost all the sensory parameters. Incorporation of 3% added water significantly (p<0.05) increased the appearance and colour, texture, juiciness and rusk pick-up. Thus, good quality chevon cutlets could be prepared by incorporating 5% shredded potato and 3% added water.

Title: Omphalitis in ducklings with Staphylococcus aureus infection
Abstract :

Outbreak of Omphalitis was reported in the week old ducklings at a research duck farm of Regional centre. The clinical signs were swollen abdomen contains cheesy caseous content into yalk sac, oedema, redness, few cases of inflammation at abdomen, septicaemia, showed little interest in food and water resulting gradual severely dehydrated. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from Omphalitis of 20 ducklings. Of the 20 Omphalitis cases 13 were khakis and 7 were of white pekins. The isolation and identification of the isolates were accomplished by cultural, microscopic and biochemical characterization. The antibogram showed that the isolates were highly sensitive to Agithromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Cloxacillin, Enrofloxacin, Gentamicin and Floxidin. They were moderately sensitive to Chloramphenicol, Ofloxacin, Furazolidon and Doxicillin but were resistant to Neomycin, Kanamycin and Sulphamethizole, Cefixime/clavulinic acid.

Abstract :

Dr. Neelesh Sharma, Founder Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Animal Research, bestowed for the “Appreciation Award” during International Conference on Animal and Dairy Science, 15-17 September, 2014, held at Hyderabad. He was a Co-Chairman of the Animal Biotechnology session. Dr. Sharma also delivered an invited lecture on Stem Cell Research in the Animal Biotechnology session. Delegates were attended the conference from different countries and shared their knowledge through presenting oral/poster presentations.

Title: Survey of Calf Rearing Practices Followed at Rural Dairy Farms in Surat District
Abstract :

A field survey was conducted purposively in Surat district of Gujrat to ascertain the calf rearing management practices followed by rural dairy animal owners during March, 2013 to January, 2014. Data were collected from randomly selected 300 dairy animal owners through personal interview with the help of pre-tested structured schedule from five talukas selected at random. The present study revealed that majority (95.33%) of the respondents attended calving and cleaned the calves soon after parturition. Majority (96.33%) of respondents did not practice ligation, cutting and disinfection of the naval cord and it was left to fall off itself naturally. Only 35.05% of the respondents fed colostrum to new born calf within one hour of birth. Majority (58.67%) of the respondents followed weaning practices at the age of three months and 23.33% of the respondents allowed calves to suckle their dams till lactation ceased. Majority (82.33%) of the respondents provided green fodders from two months of age and only 2.67% of the respondents provided calf starter to the calves. Only 37% of the respondents followed dehorning during 3-4 week of age of their calves, 17% of respondents practiced castration of male calves, 48.67% of the respondents gave anthelmetics to the calves regularly and 12.33% of the respondents provided jacketing as well as bedding in order to protect their calves from cold during winter season.

Title: Application of Caslick’s Index in Predicting the Mare Fertility
Abstract :

Vulva acts as the first effective barrier to combat the external environmental infections and to protect the internal reproductive organs from ascending infections. Any abnormality in the shape and structure to the vulva may compromises the mare’s healthy reproductive status and may lead to the infertility. Vulvar conformation plays a major and crucial role not only during selection and purchase of mares but also in predicting the future fertility status. Caslick’s index gives estimation about the calculation of good vulval conformation. In the present study, we applied the same to our breedable mares present at the farm and correlated with fertility. The study confirms the positive correlation between the vulval confirmation and fertility status of the mares.

Title: Meat consumption in North-East India: Pattern, Opportunities and Implications
Abstract :

Meat is an important and common source of animal protein in the NE (North-Eastern) states as seen from the expenditure estimates which shows that 15 per cent in rural areas and 18 per cent in urban areas is devoted to meat out of the total food expenditure. The study is based on NSSO data on household consumption expenditure in 2009-10 pertaining to the 66th round. The study showed that the proportion of meat out of total food expenditure is almost two to three times more than the national average. Manipur is an exception where the rural households’ proportionate expenditure is more than urban households. Chevon/mutton and chicken have lesser supply than demand in most NE states. Beef and pork are relatively cheaper in rural areas and therefore consumed more whereas urbanization may be the factor that influence liking for chevon/mutton consumption in urban areas. Export policy, Infrastructure development, feed sector, and establishment of modern slaughter houses are some of the issues which need attention of the government to sustain meat consumption in the region.

Title: Evaluation of Meat Consumption Pattern and Meat Quality in North Indian Cities
Abstract :

A survey was conducted in north Indian cities (Ghaziabad, Noida, Gurugram, Delhi, Lucknow and Bareilly) with an aim to evaluate meat consumption pattern and meat products quality. Retailers from 15 randomly chosen shops, viz., Shop-A, B, C...O and 403 consumers visiting those shops were interviewed. Sample meat products from 10 shops were collected and quality evaluated. Among retailers, 73.33% told meat Kabab (chicken and chevon), is the most sold out product. As per 50.37% & 34.24% consumers chicken and goat meat was 1st and 2nd preference of meat species respectively, 53.46% of consumers preferred “taste” as their first criteria of meat products purchase, 62.85% consumers preferred convenience meat products as compared to traditional counterparts, highest percentage of (43.42%) consumers chosen seekh kabab (chicken and chevon) as their first preference of product. Evaluation of market products quality revealed that, maximum and minimum protein percentage in Shop-A, Chicken Kabab (16.73%) and Shop-C, Chicken Kabab (5.32%) respectively. Cholesterol content found maximum and minimum amount in Mutton Kabab from Shop-J (60.72 mg/100g) and Chicken Sausages from Shop-N (33.54 mg/100g) respectively. Calcium content found highest in Chicken Kabab from Shop-C (1.63%). Highest Total Plate Count (TPC) detected in chicken Kabab from Shop-D (5.41 log 10 cfu/g).

Title: Biometrical Changes in Reproductive Organs of Bakharwal Goats with Age
Abstract :

To study the biometry of genital organs of Bakharwal goats, twenty reproductive tracts were collected from slaughterhouses of Jammu during October 2014 to December 2014. Based on the age of slaughtered animals, the reproductive tracts were divided into two groups (group A, age between 12-18 months and group B, age between 24-30 months). For cervix length and width and thickness, the average measurements of group A were 4.31 ± 0.02 cm, 1.24 ± 0.03 cm, 0.54±0.02 and in group B were 4.44 ± 0.03 cm, 1.37 ± 0.01 cm, 0.61± 0.02, respectively. Similarly in group A, the average size of body of uterus was 3.31± 0.03 cm, 1.53 ± 0.01cm, 0.56 ± 0.02 cm and in group B, 3.47 ±0.11 cm, 1.60 ± 0.03 cm, 0.64 ± 0.01 cm. The average size of the right horn of uterus in group A was 13.98 ± 0.39 cm, 1.83 ± 0.02 cm, 0.57 ± 0.03 cm and the size of the left horn of uterus was 14.62 ± 0.30 cm, 1.02 ± 0.04 cm, 0.45 ±0.03 cm while the average size of the right horn of uterus in group B was 15.51 ± 0.19cm, 1.90 ± 0.02cm, 0.62 ± 0.26 cm and the size of the left horn of uterus was 15.6 ± 0.35 cm, 1.01 ± 0.04 cm, 0.57 ± 0.02 cm for length, width and thickness, respectively. Mean length of right and left fallopian tube in group A was 18.18 ± 0.25 cm, 17.70 ± 0.28 cm while in group B was 19.11 ± 0.10 cm, 17.90 ± 0.20 cm. In group A the average size of the right ovary was 1.98 ± 0.05cm, 1.00 ± 0.04 cm, 0.66 ± 0.03 cm while in left ovary 1.88 ± 0.26 cm, 1.15 ± 0.15, 0.64 ± 0.04 cm for length, width and thickness, respectively. Similarly, in group B the average size of the right ovary was 2.11± 0.05 cm, 1.10 ± 0.05 cm, 0.60 ± 0.02 cm while in left ovary 2.00 ± 0.02 cm, 1.30 ±0.11 cm. 0.66 ± 0.03 cm, for length, width, and thickness, respectively. It was concluded that the size of genital organs of Bakharwal goat increases with age during 12-18 months to 24-30 months of age.

Title: Association of Flooring Materials with Milk Yield and its Composition in Crossbred cows
Abstract :

Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of concrete or rubber surface, in combination with open yard with either brick paving or sand bed on milk production and composition in crossbred dairy cows under loose housing system. Total 20 crossbred cows, were assigned to four treatment groups (5 per group) viz. Control group (T0): Concrete floor (in covered feeding area) + Brick paving (in loafing area); Treatment 1 (T1): Concrete floor + Sand bed; Treatment 2 (T2): Rubber mat + Sand bed; Treatment 3 (T3): Rubber mat + Brick paving. Milk yield did not differed significantly (P>0.05) among groups, but it was higher in T2 followed by T3, T0 (control) and T1. Fat %, SNF % and Total Solids % were almost similar (P > 0.05) in all the groups. Therefore, it can be concluded that provision of rubber mat or sand floor alone does not affect milk production and composition. However, floor combination of rubber mat and sand bed in loose houses showed higher production.

Title: Retention of Magnet in Reticulo-rumen for the Prevention of Traumatic Reticulo-peritonitis in Dairy Cattle
Abstract :

The present work was aimed to study retention time of magnet in reticulo-rumen for prevention of traumatic reticulo-peritonitis in cattle. A total of 32 stall fed cattle from an organised dairy farm were screened for foreign bodies in reticulum with the help of stud finder. Metallic foreign bodies were detected in 37.5 per cent of the cattle. The animals were orally administered a cylindrical bar magnet of 70 mm length rounded at both ends. Subsequently, the animals were evaluated for the presence of magnet in their reticulum, twice at 6 months interval with the help of magnetic compass, as well as with reticular radiograph once at six months. The magnet was retained for 6 months in 78.1 per cent and for 1 year in 51.8 per cent of the animals. Yearly evaluation of reticulum with compass is recommended to detect retention of magnet in cattle.

Title: Effects of Kefir on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Pekin Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica)
Abstract :

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of kefir as a probiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Pekin ducks. For this purpose, 42 ducklings at 2-week-old age were randomly and equally divided into 1 control and 2 treatment groups. All groups were fed with the same diet during the 6 week study period. Group 1 served as control and received normal drinking water. For group 2 and 3, 2.5% and 7.5% kefir was applied in drinking water. Feed and water was offered ad libitum. All birds were individually weighed at the start and then weekly intervals until the end of the experiment. At the end of the study, a total of 30 ducks, 5 male and 5 female from each group was randomly selected for slaughter. The results showed that after a 6 week feeding period, the total body weight in group 2 and 3 were significantly lower than group 1 (P < 0.05). Despite the numerical variations, no statistical difference was seen among the groups in terms of body weight gain, feed intake and FCR values (P < 0.05). Group 3 with high kefir percentage was significantly lower and different than the other experimental groups in terms of liver and gizzard weights, hot carcass (g), cold carcass (g) and abdominal fat (%) (P < 0.05) parameters. Despite the numerical variations, no statistical difference was seen among the groups in terms of meat composition values (P > 0.05). Our findings showed that, the decrease in total body weight, abdominal fat ratio, liver and giblets weights based on the increased kefir rates attracted attention. In conclusion, kefir usage as a supplement in ducks does not provide an economical benefit but kefir could be used for human consumption for antiobesity.

Title: Seroprevalence of Newcastle Disease, Chicken Infectious Anemia and Avian Influenza in Indigenous Chickens in Grenada, West Indies
Abstract :

This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) and Avian influenza virus (AIV) in indigenous chickens in Grenada, West Indies. Indigenous chickens are kept for eggs and meat for either domestic consumption or local sale. These birds are usually kept in the backyard of the house with little or no shelter. The mean size of the flock per household was 14 birds (range 5-40 birds). Blood was collected from 368 birds from all the six parishes of Grenada and serum samples were tested for antibodies against NDV, CIAV and AIV using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The seroprevalence of antibodies against NDV, CIA and AI was 66.3% (95% CI; 61.5% to 71.1%), 59.5% (95% CI; 54.4% to 64.5%) and 10.3% (95% CI; 7.2% to 13.4%), respectively. Since indigenous chickens in Grenada are not vaccinated against poultry pathogens, these results indicate exposure of chickens to NDV, AIV and CIAV Indigenous chickens are thus among the risk factors acting as vectors of pathogens that can threaten commercial poultry and other avian species in Grenada

Title: Changes in Hormones of Somatotropic Axis during Transition Period in Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Supplemented with Vitamin E
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to assess the effect of vitamin E supplementation on GH-insulin–IGF-1 axis in Murrah buffaloes during transition period. The Murrah buffaloes (n = 12) were selected during their late gestation from National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI) livestock herd and divided randomly into two groups, comprising of 6 each. Buffaloes of group I were given only the control diet, while group II were supplemented with 2000 IU/day/head vitamin E along with control feed. Blood sample were collected from each buffalo at weekly interval from day -21 to day +21 relative to parturition by jugular vein- puncture. Growth hormone (GH) -IGF-1 and insulin were quantified by bovine specific ELISA test kit. The results revealed non significant difference in circulatory concentration of insulin and GH during transition period between the two groups. However, insulin and IGF-I magnitude of decline was significantly greater in Group I. It was concluded that decline in the levels of these hormones during transition period was a physiological phenomenon that was associated with negative energy balance. Dietary supplementation of Vitamin E had no direct influence on peripheral profiles of these hormones during transition period

Title: Non-Genetic Factors Affecting Growth and Production Traits in Dorper Crossbred Sheep
Abstract :

Data on growth traits of 401 animals used in the present study were collected from history sheet of crossbred sheep maintained at Government Sheep Breeding Farm Panthal, Reasi, J&K, India. Traits included in the study were birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), 6-month body weight (6-BW), 12-month body weight (12-BW), mature body weight (MBW) and annual wool production (AWP). The statistical analysis was carried out using LSMLMW computer programme. The overall least-squares means were 2.857 ± 0.058 kg, 15.269 ± 0.296 kg, 17.034 ± 0.258 kg, 22.315 ± 0.298 kg, 29.375 ± 0.237 kg and 0.651 ± 0.012 kg, respectively for BWT, WWT, 6-BW, 12-BW, MBW and AWP. The co-efficient of variations for different traits were low to moderate. Period of lambing had significant effect on all the traits except for BWT. Moreover, there was no definite trend for different traits over different periods except for 12-BW, where increasing trend was obtained. Season of lambing had significant effect only on WWT and MBW. Genetic group had non-significant effect on all the traits under study although, 50% genetic groups were superior for most of the traits. Sex had significant effect on all the traits except for 6-BW and 12-BW. It can be concluded from the study that growth traits and production traits are influenced by different non-genetic factors like period, season and sex.

Title: Effect of Feeding Formaldehyde Treated Rapeseed and Cottonseed Cakes on Milk Yield and Composition at Various Stages of Lactation and Parity in Jersey Cows
Abstract :

The aim of this study was to document the response of lactating Jersey cows to feeding of formaldehyde treated oil cakes of rapeseed and cottonseed on milk yield and composition at various stages of lactation and parity. Formaldehyde treatment of oil cakes was performed at 1% of crude protein, and these treated cakes were used in preparing treatment concentrate mixture. The experiment was carried out for 40 days using 27 lactating Jersey cows differing in parity 1-3, 4-6 and ≥7 with different stages of lactation i.e. early (1-3 m), mid (4-6 m) and late (7-9 m) in each lactation groups. The animals were grouped into Control and Treatment. For first 10 days, cows of Control group were offered with a control concentrate and thereafter same animals were grouped as Treatment group and fed the same concentrate having both the protein meals treated with formaldehyde, along with ad libitum access to barley green fodder and wheat straw. The milk yield and its component yield were decreased linearly as lactation advanced and the differences were significant (P<0.05) between early and late lactation. The highest increment (P<0.05) in milk yield was noted in early lactation (0.69 kg/d) and least during late lactation (0.56 kg/d). Milk SNF yield was improved (P<0.05) up to the tune of 40 g/d in mid lactation cows only. With respect to parity, the highest (P<0.05) milk yield was observed in 1st-3rd parity and lowest after 7th parity, while milk fat% followed the reverse trend upon feeding formaldehyde treated oil cakes, while other parameters like fat and SNF percentage did not differ due to treatment. Furthermore, milk fat yield was increased (P<0.05) to the extent of 50 g/d and 20 g/d in 1st-3rd and above 7th parity cows, respectively. It was concluded that feeding of concentrate mixture containing formaldehyde treated oil cakes (rapeseed and cottonseed) economically improved yield of milk and milk components. Furthermore, the treatment effect was more pronounced during early lactation and in lower (1-3) parity Jersey cows.

Title: Multi-Nutrient Blocks with and without Tanniferous Leaf Meal Mixture: Formulation and Preparation under Sub-Tropical Environment of Jammu
Abstract :

An experimental study was conducted on formulation, preparation and production of two types of multi nutrient blocks (MNB) with and without tanniferous leaf meal mixture (LMM) for supplementation of goats fed on wheat straw based diet. The condensed tannins (CT) containing multi nutrient blocks (MNB-CT) and MNB were formulated, prepared and developed where MNB-CT had CT containing LMM of Psidium guajava and Eugenia jambolana in 70:30 ratio while MNB had no CT source. Other ingredients used included mustard oil cake, molasses, urea, limestone powder, di-calcium phosphate, mineral mixture, wheat bran and common salt were 875, 825, 181.25, 175, 193.75, 100, 112.5, 37.5 and 487.5, 825, 212.5, 162.5, 200, 100, 62.5, 37.5 (g/block), respectively in MNB and MNB-CT blocks. Nutrient composition (g/ block) of MNB and MNB-CT for organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, total ash, acid insoluble ash, calcium and phosphorus were 1939, 867.25, 17.25, 561, 20.5, 140.75, 62.25 and 1965.5, 861.75, 23.75, 534.5, 21.75, 130.75, 59 g, respectively. The MNB-CT blocks had good binding ability, compactness, hardness, less brittle and remained fit for licking to the animals compared to MNB blocks. The acceptability and intakes of both types of blocks were equally good. The LMM incorporation in MNB-CT reduced the cost of production as well as deworming in H. contortus infected goats so it directly curtailed the cost of goat rearing. Therefore, farmers could be benefited by supplementing MNB-CT blocks to improve health and productive performance of goats in sub-tropical region of Jammu (J & K), India.

Title: Identifying the Factors Affecting Birth Weight and Conception Rate in Sahiwal Bulls
Abstract :

The data on growth and fertility traits of 43 Sahiwal bulls during 27 years (1987-2013) belonging to 8 sets of Sahiwal Breeding Project at ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal (Haryana), India were analysed using fixed linear model to assess the effect of non-genetic factors on birth weight and fertility traits in Sahiwal bulls. The average birth weight (BW), conception rate based on first AI (CRFAI) and overall conception rate (OCR) in Sahiwal bulls was estimated as 22.19 ± 0.05 kg, 45.95 ± 1.37% and 46.38 ± 1.55%, with coefficient of variation of 13.42%, 21.84 % and 22.32%, respectively. The overall least-squares means for birth weight, conception rate based on first AI and overall conception rate was estimated as 22.04 ± 1.08 kg, 46.24 ± 0.35% and 46.86 ± 0.27%, respectively in Sahiwal breeding bulls. Period of birth had not influenced the birth weight of Sahiwal bulls, though period of conception had significant (P < 0.01) effect on fertility traits. Season of birth/AI, parity and age of female did not influenced the birth weight and fertility traits of Sahiwal bulls.

Title: Invitro Effect of Zinc Treatment on the Antioxidant Status of Heat Stressed Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Periparturient Sahiwal and Karan Fries Cows - A Comparative Study
Abstract :

The current study was undertaken to evaluate the invitro effect of zinc treatment on the Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase status in the heat stressed Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) of periparturient indigenous and crossbred cows. Twelve pregnant cows, six each from Sahiwal and Karan Fries in their second parity were selected for the experiment. Blood samples were collected at -21, 0 and +21 days with respect to calving from each animal. The 48 hour long cultured PBMC were exposed to three levels of treatment viz., 37oC, 42oC to induce thermal stress and 42oC+Zinc to minimize the effect of high temperature. SOD and Catalase showed a significant (P<0.05) difference between the two breeds, more concentration being found in Karan Fries. While comparing the days, the concentration of both SOD and Catalase was found to be more on the day of calving though non-significantly in case of SOD but the difference was significant (P<0.05) vis-à-vis Catalase. Zinc treatment caused a decreased production of both SOD and Catalase which were otherwise increased due to thermal stress. The antioxidant concentration was highest due to thermal stress in Karan Fries on the day of calving. The oxidative stress supervenes during peripartum and heat stress which could be alleviated by zinc treatment.

Title: Comparative analysis of cultural isolation and PCR based assay for detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in foods of animal origin
Abstract :

The present study was designed to determine the occurrence of C. jejuni and C. coli in chicken meat, chicken offal, chevon and milk samples from Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India) to elucidate the role of these products in transmission of Campylobacter to humans. The samples were examined using both cultural as well as polymerase chain reaction based detection method. Out of 280 samples examined, 29 (10.36%) samples were found positive by cultural method, where as 68 (24.29%) samples showed presence of Campylobacter species by polymerase chain reaction. All the samples depicted positive by culture were also found positive by PCR. The highest occurrence rate was observed in chicken meat (46%), followed by chicken offal (20%), chevon (18%) and milk (3.75%). The results depicted the superior efficacy of PCR for rapid screening of samples owing to its high rapidity, specificity and automation potential. The study suggested the potential of transmission of Campylobacter species to humans due to the consumption of raw or contaminated meat or milk.

Title: Differentiation of Sheep and Goat Species by PCR-RFLP of Mitochondrial 16S rRNA Gene
Abstract :

The present study was carried out with an aim to develop a method for differentiation of sheep and goat meat using PCR-RFLP. Tissue samples were collected randomly from ten animals of each species and used for mitochondrial DNA extraction. PCR amplification of 600 bp fragment of 16S rRNA gene was done using universal primer. RFLP studies were carried out by digesting the amplicons using restriction enzymes viz. AluI and HhaI. Amplicons of Goat 16S rRNA gene was fragmented to 460bp and 140bp fragments by HhaI while the amplified gene of sheep was digested by AluI into two fragments of 360bp and 240bp each. This resulting RFLP pattern of 16S rRNA could easily identify and differentiate meat of sheep and goat species.

Title: Effect of Area Specific Mineral Supplementation on Biochemical Profile in Female Black Bengal Goats
Abstract :

To discern the effect of area specific mineral supplementation (ASMS), on some plasma parameters viz. glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), alpha amino nitrogen (AAN), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), the intensive study was conducted on 24 female Black Bengal goats at around of 4-5 months of age. The animals were divided into four groups viz. Group I (control), II, III supplemented with 0, 1 and 2% area specific mineral supplementation, respectively. Whereas, in another group (Group-IV), commercial mineral mixture fortified concentrate was given. Blood samples were collected at monthly interval and estimated five prime plasma parameters. Present study revealed that plasma glucose concentration was in normal range and differed significantly (P < 0.05) in groups. Highest plasma glucose concentration was observed in group IV and lowest in control group. Whereas, NEFA differed significantly in different groups. Plasma AAN level was higher in Group IV followed in Group III, II and I respectively. AAN did not differ significantly in groups. Plasma ALT and AST level differed significantly but highest Plasma ALT and AST level observed in Group II. Present study revealed that ASMS improved plasma biochemical profile in Black Bengal goats.

Title: Gross and Biometrical studies of Placentome in Goat (Capra hircus) during Different Stages of Pregnancy
Abstract :

The present study was conducted on the 18 healthy and normal goat uteri of non-descript breed (Capra hircus) varying from day old to 150 days of gestation. The uteri were assigned in to three groups according to their gestational age; Group I (0-50 days), Group II (51 -100 days) and Group III (101-till term). The length, diameter and thickness of gravid horn, non gravid horn, body and cervix were significantly increased with the advancement of pregnancy. Weight of uterus was also significantly increased as pregnancy progressed. The thickness of endometrium, myometrium, perimetrium and total thickness of uterine wall in gravid horn was significantly increased with advancement of pregnancy. The numbers of placentomes ranged from 92 to 153, which were significantly increased from early to mid pregnancy and subsequently significantly decreased during late pregnancy. In the late pregnancy, the placentome were disc like with a shallow depression and had relatively thinner margin. The length, width and thickness of the placentome were significantly increased with the advancement of pregnancy.

Title: Characteristics of Geese Production and Management in the Valley of Kashmir
Abstract :

The study was conducted in geese-rearing districts of Kashmir valley, India with the aim of studying various characteristics of geese production and management. Geese-rearing was recorded to be the primary occupation of 6.56% of farmers. Out of the total, 23.73% rearers were landless and kept geese as a subsidiary source of income. Three diverse production-systems viz. backyard (56.45%), semi-intensive (33.87%) and extensive-system (9.68%), were being practiced. Different types of houses included separate-sheds (50.00%), separate pen/cage (26.67%) and pen underneath the farmers’ house/veranda (23.33%) with only 76.47% farmers using litter-material. Feed was offered in a large bowl, on floor and on a polythene-sheet by 8.62%, 29.31% and 62.07% farmers respectively. Types of incubation nests included grass-nest placed on floor (57.41%), basket-nest (27.78% farmers) and colony-nests (57.41%). Average number of eggs set for incubation was 9.531±0.282 and age of eggs kept for incubation averaged to 24.167±1.923 days. 88.24% farmers practiced custom of placing an iron-sickle underneath the straw-bedding of the nest. Goslings were allowed to go into the water after 10.878±1.497 days of hatching.. Eggs were mostly kept for incubation while geese were sold as well as consumed by the family. In villages geese were being marketed at the farmer’s door-step and in city, middlemen played a role in the marketing. It was concluded that geese-farming promises a good future in an area where water-bodies are available in plenty and rearing is carried out on a large scale adopting an extensive-rearing and free foraging feeding system.

Title: Adaptive Capability as Indicated by Redox Status and Endocrine Responses in Crossbred Cattle Exposed to Thermal Stress
Abstract :

A series of studies were conducted to assess the effect of increasing environmental temperatures on redox status and endocrine responses in crossbred cattle under simulated conditions. In present study four non-lactating crossbred cattle were exposed to 25, 30, 35 and 40°C temperature with relative humidity of 40-50% in psychrometric chamber for 5 hours/day from 10:00 to 15:00 hours for 21 days. The physiological responses, feed and water intake were recorded and blood samples were collected at 15:00 hours on day 1, 6, 11, 16 and 21 of the experiment. Blood serum was harvested to estimate superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), reactive oxygen species (ROS), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and cortisol concentration. The temperature exposures of 25 and 30°C did not affect physiological responses, feed intake, water intake, T3, T4, cortisol concentration and SOD activity in serum. The dry matter intake (DMI)/day decreased significantly (p<0.05) whereas water intake, respiratory rate and rectal temperature increased progressively at 35 and 40°C as compared to 25 and 30°C temperature exposure. The serum ROS level increased progressively with increase in exposure temperature and a corresponding increase in serum SOD activity was also observed up to a temperature exposure of 35°C however, SOD activity declined at 40°C exposure. Serum T4 concentration decreased whereas cortisol level increased significantly at 35 and 40°C exposure as compared to 25 and 30°C temperature exposure. It can be concluded from the present study that the crossbred animals can readily adapt to a temperature exposure of 25 and 30°C and can acclimatize up to 35°C with compensatory physiological, biochemical and endocrine changes but fail to do so at the temperature exposure of 40°C.

Title: Detection of Virulence Genes in Salmonella Species Isolated from Chevon and Chicken Meat
Abstract :

The aim of present study was to investigate the detection of virulence factors encoded Salmonella enterotoxin (stn) and plasmid encoded fimbriae (pef) genes in isolates of Salmonellae isolated from chevon and chicken meat samples collected from different districts of Chhattisgarh. A total of 32 Salmonella isolates were recovered, among them 18 and 14 isolates were recovered from chevon and chicken meat samples, respectively. All the Salmonella isolates were tested for the presence of virulence associated genes viz., stn and pef by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols, standardized separately for each gene. All 32 (100%) Salmonella isolates were found to carry the enterotoxin determinant stn gene where as none of the Salmonella isolate was found positive for pef gene, indicating that the stn gene is widely distributed among the Salmonella isolates irrespective of source of sample, species, serovars and location. The stn gene in Salmonella was found to be highly conserved. Thus, stn gene may be used as a target gene for detection of Salmonellae in different types of field samples.

Title: Effect of Orientation, Ventilation, Floor Space Allowance and Cooling Arrangement on Milk Yield and Microclimate of Dairy Shed in Goa
Abstract :

Ten farmers consisting of large, medium, small and marginal from each of six talukas ie Pernem, Bicholim and Ponda taluka of North Goa district; Salcete, Canacona and Sanguem talukas of South Goa district in total sixty farmers were considered based on cattle population for this study. Farmers were interviewed for collecting information on housing and production aspect of dairy cattle. Subsequently farmers were grouped according to type of dairy house. Data on microenvironment of cattle shed and milk yield of cows were recorded on daily basis. Data analysis revealed that the orientation, ventilation, floor space provision and cooling arrangement had a significant effect on average daily milk yield and microenvironment of dairy shed. Significantly higher milk yield and lesser heat stress were observed in east – west orientation, good ventilation and standard floor space of minimum 5 m2 per cattle. Further cooling arrangement in cattle shed had a highly significant (P < 0.01) effect on average daily milk yield and microenvironmental parameters revealing that if false ceiling is made inside cattle shed besides manual and mechanical cooling animals would feel more comfort resulting in higher milk production.

Title: Effect of Kinnow Mandarin (Citrus Nobilis Lour x Citrus Deliciosa Tenora) Fruit Waste Silage on Nutrient Intake, Digestibility and Performance of Goat Bucks
Abstract :

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the feeding Kinnow mandarin fruit waste (KMW) silage viÅ›-a- viÅ› oat silage on nutrient intake, nutrient digestibility, utilization and general performance of adult male goats. Twelve local adult male goats were randomly allotted into two equal groups namely oat silage (OS) and Kinnow silage (KS) group. Animals were offered weighed quantities of respective silage (Oat silage to OS and KMW silage to KS) on ad lib. Silage intake (g/d), DM intake (DMI), digestible DMI, digestible organic matter (OMI) and digestible CP intake was comparable (P>0.05) among the two dietary groups. The per cent digestibility of all the analysed nutrients was analogous (P>0.05) in both the groups irrespective of the diet. Total digestible nutrient (TDN) intake (g/d) of goats kept on KMW silage was significantly (P<0.05) higher than OS group animals. Balance of nitrogen and phosphorus was positive in both the groups without any significant (P>0.05) difference between dietary groups. There was no significant difference in analysed blood bio-chemicals and serum enzymes level between different periods and groups, suggesting general well-being of goats. On the basis of results of present study, it can be concluded adult male goats can be maintained on the silage of Kinnow waste without affecting nutrient intake, utilization and general performance of animals

Title: Effect of Taurine and Methionine Supplementation on Leukocyte Profile of Broiler Chickens
Abstract :

The animal protein sources are rich in essential amino acids but transmission of zoonotic diseases and their high cost limits its use. Therefore it becomes necessary to supplement the synthetic amino acids in plant proteins based broilers diet. A study was conducted in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of three levels of taurine (0, 0.025%, and 0.05%) and two levels of methionine (0 and 0.15%) to determine the effect of taurine and methionine supplementation on leukocyte profile of broiler chickens. The study showed significantly (P < 0.01) increased total leukocyte count (TLC) in taurine and methionine supplemented treatments. As the taurine level increased in the diet heterophil and eosinophil count significantly (P < 0.01) increased whereas, lymphocyte and monocyte count significantly (P < 0.01) decreased . The result reveals that graded level of dietary taurine and methionine plays significant role in reducing the oxidative damage by altering the leukocyte profile.

Title: Effect of Poly herbal Phytobiotic on the Growth, Immunocompetence, Development of Digestive Organs and Carcass Characteristics of Commercial Broilers
Abstract :

Seventy two, one week old, Cobb 400 broiler chickens were distributed into two experimental groups having four replicates. The birds of the control group were fed a basal diet (22.5% CP & 2830 K cal/kg ME) while the other group was offered a basal diet supplemented with a polyherbal phytobiotic, AV/SSL/12 in drinking water@ 4 ml/100 birds/ day during 1-2 weeks, 8 ml/ 100 birds/ day during 2-4 weeks and 15 ml/100 birds/ day during 4-6 weeks of age. AV/SSL/12 birds had a significantly higher (P<0.05) body weight compared to the control at 2nd week of age. The body weight gain of the birds in the liver tonic fed group was significantly higher (P<0.001) compared to the control group at 2nd week of age. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly better (P<0.05) in the phytobiotic group compared to the control group during 3-6 weeks and 1-6 weeks of age. Total immunoglobulins and mercaptoethanol sensitive (IgM) antibody titer (log 2) values in response to sheep red blood cells was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the phytobiotic compared to the control group. The herbal supplemented group had significantly higher (P<0.05) large intestine length compared to the control group at 6 weeks of age. However, there was no significant difference between the treatment groups in the carcass characteristics and yield of cut up parts of the broilers after 6 weeks of age. Hence, it may not be unreasonable to infer that poly herbal liver tonic, AV/SSL/12 possesses promising immunomodulatory potential and supplementation of poly herbal liver tonic may elicit growth of commercial broilers.

Title: Heat Shock Protein70 (HSP70) Gene Expression Pattern in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) during different Seasons in Sahiwal Cows (Bos Indicus)
Abstract :

Thermal stress alters the normal body homeostasis and causes severe detrimental effects on production and productivity of animals. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly conserved family of proteins that are ubiquitously expressed in animal’s body during thermal stress. Out of all the members present in this family, HSP70 is regarded as the most significant indicator of thermal stress. The present study was therefore conducted to demonstrate the relative mRNA expression pattern of HSP70 gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during different seasons in Sahiwal cows (Bos Indicus). Apparently healthy, non - lactating and non - pregnant sahiwal cows (above two years of age) were taken for study (n = 6). Blood samples were collected thrice i.e. once in December-January (THI <72), between February - March (THI = 72) and June (THI > 72). Blood sample collected in thermo - neutral zone (THI = 72) was taken as control. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) study was undertaken to investigate the variation in relative mRNA expression profile of HSP70 gene during different seasons. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as a housekeeping gene. The relative expression values of HSP70 during summer season were found statistically significant in comparison to winter. These results suggest that HSP70 gene expression varies with THI and this variation may play an imperative role in conferring thermo tolerance against heat stress during different seasons of a year.

Title: Evaluation of Sorghum Stover Based Complete Rations with Different Roughage to Concentrate Ratio for Efficient Microbial Biomass Production by Using In Vitro Gas Production Technique
Abstract :

An in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the optimum roughage to concentrate ratio in complete rations using sorghum stover (SS) as a roughage source since it is a main feed resource for urban and peri-urban dairies. Eight complete rations were prepared with roughage (R) to concentrate (C) ratio of 100R:0C to 30R:70C. In vitro gas production (ml) at 24 h incubation, in vitro organic matter digestibility and metabolizable energy, truly digestible organic matter and ammonia nitrogen production were increased linearly (P<0.01) as the proportion of concentrate was increased in the ration. Significantly higher (P<0.01) total volatile fatty acid concentration was observed in 50R:50C, 40R:60C and 30R:70C compared to other rations. Significantly (P<0.01) highest partitioning factor, microbial biomass production and efficiency of microbial biomass production were recorded at 60R:40C ratio followed by 50R:50C. Therefore, the present study suggested that SS can be included in complete rations for ruminants at the level of 60 per cent for economic milk and meat production.

Title: Comparative Evaluation of Different Lactation Curve Models in Prediction of Monthly Test-Day Milk Yields in Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :

Present investigation was undertaken to compare the different lactation curve models for describing the shape of the lactation curve in Murrah buffaloes. Data for the present study included 9071 monthly test-day milk yield (MTDMY) from 965 Murrah buffaloes calved during 1977 to 2012 at the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. A total of 10 monthly test-day milk yield records were taken at an interval of 30 days. The data were used to estimate lactation curve parameters for four lactation curve models viz. Gamma type function (GF), Exponential function (EF), Mixed log function (MLF) and Polynomial regression function (MLF). The mean monthly test day milk yields (MTDMY) increased from 5.91±0.13 kg on TD1 to a peak yield of 7.41±0.12 kg on TD3. The estimates of coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) for GF, EF, MLF, and PRF were 96.42%, 98.65%, 98.48%, 99.86% and 0.077, 0.049, 0.052, 0.015, respectively. PRF fitted best to the test day data followed by EF on the basis of higher R2 and lower RMSE estimates, whereas GF fitted least.

Title: Elucidation of Molecular Basis of Neutrophil Apoptosis during Staphylococcal Mastitis in Crossbred Cows
Abstract :

Neutrophil apoptosis is a dynamic process following their recruitment to the site of infection that varies depending upon the type of challenge. The proposed study was designed to elucidate the role of classical mediators of apoptosis in neutrophils isolated from milk samples of crossbred Karan Fries cows suffering from subclinical (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CM). Milk samples were collected from 12 KF cows suffering from clinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcal aureus. Clinical mastitis was confirmed on the basis of CMT scoring, bacteriological evaluation, gross and morphological changes in milk and by counting milk somatic cells (SCC). Milk Poly Morpho-Nuclear Cells (PMNs) were isolated and apoptosis was studied. Neutrophil apoptosis was evaluated by studying the exteriorization of phosphatidyl serine, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, Caspase 3, 7, 8 and 9 by fluorescent microscopy. Results showed that apoptosis in neutrophils were mediated through exteriorization of membrane phosphatidyl serine; increased mitochondrial transmemebrane potential and activation of caspases 3, 7, 8 and 9 like other somatic cells. From the study, it was evident that neutrophils undergo induced apoptosis during Staphylococcal mastitis. The findings of the study provide an insight into the molecular basis of neutrophil apoptosis and form a basis to enhance the host immunity by the process of apoptosis modulation to combat the infections caused by the pathogen. The study provided a base for future studies by which neutrophil apoptosis can be modulated so as to enhance the phagocytic clearance of the microbes from the site of infection.

Title: Association of Semen Attributes and Seminal Plasma Proteins of Buffalo Bulls
Abstract :

This study was conducted to explicate the association of semen attributes with seminal plasma proteins of buffalo bulls. Total 108 ejaculates were collected from six sexually mature adult Bhadawari buffalo bulls aged 2-4 years in three seasons (rainy, winter and summer) of a year by using artificial vagina. Immediately after collection, semen samples were divided into two aliquots. One aliquots of neat semen were evaluated for ejaculate volume (EV), sperm concentration (SC), mass motility (MM), progressive motility (PM), percent live-dead (LD) count, percent Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST), and percent acrosomal integrity (AI). The other semen aliquots were centrifuged for harvesting the seminal plasma. SDS-PAGE was performed for separation of seminal plasma proteins and gel images were analysed to determine molecular weights, IOD of protein bands and relative protein fractions (protein %) using the Gel doc system. The correlation results revealed positive correlation of SC with 70 and 72 kDa proteins while negative correlation with 86 kDa protein. The PM showed positive correlation with 24.5, 70 and 72 kDa proteins and negative correlation with 84 and 86 kDa proteins and AI showed positive correlation with 18.5, 24.5, 44.5, 70, and 72 kDa and negative correlation with 20 and 84 kDa proteins. The results of correlation among seminal plasma proteins showed positive correlation of 24.5 kDa with 35, 44.5, 70 and 72 kDa and negative correlation with 86 kDa proteins. The 70 and 72 kDa proteins showed positive correlation with 18.5 and 24.5 kDa and negative correlation with 20, 84 and 86 kDa proteins. The 84 kDa proteins showed negative association with 24.5, 70 and 72 kDa proteins while 86 kDa proteins showed negative association with 24.5, 35, 36.5, 70 and 72 kDa proteins. In conclusion, though significant correlations among seminal plasma proteins and semen characteristics were detected, yet it is noteworthy that correlation does not mean cause. Therefore, more refined studies that allow higher-resolution separation of seminal plasma proteins and more detailed characterization of those proteins, as well as investigation of their physiological role, will further advance knowledge in this area.

Title: Prediction of Breeding Value Using Bivariate Animal Model for Repeated and Single Records
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out on Karan Fries cows maintained at National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Karnal, Haryana. Data were collected on fertility and production performance spread over a period of 34 years (1978 to 2012). Breeding values estimated by univariate animal model were compared with univariate animal repeatability model on the basis of spearman’s rank correlation estimate. The rank correlation estimates ranged between 0.39 to 0.47 indicating that sires rankings on first lactation basis had moderate correlation with the rankings on the basis of breeding values estimated by repeatability model. Further the bivariate animal repeatability models viz. SP & 305MY, CI & 305MY and DPR & 305MY had lower error standard deviation 251.85, 254.92 and 249.93 kgs in comparison to bivariate animal model for single records for which the error standard deviation estimates were 281.84, 279.81 and 278.99 kgs, respectively. The error standard deviation estimates of SP & TMY, CI & TMY, DPR & TMY were 284.99, 294.35 and 285.47 kgs in comparison to bivariate animal model for single records for which the error standard deviation estimates were 272.01, 315.30 and 298.22 kgs, respectively. Results of the present study indicated that the repeatability model was superior in comparison to the animal model for single records and thus repeated records should be used for breeding value prediction in dairy cattle.

Title: Determination of Herd Prevalence of Brucellosis using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Indirect ELISA
Abstract :

The present study was aimed at diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle and buffalo using RBPT and iELISA and comparing the two tests. The animals belonged to a cattle shelter house (Gaushala). Out of 303 sera samples collected, 125 (41.25 %) were positive by RBPT and among 125 positive samples, 2 were of male and other 123 were of female animals. On the other hand the results of ELISA were tripartite and 142 (46.86%), 22 (07.26 %) and 139 (45.54%) samples were found as positive, moderately positive and negative, respectively. Overall by combining the both type of positive results, 164 (54.12%) samples were found positive by iELISA. On herd level, this was much higher than reports from most of earlier workers. On taking iELISA as reference test, the sensitivity and specificity of RBPT were calculated as 80.78% and 100%, respectively and the level of agreement between two tests was 0.871. But three categories of variations were observed between two tests, i.e. eighteen samples were positive in RBPT but negative in ELISA, 49 were negative in RBPT but positive in ELISA and 12 were negative in RBPT but moderately positive in ELISA.

Title: Effectiveness and Performance of “Sexcel” - ABS Sexed Semen, in Dairy Heifers, Cows and Buffaloes in Field conditions in different Agro-Climatic Zones of India
Abstract :

To analyse the effect of sexed semen on different breeds used in artificial insemination following study was conducted using sexed semen from seven different breeds for artificial insemination in females. All bulls used for sexing by ABS India were genomically tested for Holstein and Jersey breeds. A total of 3034 inseminations with Sexcel were performed with 2589 inseminations in dairy cows and 445 in buffaloes. The conception rate of sexed semen using confirmative pregnancy diagnosis (using peri rectal examination) at 90 days post insemination both in cows and buffaloes was recorded. Sex of the calf was recorded after the birth in each case. The results of conception rate (CR) and pregnancy rate evaluation in different breeds were recorded. The results revealed the average conception rate of Sexcel semen is 49.1% (ranging from 45.1 to 55.3%) in cows and 42.7 % in buffaloes. These figures show a cumulative picture wherein sexed semen was used in animals of different parities (Both primiparous and pluriparous). The current study provides ample insights into the conception rate using sexed semen under various agro climatic conditions in different breeds. The study showed that sexed semen gives good conception in animals of one to three parities provided they are reproductively clean and possess good fertility.

Title: Seroprevalence of Leptospirosis in Clinically Ailing Bovine
Abstract :

The purpose of this study was to carried out seroepidemiological study of leptospirosis in clinically ailing cattle and buffaloes of South Gujarat where cases of leptospirosis in human is increase every monsoon since last decade. To determine clinical pattern of bovine Leptospirosis in this area a total of 130 serum samples of cattle and buffaloes were collected randomly from different age groups of cattle and buffaloes of either sex reared in this area and tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) using different serovars of Leptospira spp. The prevalence of leptospiral antibodies was detected in 15.84 and 17.24 % in clinically ailing cattle and buffaloes, respectively. In clinically ailing seropositive cattle history of mastitis/agalactia/oligolactia was recorded in maximum number of cases (24.00 %) followed by abortion (20.00 %), fever (14.81%), repeat breeding (11.76%) and anorexia (5.88%) in different combinations. In seropositive clinically ailing buffaloes the clinical signs included mastitis (30.00%), fever (16.66 %) and abortion (14.28%). In clinically ailing cattle highest prevalence was noted in animals above 4 years of age (20.00%) followed by 1-4 years of age (4.76%) whereas in clinically ailing buffalo seropositivity was recorded only in above 4 years of age (20.00%). The most prevalent serovar pomona has been reported from different clinical conditions in both cattle and buffaloes. Based on present and few past investigation reports the sero-epidemiological condition of bovine leptospirosis that need due attention as South Gujarat region is endemic zone for leptospirosis.

Title: Different Treatment Regimen for Eradication of Pinworm (Syphacia obvelata) Infection in Mice Colony
Abstract :

Syphacia obvelata infection was diagnosed in mice during routine health monitoring of rodent colony at Animal Facility, ILS-NISER, Bhubaneswar. Entire mice colony was treated with fenbendazole mixed in drinking water @70 mg / liter in combination with topical spray of injectable 0.1 % ivermectin solution to arrest the disease. At the same time mice were isolated and grouped (n=18) to compare other treatment regimens using ivermectin (oral & spray) and fenbendazole (oral) and chalk out an effective therapeutic strategy for large rodent colonies. Use of cocktail of oral fenbendazole and 0.1 % ivermectin spray was able to eradicate pinworm infection in mice colony but study with individual use of fenbendazole in drinking water was not able to treat the infection in group. Oral use of ivermectin was able to treat pin worm infection in mice but is not recommended for treatment due to its deleterious effects. Use of 0.1% ivermectin as spray alone resulted in complete eradication of Syphacia obvelata hence suggested to be safe and effective method for pin worm eradication in large rodent colonies.

Title: Subclinical Bovine Mastitis in Rural, Peri-Urban and Suburban Regions of Jaipur District of Rajasthan, India
Abstract :

A cross section study was carried out from June 2013 to May 2014 on a total of 110 lactating cows of rural, peri-urban and suburban regions of Jaipur District of state of Rajasthan, for sub clinical mastitis by using California Mastitis Test (CMT), White side test (WST), Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT) and Somatic cell count (SCC). Prevalence of subclinical bovine mastitis in animal level was recorded as 67.27, 64.55, 63.64 and 74.55 % by CMT, WST, SFMT and SCC, respectively whereas 39.55, 38.86, 37.95 and 45.23 % by CMT, WST, SFMT and SCC, respectively in the level of quarters. Staphylococcus species (46.3%) occupied the prime position among the bacterial isolates followed by Streptococcus species (9.76%), Escherichia coli (6.1%), mixed growth (32.96%) and sterile growth (4.88%). Antibiotic susceptibility test revealed highest sensitivity towards Enrofloxacin. However, antibiotics showing higher rate of resistance patterns were Streptomycin, Penicillin G, Ampicillin, Cloxacillin, Amoxicillin, Kanamycin and Lincomycin. This reflects the poor quality of milk available to the consumers, lack of adequate hygienic practices, pre-emptive prophylactic regimen and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials.

Title: Effect of Epidural Administration of Promethazine With and Without Bupivacaine on Biochemical Attiributes of Canines
Abstract :

Six apparently healthy nondescript adult dogs weighing 15 to 20 kg were used for investigation on effects of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Promethazine as epidural anesthetic on Biochemical attributes. Nine serum samples from each dog were collected at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and at 96 h post treatment for the estimation of Blood Glucose, Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT), Serum Alkaline Phosphatase (SAP), Total Bilirubin and serum creatinine. It was observed that the Blood Glucose levels rise after administration of Promethazine alone and with Bupivacaine and achieved peak on 72 h post administration and then declined. Serum Total Protein levels remain unaffected after administration of Promethazine alone while along with Bupivacaine increase in total serum protein during different time interval with peak value recorded at 24 h post administration. SGPT levels increased and reached peak at 12 h post administration after administration of Promethazine alone and with combination with Bupivacaine. SAP values followed trends of SGPT and reached peak at 12 h post administration and then declining gradually in both treatments. The Blood creatinine values increased gradually post administration in both treatments and achieved peak at 48 h post administration and then declining gradually.

Title: Ultrasonographic Study of Testicular Development in Beetal Bucks
Abstract :

Two dimensional (2D) ultrasound imaging of testis was conducted on six prepubertal bucks from 1 month to 9 months of age. Testicular scanning was done through direct contact in longitudinal and vertical positions by using 6.0 MHz frequency with a real time ultrasound scanner. The testicular parenchyma (TP) appeared homogenous with a coarse medium echo-pattern which appeared anechoic at first month of age and then moderately echogenic as development occurred with advancement of age. The mediastinum appeared as a longitudinal structure in the middle of testis having greater echogenicity than TP in longitudinal plane and as an echogenic spot in centre of TP in transverse plane. The scrotal septum was seen as a hyperechoic structure in lateral sonograms from initial scanning onwards. The tunics of the testes appeared as a bright echogenic line. Inter-testicular septal depression also appeared between testes as anechoic linear band on transverse scanning. The length, width and circumference of the testes showed significant increase (P<0.05) with the advancement of age. Pixel value of testes showed an incremental pattern with slight deviations at few points. All testicular parameters increased linearly as age advanced, with maximum increase from third to fourth month.

Title: Comparative Efficacy of different Antimicrobials Used in the Treatment of Colibacillotic Calves
Abstract :

Colibacillosis of newborn calves is characterised by rapid onset, watery white or yellowish diarrhoea and high mortality. In the present therapeutic study the efficacy of four highly sensitive in-vitro drugs viz., ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin and co-trimoxazole was evaluated. Ciprofloxacin at the dose rate of 4mg/kg body weight was found 100 per cent effective, gentamicin at the dose rate of 4mg/kg body weight was found 83.33 per cent effective where as neomycin @10mg/kg body weight and co-trimoxazole @ 25 mg/kg body weight were found 66.67 per cent effective in this study. Treatment regimen used in four different groups of clinical cases of colibacillosis indicated ciprofloxacin being most effective drug followed by gentamicin, neomycin and co-trimoxazole which was comparable with in-vitro studies.

Title: Comparative Efficacy of Nitazoxanide and Sulphadimidine in the Treatment of Cryptosporidiosis in Bovine Calves
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to assess the therapeutic efficacy of oral Nitaxoxanide and Sulphadimidine treatment against Cryptosporidium infection in bovine calves reared under field conditions. A total of 18 diarrhoeic calves naturally infected with Cryptosporidium infection were evaluated. Nitazoxanide was found to be very effective on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs, restoration of altered haemato-biochemical parameters to their normal level and 78.89% reduction in Cryptosporidium oocysts shedding. On the other contrary, sulphadimidine was found almost ineffective in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in calves. Intravenous infusion of Ringer’s lactate and 5% Dextrose used as adjunct therapy for correction of fluid and electrolyte losses fastened the recovery.

Title: Growth Dynamics of Salmonella, Isolated from Different Sources, at different Temperature and pH
Abstract :

A total of 350 samples 50 each from raw poultry meat, poultry cloacal swabs and human diarrheic cases, besides 200 eggs were processed for the isolation of Salmonella. Effect of varying temperature and pH on growth of Salmonella isolates was evaluated by growing the organism in Brain Heart Infusion Broth at 4, 10, and 30°C with pH values of 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5. At 10°C, the mean generation time of the isolates at pH values of 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5 was 44.23 ± 0.44, 15.51 ± 0.08 and 10.23 ± 0.10 hrs, respectively, while at 30°C, the generation time of the isolates at pH values of 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5 was 126.10 ± 0.68, 59.96 ± 0.14 and 36.22 ± 0.07 min, respectively. No growth observed at 4°C, at any given pH value. As the temperature and pH were lowered, significant increase in generation time of the organism was observed.

Title: Prevalence of Gastro-intestinal Parasites in Captive Wild Animals of Kanan Pandari Zoo, Bilaspur
Abstract :

The present study was envisaged to record the prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in captive wild animals of Kanan Pandari Zoo, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh. For this investigation, a total of 145 faecal samples of different captive wild animals were screened, 54 were found positive for various helminth parasites, indicating 37.24% prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites. Among different helminthic infections, the prevalence of nematodal infection was higher than cestodal infection. Among different captive wild animals, the prevalence of parasites was higher in herbivores (45.68%) followed by carnivores (28.33%). The intensity of gastro-intestinal parasitic infection in captive wild animals was mild as eggs per gram ranged from 100-500.

Title: Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers Supplemented Mineral Premix without Cobalt, Iron and Copper
Abstract :

Ninety, day old broiler chicks were arranged into 5X3X6 pattern to investigate the effect of exclusion of Cobalt, Iron and Copper from the mineral mixture. Five dietary groups (T1 to T5) were assigned basal diets containing 2800 kcal ME/kg and 22% CP (Starter) and 20% (Finisher) for a total duration of 6 weeks. The chicks in T1 were fed commercial mineral mixture, T2 were supplemented with mineral mixture prepared with laboratory reagent grade minerals while chicks of T3, T4 and T5 were fed laboratory reagent grade mineral mixture without Cobalt, Iron and Copper, respectively. No significant difference was observed in weight gain, feed intake, FER and PI of broilers fed various mineral supplements. Significantly (p<0.05) higher nitrogen and energy retention (%) was recorded in broilers (T5) fed mineral supplement without Copper compared to broilers fed (T1) commercial mineral supplement (77.18±0.28 vs. 70.50±2.70 and 81.86±1.04 vs. 75.71±2.36). It was concluded that Cobalt,

Title: Effect of Different Fillers on the Physico-chemical and Sensory Attributes of Chicken Meat Caruncles
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of three different fillers i.e. rice flour, tapioca starch and potato starch, on the physico-chemical and sensory attributes of chicken meat caruncles, so as to find the best filler for chicken snacks. Four different batches were prepared as follows - control (35% refined wheat flour), T-1 (22.75% refined wheat flour + 12.25% rice flour), T-2 (14.00% refined wheat flour + 21.00% tapioca starch) and T-3 (35.00% potato starch). All the variants were assayed for physico-chemical, proximate composition, texture profile, colour profile and sensory attributes. The cooking yield (%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T-2 batch than control and other treated groups. There was continued and significant (P<0.05) increase in Water Absorption Index (WAI) of all the samples from control to T-3. In texture profile, hardness was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T-3 batch than control, T-1 and T-2. Adhesiveness, adhesive force and stringiness remained non-significant (P>0.05) in control and treated batches. L* value increased non-significantly in all the treated samples due to addition of fillers. Moisture (%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T-1 followed by T-2, control and T-3. Among the sensory attributes, colour/appearance, crispiness, after-taste, meat flavour intensity and overall acceptability were significantly higher (P<0.05) in T-2 (tapioca starch) batch than control, T-1 and T-3 batches. Hence 60% tapioca starch could be used in place of refined wheat flour along with 65% spent hen meat for the development of good quality chicken meat caruncles.

Title: Effect of Season and Age on Bacterial Load in Fresh Semen Ejaculates of Buffalo Bulls
Abstract :

Fresh semen of 10 Murrah buffalo bulls of two different age group viz. 4-5 years and 8-9 years having five bulls in each, were evaluated for total viable bacterial load during three different seasons (summer, rainy and winter).Mean bacterial load in fresh ejaculates of buffalo bulls (three ejaculates per bull in each season) was measured using standard plate count method and expressed as mean (± SEM) CFU per ml of semen. Non significant (P > 0.05) but visible differences of mean bacterial load in bubaline semen was recorded between seasons. Comparatively higher bacterial count in bubaline semen was observed during summer season (18000 ± 4667 CFU/ml) as compared to rainy (16000 ± 3055 CFU/ml) and winter season (12000±3266 CFU/ml). Likewise, nonsignificant (P>0.05) seasonal influence was recorded over bacterial load in semen from bulls of two different age groups. However, appreciable variation was noticed within seasons. During summer season, younger bulls (aged between 4-5 years) showed higher bacterial load (22000±8000 CFU/ml) as compared to older bulls (14000±5099 CFU/ml) and vice versa during winter season. Variations recorded during present study was due to significant variation (P<0.05) among individual bulls within and between seasons. Bacterial load in bubaline semen during summer season was negatively correlated with that during rainy (r = -0.296) and winter season (r = -0.19), however positive correlation (r = 0.423) was noticed between rainy and winter season. In conclusion, the changing seasons during the period of study produced nonsignificant effect on microbial quality of the spermatozoa in Murrah bulls.

Title: Haemato-biochemical and Immunological Study on NSAIDs Induced Acute Toxicity in Broiler Chicken
Abstract :
The present study was aimed to elucidate the effect of Nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induced toxicity in the broiler chicken. For this purpose, 120 broiler chicks were utilized and divided into 4 major groups (C, D, B and N) and within each major group the chicks were divided into 3 sub groups having 10 chicks each. The control chicks received normal diet without any medicine. Diclofenac was used @ 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg b.wt. in D1, D2 and D3 group respectively. Ibuprofen was fed @ 15, 30, 45 mg /kg b.wt in B1, B2 and B3 group respectively. The nimesulide group viz. N1, N2 and N3 were given Nimesulide @ 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg b.wt respectively. NSAIDs induced toxicity showed no effect on the haematological parameters of broiler chicks in the present study, however, there was increase in the serum alkaline phosphatase level in intoxicated birds indicating hepatotoxicity compared to the control group with highest value of 173.33 ± 0.80 IU/L in B3. Further, atrophy of spleen and bursa of fabricius was observed in intoxicated birds. Highest atrophy of spleen (1.1 gm/kg body weight) was observed in N3 and D3 while as maximum bursal atrophy of 1.20 ± 0.06 gm/kg body weight was recorded in B3.
Title: Steroid induced hyperadrenocorticism in dogs- A Short study
Abstract :

The present study screened ten dogs with the history of prolonged exogenous glucocorticoid administration. The dogs were subjected to detailed clinical examination and special diagnostic procedures to study the clinicopathological changes associated. The most common signs observed were thinning of skin and asymmetrical alopecia. Serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol were elevated. The adrenal glands were found to be atrophied on ultrasonography. The cortisol levels were within normal range in Low Dose Dexamethasone Suppression Test LDDST. Iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed in these dogs and were advised withdrawal of steroid. Initial improvement of clinical signs was observed at 8 weeks after corticosteroid withdrawal.

Title: Physicochemical Analysis and Sensory Evaluation of Burfi Enriched with Dried Date
Abstract :

The study was aimed at evaluating the quality of burfi enriched with dried date. Three samples of khoa-dried date blends viz. T1 (90:10), T2 (85:15), T3 (80:20) and control (T0) burfi was analyzed for physicochemical parameters and sensory attributes. The physicochemical composition of burfi was affected due to addition of dried date. The moisture, fat and protein contents decreased with increase in the amount of dried date while that of total solids and total sugar content recorded an increasing trend. Based on sensory analysis, the dried date burfi prepared with 15% dried date in treatment T2 scored highest sensory score. The cost of production of highly acceptable burfi enriched with dried date (T2) was `. 156.50 per kg.

Title: Effect of Bypass Fat With and Without Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Herbal Galactogoue on Milk Yield, Fat Content and Serum Triglyceride Levels of Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :

60 buffaloes of early and 60 buffaloes of mid lactation stages are selected to study the effect of Bypass fat with and without combination of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Herbal galactogogue on milk yield, fat percentage and serum triglyceride content. It was observed that combination of Bypass fat with Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Herbal galactogogue supplementation increased weekly average milk yield of supplemented buffaloes as well as fat content and serum triglyceride content compared to plain Bypass fat supplemented buffaloes which in turn performed better than non supplemented buffaloes. This effect is attributable to beneficial effect of Yeast on rumen metabolism and subsequent increased dry matter (DM) digestion,   propionic acid production, and protein digestion compared with  the control provides energy as well as yeast to balance and improve rumen metabolism which in turn improves milk fat and serum triglyceride level.. The increased energy supply to the animals in negative energy balance was responsible for increased milk yield and availability of low density serum triglyceride in plasma led to increased fat content and serum triglyceride levels.

Title: Clinical and Rumen Fluid Evaluation of Ruminal Disorders in Cattle
Abstract :

Clinical and rumen fluid changes in various ruminal disorders were studied clinically in 13 cattle at University of Gondar veterinary clinic, Gondar town, Ethiopia from September 2013 to May 2014. History, clinical signs, physiological and rumen fluid parameters were studied in all the cattle. The comparisons of the means between different stages of physiological parameters of different ruminal disorders were determined by repeated measure ANOVA to evaluate pre and post rumenotomy changes. The predominant clinical observations were, abdominal distension in non potential foreign bodies; grunt with bruxism in potential foreign bodies; bloat along with colic signs in ruminal tympany; and fluid splashing sound with palpable mass in the rumen in ruminal impaction. Poor quality roughage and excess concentrate were found to be the predisposing factors in ruminal disorders. In physiological parameters significant increase in temperature and decrease in rumen motility from the presurgical values up to 24 hrs and 48 hrs after rumenotomy were observed. Heart, pulse and respiratory rates revealed none significant changes between pre and post surgical intervals. The rumen fluid of cattle with different ruminal disorders on analysis before rumenotomy showed brownish colour, watery consistency, aromatic odour, pH range 4.9-8.0, increased MBRT and sedimentation activity time in most of the cases.

Title: Process Protocol and Cost of Production of Functional Fiber-Enriched Pork Loaves
Abstract :

The objectives of the present study was to standardize the protocol for production of functional pork loaves and to assess the economics of production of the developed product.Four treatments were prepared with incorporation of inulin powder (IP) as fibre source viz. Control (0% IP; C), 1% (T1), 2% (T2) and 3% (T3) by replacing the amount of lean meat in the product formulation. Different batches were steam cooked at 110 ºC for 40 minutes, cooled, sliced and evaluated for different quality parameters. The cooking yield and emulsion stability improved with the increase in level of incorporation of inulin. The cost of production also increased with increase in inulin level in product and calculated as highest in T3. The net profit for the control and 1% IP enriched pork loaves was highest whereas lowest for 3% IP pork loaves. The break-even point was estimated on the basis of value ` marketed product and calculated as ` 1195188.00 for control whereas ` 1331576.00 for T3 and cost-benefit ratio 35% for control and T1. Net Income (`/month) after repayment of loan was highest for control and T1 as ` 77533.00 and lowest for T3 70033.00. The estimated details of economics of the developed product concluded that there is marginal increase about 1% in the price of functional pork loaves and this venture can a successful enterprise.

Title: Expression Profile of CXCL3 Gene in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Challenged in vitro with Theileria annulata in Crossbred Cattle
Abstract :

Bovine tropical theileriosis is a major haemoprotozoan disease associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality particularly in exotic and crossbred cattle. Recent studies suggest that a number of immune response genes, expressed differentially in exotic and indigenous breeds play an important role in breed specific resistance to tropical theileriosis. In the present study, expression of CXCL3 gene which has chemotactic activity for neutrophils, controls migration and adhesion of monocytes and ultimately mediates its effects on target cells by interacting with a cell surface chemokine receptor called CXCR2 was studied in crossbred cattle. The in vitro experimental result revealed significant difference in CXCL3 gene expression in Theileria annulata challenged peripheral blood mononuclear cells of crossbred animals as compared to healthy controls and a 2.53 fold increase (p < 0.05) was recorded. The results of current study indicate that CXCL3 may be involved in host-pathogen interaction during tropical theileriosis.

Title: Constraints Perceived by the Gujjars regarding Adoption of Improved Animal Husbandry Practices
Abstract :

Gujjar is a major tribal pastoral community of India. In Jammu and Kashmir state, Gujjars that deal with dairy and animal husbandry practices are known as Dodhi Gujjars. Their herd mainly constitutes of local buffaloes, buffaloes of Nili-Ravi breed and in some cases they keep two or three indigenous cows also. The study was conducted in Jammu district of Jammu and Kashmir, with a view to find out the constraints faced by Gujjars in adoption of improved animal husbandry practices. The data were collected from 120 Gujjar respondents belonging to R.S Pura and Bishnah block of Jammu district with the help of structured interview schedule containing selected dependent and independent variable, through personal interview technique. In general, constraints related to awareness of the respondents and non availability of veterinary services were perceived as the most serious constraints in adoption of improved animal husbandry practices by the Gujjars. Lack of knowledge about; “keeping up to date management records, antibiotics in milk and their ill effects to human population, recommended feeding practices”, high cost of mineral mixture, perception of A.I. as an unnatural process and veterinary center/ dispensary functioning without a veterinary assistant surgeon were the most serious constraints perceived by the Gujjars.

Title: Immunomodulatory Activity of Moringa oleifera in Albino Rats
Abstract :

The study was conducted to evaluate immunomodulatory property of hot aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera in albino rats. This study comprised of six groups containing six rats in each group. Group I served as control, received standard feed and water. Group II and IV received hot aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera @ 400 mg/kg b.wt, orally for 45 days. Group III and V received ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera @ 400 mg/kg b.wt, orally for 45 days. Group VI received standard immunomodulatory drug Levamisole @ 50 mg/kg b.wt, orally for 45 days. A significant increase (P< 0.05) in HA titre was observed in levamisole treated group VI, ethanolic extract treated group V and hot aqueous extract treated group IV of Moringa oleifera as compared to group I. In delayed hypersensitivity test a significant increase (P< 0.05) in paw volume was observed in response to Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBC’s) in group II (hot aqueous extract), group III (ethanolic extract) and group VI (levamisole). Phagocytic index was also found to be non-significantly increased in levamisole treated group VI, ethanolic extract treated group III and hot aqueous extract treated group II as compared to group I. Thus the results showed that Moringa oleifera possess immunomodulatory property.

Title: Comparative Gross Anatomical Studies on the Sternum of Emu, Turkey and Duck
Abstract :

Study was undertaken to provide a reference for the gross anatomy of the sternum of emu as one of the ratite species and also to compare the structural differences with sternum of duck and turkey. The sternum from four adult emu, turkey and duck were collected and used for the present study. The sternum was a large unsegmented bone located on the antero-ventral aspect of the body cavity, bowl-shaped in emu, triangular in turkey and rectangular in duck. It consisted of deeply concave dorsal surface, more convex ventral surface without keel in emu, with prominent keel in turkey and duck and had two extremities and two borders. An upward and antero-laterally directed flat antero-lateral process was observed and was long in turkey, short and curved in emu and very small in duck. The posterior extremity or metasternum was triangular and flattened in emu. It had very long posterior process and carried ventrally a thin plate of bone called keel in duck and turkey. Single and divided postero-lateral process was noticed in duck and turkey respectively but was absent in emu.

Title: Effects of Probiotics Supplementation on Growth Performance, Feed Conversion Ratio and Economics of Broilers
Abstract :

Two hundred and forty (n=240), day-old broiler chicks of strain ‘cobb400’ were divided equally into 3 groups of 80 chicks each in group to observe the effect of probiotics (Protexin) supplementation on growth performance and economics of feeding in broilers. Different dietary treatments were T1–basal diet without probiotics supplementation (control), T2–T1 + probiotics supplementation (50 g/ton of feed) and T3– T1 + probiotics supplementation (100 g/ton of feed). Average daily body weight gain (BWG) was significantly higher (P≤0.01) in T3 compared to T2 and T1 (41.63 ± 0.25 g vs 39.48 ± 0.15, 39.99 ± 0.10). Feed intake during starter, finisher and overall study period remained statistically (P≥0.05) at par. Feed conversion ratio was significantly (P≤0.01) improved with probiotics supplementation @100 g/ton of feed compared to control. Dressing percentage and organ weights (% Body Weight) remained statistically (P≥0.05) similar. Mortality (%) was lower for group T3 (1.25) compared to T2 (3.75) and T1 (5.00) but differences were non-significant (P≥0.05). The return over feed cost was significantly (P≤0.01) higher in T2 (`30.99) compared to T1 (` 27.82) and control (` 26.45). The profit per bird over control in group T2 and T3 was ` 1.37 and ` 4.54, respectively. Thus, the dietary supplementation of probiotics at 100 g/ton of feed significantly enhanced body weight gain along with better feed conversion ratio and profit without any adverse effect on feed intake, mortality and carcass characteristics.

Title: Relationship Among Intramammary Infection and Raw Milk Parameters in Jersey Crossbred Cows under Hot-Humid Climate
Abstract :

The raw milk quality has increasing importance for producer and consumer as it is directly related to processing, production and price. The aim of present study was to determine the relationship among intramammary infection (IMI) and raw milk parameters in Jersey crossbred cows. Total 24 lactating Jersey crossbred cows were randomly selected and representative animal wise morning milk samples were collected in monthly interval for four month. The level of somatic cell count (SCC) and milk parameters (fat (%), solid non-fat (%) and pH) was estimated from the collected sample. Test day milk yield for individual animals was also recorded and then the data obtained were statistically analyzed. A significant (P<0.01) negative correlation of Log10SCC with test day milk yield, fat and SNF percentage was found, while, milk pH was highly positive correlated with Log10SCC in milk. The mean±SE values of milk yield, fat and SNF were significantly (P<0.01) lower in subclinical infected group except for SCC and pH, which were higher in subclinical infected group. It can be concluded that IMI and higher SCC adversely affect the milk production and raw milk quality parameters and these parameters can be used as useful indicator as complimentary to SCC to monitor udder health and for early diagnosis of subclinical mastitis at dairy farm.

Title: Minerals Profile of Soil, Feed, Fodder and Serum of Dairy Cattle in North Eastern Ghat (NEG) of Odisha
Abstract :

A survey based study was planned in North Eastern Ghat (NEG) of Odisha to analyse the mineral profile of soil, feed, fodder and serum of dairy cattle. This agro-climatic zone comprises of four districts namely Kandhamal, Ganjam, Raygada and Gajapati. Amongst those two districts viz Ganjam and Gajapati are taken for the study considering the density of dairy cattle population. In the similar manner two Blocks from Ganjam District namely Khallikote, Kukudakhandi and two blocks from Gajapati District namely Mohana, R.Udayagiri was considered for our experimental area with two villages from each of the block. Macro and micro minerals like Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn) and Iron (Fe) were estimated for soil, feed, fodder and serum. Soil Ca was estimated by rapid titration method and available soil phosphorus was determined by colorimetric analysis. The soil micro minerals like Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn were analyzed as per the method of Lindsay and Lindsay (1978). Dry ash and Wet ash method were used for analysis of macro and micro minerals respectively for feed and fodder. The concentration of Ca and P in serum was estimated by using the kit method. The serum micro minerals like Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn were estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method. The findings depicted that cattle of this region are severely deficient in Ca, Zn, and Cu and marginally deficient in P and Mn with higher value of Fe content than the respective critical levels. Considering the importance of productivity and reproductive performance of dairy animal an area specific mineral mixture must be prepared and fed to the animals to meet the deficiencies of these minerals.

Title: Clinico-Biochemical Alterations and Therapeutic Management of Canine Gastroenteritis
Abstract :

The clinical investigation was done on 45 dogs suffering from gastroenteritis. The affected dogs showed diarrhoea, vomition, depression, anorexia and dehydration. Significant decrease in plasma glucose, albumin, potassium and chloride were observed. The affected dogs were randomly divided into three groups. In group-I (n = 15), levofloxacin was given along with antiemetic, vit B-complex and fluid therapy. In group-II (n = 15) and group-III (n = 15), cefotaxime and ceftriaxone were used instead of levofloxacin. The present investigation showed that therapeutic regimen in group-I (levofloxacin) was most effective for the treatment of gastroenteritis as compared to group-II (cefotaxime) and group-III (ceftriaxone).

Title: Evaluation of Propofol Anaesthesia inMedetomidine-Pentazocine and Midazolam-Pentazocine Premedicated Buffalo Calves
Abstract :

Twelve buffalo calves of either sex presented to the college clinic with various surgical conditions were utilized to study the effect of continuous intravenous infusion of propofol after premedication with medetomidine – pentazocine and midazolam – pentazocine. The animals were divided into two groups of six animals each. Group I animals were premedicated with Medetomidine @ 2.5 µg/kg b.wt. – pentazocine @ 0.5 mg/kg b.wt IV and Group II animals received midazolam @ 0.25 mg/kg b.wt. – pentazocine @ 0.5 mg/kg b.wt. IV.. Propofol was given @ 4 mg/kg b.wt. IV after premedication and maintained by continuous intravenous infusion of propofol @ 0.4 mg/kg b.wt. in 5 % dextrose normal saline in both groups. Induction quality was excellent, smooth and attained sternal recumbency rapidly without struggling in both groups. Anaesthetic character, Physiological & haematobiochemical parameters were studied at 0, 5,10,15,30 and 60 minutes following anaesthetic injections. No significant changes were recorded in both the groups. ECG studies did not reveal any abnormalities except slight variations in the amplitude of P wave, T wave and QRS complex in both groups. The study suggests that medetomidine – pentazocine premedication with continuous intravenous infusion of propofol provided better surgical anaesthesia and was compatable and safe in buffalo calves.

Title: Coagulation parameters in dogs with heat stroke – A short study
Abstract :

The present study was performed to detect the usefulness of coagulation parameters that helps in the diagnosing the severity of changes associated with heat stroke. Twenty five previously healthy dogs with the history of epistaxis, hyperthermia and dyspnea after exposure to high environmental temperature were selected and subjected to detailed clinical examination, physical examination, laboratory tests and coagulation analysis. Bilateral epistaxis, hyperthermia and respiratory distress were the common clinical signs recorded. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were significantly increased in affected dogs than normal. Dogs with normal coagulation parameters responded to the treatment.

Title: Evaluation of Immune response to Enterotoxaemia Vaccine in Sheep reared under Experimental and Field conditions using ELISA
Abstract :

Immune response to enterotoxaemia vaccine (ET) was evaluated in sheep reared under laboratory and field conditions using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Under experimental condition, six sheep were vaccinated with booster dose on 14th day and evaluated for immune response; however in field conditions, serum samples from 386 ET vaccinated sheep (139 from organized farms and 247 from unorganized sector of Andhra Pradesh) were evaluated for protective antibody titre using ELISA. Highest protective titre was recorded in sheep reared under experimental condition; on day 30 after vaccination followed by gradual decrease up to day 90. Immune responses of sheep maintained under rural conditions were found to be low when compared with sheep maintained under experimental/laboratory conditions. The protective titers were maintained up to 3 months in sheep maintained under village conditions whereas up to 4 months in those maintained in experimental conditions. So, it can be concluded that good managemental practices along with booster vaccination of ET in farms could evoke better immune response in sheep against ET.

Title: Induction of Estrus and Fertility Response in True Anoestrus Buffaloes Using Intravaginal Progesterone Sponge During Summer
Abstract :

Present study was carried out to study the efficacy of intravaginal progesterone sponge for induction of estrum in post partum anoestrus buffaloes during summer. True anoestrus animals were identified by repeated rectal examinations twice at 10 days interval apart having the small and smooth ovaries without any follicular activity. Out of 40 animals identified, 30 were treated with intravaginal progesterone sponge for 10 days and PGF2 injection was given one day prior to removal of sponge. Remaining 10 animals were kept as anoestrus control without treatment. The animals were watched closely for change in external gentallia after sponge removal and for estrus symptoms. The animals exhibiting estrus were inseminated artificially. Estrus was induced in 80% of animals (24/30) and the conception rate was 66.66% (16/24). This result indicates the better possibilities of inducing ovarian cyclicity in functionally anoestrus buffaloes by cost effective intravaginal progesterone sponge.

Title: Comparative Study of Efficacy of Fenbendazole and Ivermectin against Haemonchus contortus in Goats of Jammu region
Abstract :

Parasitic disease constitutes 60-70% diseases affecting the animals and has serious economic implication in livestock entrepreneurship by direct and indirect production loss. Indiscriminate use of anthelmintic drugs has made the situation even more precarious. A similar problem was encountered in goat farm of SKUAST-Jammu, where goats with constant complain of diarrhoea and loss of body condition was reported despite of routine deworming. The present study was therefore conducted with the objective of determining the efficacy of conventional dewormer used and its comparison with some unexploited antiparasitic drug for the same reason. Twenty seven goats with above said problem were divided into three groups after qualitative examination Group I was treated with ivermectin at dose rate of 0.2 mg per kg body weight orally. Group II was treated with fenbendazole @5 mg/kg body weight orally and Group III goats were kept as untreated control. Quantitative examination for EPG was conducted on day 0, 7 and 14 by Stoll’s technique. FECRT percentage revealed 100% efficacy of ivermectin @ 0.2mg/kg b.wt. whereas FECRT percentage in fenbendazole treated group was found to be 57.44% on day 7 and 70.87% on day 14 post treatment. Coproculture revealed presence of only H.contortus larvae, post treatment. The study revealed low efficacy of fenbendazole and hence ivermectin is the better drug than fenbendazole to control GIT nematodes.

Title: Effect of Infrared Lamps to Ameliorate Morbidity and Mortality in Vrindavani Calves
Abstract :

The present study was carried out to determine the effect of Infrared lamps to ameliorate morbidity and mortality in Vrindavani calves. Ten newborn calves were randomly divided into two groups (G1 and G2) of five each. The calves of G1 were provided with no additional protection; however calves of G2 were protected against cold weather by using the Infrared lamps. The health status of calves was monitored daily both in the morning and evening. The blood samples collected within six hours of birth and then at fortnightly interval were analyzed for total leukocyte count (TLC, thousands/µl) and differential leukocyte count (DLC). The physiological parameters i.e. respiration rate (RR, breaths/min), heart rate (HR, beats/min) and rectal temperature (RT, °F) were recorded at weekly interval. The health performance was better in calves of G2 as compared to G1. The calves in G1 showed comparatively higher values of TLC and neutrophils and the differences were found significant (P<0.05) on 15th day for TLC and 15th and 45th day for neutrophils. The values of lymphocytes were found significantly (P<0.05) lower in calves of G1 than G2 on 15th and 45th day.The physiological parameters did not varied significantly between the groups except for RT which was most of the times significantly (P<0.05) lower in calves of G1 than G2. On the basis of the results, it could be concluded that the Infrared lamps are efficient in providing favourable microclimate and hence can be effectively used in calf shed to protect newborn calves from adverse conditions of winter.

Title: Polymorphic Sperm Phenotype Suggesting Genetic Sperm Defects in a Jersey (Bos taurus) X Zebu (Bos indicus) Crossbred Bull
Abstract :

Data on semen collections from a Jersey X Zebu crossbred bull, consistently producing semen with high proportion of sperm abnormalities was collected and the semen characteristics were analyzed. Observation of the records of 58 ejaculations from the bull has revealed that 96.6% of the ejaculates were rejected for poor semen quality especially in sperm morphology. A representative semen sample from the bull also showed sperm abnormalities up to 72.9%, of which 14.9% and 14.5% of the spermatozoa exhibited loose heads and microcephalic heads respectively. Coiled tail (16.7%) and short tail (14.9%) were the main tail defects observed. Since sperm defects were consistently appearing in high proportions in almost all the ejaculates the genetic cause of the sperm defect was suspected.

Title: Occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Dogs and their Handlers in Jammu
Abstract :

The study explored the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in dogs and their handlers. Samples comprised of dogs wound (n = 50), dogs nasal (n = 22), dogs skin behind ears (n = 50) and hand swabs of dogs owners (n = 40). Out of these 162 samples, 2 (1.23%) were positive for S. aureus, of which 1 (0.61%) was MRSA. S. aureus isolates were of wound and skin samples each and isolate from wound was MRSA. None of the dogs nasal and owners’ hand swabs were positive for S. aureus and MRSA. Study revealed resistance of S. aureus to ampicillin (100%) while sensitivity to clindamycin (100%), doxycycline (100%), vancomycin (100%), linezolid (100%), teicoplanin (100%) and amoxyclav (100.0%). MRSA observed high resistance to cefoxitin (100%) and vancomycin (100%) while isolates were sensitive to clindamycin (100%), amoxyclav (100.0%), ceftriaxone (100%), gentamicin (100%), ampicillin (100%) and linezolid (100%).

Title: Polymorphism in Exon-40 of FASN Gene in Lesser known Buffalo breeds of India
Abstract :

Present study was aimed to discover the single nucleotide variation present in exon 40 region of the Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) gene. FASN plays a central role in de novo lipogenesis in mammals and variation in this enzyme may affect economic traits including fatty acid composition of buffalo milk. A total of 80 DNA samples in two riverine buffalo breeds namely, Gojri and Chhattisgarhi were screened using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). FASN gene was found to be polymorphic with an adenine to guanine transition. Three types of genotypes, viz. AA, AG and GG were observed in the studied breeds. Allele A was found to be more frequent than G allele. All the genotypes showed almost the same frequency across the breeds, indicating that there is absence of selection for FASN gene in lesser known buffalo breeds of India. The study will augment the information available and can be applied in future studies to determine the role of bovine FASN gene as a candidate gene marker for a milk-fat content.

Title: Incidence of Cystic Liver Caused by Cysticercus fasciolaris in Laboratory Rat
Abstract :

Herein we are reporting about an incidence of Cysticercus fasciolaris infestation in a male and female Sprague Dawley housed for experimental purpose. The clinical finding includes anorexia and dullness. Post mortem examination of both the animals revealed cystic liver with irregular lump of hard tissue attached to left lateral lobe of liver in male rat. A thin, pale white segmented larva with distinct head was found lodged inside the cyst in both the animals. Based upon the morphological features, the larva was identified to be intermediate stage of Taenia taeniaeformis which is a tapeworm of cat with rodents acting as intermediate host. Most of the rodent facilities do not screen laboratory animals for presence of this parasite in regular health monitoring procedures. The findings are important due to impact of this parasite on animal health, research studies and sporadic zoonotic potential.

Title: Use of Acidified Litter for Broiler Production in Winter Season
Abstract :

This experiment was conducted to compare the effect of litter amendments by using acidifier on growth performance, carcass characteristics and welfare of commercial broiler chicks along with its economical implication during winter season (December-January months). A total of 180, day-old (Vencobb) broiler chicks were equally and randomly assigned to two litter abatements with alum and sodium bisulphate (ATL and SBTL) treatment groups along with one Control group of 60 birds each for 6 weeks. All the chicks were reared under identical managemental conditions except the treatments. The result revealed that, average body weight gain was significantly (p<0.05) highest in SBTL group (1860g) followed closely by ATL (1813g) than the Control group (1770g) at end of 6th week. The growing chicks significantly gained more body weight with better FCR, PER, EER and higher carcass yield with better immunity in the same order of succession. Findings proved that the pH of the acidified treated litter and the control litter had significant difference which clearly reveals the efficiency of litter treatment products to improve the quality of litter thus in turn enhances the productivity and welfare in broiler production.

Title: Growth Performance of Murrah Buffalo Calves under Humid Tropical Conditions of Kerala
Abstract :

Data obtained from Murrah buffalo herd maintained at Livestock Research Station, Thiruvazhamkunnu (Kerala) was analysed to determine average birth weight and average daily gain of calves. Mean body weight (±SE) at birth observed was 34.76 ± 0.54 Kg. Body weight at birth of female and male Murrah calves were 32.83 ± 0.63 Kg and 37.06 ± 0.73 Kg respectively. Significant difference was observed between sexes with respect to birth weight and body weight at 15 days of age (p<0.05). Average daily gain observed in male and female calves during 90 day period was 0.595 Kg and 0.612 Kg respectively. Difference in average daily gain was not statistically significant, except between 30-45 days during which female calves gained more weight than males (p<0.05).

Title: Endocannabinoid Signaling in Spermatozoa: A Mini-Review
Abstract :

Spermatozoa undergoes array of signaling and intracellular pathways and ultimately become competent enough to accomplish fertilization. Hormones, ion channels and signaling molecules in both male and female reproductive tract show bidirectional cross play. The recent discovery of endocannabinoids and their receptors in male and female reproductive system opened new vistas for their research in regulating sperm function. Interestingly, endocannabinoids regulate sperm motility, capacitation, hyperactivity and eventually acrosome reaction. However, their complex intracellular pathways are still to be understood in regulating spermatozoa function. The present review highlights the major breakthrough research in the area of endocannabinoids in male reproduction and in more specific in sperm cells, and their association with regulation of sperm fertilizing competence.

Title: Prevalence of Wound and Associated Risk Factors of Donkeys in Merawi District,North-Western Ethiopia
Abstract :
A cross sectional study was conducted from October 2014 to April 2015 to determine prevalence of wound and associated risk factors in working donkeys in and around Merawi district, Amhara region, Ethiopia. A total of 384 randomly selected donkeys were physically examined for any external body injury/wound. Simultaneously, donkey owners were interviewed with a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire to extrapolate information regarding possible risk factors associated with wound occurrence. The overall prevalence of wound was 38.3%. The occurrence of wound varied significantly among donkeys with different age categories (χ2 = 43.027, p < 0.05) and with different body score conditions (47.5%, χ2 = 53.8, OR = 34.89, CI = 8.4-144.6). However the occurrence of wounds didn’t vary significantly among sex of the animals, type of pack saddle used and type of load carried (p > 0.05). In terms of working nature, donkeys working for more than 10kms per single trip showed
higher prevalence of wound (50.0%, χ2 = 9.39, p < 0.05) than those usually working for nearer distances (<10kms). There was a signifi- cant difference in the severity of wound among affected donkeys carrying different loads (χ2 = 26.71, p < 0.05).Questionnaire survey among the 384 respondents showed only 51% of the respondents usually seek for veterinary help for wound management. Generally, the study has clearly indicated wound as a prevailing welfare problem of working donkeys in and around Merawi district. Hence, implementing a comprehensive donkey health and welfare improvement program should be a priority for concerned stakeholder.
Title: Survey and Performance Evaluation of Malpura Sheep in Farmers’ Flocks of its Native Tract
Abstract :

Data on growth, wool and milk yield of Malpura sheep maintained under farmers’ flocks in its native tract were recorded and analyzed. In breeding tract of Malpura sheep, more than 80 percent farmer’s family members were found illiterate. The average weight of adult rams was 49.17 ± 0.53 kg and of the lactating ewes was 34.36 ± 0.18 kg. Location significantly affected body height in the all age groups, while for other traits an erratic trend was noticed. The least squares means of body weight at weaning and hoggets stage were 13.09 ± 0.15 and 22.55 ± 0.34 kg, respectively. The wool yield of animal was higher (P<0.01) in March clip (755 g) followed by that in September – October (481 g) and was lowest in July (444 g). The week of lactation significantly affected (P<0.01) daily milk yield and maximum milk yield was in 4th week of lactation. The overall performance of Malpura in farmers’ flock was found satisfactory under prevailing harsh climatic conditions of semi-arid tropics.

Title: Emerging role of statins in tissue engineering and therapeutics —A review
Abstract :
Statins are a group of secondary metabolites secreted by several microorganisms as a defense mechanism. They inhibit hydroxymethyl glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMGCoA) reductase enzyme in the cholesterol synthesis pathway and are an acceptable therapy for hyperlipidemia in human. More recently, however, statins have been shown to have multiple effects, called pleotropic effects, which are independent of their cholesterol-inhibiting action. In somatic and stem cells, statins influences the cellular proliferation, survival, differentiation, regeneration and repair which can be harnessed in ex vivo systems for cell expansion and/or differentiation of somatic and stem cells. Incorporation of statins in the biomaterials for scaffold production has improved the cell attachment and directed differentiation of stem
cells into target cells to enhance the functionality of the tissue engineered construct.
Thus, statins have generated a fresh impetus in its use in tissue engineering,
regenerative medicine and therapeutics. This review discusses the sources, mode of action and emerging roles of statins in tissue engineering and therapeutics.
Title: Effect of Shelter Management on Lactating Crossbred Cows During Summer Under the Agro-Climatic Condition of Konkan Region of India
Abstract :An experiment was carried out on nine lactating crossbred cows (Jersey x local) were randomly allotted into three housing system in switch over design. The treatments were asbestos (T1) roofing, paddy straw thatched roof (T2) white painted asbestos roof (T3) during hot and humid season of Konkan. The variation in rectal temperature, respiration rate and pulse rate was recorded in the morning and evening through out the experiment. Temperature humidity index was more in microenvironment of thatched roof shed followed by white painted asbestos roof and asbestos roofing. Milk samples collected from experimental cows were analyzed for milk constituents. The use of paddy straw thatched roof shed significantly (P<0.05) reduced rectal temperature, pulse rate and respiration rate of cows. Thatched roof shed had significantly (P<0.05) incremental effect on the milk yield and milk composition of cows than the cows in white painted roof shed and asbestos roof shedding. The study revealed that paddy straw thatched roof shed effectively improves environmental temperature, humidity and during summer in the agro-climatic conditions of Konkan region of India.
Title: Impact of A1/A2 forms of Cow’s Milk on Human Health-A review
Abstract :
Milk derived peptides may adversely affect the biological health of humans by increasing the risk of dependency on insulin to overcome the occurrence of diabetes. The higher occurrence of the diabetes relies on the relationship of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and the consumption of variants A1 and B beta –casein from cow’s milk. The production of BCM-7 is more in A1 milk than A2 milk and the difference is basically due to position 67 of the beta casein chain. However, proline in A2 is substituted by  histidine in A1 milk casein chain. Deleterious effects of A1 milk in the process of digestion in human stomach and intestines
have not been reviewed earlier. It is an effort to review the aspect thoroughly and bring minor details into focus to have better understanding of the milk particularly in perspective of human health.
Title: Diagnosing Subclinical Endometritis in Postpartum Murrah Buffaloes Using Cytobrush Technique
Abstract :
A total of 150 postpartum (28 to 45 days) apparently healthy buffalo with normal calving history and free from peripartum disorders from college livestock farm and organized dairy farms in and around Jabalpur were screened. After recording history all the animals were subjected to gynaeco-clinical examination, White side test and endometrial cytology by cytobrush technique. On the basis of polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) percentage the animals were divided into different groups of normal, clinical and sub-clinical endometritic buffaloes. Endometrial cytology by cytobrush technique in different groups (normal, clinical and sub-clinical endometritic buffaloes) revealed PMN percentage to be 4.34±1.85, 35.35±3.43 and 21.17±0.45%, respectively. The difference between the groups was signifi cant (p<0.05). Fibroblasts count was recorded as 0.20±0.09 and 12.33±1.61% in subclinical
and clinical endometritic buffaloes while fi broblasts were not observed in endometrial smears of normal buffaloes. The difference was signifi cant (p<0.05) between the groups. It was concluded that endometrial cytology by cytobrush technique was easy and accurate method to diagnose subclinical endometritis in postpartum Murrah buffaloes.
Title: Isolation, plasmid profiling and antibiogram of Salmonella from poultry meat and environmental sources
Abstract :
Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and its prevalence in the animals acts as a continuous threat to man. The present study was carried out to report the isolation along with the serotypes, phage types and antibiogram pattern of Salmonella among poultry meat and environmental sources in the India. A total of two hundred samples from poultry meat (100), poultry feaces (100) were processed for the isolation of Salmonella. All the isolates were subjected to antibiogram studies against 16 antimicrobials. Representative isolates of isolated Salmonella were phage typed. Out of two hundred samples only three (one poultry meat and two poultry feaces) were positive for Salmonella. The confirmed isolates were subjected to serotyping at National Salmonella Centre (Vet), India. The results indicated that S. Rough was found in poultry meat and S. Typhimurium and S.Berta was found in poultry feaces. A plasmid of 21 kb was consistence in all the isolates. All the isolates obtained in the present study were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing against 16 different antibiotics employing disk
diffusion technique in which ampicillin and sulphafurazole showed 100%
resistance in comparison to furazolidone. On the other hand all isolates were
sensitive to nalidixic acid. Highest level of antimicrobial resistance was recorded for isolates from poultry feaces. Fifty percent or more resistance was observed among these isolates for as many as 5 antimicrobials including sulphafurazole (100%), colistin (100%), ampicillin (100%), co-trimaxazole (50%) and furazolidone (50%).
Title: Use of Homeopathic Medication for Treatment of Underdeveloped Ggenetalia in Heifers - A Field Level Study
Abstract :The study was carried out in 150 heifers; out of them 90 were buffalo heifers and 60 were cow heifers with an average age of 3-4 years. They were presented with a chief compliant of not conceiving. On clinical observations all heifers were having smaller size of external and internal gentiles and they were under weight. They were diagnosed as underdeveloped gentiles and treated with homeopathic medicines. On an average one month after the treatment the 120 heifers started showing the signs of estrus and immediately they were bred with artificial insemination and later they got conceived. The 24 heifers shown the signs of estrus in second cycle and they got conceived after insemination. However 6 heifers could not responded to treatment and advised for culling. It was observed in this study that homeopathic medication used for treatment of underdeveloped genitals can be an alternative treatment for initiating non functional ovaries to functional.
Title: Apocrine Secretory Adenoma in a 2.5 year Old Male Great Dane Dog
Abstract :
Apocrine glands are the major type of sweat gland in dogs, and distribution of
eccrine sweat glands is limited to footpad (Goldschmidt and Shofer, 1992). Apocrine sweat gland tumors are rather common in dogs and tend to occur on the head, neck and limbs. The Golden Retriever is a breed that shows a predisposition to such tumors (Kalaher et al., 1990). The tumor was greatly resembles its human counterpart and originate in the secretory part of eccrine sweat glands (Nibe et al., 2005).
Title: A Field Survey of Feeding and Breeding Practices at Peri-Urban Buffalo Farms of Surat City of Gujarat
Abstract :
A survey was conducted during April, 2014 to December, 2015 and data were collected from randomly selected 50 buffalo farm owners through personal interview with the help of pre-tested structured schedule from peri-urban areas of Surat city of Gujarat. The present study revealed that majority of respondents (86%) followed stall feeding system. The 82% respondents did not cultivated green fodder crops and 62 & 90% respondents fed green non-leguminous and shedha grass to their milking buffaloes, respectively. Majority of respondents fed homemade plus compound cattle feed as concentrate to their milking buffaloes, based on milk production, mainly during milking. The 62% respondents fed concentrate to their animals after soaking in water while, 38% respondents fed concentrates as such. Majority of respondents practiced to feed green/dry fodders as such to their buffaloes. Majority of respondents did not fed concentrates to their young calves while, 54% respondents fed concentrates to their heifers. Only 42% respondents provided mineral supplements to their buffaloes. All the respondents detected heat in their animals by observing the symptom of bellowing and mucus discharge (84%) and bred their buffaloes by artificial insemination (52%) between 12-18 hours after heat detection (84%). The 12% respondents bred their buffaloes after 2 to 3 months of calvinand 64% respondents followed the pregnancy diagnosis but only 38% did it either from Livestock Inspectors or Artificial Insemination workers during three months of pregnancy. Majority of respondents followed treatment of anoestrous/repeaters in their buffaloes.
Title: Differential Expression Profile of TGFβ2 in Immune and Visceral Organs of ggamiR-142-3p Knockdown Chicken Embryo
Abstract :
Differential expression of gga-miR-142-3p microRNA of haemopoeitic origin during immune organ development and functional stages in chicken embryos opens the new avenue towards understanding its pivotal role during embryonic developmental stages. To decipher the role of gga-miR-142-3p, in-ovo knockdown was carried out with locked nucleic acid (LNA) modifi ed antimiR- gga-miR-142-3p via, intravenous route at developmental and functional stages of these immune organ and visceral organs. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that predicted gene TGFβ2 have conserved binding sites at 3’UTR for gga-miR-142-3p which is involved in immune response and signal transduction during the embryonic developmental stage in the chicken embryos. TGFβ2 was evaluated as validate targets of gga-miR-142-3p by employing qPCR SYBR green based technology which was evidenced by aberrant expression of targeted gene, which could alter the postnatal development and functions of these immune organs and may lead to immune compromised chickens.
Title: Tube Cystostomy in Male Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis) Suffering From Retention of Urine
Abstract :

To evaluate tube cystostomy for the management of obstructive urolithiasis, 35 buffalo calves suffering from retention of urine were randomly selected for the study. Diagnosis was made on the basis of a history of anuria, clinical signs, abdominocentesis and ultrasonographic examinations. The confirmed cases of obstructive urolithiasis were managed by surgical tube cystostomy technique with Foley’s catheter. In all the affected buffalo calves, anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics along with urine acidifiers (ammonium chloride) were given. The affected buffalo calves had higher Heart rate, Respiration rate, but normal Rectal temperature. Haemoglobin (Hb), Packed cell volume (PCV), Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, phosphorus and potassium, Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) levels were higher, whereas calcium, total plasma protein, albumin, globulin and albumin:globulin (A:G) ratio were lower than normal reference value and plasma sodium, magnesium and alkaline phosphatase values were within normal reference range. Urine analysis revealed high pH and low specific gravity. Staphylococcus spp., E.coli and Streptococcus spp .were the most common organisms isolated from the urine of affected animals, which were sensitive to cephalosporine and fluoroquinolone groups of antibiotics. The overall recovery rate was 91.42%. It may be concluded that tube cystostomy was treatment of choice and feasible method for the surgical management of obstructive urolithiasis in field conditions. The oral ammonium chloride may be beneficial for the medical dissolution of urethral calculi.

Title: Effect of Feeding Cow Urine Ark and Aloe Vera on Performance and Carcass Traits of Broilers
Abstract :
A study was carried out to find the effect of feeding Cow urine ark and Aloe vera extract on performance and carcass traits of broilers. For Performance Quality, Body Weight of birds were weighed on weekly basis till 6 weeks of age. Weight gain in different groups of broilers was calculated on weekly basis. Evaluation of Feed Intake was done on the basis of feed offered and left over feed recorded at the end of that week.Feed efficiency ratio (FER) and Performance index (PI) were also calculated.To study the carcass traits, two broilers in each replicate were slaughtered on termination of experiment. For Organ weight percentage various visceral organs like liver, heart gizzard and giblet were weighed.Carcass yield percentage were evaluated by recording dressed weight and eviscerated weight. Aloe vera extract causes significant increase in body weight gain, feed consumption, FER and performance index of broilers.Significant increase was also reported in carcass trait of bird
Title: Current Advances in surgical Management of Ruminal Disorders of Bovine
Abstract :
Ruminal disorders in ruminant are numerous and constitute a major clinical problem. Disorders of forestomach in adult cattle can result from a variety of common causes including traumatic reticulo-peritonitis, ruminal acidosis, bloat, simple indigestion and vagal indigestion. The bovine forestomach are affected highly due to ingested foreign bodies which are the subject of attention almost all over the world and also major economic importance due to severe loss of production and productivity and sometimes death of the animal. The animals are stabilized with fluids and electrolytes for the imbalances preoperatively. Preparation of the animal for surgery includes removal of the hair and cleansing of the skin around the surgical site. Rumenotomy and diaphragmatic hernia repair are surgeries performed for treating many ruminal disorders in bovine. Anaesthetic techniques required for rumenotomy are para-vertebral nerve block by use of lignocaine hydrochloride. Ultrasound diagnosis, completely siphon out of the fluid, visceral blockade and refilling of rumen with refilling agents are among the current advances in surgical managements of ruminal disorders. A long vertical skin incision starting about three to four centimeters below the transverse process of the lumbar vertebrae is made. The abdominal muscles and peritoneum are also incised corresponding to the skin incision. The rumen incision is closed by double row of continuous inverting sutures using chromic catgut. The commonest
complications are wound dehiscence and hemorrhage and seroma formation.
Title: An Overview on Reproductive Disorders in Indigenous Female Equids
Abstract :
Reproductive disorders causing reproductive failure in equids put great challenge in achieving the goal of successful breeding every year and subsequent birth of live foal. Economic losses due to reproductive disorders are caused in terms of reduced fertility, longer calving interval, low life time production and increased expenses on medication as well as breeding. In India, major reproductive problems reported in mares are infertility, abortions, reproductive tract infections and dystocia. Other less common reproductive problems are placental retention, placentitis, vaginitis, still birth and poor perineal conformation.
Title: Effect of Age on Physico-Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Indigenous Kodiadu Goat Meat
Abstract :
The study was conducted to study the effect of age viz., young (6-9 months) and adult (2 years) on physico-chemical characteristics,
proximate composition, amino acid, fatty acid and cholesterol content of Kodiadu goat meat. The Longissimus dorsi muscle was collected from these animals and the physico-chemical characteristics viz., pH, water holding capacity, instrumental colour,
muscle fi bre diameter, myofi brillar fragmentation index and nutritional composition viz., proximate composition, amino acid, fatty acid and cholesterol content of two different age groups were studied. The results obtained in this study indicated that the meat of young goat had higher water holding capacity, Lightness (L*), moisture, threonine, glutamic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, ecosapentaenoic acid, docosohexanoic acid, total poly unsaturated fatty acids and total P/S than adult. Based on the quality and nutritional composition it was concluded that meat of young animal (6-9 months) had superior meat quality than the meat of adult animals
Title: Genetic Polymorphism of Leptin Gene in Relation with Reproduction Traits in Hariana Cows
Abstract :

Leptin gene is considered as marker of production and reproduction traits in dairy or beef cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic polymorphism in LEP gene in Hariana cows and their associations with reproduction traits. The blood samples were collected from 62 Hariana cows and analyzed in order to identify LEP/BsaAI (BTA 4, intron 2 and exon 3) genotypes using PCR-RFLP method. The allele frequencies observed were 0.37 and 0.63 for A and B LEP variants and genotypic frequencies were 9.67, 54.8 and 35.5 for AA, AB and BB genotype variants, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that SNP LEP/BsaAI significantly affected gestation period and dry period in analyzed population of cows. Observations of this investigation advocated that leptin is a candidate gene, which affects reproduction traits and might be implemented in breeding strategies to improve the reproductive performance of Hariana cattle breed.

Title: Clinico-pathological Studies on Atopic Dermatitis in Dogs
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to record the clinico-haematological, biochemical and serological changes in atopic dermatitis in canines amongst the various dermatoses cases presented at the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, GADVASU, Ludhiana. Fifty two atopic dermatitis affected dogs were enrolled in the study with chief complaint of intense pruritus, erythema and alopecia. Prevalence of atopy among various dermatoses was 27.90% which mainly occurred during monsoon. Labrador, Toy breeds and German Shephard of 1-3 years of age were affected more. Dogs suffering from atopic dermatitis showed pruritus (100%), erythema (82.69%), alopecia (75.00%), hyperpigmentation (36.00%), scales/crusts (25.00%), lichenification (21.15%) and excoriation (19.60%). The lesions in atopic dermatitis were mainly located at groin (88.40%), abdomen (78.80%), neck (76.90%), perioccular region (75.00%), axilla (71.10%), muzzle and paws (69.20%), ear pinna (67.30%), limbs (48.07%) and tail (7.60%). Haematobiochemical study revealed significant changes in TLC, neutrophilia, eosinophilia and total protein. Serological estimation revealed significant increase in levels of IgE in the serum of atopic dogs.

Title: Real Time Ultrasonography for Determining Viable Foetal Numbers in Goats
Abstract :
Twenty-five (25) does in dorsal recumbency were scanned by 3.5 MHz transabdominal sector transducer. Each doe was scanned separately by tilting the doe in right and left side. All the animals were scanned twice between 37-119 days post breeding. One goat showed foetal resorption on its second scan so only 24 goats were considered for calculation of litter size. There was non-significant difference (P = 0.7427, t 0.01 =0.332) between actual and sonographically observed values of litter size and the correlation coefficient between the two was 0.725 (P< 0.01) which is positive and highly significant. The accuracy of detecting single fetus was
83.33% (10/12); twins was 80% (8/10) and triplets was 50% (1/2). In total 37 kids were born viz 12 singles, 11 twins and 1 triplet to 24 goats. The average actual litter size of goats was 1.54±0.120 kids while as by ultrasound it was 1.6 ± 0.129. It was concluded that real-time transabdominal ultrasonography is accurate and practical method for predicting foetal numbers and foetal viability in goats.
Title: Effect of Different Rearing Systems on Heamato-biochemical Parameters of Kadaknath Chicken
Abstract :

Kadaknath is an important chicken breed of India. It is also known as Kalamashi due to its black-colored meat. The present study was planned to investigate the effect of different rearing systems i.e. intensive, backyard and scavenging system on heamato-biochemical parameters of Kadaknath. The experiment was conducted in the Department of Livestock Production and Management, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry and Amilki village in Rewa (M.P.). Day old 90 male chicks reared under electrical brooder up to 15 days of age were randomly distributed in equal number into intensive, backyard and scavenging rearing systems where they kept for 98 days. Heamatological studies revealed that the mean value of RBC, Hb, PCV, MCHC was significantly (p<0.05) higher in intensive system. The enhanced heamatological profile in intensive rearing system may be due to consumption of some bioactive nutrients in the feed supplements. Mean value of WBC, and DLC was significantly (p<0.05) higher in scavenging system, which indicated more chances of subclinical infections in scavenging system followed by backyard and intensive system. The mean value of glucose (mg/dl), total protein (g/dl), albumin (g/dl) and albumin globulin ratio, SGOT (IU/L), SGPT (IU/L), cholesterol (mg/dl), creatinine (mg/dl), bilirubin (mg/dl), blood urea nitrogen (mg/dl) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in intensive system. All these variations in biochemical parameters in Kadaknath birds may be due to the effect of different rearing systems and their feed habits.

Title: Recovery of Different Cumulus Oocyte Complex (COC) Grades from Bovine Ovaries by Aspiration Method
Abstract :
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the aspiration method for recovery of cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) from
bovine ovaries at slaughter. A total of 829 cattle ovaries were collected from slaughter house, out of which 2,935 COCs were
aspirated out. The mean number of COCs recovered was 3.54 per ovary. The COCs recovered were graded variously as A, B,
C and D grades. Grade ‘A’ and ‘B’ COC’s were 38.77% and 27.02% respectively, and the average culture grade (Grade A and
B COC’s together) recovery was 65.79%, representing 2.33 COCs per ovary. The number and percentage recovery of A and B grade COCs were higher than that of C (18.13%; 0.64/ovary) and D (16.08%; 0.57/ovary) grades. The aspiration method adopted in the present study was found to be effi cient for recovery of ample amount of COCs and yield good quality culturable oocytes for subsequent in vitro studies. The aspiration method also allows greater visual assessment of follicles, their selection and assortment for quality COC yield.
Title: Performance of Lactating Crossbred Cows under Different Housing Systems During Summer in Konkan Agro-ecological Conditions”
Abstract :
An investigation was carried out on nine lactating crossbred cows (J×L) cows
which were allotted randomly into three comparable shelters in switch over design. Three different type of shelters were, 1- Asbestos roofing; 2- Paddy straw thatched roof house; 3 - White painted asbestos roof. Temperature humidity index was higher in macro -environment followed by thatched roof shed, white painted asbestos roof and asbestos roofing. Thatched roof shed had significant (P<0.05) incremental effect on the milk production and milk composition of cows than the cows in white painted roof shed and asbestos roof shed during summer. Overall paddy straw thatched roof shed effectively ameliorates environmental temperature, humidity and THI during summer season in the Konkan region.
Title: Applied Anatomy of the Maxillofacial and Mandibular Regions of the Indian Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra)
Abstract :
The study involved the measurements of some clinically important landmarks for regional anesthesia in the maxillary and mandibular regions of blackbucks. The mandibular parameters studied will provide important clinical landmarks for the regional anesthesia of mandibular nerve block. The observed data were also discussed with regard to their application in proper tracking of the infra-orbital, mental and mandibular nerves to aid in regional anesthetic procedures during treatment and manipulations of various clinical affections of this region. There was no information on the regional applied anatomy of maxillofacial and mandibular regions of blackbuck in available literatures. Therefore, this study was designed to provide information on clinically important parameters and landmarks of the head region. This information may aid for performing regional anesthesia conducted in upper (maxilla) and the lower (mandible) jaw bones of the Blackbuck 
Title: Patho-morphological Changes in Kidneys of Slaughtered Sheep and Goats in Jammu Region
Abstract :

The study was conducted in government recognized and unorganised slaughter houses of sheep and goats in Jammu from the month of July 2013 to June 2014. In the present study, 300 kidney samples of sheep (150) and goats (150) were collected from these abattoirs for determining the patho-morphological changes. Prominent gross lesions in kidney affection included haemorrhage, infarction, hydronephrosis, amyloidosis and nephritis. Histopathological examination revealed massive interstitial haemorrage, MNC’s infi ltration, atrophy of glomeruli with presence of pinkish amyloid material, hypercellularity of glomeruli and tubular necrosis.

Title: Morphological Traits of Pubertal and Pregnant Frieswal Heifers Under Field Conditions
Abstract :
Present study was conducted in U. S. Nagar district of Uttarakhand on 131 Frieswal heifers reared by 127 farmers under 5 AI centres to study the farmers profile and factors affecting on morphological traits of Frieswal heifers. Data on socioeconomic characteristics were collected from the farmers using questionnaire. Body measurements were taken when the animal was standing comfortably and evenly on her feet on hard plain ground. Maximum of the respondents were educated (73.23 %), owned small herd size of 3AUE (44.09 %), possessed up to 5 acres land (44.09 %) and very few (23.62 %) were landless. Least-squares means (cm) of 47 pubertal and 62 pregnant heifers were 118.7 ± 1.7 and 134.1 ± 1.9 for BL, 114.5 ± 1.3 and 121.3 ± 1.2 for HAW, 143.1 ± 2.3 and 162.7 ± 2.4 for CG, 150.9 ± 3.0 and 173.5 ± 3.0 for PG, 41.0 ± 0.9 and 43.8 ± 0.9 for FL, 29.7 ± 0.9 and 31.7 ± 0.9 for FW, 17.4 ± 0.3 and 19.1 ± 0.4 for EPL, 67.3 ± 1.2 and 70.3 ± 1.1 for HE, 33.6 ± 0.8 and 37.3 ± 1.2 for HK, 109.1 ± 1.2 and 115.0 ± 1.2 for HPB, 112.6 ± 1.4 and 119.6 ± 1.1 for HHB, 3.08 ± 0.07 and 3.83 ± 0.07 m2 for BSA, 5.15 ± 0.23 and 5.62 ± 0.24 mm for SFT and 227.0 ± 9.3 and 331.7 ± 10.9 kg for EBW, respectively. Land holding had significant effect on HAW, HE and HK in pubertal heifers. Whereas, stage of gestation had significant effect on BSA, SFT and EBW in pregnant heifers.
Title: Contents Volume 10 Issue 2
Abstract :
Title: Effect of Molasses Feeding on Biochemical and Hormonal Parameters in Sahiwal and Karan Fries Heifers
Abstract :
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of molasses feeding on biochemical and hormonal parameters in Sahiwal and Karan Fries heifers under two feeding regimes, i.e. feeding regime-1, as per the NRC (2001) and feeding regime-2 having 15 % higher energy (supplementation of molasses) than NRC (2001). Twelve healthy heifers (18-24 month) of each Sahiwal
and Karan Fries were selected from Livestock Research Centre (LRC) of ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute (ICARNDRI). An initial 15 days were maintained as adaptation period for both feeding regimes. Actual experiment was conducted from 16th day onward for next 15 days. Blood samples were taken on 1st, 7th, 14th, 15th, and 16th day of each feeding regimes and
analysed for various biochemical and hormonal parameters. The plasma glucose, Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxin (T4) were significantly (p<0.05) higher during feeding regimes-2 as compared to feeding regimes-1 in both the breeds, while the plasma BUN levels were signifi cantly lower during feeding regimes-2. The plasma NEFA level was found to be higher during feeding regimes-1 as compared to feeding regimes-2 in Sahiwal heifers. It is concluded that molasses supplementation in feed enhances the growth performance and reduces the non esterifi ed fatty acid in both Sahiwal and Karan Fries heifers.
Title: Effect of Different Litter Materials on the Performance of Broiler Chicken
Abstract :

The present study attempts to analyze the effect of different types of litter materials on the performance of broilers. Total 300 unsexed day-old broiler chicks (Cobb-400) were used on a completely randomized design in five treatments with four replicates, each consisting of 15 broilers. The treatments comprises of saw dust, wheat straw, rice husk, river bed sand and sandy soil (Balu ret) as litter materials. Standard feeding and management practices were followed during the experimental period. The effect of different treatments on growth parameters of broilers i.e. body weight, bodyweight gains, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed on regular interval of time. The results showed that feed conversion ratio was significantly different (p<0.05) among the litter types selected during 3rd and 4th week of experiment and other parameters were non-significant during the growing interval of broilers. The present study investigated the effect of different litter materials on broiler chicken performance may be viable for use of unconventional litter materials for broilers production due to cheap and locally available to the poultry entrepreneurs.

Title: Effect of Alginate, Citric Acid, Calcium Chloride and Cinnamon Oil Edible Coating on Shelf Life of Chicken Fillets under Refrigeration Conditions
Abstract :
In present study chicken, fi llets were coated with sodium alginate, calcium chloride, citric acid and cinnamon oil coating solution by three methods viz., spraying, brushing and dipping and shelf-life of coated meat were observed. Effi ciency of coating material and suitability among three methods of application were determined through shelf-life studies of coated meat under refrigeration conditions. Based on the results of physico-chemical, sensory and microbial characteristics, spraying method had lower Tyrosine Value, Thiobarbituric Acid number, Standard Plate count, Drip loss and higher sensory scores compared to other methods of application. Extract Release Volume and Water Holding Capacity decreased signifi cantly with storage period in all the samples. However, spraying had comparatively higher water holding capacity and lower Warner Blatzer Shear Force Value than control and other methods of application. Hunter color values did not differ signifi cantly with storage and between treatments. Chicken breast sprayed with coating solution extended the shelf life of chicken breast upto 5 days compared to 3 days for control.
Title: Isolation of bacteriophages against Salmonella Enteritidis and their partial characterization
Abstract :
Salmonellosis is a very important disease affecting both humans and animals.
With the onset of drug resistance in Salmonella, use of phages for therapy seems
to be an alternative approach in combating this problem. In the present study,
sixteen phages against Salmonella Enteritidis were isolated from a total of 84
dairy and poultry sewage samples and upon characterization of phages at fixed
pH 7 and different temperatures, it was found that the phages could survive at
varied temperature conditions and were also sustaining at pH 7.
Title: Transcriptional Abundance of Myosin Light Chain 2 Gene in Cardiac Differentiated Canine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Abstract :

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are promising cell source for cardiac tissue engineering and cell based therapies for heart repair as they can be expanded in vitro and differentiated into most cardiovascular cell types, including cardiomyocytes. During embryonic heart development, this differentiation occurs under the influence of internal and external stimuli that guide cells to go down the cardiac lineage. The aim of this study was to characterize the cardiac differentiation potential of a canine iPS cell. With the use of a standard embryoid body–based differentiation protocol for iPS cells were differentiated for 24 days. In vitro differentiations of canine iPSCs via embryoid bodies (EBs) were produced by ‘Hanging Drop’ method. EB’s were differentiated using 5-azacytidine (5-Aza). During differentiation, EBs were collected on day 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 to evaluate the expression of cardiomyocyte specific marker. Analyses on molecular, structural, and functional levels demonstrated that iPS cell– derived cardiomyocytes show typical features of ES cell– derived cardiomyocytes. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated expression of marker genes. The differentiated cells expressed cardiac-specific gene myosin light chain 2 (MYL2) which started from day 8 of differentiation and highest expression was observed on day 16. Immunocytochemistry and relative expression of cardiac specific genes revealed that iPS cells differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes and allow to derivation of autologous functional cardiomyocytes for cellular cardiomyoplasty and myocardial tissue engineering.

Title: Layers’s blood profile changes after consumption of designer diet and holy basil (Ocimum Sanctum) leaves
Abstract :
A biological experiment of six weeks duration, followed by several laboratory
investigations were carried out to study the effect of designer layer mash (DLM)
containing full fat flaxseed, oil rich sardine fish, Holy Basil leaf meal (BLM),
vitamin E and Organic selenium (Sel-plex), on haematology of layers. Both
designer diet and BLM had significant effect on haematology of layers. They also
exhibited a synergistic effect. The RBC levels in hens were significantly increased
both by the DLM and BLM supplementation. The WBC count was increased
significantly by DLM alone, but not due to BLM. The Hb level was not influenced by any of the dietary treatments.
Title: Development of Dietary Fibre Enriched Chevon Rolls by Incorporating Corn Bran and Dried Apple Pomace
Abstract :
A study was undertaken to develop dietary fi bre enriched chevon rolls using dried apple pomace (DAP) at 2, 4 and 6% levels and corn bran (CB) at 3, 6 and 9% levels. Combinations of DAP and CB were also tried. DAP at 6% level, CB at 3% level and their combination (DAP +CB) at 2% + 3% levels were found to be organoleptically acceptable and selected for further study. Addition of fi bre resulted in a signifi cant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in moisture and protein content while no signifi cant difference was found in fat and ash content. Crude fi bre content increased signifi cantly in treated rolls and highest crude fi bre content (1.68%) was noticed in rolls containing DAP. pH decreased signifi cantly in rolls containing DAP and its combination. Water holding capacity and emulsion stability of chevon rolls increased signifi cantly as a result of fi bre incorporation which also resulted in a signifi cant increase in cooking yield. Polyphenolic content increased in fi bre enriched rolls and highest polyphenolic content of 49.22 mg/100 g was found in DAP added chevon rolls. It is concluded that organoleptically acceptable and health enhancing chevon rolls enriched with dietary fi bre and antioxidants like polyphenols can be prepared by using 6% dried apple pomace and 3% corn bran alone or in combination (2% dried apple pomace + 3% corn bran).
Title: A Study on the Prevalence and Some Epidemiological Features of Gastrointestinal Impaction Disorders in Cattle and Buffaloes of Punjab Area
Abstract :
This study to document the prevalence and some epidemiological features of gastrointestinal impaction in cattle and buffaloes
was conducted by undertaking key informant interview (interviews of farmers and visits to dairy farms), case study analysis (observation of cases registered under randomly selected state veterinary hospitals and polyclinics) and retrospective study in various parts of Punjab state. Interview of farmers and visits to dairy farms revealed, overall prevalence of gastrointestinal impaction in cattle and buffaloes to be 0.58 percent (cattle - 0.31%, buffaloes - 1.16%) with signifi cantly (p<0.01) lower prevalence in organised dairy farms as compared to unorganised farms. The annual case incidence of gastrointestinal impaction among cases referred to veterinary hospitals and polyclinics of Punjab was 4.88 percent (cattle - 6.82%, buffaloes - 3.83%) being signifi cantly higher during the month of May (10.44%), April (7.62%) and June (7.61%) attributable to scarcity of green fodder, feeding of wheat straw along with hot and dry climate. Through retrospective analysis of cases admitted at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, the annual case incidence was found to be 13.67 percent (17.77% in buffaloes and 9.11% in cattle) with majority (58.0%) of gastrointestinal impaction cases associated
with foreign body syndrome, and its sequel like diaphragmatic hernia and reticular abscess. The data so generated would be a
basis for further research
Title: Influence of Aloe barbadensis (Miller 1768) Extract on White Blood Cells Counts a Immunological Parameters of Adult Heterobranchus Bidorsalis (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1809)
Abstract :
Aloe barbadensis extract was incorporated in the feeds of adult Heterobranchus bidorsalis at concentrations of 0.0, 25.0, 50.0, 75.0, 100.0, and 125.0 mg/Kg of feeds in triplicates. Fresh gel was mixed with feeds and sundried. The fish werefed at 6% body weight divided into two rations per day. The fish were fed for 14 days before being analysed for hematological parameters such as total white blood cell count, lymphocyte, neutrophils counts, eosinophils counts, basophils counts as well as monocyte counts. The monocytes and eosinophils were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the treated fish while basophils were not encountered at all. The neutrophils and lymphocytes being the immune responsive leucocytes were increased in circulation due to Aloe barbadensis exposure. Aloe barbadensis extract
is therefore recommended as fish supplements at concentration of 50.0 to 75.0 mg/Kg of feeds for adult Heterobranchus
Title: Goat Rearing Practices of Ahir Community in High Rainfall Zones of South Gujarat
Abstract :
The Ahirs are non-nomadic and resourceful people of South Gujarat having ample traditional knowledge of goat keeping. The study was done to document existing goat management practices of Ahirs in Valsad and Navsari districts of South Gujarat by selecting 300 Ahir goat keepers by multi stage random sampling technique. The data regarding socio-economic status, feeding and housing management were collected by interview schedule and tabulated for statistical analysis. Results revealed that majority of the respondents (67.67%) were in middle age category with an average age of about 50 years. Majority of the respondents (94%) were marginal land holders with an average land holding of 0.68±0.03 hectare. Average fl ock size was 47.13±1.79 heads and about 68% of Ahir respondents reared large animals along with goats. Goats were reared by the practice of 2 to 8 hour daily browsing which required 1 to 10 km daily travelling, whereas browsing duration and travelling was signifi cantly (p<0.01) affected by the seasons. Majority of the Ahirs were high adopters of cleanliness, site selection, ventilation and drainage in goat shed. However, low level of adoption was observed in provisions of feeding space, overhang length and slate gapping in goat shed. Majority of the respondents kept kids in separate enclosures (wada). Almost all the respondents sold kids at 6 to 9 months of age, on cash payment basis to butchers and not on the basis of body weight.
Title: Sero-Epidemiological and Therapeutic Aspects of Brucellosis (Brucella Abortus) in Cattle & Buffaloes
Abstract :
The present study was envisaged to record the seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle and buffaloes in Chhattisgarh, India by employing the three serological tests viz. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT) and Indirect-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (I-ELISA) and to compare their sensitivity and specificity. The study also aimed to assess the therapeutic efficacy of combination of long acting oxytetracycline and streptomycin in brucellosis infected cattle. A total of 250 serum samples; 176 from cattle and 74 from buffaloes were screened for presence of Brucella antibodies by RBPT, STAT and Indirect ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in Chhattisgarh state of India by RBPT, STAT and I-ELISA was 13.0% 19.8% and 31.2% respectively in cattle whereas 16.2%, 14.8% and 20.2% respectively in buffaloes.
Cattle of >6 years age group showed highest seroprevalence followed by 4-6 years and lowest in 0-2 years age group. On the contrary, buffaloes of 4-6 years age group showed highest seroprevalence followed by >6 years age group. Seroprevalence was higher in crossbred than indigenous cattle and more in female animals in cattle and buffaloes. Sensitivity of RBPT and STAT was recorded 47.14% and 57.14%, while specificity was recorded 98.88% and 96.11% respectively. Thus, STAT was found to be more sensitive but less specific than RBPT. In this study, overall agreement of RBPT and STAT with ELISA was found to be 84.4% and 85.2% respectively. The therapeutic study of brucella infected animals revealed that long acting oxytetracycline and streptomycin combination had a significant decrease in the antibody titre on the 30th day of post treatment.
Title: Formulation and Preparation of Densified Complete Feed Blocks with and without Condensed Tannins: Impact on Performance of Haemonchus contortus Infected Goats
Abstract :

Present study was planned to screen locally available tanniferous tree leaves for their chemical composition, presence of condensed tannins (CT), potential source of CT and suitable leaf meal mixture (LMM) was formulated for incorporation in the densified complete feed blocks (DCF). Two types of blocks (with and without CT; CT-DCF and DCF, respectively) were formulated and prepared. Twelve adult male goats of similar age and body weight (27.51 ± 0.86) were divided in 3 groups (4 in each) in completely randomized block design (CRD) for feeding of 75 days. Goats of T1 (no infection) and T2 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3 /goat) were offered DCF blocks while the goats of T3 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3 /goat) offered CT-DCF. Initial body weights (kg) of goats did not differ significantly (P<0.05) irrespective of groups, however, final body weight at the end of feeding trial were significantly lower in T2 compared to T1 and T3. Daily feed intake was significantly (P<0.05) lower in T2 as compared to T1 and T3. Intakes of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, digestible crude protein, digestible organic matter and total digestible nutrients (Kg/100 Kg bwt.) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in T1 and T3 as compared to T2. The faecal egg counts (FECs) per gram faeces were significantly lower (P<0.05) in T3 than that of T2. It may be concluded that CT-DCF serve a promising complementary alternative feeding strategy to control H. contortus infection in goats as socio-economic, farmers and environmental friendly sustainable approach.

Title: Canine cataracts and its management:An overview
Abstract :
A Cataract, is an opacity within a lens. Out of various eye disorders CATARACT “Clouding of eye lens” is a major problem encountered in canines, and ophthalmic surgery offers great potential for relief of distress and improvement of quality of life. Like a camera eyes have a clear lens inside them that is used for focusing the light. Surgical removal of cataract is a treatment of choice, if restoration of vision is desired. These surgeries are most frequently performed by veterinary ophthalmologists worldwide. Because of required training, operating microscope and microsurgical ophthalmic instruments, cataracts and lens removal is not performed by most veterinarians in clinical patients.
Title: SWOT Analysis of Small Ruminants Rearing of Bakarwal Tribe in District Rajouri of Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract :
Small ruminants play an important role in the rural economy of Jammu and Kashmir, as they are primarily reared by resource poor and under-privileged rural population. Every rural household is associated with livestock. Small ruminants rearing in the upper reaches of Jammu and Kashmir is a basic livelihood for Bakarwals who migrate with the livestock to green pastures. The
present study conducted in District Rajouri of Jammu and Kashmir State was an endaveour to know about the livestock profile of the respondents, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats faced by bakarwals while rearing the small ruminants. Thus, the main objective of this study is to make a SWOT analysis based on the evaluation of some important parameters of sustainability of small ruminants in the farm conditions.
Title: Effect of Phytase Enzyme Supplementation in Low Energy-Protein Layer Diet on Egg Quality Traits
Abstract :An experiment was carried out using 200 hundred Athulya birds divided into 10 treatments (T1-T10) to find out the effect of phytase enzyme on egg quality traits supplemented at 0, 500 and 1000 units/kg in low energy, low protein and low energy- protein layer chicken diets containing available phosphorus of 0.30 per cent from 21 to 40 weeks of age. A standard layer ration was offered to birds in T1. Experimental diets from T2 to T10 were formulated with two levels of crude protein (18 and 16 percent) and two levels of metabolisable energy (2600 and 2400 ME kcal/kg diet). During the laying period the data on egg quality traits viz. Shape index, shell thickness, albumen index, yolk index and Haugh unit score were measured at the end of every four week. The egg quality traits viz., Shell thickness, albumen index, yolk index and Haugh unit score showed significant (P<0.01) difference among treatments. However, shape index value did not reveal any difference.
Title: Sensory attributes of chevon patties extended with soy protein
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to prepare soy protein (soy crumbles) extended chevon meat patties to determine effect on sensory attributes of the product. The sensory characteristics such as appearance, flavor, texture and juiciness of soy protein extended chevon patties were studied at different storage interval under refrigeration temperature and exhibited non significant variation upto 30% soy protein added patties. While overall acceptability for 30% soy extended chevon patties was significantly higher than the control and other treatments (p<0.5). All Sensory attributes decreased significantly (p<0.05) with advancement of storage period.
Title: Nucleotide variability in partial promoter of IGF-1 gene and its association with body weight in fast growing chicken
Abstract :
Present study was carried out to unravel the variability in the nucleotide sequence of the promoter region of the IGF-1 gene and to delineate the association of polymorphism with body weight, in fast growing chicken. It was observed that the IGF-1 was monomorphic and being monomorphic, no association was observed with body weights in fast growing chicken
Title: Antibiotic resistance pattern among different Listeria species isolated from mutton and chevon
Abstract :
In the present study, Listeria were isolated and confirmed from 50 mutton and 50 chevon samples and their antibiotic resistance pattern was studied against 18
commonly used antibiotics. Out of 100 samples 4 Listeria isolates are evealed )
resistance against cephotaxime and cloxacillin. Similarily, resistance was observed to cephotaxime, chloramphenicol, cloxacillin and oxytetracycline among two L. welshimeri isolates isolates) whereas L. innocua isolates were resistant resistant to cephotaxime, cefoperazone, cloxacillin, oxytetracycline and gentamicin. Potential transmission of multidrug-resistant from food animals to humans is a serious concern in zoonotic pathogens like Listeria
Title: Punyakoti Test: A Seed Germination Inhibition Test for Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Graded Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :
A simple non- invasive technique which was developed on the basis of ancient Egyptian knowledge called as Punyakoti test (Veena, 1997) was used to detect early pregnancy at day 26 post insemination. The present study was carried out to evaluate the accuracy of Punyakoti test, a seed germination inhibition test for early pregnancy diagnosis in graded Murrah buff aloes. The urine samples were collected from 20 buff aloes early in the morning on day 26 post insemination and were subjected to pregnancy diagnosis using this test. Urine was diluted with distilled water in sterile petri dish in the ratio of 1:14 and 15 good quality wheat seeds were added to each petri dish. A signifi cant inhibition of seed germination a er 48hrs and shoot length a er 5 days was taken as criteria for declaring true pregnancy and confi rmation of pregnancy was done by rectal palpation on days 45-60 post insemination. A significant difference (P<0.05) was noticed between pregnant
and non-pregnant buffaloes regarding germination inhibition percentage and shoot length (cm) which was recorded as 70.66 ±1.63; 3.33 ± 0.074 and 45.99 ± 1.84 ; 5.44 ± 0.17, respectively. This test was 66.66 per cent accurate in diagnosing pregnancy but 90.90 per cent accurate in diagnosing non-pregnant animals.
Title: Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Quality Attributes of Chicken Meat Cutlets
Abstract :
Present study was envisaged to assess the effect of various cooking methods viz. deep fat frying, oven cooking, air frying, and oven cooking followed by shallow frying for preparation of chicken meat cutlets. Three different treatments as per prestandardized formulations viz. Control, T1 (chicken meat cutlets with 30% meat emulsion) and T2 (with 3% refi ned wheat fl our) were cooked by various cooking methods and subjected to various physico-chemical, instrumental colour and textural attributes and sensory quality attributes. Under deep fat frying and oven cooking, cooking yield of treatments were recorded signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher than control. Treatments scored better on various dimensional parameters such as increase in height, decrease in length and decrease in breadth irrespective of different cooking methods. The increase in height was recorded highest for T2 irrespective of cooking methods. The fat percent for T1 and T2 was recorded signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher for deep fat frying (T1) and combination of oven and shallow frying. Flavour scores had been signifi cantly (P<0.05) improved for T2, whereas T1 and C were comparable under different cooking methods. T2 showed signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher overall acceptability scores than C and T1. Thus oven cooking followed by shallow frying was found optimum for preparation of chicken cutlets.
Title: Scanning Electron Microscopical and Morphometrical Studies on Ruminal Papillae of Sheep Fed on Concentrates
Abstract :
The objective of this study was to explore the time course of morphological
alterations of rumen papillae after changing the diet from hay (ad libitum) to a
mixed hay/concentrate diet. A total of 24 sheep were subjected to different periods of mixed hay/concentrate feeding ranging from 0 weeks (control; hay ad libitum) to 12 weeks (1-1.5 kg hay plus 780 g concentrate per day in two equal portions). Macro- and mesoscopic examinations, as well as scanning electron microscopical techniques were employed to study the rumen papillae of the different groups. Scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M) examination revealed that time and change of diet has greatly influenced ruminal papillae. This influence was expressed by the pronounced change of the papillae from small, tongue shaped when the animals were fed on hay to large, heavily cornified, finger_ and foliate_ shaped when fed on concentrates for 4-6 weeks. Morphometric analysis indicated that the increase in the length and number of papillae was also correlated to the duration of feeding
concentrates for 4-6 weeks. The total surface of papillae increased in the 2 days concentrate-fed sheep to 2 folds of that of hay-fed sheep and reached the maximum value (4 folds) within 4 weeks of concentrate feeding. It is concluded that the most of the adaptation events were significantly established in 4-6 weeks; changes in 12 weeks were similar, but less developed
Title: Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Clinical Setting and Dairy Farm Environment of Jammu
Abstract :
A study was carried out to assess the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus and the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the dairy farm environment of Jammu district and the clinical setting in the SKUAST- J, R. S. Pura vis-à-vis their phenotypic and genotypic characterization for the antimicrobial pattern and the mecA gene producing ability. A total of 60 samples of environment comprising of dust and clinical setting swabs were collected and analysed using standard bacteriological methods. The S. aureus isolates were further processed to identify and characterize MRSA, with an aim to ascertain the characteristics that might be associated with the virulence and resistance of MRSA, making use of conventional and molecular methods. Polymerase chain reaction was employed to identify 533bp mecA gene from MRSA isolates. The results revealed a prevalence of S. aureus 14/30 (46.7%) and 18/30 (60%) in dairy farm environment and clinical settings, respectively. From 32 positive S. aureus dust swabs, 6 (18.75%) were found to be MRSA. This study revealed resistance of S. aureus to Penicillin G, Ampicillin and Streptomycin. However, sensitivity to Cephalothin, Amikacin and Gentamicin was found. The present study revealed that Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA transmission can occur from infected farms, dairy and clinical environments to
animals. However, future studies are required to elucidate the transmission potential and magnitude of the problem.
Title: Assessment of Antimicrobial Activity of Pomegranate Leaf Extract against Bacterial Isolates of Otitis Externa and Diarrhea of Dogs
Abstract :
Bacterial pathogens were isolated from cases of otitis externa and diarrhoea in dogs at Durg and Raipur districts of Chhattisgarh. All isolates were further subjected for antibiogram profile using commonly used antibiotics. Total 105 bacterial isolates were obtained which included Staphylococcus sp.and E. coli as predominant pathogens followed by Proteus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Micrococcusand Salmonella. In cases of otitis externa, ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic (67.27%) followed by Gentamicin (61.81%), Cephalaxin (40%), Chloramphenicol (32.72%), Amoxycillin (21.81%), Ampicillin (20%), Doxycycline (16.36%), Penicillin (12.72%) and Erythromycin (3.63%). However, Chloromphenical (72%) was reported as the most effective drug against bacterial isolates of diarrhoea followed by Ciprofloxacin (70%), Gentamicin (52%), Cephalaxin (40%), Doxycyline (30%), Ampicillin (14%), Amoxycillin (6%) and Erythromycin (2%).Cold extract of pomegranate leaves was then assessed for antibacterial activity against all isolates by disc diffusion and tube dilution methods. The zones of inhibition of pomegranate leaves extract (PLE) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus, Klebsiella, E. coliand Salmonella were 18.8 ± 0.050, 5±0.70, 7.8±0.73, 16.2±0.86, 15.6±0.92 and 15.2±0.86 mm respectively. The zone of inhibition with Staphylococcus was significantly higher (P<0.05) than other bacteria. The minimum bactericidal concentration against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, E. coliand Salmonella were 33.33±8.34, 66.66±16.68, 66.66±16.68 and 33.33±8.34 mg/ml respectively. Staphylococcus aureus showed maximum sensitivity to pomegranate leaf extract amongst all the organisms studied, followed by Klebsiella, E. coliand Salmonella. Although, Proteus
and Pseudomonas were refractory to PLE, but moderate sensitivity was noticed even against few multidrug resistant isolates.
Title: Serological Prevalence of Abortifacient Agents in Female Mijaheem Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Saudi Arabia
Abstract :

Sera from 378 female Mijaheem camels of different age groups were collected from different parts of the country. All of them were simultaneously tested serologically for specific antibodies against brucellosis, chlamydiosis and coxiellosis while 368 of the same serum samples were also tested for toxoplasmosis and neosporosis, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The results were statistically analyzed to determine the prevalence rate of each of these abortifacient agents and the association of the geographical location and age of the animal with the prevalence. The overall serological prevalence was 16.67% for brucellosis, 49.18% for toxoplasmosis, 13.32% for neosporosis, 10.05% for chlamydiosis and 42.36% for coxiellosis. Statistical analysis revealed significant associations between the serological prevalence of each of the studied abortifacient agents with the location of the animal, and there was also a significant association with age in the case of toxoplasmosis and chlamydiosis. The results indicate that the causative agents of brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, chlamydiosis and coxiellosis are widespread among indigenous Mijaheem camels in Saudi Arabia, and that their prevalence varied with region and age group. These different agents should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of infectious abortion in Saudi Arabian camels.

Title: Availability and Utilization Pattern of Forage Plants in relation to their Nutritive Values by Wild Elephants in South West Forests
Abstract :The study was carried out on the availability and utilization pattern of various wild plant species by migratory elephants in relation to their nutritive values. It wasobserved that migratory elephants were selective for food plants in the wilderness. Out of 52 recorded plant species, only 22 plant species were found to be utilized either fully or partially as evidenced by branch breaking, debarking, uprooting etc. Overall utilization of food plants revealed that Diospyros melanoxylon was utilized maximum (34.39%) followed by terocarpus marsupium (24.86%) among all the plants consumed by migratory elephants. Bark of Buchanania lanzan was moderately utilized (10.58%). All other recorded plants were utilized below 10 per cent. Chemical composition of some wild plants consumed by elephants revealed that crude protein content varied form 3.18 (Shorea robusta) to 21.25 (P. marsupium) g per cent. High protein content of P. marsupium leaves might be the reason for highest degree of utilization. Crude fibre content ranged from 20.0 (P. marsupium) to 54.0 (D. melanoxylon) per cent.
Title: Microbial quality of pork nuggets incorporated with fish flesh under refrigeration
Abstract :
Meat nuggets were prepared with pork (80%) and fish flesh (20%) under
standardized processing conditions and were stored under refrigeration in
aerobically packaged conditions with control samples of control-I (100% pork) and control-II (100% fish flesh). The samples were taken at regular interval of 7 days and analyzed for the microbial quality. Total plate counts showed no significant difference between treatment and controls but showed increasing trend as storage period increased. The psychrotroph and coliform counts were not detected till 14th day in both controls and treatment but showed increasing trend as storage period increased further. Yeast and mold count were not detected till 21st day and on 28th day counts of treatment was lower than control II and higher than control I. The microbial counts of the product were within the permissible limits for aerobically packaged meat products. Thus based on microbial quality, the products were safe
for consumption up to 28 days of refrigerated (4±1OC) storage in LDPE pouches.
Title: In vitro Efficacy of Emblica officinalis Against MRSA Isolated from Buffaloes Suffering from Subclinical Mastitis
Abstract :

The present study describes in- vitro efficacy of Emblica officinalis against Methicillin Resistant S. aureus mastitis. Diffusion technique was used to assess in-vitro efficacy of Emblica officinalis. Zone of inhibition was measured and used to compare the in-vitro efficacy. The zone ranged between 10-13 mm with maximum zone of 13 mm observed in 200 and 225 mg/ml DMSO disc, followed by 12 mm in 175 and 150 mg/ml DMSO disc, 11 mm in 125 mg/ml DMSO disc and 10 mm in 100 mg/ml DMSO disc. The results indicate that the sensitivity pattern for Emblica officinalis at 200 & 175 mg/ml DMSO concentration and was comparable with the standard antibiotics in Methicillin sensitive S. aureus. In Methicillin resistant S. aureus isolates, the zone of inhibition was in the order Oxytetracycline (15mm) followed by Emblica officinalis -200 (13 mm) and Methicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, ofloxacin were resistance.

Title: Application of Total Quality Management to Ensure Food Quality in Food Industry
Abstract :

Total Quality Management (TQM) is a managerial and managemental approach of an organization focused on quality, based on participation of all of its members and while aiming at long term benefits to the organization and consumers health. It is focused on continuous improvement of all processes approached with combined fundamental management techniques and specialized tools under quality systems. TQM is a process of managing the whole organization so that it progress in all the dimensions of products and services that are important to the consumers. It roots from the belief that mistake can be avoided or mininimised and defects can be prevented, with sole objective being the continuous process improvement. The introduction of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) has signaled a shift in emphasis from resource intensive end product inspection and testing to preventive control of hazards at all the stages of food supply chain. It also identifies and controls hazards that are fundamentals for food safety. The integrated approach to implementation of ISO standards and HACCP concept is vital for management of quality and safety of dairy products hence safeguarding the customer’s requirements, ensuring that certified products conform to minimum standards set internationally. These standards ensure and enhance transparency in the development of food quality and safety procedures, thus helping to upgrade and update food safety systems. ISO laid down guidelines, codes, specifications and requirements to evolve effective TQM system.

Title: Effect of Probiotic Supplementation on Feed Consumption and Nutrient Retention in CARIBRO CROSS Broilers
Abstract :
Three hundred (300) unsexed day-old ‘CARIBRO CROSS’ broiler chicks were distributed randomly into three treatment groups T1(control), T2 (probiotic-supplemented in the feed) and probiotic-supplemented in the water (T3) having 6 replicates in each treatment. Two replicates of each group contain 16 birds each and the rest four of each group contain 17 birds each. The probiotic contained Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus Plantarum, Streptococcus faecium, Bifi dobacterium bifi dus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The probiotic was incorporated at the rate of 100 g/ton of feed during starter phase (0 – 4 weeks) and 50 g/tonne of feed during finisher phase (5 – 7 weeks) in feed probiotic group. However, the probiotic was given at the rate of 1 g/L of water during first week of age and thereafter 1 g/4L of water up to 7 weeks of age in water probiotic group. The basal diet was formulated for starter (23.46 % CP, 2800 ME Kcal/Kg) and finisher phase (20.07 % CP, 2900 ME Kcal/kg) separately. The chicks consumed significantly (p < 0.01) less amount of feed under water probiotic group followed by feed probiotic group and the highest in control group during starter phase, finisher phase and overall experimental period. The retention of nutrients was higher in probiotic fed in feed group then in water but treatment differences were not significant (p > 0.05). It was concluded that probiotic supplementation reduce the feed consumption of CARIBRO CROSS chicks.
Title: Effect of Heat Stress on Humoral Immunity and its Amelioration by Amla Powder (Emblica officinalis) Supplementation in Buffaloes
Abstract :
The effect of amla powder supplementation on heat stress and immunoglobulin (Ig) levels of summer stressed buffaloes were investigated. The study was carried out with 24 apparently healthy Murrah buffaloes during pre-summer and summer seasons. The animals were divided into 3 groups of 8 animals each viz. Pre-Summer group (Group I); Summer Control group (Group II); Summer Treatment group (Group III). Group III animals were supplemented with amla powder @ 200 mg/Kg body wt. / day for 30 days. In summer stressed buffaloes (Group II), there was a signifi cant rise in erythrocytic lipid peroxidation level and superoxide dismutase activity along with a decrease in plasma IgM and increase in IgG levels. Supplementation of amla powder to summer stressed buffaloes was able to lower lipid peroxidation levels and superoxide dismutase activity coupled with the increase in IgM and decrease in IgG levels. It was concluded that amla powder supplementation can ameliorate the adverse effects of summer stress on humoral immunity in Murrah buffaloes.
Title: Histological and Immunohistochemical Studies of Furstenberg’s Rosette in Sheep and Goat
Abstract :

A total of twelve healthy adult Madras Red ewe and Boer local she-goat teats were histologically and immunohistochemically examined. In between the teat canal and teat cistern Furstenberg’s rosette was appeared as modified zone of mucosa thrown into primary and secondary folds. The mucosal folds were lined by a bilayered cuboidal epithelium. Subepithelial area of rosette was composed of numerous lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages and plasma cells. Mucosa below the Furstenberg’s rosette was lined by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining of rosette by CD3 antibody revealed the localization of intraepithelial ‘T’ lymphocytes in the mucosal folds. ‘T’ lymphocytes were also localized in the lamina propria region

Title: Evaluation of Dose-Dependent Cytotoxic Effects of Graphene Oxide-Iron Oxide Nanocomposite on Caprine Wharton’s Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Abstract :
Present experiment was aimed to study the cytotoxic effects of Graphene oxide-iron oxide nanocomposite on caprine Wharton’s
jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs). Ex vivo caprine WJ-MSCs were isolated and cultured. Cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of GO-Fe2O3 nanocomposite (10 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml) were analyzed by observing cell morphology, cell viability, growth kinetics, population doubling time and colony forming unit (CFU) assay in caprine WJ-MSCs. Morphological alterations in nanocomposite-treated cells (50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml GO-Fe2O3) were distinct as compared to lower dose (10 μg/ml GO- Fe2O3) and control group. Cell viability assay indicated a highly signifi cant (P<0.01) decrease in live cell number when they were exposed to 100 μg/ml and 50 μg/ml GO- Fe2O3 nanocomposite and these effects were intensifi ed with time (24 h & 48 h post-exposure). Retarded growth rate and signifi cant (P<0.01) increase in population doubling time (PDT) of exposed cells (50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml) were observed as compared to control group and low dose treatment group (10 μg/ml). Colony forming unit (CFU) assay indicated that cells treated with 50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml nanocomposite formed less number of clones than control group and 10 μg/ml treatment group. On the basis of results, we conclude that lower doses (10 μg/ml) of the nanocomposite are safer in caprine WJ-MSCs however with increasing doses of nanocomposite (50 μg/ml & 100 μg/ml) the potential toxicity increases. Present study reports the tolerable doses of GO-Fe2O3 nanocomposite which will
help in future applications like tracking, imaging and differentiation of caprine WJ-MSCs.
Title: Influence of Condensed Tannins Supplementation through Leaf Meal Mixture on Urinary excretion of Purine Derivatives, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Performance ofHaemonchus contortus Infected Sheep
Abstract :
Study was carried out to assess the effect of condensed tannins (CT) containing leaf meal mixture (LMM) on feed intake, body weight changes, parasitic load, urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) and microbial protein synthesis (MP) in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. Eighteen adult male sheep of similar age and body weight (25.03±1.52) were randomly divided into three groups (negative control; NC, infected control; C and treatment; T) of six each in a completely randomized block design (CRD) for a period of 90 days. Twelve H. contortusinfected sheep were allocated into C and T groups, containing 0 and 1.5% of CT, respectively. Six non-infected sheep was taken in NC group to compare their performance with C group. Concentrate intake was significantly (P<0.000) lower in T group as compared to C group, while roughage intake did not differ significantly irrespective of groups. Final body weights were comparable (P<0.063) among all three groups. Faecal egg counts (FECs) were significantly (P<0.001) higher in C group as compared to T group. MP synthesis
was calculated by estimating urinary excretion of PD through High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Total PD excretion, absorption of PD and Microbial nitrogen (MN) supply (g d-1) were comparatively (P<0.05) higher in T group than in the C group. It may be concluded that CT supplementation (1.5%) decreased H. contortus load in sheep by reducing FECs and has a potential benefits on protein nutrition by altering partitioning of nutrients towards higher microbial yield and absence of any depressing effect on rumen MN synthesis.
Title: Evaluation of Kadaknath Chicken for Coccidial Resistance by Oocyst Count, Lesion Scoring and Oocyst Index in Eimeria Tenella Infection
Abstract :
The aim of present investigation was to study the virulence of coccidiosis in Kadaknath birds, experimentally infected with E. tenella by OPG count, oocyst index and caecal lesions scoring. Sixty one-day old unsexed Kadaknath birds were randomly divided into a control, T1 and T2 groups comprising twenty chicks under each group. At d 21 of age, birds of T1 and T2 groups were individually inoculated with 10,000 and 20,000 of sporulated oocysts of E. tenella and from the d 5 to 9 pi, faecal droppings were collected for counting OPG. Also at d 4, 7 and 14 after E. tenella infection, 2 chicks from each challenge groups were euthanized and caecal lesions and oocyst index were scored. The results indicated that in both T1 and T2 challenge group, there was an increasing trend of OPG upto d 7 pi and the peak level of OPG was found at d 7 pi. Mean OPG was signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher in T2 at d 6, 7 and 8 pi than T1. Mean caecal lesion score, oocyst index and OPG count were found to be maximum on d 7 pi for T1 and T2 groups. Lesions score was non signifi cant at 4, 7 and 14 pi. However, oocyst index was signifi cant (P<0.05) at d 7 pi. No mortality was observed in any of the treatment groups. As Kadaknath birds shed less oocyst and had lower lesion scores and oocyst index, hence, it can be concluded that this breed is less susceptible to coccidial infection.
Title: Estimates of Phenotypic Correlation Between External and Internal Egg Quality Traits in Gramapriya, Vanaraja and their Crosses
Abstract :

The present study was carried out with total of 211 eggs with more than 50 eggs from each genetic groups namely Gramapriya × Gramapriya (GP × GP), Vanaraja × Vanaraja (VR × VR), Vanaraja × Gramapriya (VR × GP) and Gramapriya × Vanaraja (GP × VR) to examine the phenotypic correlation between different egg quality traits in different genetic groups. The estimates of phenotypic correlation between egg weight and all the egg quality traits were highly significant (P<0.01), positive and very high in magnitude except the correlation with shape index and yolk index in the VR × GP genetic group. Also in GP × VR genetic group the estimates of phenotypic correlation between egg weight and all the egg quality traits were highly significant (P<0.01), positive and very high in magnitude except with yolk index and yolk height. Highly significant (P<0.01) correlations were observed among the various egg quality traits, except the correlation between egg length and shape index and between yolk width and yolk index where magnitudes were though high and significant but negative in direction. The estimate of correlation in VR × GP cross was positive in general, and highly significant in comparison to other genetic groups.

Title: A Methodological Pathway to Quantify Perception of the Participants in Animal Fairs with relevance to National Dairy Mela at NDRI Karnal, Ind
Abstract :
Mela is the Hindi language word for fair, which is a traditional media to learn, earn, participate and share information. The paper describes perception scale development process and identification of different prospects of perception of the participants by administrating the tool on 60 randomly selected participants, during the three-day event of national dairy meals from 25th to 27th February 2015 at NDRI, Karnal. Final scale consisted of 20 statements (14 positive and 6 negatives) for which the t-values were found to be significant at one percent level of significance at 18 df and Cronbach’s alpha value of reliability was 0.851. Two other reliability tests were accomplished and Cochran's test of ANOVA was performed to test the signifi cance level of all 3 reliability test and it was signifi cant at 1 percent level (p<0.001). Content validity of the scale (S-CVI value) was 0.831. PCA extracted 4 prospects viz., ‘recognition prospect’, ‘learning prospect’, ‘get better prospect’, and ‘supportive prospect’. This methodological pathway viz., t-values cut-off for selection of statements based on the degree of freedom rule, reliability triangulation, Cochran's test for reliability signifi cance and extracting the latent constructs through PCA, can be followed by stakeholders for constructing different types of psychological scales. The attributes identified ed through PCA can be utilized in effective management and planning for organizing successful animal fairs.
Title: Identification of Lactoferrin gene Polymorphism and its association with Mastitis incidence
Abstract :
Present study was conducted in total of 350 cows of two major dairy breeds
(Sahiwal and Karan Fries) with the aim to identify genetic variation in lactoferrin gene promoter and to study its association with incidence of mastitis. Polymorphism of bovine lactoferrin gene promoter was determined by using restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Lactorferrin gene promoter was polymorphic but showed varied level of polymorphism among Sahiwal and Karan Fries cattle. Three genotypes were identified viz. AA, AB and BB in Karan Fries cattle and two genotypes AA and AB in Sahiwal cattle. BB genotype was absent in Sahiwal herd of National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. Chi square test revealed a nonsignificant association (pd<0.05) with mastitis incidence.
Title: Peri-urban Camel (Camelus dromendarius) Production System in Saudi Arabia: A note
Abstract :Several livestock production systems, ranging from nomadic, semi-nomadic, transhumant, agro pastoral to different forms of sedentary small holder and large scale commercial units ,exist in Africa and Asia. Several factors natural or man-made, beside some socio-economic changes have caused resources degradation and resulted in production systems disruption. In Saudi Arabia camel plays multiple central roles to livelihood and culture of the nomadic people notably provision of milk, meat , race and coat purposes, and source of income from sale of live camel and camel show (Mazayen) .Thus ,camels play an important role in this country. Camel production system in Saudi Arabia was affected by the socio-economic changes that took place after the petroleum era which attracts the Bedouins to settle in urban areas. With the aid of cars and vehicles, they can look after their herds around cities and towns where they live nowadays, in addition to the increasing demand in camel milk by growing urbanized population, stimulating the development of peri-urban camel dairy production. Systems of urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) take many forms in terms of integration of different activities, production intensities and production orientations. The present study is aimed at a refined characterization of the diversity in terms of production orientation, resource endowments and production strategies of the different types camel production with special emphasis on peri-urban camel production system in Saudi Arabia
Title: Effect of Graded Levels of Niacin Supplementation on Total Mixed Ration Containing Different Non-Protein Nitrogen Sources in vitro
Abstract :
The present study was undertaken to study the effect of varying levels of niacin supplementation(0, 200, 400 and 600 ppm, respectively) on low urea based total mixed ration (TMR)replacing 10% of total crude protein (CP) of ration with different non protein nitrogen (NPN) sources by in vitro gas production technique. All the
rations were iso-nitrogeneous in nature.On the basis of higher partition factor, neutral detergent fibre degradability (NDFD%), organic matter degradability (OMD%), microbial mass production and efficiency of microbial mass production from different NPN sources. Supplementation of varying levels of niacin in low urea based TMR did not have any significant effect on microbial mass production and its efficiency. The in vitro pH and NH3 concentration was significantly (P<0.05) reduced at 600ppm level of niacin supplementation. The total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) concentration was significantly higher (P<0.05) in control TMR and lowest in uromol based TMR. Niacin supplementation produced significantly higher (P<0.05) TVFA at 200ppm level and lowest (P<0.05) at 600ppm in TMR. It can be concluded that slow release urea seems to be better option than urea and uromol as NPN supplement in the diets of ruminants when low (10% of total CP) urea based TMR is to be prepared.
Title: Effect of Complete Feed or Ggrazing with Supplementation on Ggrowth and Carcass Characteristics in Nellore Ram Lambs
Abstract :An on farm trial was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore ram lambs fed either complete feed or grazing with supplementation. One hundred Nellore ram lambs were randomly divided into two equal groups viz. G1 and G2 and the experiment was lasted for 120 days. The G1 lambs were maintained on conventional grazing for 6-8 h/d and supplemented with 200 g concentrate /animal/day, while the G2 lambs were fed complete feed comprising of black gram straw and concentrate mixture (60:40 ratio) intensively. Average daily gain was higher (P <0.01) in G2 lambs (93.85 g) than in G1 lambs (80.24 g). Feed efficiency (kg feed/kg gain) was higher (P <0.01) in G2 lambs compared to G1 lambs. The pre-slaughter, empty body and hot carcass weight of lambs was similar in both groups. Dressing percentage on live weight and empty body weight was significantly (P <0.01) higher in lambs fed complete feed compared to grazing lambs. Dissected lean content was significantly (P <0.01) higher, whereas bone content was significantly (P <0.05) lower in G2 lambs compared to G1 lambs. The per cent distribution of primal cuts i.e. leg, loin, rack and fore shank and brisket was higher (P <0.01) in the G2 lambs compared to G1 lambs, while shoulder and neck were lower (P <0.01) in G2 lambs. It is concluded that the complete feed comprising of black gram straw improved growth, feed efficiency and production of quality meat economically in Nellore ram lambs.
Title: Serological evidence of Avian Pneumovirus infection in broiler and layer chickens in Grenada, West Indies
Abstract :
A serological survey was conducted to detect avian pneumovirus (APV) antibodies in commercial poultry birds in Grenada using a commercially available enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Sera were collected from 226 layers and 233 broilers. Age of the layers ranged from 12 to 18 months while that of the broilers ranged from 6 to 7 weeks. One hundred forty of the layers (61.9%) and 74 of the broilers (31.8%) were positive for APV antibodies. Chickens are not vaccinated for APV in Grenada and these results indicate that commercial poultry birds are exposed to this important poultry pathogen. This is the first report of serologic evidence of APV in Grenada and the Eastern Caribbean region.
Title: Effect of Non-Genetic Factors on Persistency and Milk Production Traits in Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :
The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of different non-genetic factors viz. year, season and parity on various production traits. The 1177 lactation records of 272 Murrah buffaloes, progeny of 53 bulls that were maintained at GADVASU dairy farm, calved during 1981-2011 were studied. The overall least squares mean for persistency, 305-days milk yield and peak yield were 0.826±0.003, 2173.54±21.14 Kg and 12.65±0.09 kg, respectively. The effect of period of calving and parity was highly signifi cant (P<0.01) on persistency, 305-days milk yield and peak yield. Peak yield also signifi cantly affected by season of calving while the effect of season on persistency and 305-days was non-signifi cant. The study concluded that the production traits were mainly affected by the non genetic environmental factors such as managerial changes during years, seasonal variations and parity of Murrah. 
Title: Effect of Sodium Butyrate Supplementation on Performance, Egg Quality and Bacterial load in the Excreta of Laying Hens
Abstract :supplementation on egg production performance, egg quality, nutrient retention, excreta microflora and blood metabolites in laying hens during late laying cycle. A total of 320 Hy-Line Brown layers (65 wk old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 8 replicates with 10 birds each (80 birds per treatment). Two hens were confined individually with the cage size as 0.2 x 0.2 m. and 10 birds (5 cages) shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20% sodium butyrate. Supplementation of increasing levels of sodium butyrate showed linear reduction (P<0.05) in broken egg percentage. Egg shell strength was linearly improved (P<0.05) with increase in dietary sodium butyrate. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of sodium butyrate had greater (linear, P<0.05) retention of DM, CP and GE. Hens fed diet supplemented with increasing levels of sodium butyrate had increased (linear, P<0.05) total anaerobic bacteria and Lactobacillus spp. population.
Title: Effect of Area Specific Mineral Mixture Supplementation on Milk Yield and Milk Quality in Dairy Animals of Sub-mountainous Zone of Punjab
Abstract :

The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of mineral supplementation on milk yield and milk quality of dairy animals in Sub-mountainous zone of Punjab. Area specific mineral mixture was fed to lactating cattle and buffaloes of Hoshiarpur and Nawanshahar districts for 3 months at a constant dose rate of 50 g/animal/day and its effect on milk yield and its quality was analyzed at 3rd month post-treatment (last day of feeding of mineral mixture) and one month after cessation of the feeding of mineral mixture. Supplemented animals showed significant increase in milk yield as compared to un-supplemented group of animals, whereas, no significant difference was observed in milk components between the supplemented and un-supplemented groups.

Title: Liver Micromorphology of the African Palm Squirrel Epixerus ebii.
Abstract :
The normal liver histology of the African palm squirrel Epixerus ebii was investigated to fill the information gap on its micromorphology from available literature. The liver was covered by a capsule of dense connective tissue- the Glissons membrane. Beneath this capsule is the liver parenchyma were the hepatocyte were supported by reticular fibres. The hepatocytes in the lobules were hexagonal to polygonal in shape. Some hepatocytes were bi-nucleated. Clear spaces in the parenchyma must be storege sites for lipids in the liver. The classic hepatic lobules presented central vein surrounded by several liver cells. At the portal triad, hepatic vein, hepatic arteries and bile ducts were seen. While the hepatic arteries and veins were lined by endothelium, the bile ducts were lined by simple cuboidal cells. Nerve fibres were also seen in the region of the portal triad. Hepatic sinusoids lined by endothelium were seen in the liver parenchyma between liver lobules. The sinusoids contained macrophages. This report will aid wild life biologist in further inversigative research and Veterinarians in diagnosing the hepatic diseases of the African palm squirrel.
Title: Analysis of antigenic response and purification of anti-BSA specific &#947; - globulin fraction from ovines
Abstract :
The serum protein electrophoresis test demonstrates a significant deviation from the normal gamma-globulin levels in different infectious states of the  animal.The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of BSA as antigen on total serum proteins and their fractions in ovines and raising antibodies against BSA. From each of the four animals considered for experimentation, pre immune as well as post immune blood samples were collected. For all serum samples, γ-globulin fraction concentrations were determined by Biuret method, after they were separated on Sephadex G -200. The gamma globulins were identified electrophoretically and the interaction of antigen and the antibody raised was confirmed by Ouchterlony double immuodiffusion method after fractions of sheep serum were obtained by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The purification of the IgG-2 fraction was performed while passing the purified fraction in DEAE (Diethylaminoethyl), A-50 column. The study revealed an increasing pattern in the total protein concentrations in general and appreciable increase in the gamma fraction in particular. Both the modules showed 95% confidence interval with students paired t-test.
Title: Effect of Organic Selenium and Vitamin E Supplementation on Physico-chemical Characteristics of Broiler Meat
Abstract :
Present study was conducted to investigate the effect of organic selenium and vitamin E on physico-chemical characteristics of broiler meat. This study was a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of three levels of organic selenium (0, 0.1, and 0.2 ppm) and two levels of vitamin-E (0 and 300mg/kg). Day-old Vencobb broiler chicks (n=180), were randomly assigned in 6 treatment groups. The experiment lasted for 35 days. The six different dietary treatments were: T1- Control diet without organic selenium and vitamin E; T2- 300mg/kg vitamin E; T3- 0.1ppm organic selenium; T4- 0.1ppm organic selenium and 300mg/kg vitamin E; T5- 0.2ppm organic selenium and T6- 0.2ppm organic selenium and 300mg/kg vitamin E. Supplementation of organic selenium and vitamin E had no signifi cant effect on pH of broiler meat. Extract release volume (ERV) and water holding capacity (WHC) were signifi cantly (P<0.01) increased in organic selenium and vitamin-E supplemented groups as compared to control and was recorded highest in birds fed 0.1ppm organic selenium with 300mg/kg vitamin-E. Signifi cantly (P<0.01) decreased level of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and tyrosine value (TV) were observed in birds fed organic selenium and vitamin-E as compared to control and was least in birds fed 0.1ppm organic selenium with 300mg/kg vitamin-E. There was marked interaction between organic selenium and vitamin E for ERV, WHC, TBA and TV (P<0.01) however it was non-signifi cant for pH. Supplementation of organic selenium and vitamin E reduces the lipid peroxidation and autolysis, thus improves the shelf life of broiler meat. 
Title: Influence of Prepartum Injection of Vitamin E and Se on Postpartum Reproductive and Lactation Performance of Dairy Cattle
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of vitamin E and Selenium given prepartum on reproductive and lactation performance of dairy cattle. Twenty pregnant animals in their last trimester were randomly divided into two groups. Group I animals were kept as control and Group II animals were given two injections of vitamin E and selenium 7 days apart. First injection was given 30-60 days before the expected calving. The placental expulsion period and involution period was significant higher in Group I compare to Group II animals and there was a nonsignificant increase in clostrum production, lactational yield, lactational length and mean calf birth weight of Group II animals.
Title: Histoenzymic Distribution in Ileal Peyer’s Patches of Buffalo during Prenatal Development
Abstract :
The study was carried out on ileum of 15 buffalo fetuses ranging from 14.5 cm curved crown-rump length (CVRL) (93 days) to 100 cm CVRL (299 days) to elucidate the histoenzymic distribution of enzymes i.e. alkaline phosphatase (AKPase), Glucose- 6-Phosphatase (G-6-Pase), Succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and Diaphorases on ileal peyer’s patches during their prenatal development. The fetuses were categorized into three groups based on their CVRL. In Group upto 20 cm CVRL, weak alkaline phosphatase, SDH activity was observed and activity of LDH and Non specifi c esterase (NSE) was absent. In 20 to 40 cm CVRL fetuses, strong AKPase and moderate granular G-6-PD activity was observed in the villi of small intestine and developing group of lymphocytes in submucosa. In > 40 cm CVRL fetuses, strong AKPase activity was observed in dome region of the lymphoid follicle that invaded the mucosa in ileum. However, moderate SDH activity was observed at the periphery. The activity of LDH in 20 to 40 cm CVRL fetuses and also in > 40 cm CVRL fetuses was very weak. Intense activity of NADH enzyme was observed in submucosal lymphoid aggregates in group III of ileum.
Title: Awareness of Dairy Farmers about Brucellosis Disease
Abstract :
A study was undertaken to determine the awareness status of dairy farmers about brucellosis disease in dairy animals. Prestructured
and pre-tested interview schedule was presented to 115 respondents, who had visited Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, GADVASU, Ludhiana. The study revealed that the very less farmers (22.60%) were aware about this disease. Further, there was low level of awareness about routes of transmission, zoonotic aspect of the disease, need for vaccination, culling of infected animals and other preventive measures against brucellosis. However, the awareness level was positively correlated with education level, herd size and training of the farmers. So, there is urgent need to create awareness amongst dairy farmers about
various control and preventive measures against brucellosis through various educational cum awareness programmes to curtail
it as well as to minimise the economic losses occurring due to it.
Title: Preparation Cost of Patties from Spent Hen Meat
Abstract :Chicken patties from spent hen meat were prepared from a standardized formulation and were extended with optimized level of non meat extenders viz sorghum flour, barley flour and pressed rice flour at 5%, 10% and 5% respectively. Optimization of levels for extenders was done under different experiments based on sensory attributes and those having sensory status closer to control were selected. The cost of patties from spent hen meat after replacement of lean with selected level of non meat extenders were compared among themselves to determine the most economic preparation. It was found that extended patties were cheaper than control patties and among the extended patties least cost was for barley flour extended patties. The cost for sorghum flour extended patties and pressed rice flour extended patties were almost same but these were higher than barley flour extended patties because of higher yield and high level of replacement of lean meat in latter case. Thus it was concluded that formulation with extension of 10% barley flour at the cost of lean meat was most economic among the tested non meat extenders.
Title: Sensory Attributes of Chicken Meat Rolls and Patties Incorporated with the Combination Levels of Rice Bran and Psyllium Husk
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to prepare dietary fiber rich chicken meat rolls
and patties. The combination of two different sources of dietary fiber has been
used viz. rice bran and psyllium husk. Three different levels of rice bran and
psyllium husk viz. 10% rice bran and 2% psyllium husk, 10% rice bran and 4%
psyllium husk and 10% rice bran and 6% psyllium husk were tried. The sensory
characteristics such as colour, flavour, tenderness, juiciness, texture and overall
acceptability of fiber added chicken meat rolls and patties were studied. The
sensory scores showed a decreasing trend with increasing levels of incorporation
but 10 % rice bran and 4% psyllium husk combination was found to be suitable
Title: Prevalence of Canine Otitis Externa in Jammu
Abstract :To examine dogs with otitis externa in order to study the prevalence of otitis externa in dogs, a study was undertaken on 273 dogs presented at the teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex and Referral Hospital R.S Pura, Central Veterinary Hospital Talab Tillo and private pet clinics in Jammu region during the period starting on August to December (2011). The incidence of otitis externa stood at 21.97 percent (60 cases), from all the skin infections in canine population (273 cases). The influence of age, breed and sex on the incidence of otitis externa was also studied. The results of the study revealed higher occurrence of cases during the month of August (28.33 percent), followed by October (26.66 percent), and the least in December (10.00 percent). The dogs belonging to the age group of 3 years and above showed greater susceptibility (55 percent) to ear afflictions, followed by 1 to 3 year age group (25 percent), and the least (20 percent) in the age group below 1 year. German Shepherds followed by Labrador Retrievers and Cocker Spaniels were the most frequently affected breeds. Male dogs showed greater involvement than females.
Title: Factors Influencing Early Layer Economic Traits in Rhode Island Red Chick
Abstract :
Rhode Island Red (RIR) chicken is a brown-egger chicken. At Central Avian Research Institute, it is being used to develop strains viz. selected (RIRS) control (RIRC) and white (RIRW) for backyard poultry farming. Investigation was carried out to assess the influence of various factors on early layer economic traits in Rhode Island Red
chicken. Two hundred eighty six straight run chicks were obtained from 11 sires and 44 dams in four hatches. Early layer production traits viz., chick weight (CW), body weights at 16 and 20 weeks of age (BW16 and BW20), age at first egg (AFE), egg weight at 28 weeks (EW28) and part period egg production up to 28 weeks of
age (EP28)were recorded. Percent fertility and percent hatchability on total egg set and total egg transferred basis were 76.98, 61.44 and 79.85%, respectively. Least squares ANOVA revealed highly significant effect ( p<0.01) of hatch on BW20, EP28 and effect of sire on chick weight and significant effect of sire ( p<0.05) on BW16. The overall least squares means of CW, BW16, BW20, AFE, EW28 and EP28 were 34.50±0.47g, 1294.27±24.38g, 1562.32±25.65g, 136.79±1.52 days, 43.52± 0.76 g and 31.54±1.68 eggs, respectively. The pullets of first hatch revealed highest BW20 (1732.76±43.70 g) and EP28 (42.85±2.55 eggs). Present investigation revealed influence of sire and hatch on early layer economic traits and thereby suggested consideration of their role in planning breeding programmes for improvement of layers for economic traits in RIR.
Title: Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Microneme Gene 10 (MIC10) of Kolkata Isolate of Toxoplama gondii
Abstract :
The present study dealt with cloning and molecular characterization of MIC10 gene of T. gondii Kolkata isolate. TgMIC10 is a small microneme protein that lacks a putative transmembrane domain and appears not to remain associated with the parasite membrane after micronemal discharge. MIC10 gene of T. gondii “Kolkata isolate was PCR amplified and cloned into a TA cloning vector (Promega) to facilitate sequencing and subsequent characterization. The product revealed 597bp in size and has 99.2% homology with the published sequence. The difference was observed at 22, 210, 235, 378 and 513 positions. When the gene was deduced for amino acids, the homology was 98% with published sequence. The total amino acids number was 198 with predicted mass of 23 kDa molecular weight. The changes were observed at 8, 115 and 171th amino acid positions.
Title: Meta-analysis of Prevalence of Clinical Mastitis in Crossbred Cows in India (1995-2014)
Abstract :
Clinical mastitis is a most common disease in dairy herds causing huge economic losses directly to farmers and indirectly to Indian dairy sector. However, systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of clinical mastitis in cows in India has not been published so far. The aim of the present study was to provide the pooled estimate of the prevalence of clinical mastitis in crossbred cows in India by conducting the literature search for the period of 1995-2014. Meta-analysis using data records of 17873 crossbred cows and 7737 udder quarters from total of 17 published studies was done in R software. It was found that the pooled estimates of clinical mastitis in crossbred cows under cow-basis and quarter-basis was 16.08% (95% CI 11.69, 21.72) and 11.71% (95% CI 6.60, 19.94), respectively. High variation in prevalence estimates between studies indicated that several factors infl uence occurrence of clinical mastitis. It is suggested that systematic review and meta-analysis using large number of studies and incorporating several factors can be effi cient tool to update the disease control strategy and will be best resource for researchers to improve future work.
Title: Intracellular Delivery of Histidine and Arginine Rich Cell Penetrating Peptides into HeLa cell Line
Abstract :
Most bioactive macromolecules, such as DNA and RNA, cannot permeate into cells freely from outside the plasma membrane. Cell penetrating peptides are a group of short peptide sequences that are able to transverse the cell membrane for mediating gene into living cells. In this study we demonstrate two cell penetrating peptides 5H-R9-C and 7H-R9-7H-C. These peptides are synthesized by solid phase methodology and labelled these peptides by FITC and purified them by RP-HPLC. FITC labelled peptides are efficiently internalize into HeLa cells confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Further studies are being carried out to deliver cargo molecule (siRNA, oligonucleotide and pDS RED) by these peptides. These results suggest that these peptides appear to be a promising tool for drug delivery.
Title: Evaluation of PPD based ELISA in the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculos
Abstract :
541 animals from three dairy farms () were firstly screened for bovine tuberculosis by tuberculin skin testing, out of which 71 (13.12%) animals were found tuberculin reactors. The serum samples of 71 tuberculin positive- 104 tuberculin negative and 363 non tuberculin tested animals were then evaluated by Purified Protein Derivative (PPD)-ELISA. PPD-ELISA yielded 57.74%, 8.65% and 24.24% seropositivity in tuberculin positive, tuberculin negative and non-tuberculin tested animals with an overall seroprevalence of 25.65% among tested sera. The relative sensitivity and specificity of ELISA with tuberculin test was 57.74% and 91.34%, respectively. The use of PPD based ELISA may be suggested in conjugation with tuberculin test for whole herd screening and culling programme especially in anergic state or advanced stages of infection.
Title: Organoleptic Quality of Chicken Meat Rolls and Patties Added with the Combination Levels of Black Gram Hull and Psyllium Husk
Abstract :
The present study was envisaged to prepare dietary fiber rich chicken meat rolls and patties. The combination of two different sources of dietary fiber viz. black gram hull and psyllium husk has been used. They were added in three different levels viz. 5% black gram hull and 2% psyllium husk, 5% black gram hull and 4% psyllium husk and 5% black gram hull and 6% psyllium husk. The sensory characteristics such as colour, flavour, tenderness, juiciness, texture and overall acceptability of fiber added chicken meat rolls and patties were studied. In general, the sensory scores showed a decreasing trend with increasing levels of incorporation but 5% black gram hull and 4% psyllium husk combination was found to be suitable organoleptically.
Title: Crossectional Study on Prevalence of Bovine Schistosomiosis and its Associated Risk Factors in Dangila District, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia
Abstract :
A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to April 2015 in Dangila District, Awi Zone, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence of Bovine schistosomosis and to identify the possible associated risk factors. Simple random sampling method was used to select the animals and coprological examination using sedimentation technique was applied for the recovery of Schistosoma eggs from freshly collected fecal samples and preserved in 10% formalin. Of the total 384 cattle examined, 44(11.5%) were found to be positive for Schistosoma bovis. there was no statistically signifi cant difference observed among four kebeles; even though Dengesgta (16.3%) revealed the highest prevalence, while the lowest in Gumdrie (7.3%). There was no signifi cant difference between two breeds, sexes and three age groups, even though, the prevalence of bovine schistosomosis was recorded higher in local breed cattle(12%) than that of cross breed cattle(8.5%), in female cattle(12.6%) than that of male(9.9%), and it was higher in age group of cattle below 2 years(14.7%) than above 2 years and below 5 year of age(11.7%) and that of age group of above 5 years(10.2%). The prevalence in poor body condition (23.1%) was higher than that of medium body condition (9.7%) as well as good body condition (5.1%) and variation was statistically
signifi cant.
Title: Effect of Butylated Hydroxytoluene on Sperm Viability and Acrosomal Integrity in Cryopreserved Hariana Bull Semen
Abstract :
The present study was aimed to see the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as semen additives during cryopreservation of Hariana Bull semen. Twenty four ejaculates from two Hariana bulls extended with glycerolated egg yolk tris (GEYT). Extended samples were split into three aliquots. One aliquot was kept as control while other two aliquots were supplemented with 0.5 mM (T1) and 1.0 mM (T2) of BHT. All semen samples were equilibrated and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen vapours and subsequently plunged in liquid nitrogen for preservation. The effect of BHT was determined by assessment of sperm viability
and acrosomal integrity at three stages i.e. after dilution, pre-freeze and post –thaw. Our study revealed that addition of 1.0 mM of BHT results in a signifi cant (p<0.05) improvement in sperm viability and acrosomal integrity during cryopreservation.
Title: Subclinical Endometritis in Postpartum Buffaloes: An Emerging Threat
Abstract :
Buffalo contributes 12.8 per cent of world milk supply. In India, buffalo accounts for 33 per cent of the milk producing animals and 45 per cent of overall milk production of the country. Optimum fertility of buffaloes is the key to economically successful dairy farming. Postpartum uterine infections have negative impact on reproductive performance leading to drastic reduction in farm return. Endometritis being one of the major postpartum disorder causing heavy losses to dairy industry. Postpartum sub-clinical endometritis is defi ned as an endometrial infl ammation occurring 21 days or more after parturition without any clinical signs whereas clinical endometritis is indicated by the presence of purulent/mucopurulent discharge. Routine methods for diagnosing endometritis involve uterine biopsy, lavage and swab but these techniques causes irritation and distortion of cells. Endometrial cytology by cytobrush technique is most effi cient and early diagnostic technique when used along with microbial assay for diagnosis of sub-clinical endometritis. Following diagnostic accuracy, one has to use appropriate therapy for management of this condition. An effective treatment is one which eliminates load of pathogenic bacteria and enhances uterine defense and repair mechanisms, and thereby halts and reverses the infl ammatory changes that impair fertility. The treatment of endometritis should not be limited to clinical or bacteriological cure but also be economical and should improve the fertility. A wide variety of therapies for endometritis have been used with variable success proving the treatment of this condition to be
still challenging.
Title: Genetic Parameters of Growth and sow Productivity Traits of Large white Yorkshire with Desi and Tamworth with Desi Crossbred Pigs
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to estimate genetic parameters like heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlations among different growth and reproductive traits of LWY x Desi and TMW x Desi maintained at AICRP on Pigs, Livestock Farm, Adhartal, Jabalpur (M.P.). The h2 estimates for birth weight for LWY and TMW crossbreds has been recorded as 0.011±0.075 and 0.012±0.079 respectively and for weaning weight it has been recorded as 0.271±0.117 and 0.282±0.116 respectively for LWY and TMW crossbreds. The h2 estimates of body weight at different ages had low to moderate and some where higher at different age. The genetic correlation values at birth were ranged from 0.19 to 0.73 and 0.16 to 0.71 for LWY and TMW crossbreds respectively. The h2 estimates for maternal traits of LWY and TMW crossbred pigs are within the specified range. Most of the
genetic and phenotypic correlations are at higher side with positive direction.
Environmental correlations also followed the same trend where most of the values are higher for Large White Yorkshire and Tamworth crossbred Pigs.
Title: Knowledge level of Gujjars of Jammu and Kashmir regarding Improved Animal Husbandry Practices
Abstract :
The study was conducted in Jammu district of Jammu and Kashmir, with a view to fi nd out the knowledge level of the Gujjars regarding improved animal husbandry practices. The data were collected from 120 Gujjar respondents belonging to R. S. Pura and Bishnah block of Jammu district with the help of structured interview schedule containing selected dependent and independent variable, through personal interview technique. Most of the respondents (70.8%) were having medium knowledge level, whereas 19.2% had low and 10% had high knowledge level. The respondents were having low knowledge about improved health care practices (41.25%) when compared with the knowledge level about improved breeding practices which was 71.75%. Age, occupation, herd size and land holding were negatively related to the knowledge level. Education, social participation, extension contact, economic motivation, mass media exposure, risk orientation and exposure to training were positively associated with knowledge level of the respondents
Title: Breed effect on serum lysozyme activity in indigenous breeds of Sheep
Abstract :
Serum lysozyme is widely known for its immuno-protective action. The level is an index of macrophage function and this reflects the status of Reticulo-endothelial (RE) system in the body. It is a ubiquitous bacteriolytic enzyme present in the body fluids and tissues. It acts as an important antimicrobial component in the serum and body fluids. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the effect of breed on mean serum lysozyme activity. A total of 275 animals of same age, sex and season of birth belonging to three breeds of indigenous sheep viz. Chokla, Malpura, and Muzaffarnagri were included under the present investigation. The serum lysozyme level in Chokla, Malpura and Muzaffarnagri was determined by Lysoplate assay method. Least square analysis was done to study the association of breed as well as genotype with mean serum lysozyme activity. There was significant difference (Pd<0.05) of serum lysozyme activity among the breeds.
Among all the three breeds, Chokla showed highest mean serum lysozyme activity. The mean serum lysozyme activity for Chokla, Malpura and Muzaffarnagri breed of sheep was 3.13±0.13 µg/ml, 2.39±0.14 µg/ml and 2.51±0.18 µg/ml, respectively.
Title: Surgical Management of Cervical Oesophageal Obstruction in a Non Descript Cow – A Case Report
Abstract :
Esophageal obstruction (Choke) occurs when the oesophagus is obstructed by food, foreign body or by presence of space occupying lesion in the oesophagus . In ruminants, acute and complete oesophageal obstruction is an emergency because it prohibits the eructation of ruminal gases and bloat develops if untreated resulting in pressure on the diaphragm and preventing blood flow to the heart. The present study reports the successful management of cervical oesophageal obstruction caused by a small cucumber in a non descript cow.
Title: Hemato-Biochemical Studies on Clinical Cases of Primary Ketosis in Buffaloes
Abstract :
The study was conducted on 145 buffaloes brought to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, LUVAS from Hisar and adjoining villages, with signs of anorexia and decreased milk yield. Urine samples from buffaloes were screened for ketosis using two tests (Rothera’s test and Keto-Diastix-strip test). The disease was confi rmed in 24 buffaloes as primary ketosis on the basis of clinical signs (selective anorexia, drastic reduction in milk yield), absence of any other concurrent disease and two urine tests. Comparison of infected was made with eight apparently healthy buffaloes kept as control. Hematological fi ndings in diseased animals revealed anemia, leucopenia, lower mean values of total erythrocyte count (TEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), eosinophilia and monocytosis whereas biochemical fi ndings shows hypoglycemia, hypocalemia, hypoproteinemia hypercholesterolemia, high triglycerides and enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity in affected animals as compared to control group.
Title: Effect of Replacing Inorganic Zinc with Lower Levels of Organic Zinc on Zinc Retention and Follicular Population in Rats
Abstract :
An experiment of 10 weeks duration was conducted on 48 weaned female rats (285.2 ± 1.95 g) of strain Sprague Dawley to study the effect of replacing dietary Zn (12 ppm) supplementation from inorganic (ZnCO3) to organic (Zn nicotinate; Zn-nic) source at lower (6 or 9 ppm) or equal (12 ppm) levels on Zn retention and ovarian follicular population. Higher Zn concentration (on day 42) in serum (P<0.01) and liver (P<0.05) was noticed with 9 and 12 ppm Zn supplementation as Zn-nic compared to other dietary treatments. Zn deposition in pancreas, muscle and kidney was comparable among the dietary treatments. In comparison to 12 ppm inorganic Zn, RBC catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities (42nd d) improved (P<0.05) with 9 and 12 ppm organic Zn. Significantly (P<0.05) highest and lowest serum progesterone concentration was observed with 9 or 12 ppm Zn as Zn-nic and 6 ppm as Zn-nic supplementation, respectively. Regular estrous cycle was observed with 9 or 12 ppm Zn supplementation as Zn-nic, while 30% rats fed on other dietary treatments showed irregular estrous cycle. The proportion of primary follicles was lowest (P<0.01) and that of corpus uteum was highest (P<0.01) with 12 ppm Zn supplementation from Zn-nic, compared to other dietary treatments. The study indicated that Zn concentration in diets could be reduced by 75% (9 ppm) when supplemented as Zn nicotinate without affecting estrous cycle and follicular population. In addition, replacement of 12 ppm inorganic Zn with 12 ppm organic Zn significantly improved its retention and follicular population.
Title: Status of FecB Gene Mutation in Dorper Sheep from Jammu
Abstract :
The present study was carried out to explore polymorphism in exon-8 of FecB gene using PCR-RFLP technique in Dorper sheep. Animals maintained at Government Sheep Breeding Farm, Panthal, Jammu were studied. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples using Phenol-Chloroform-Isoamyl method. The PCR product of 140 bp was amplified using reported primers (part of exon-8 of FecB gene). PCR products was digested for the presence of FecB mutation using AvaІІ restriction enzyme. The studied samples were monomorphic and were having only one genotype (FecB++). Our study reveals that Dorper sheep population in the present study is homozygous and non-carrier of FecB mutation.
Title: Lyme disease: Emerging and Re-emerging Metazoonoses of Gglobal Importance
Abstract :Lyme borreliosis is a tick-transmitted multisystem inflammatory disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Lyme disease has a worldwide distribution including India. Warmer weather expected to be increase emergence of common vector-borne diseases worldwide without an exception of Lyme disease. Several hundred cases are reported each year. About 10% of cases involve the more serious symptoms of arthritis and 5% experience facial paralysis, in addition to the skin rash that is characteristic of the disease. There is paucity of data on Lyme disease in India. Some study was under taken to study the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in north eastern parts of India. Therefore, India represents a particularly interesting scenario for the study on Lyme disease. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognizing the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. Here in; we review the problems and opportunities for the incidence of Lyme disease in India. Control measures are discussed in the review in the area of ticks and tick-borne zoonotic diseases (TTBDs). The disease warrants constant monitoring and surveillance because once introduced to human population it would be a herculean task to eradicate it.
Title: Effect of Detoxified Karanj Seed Cake (Pongamia glabra vent) Based Diets on Haematological Parameters and Body Weight Gain in Goat Kids
Abstract :
A 17-weeks study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding solvent extracted karanj (Pongamia glabra vent) seed cake (SKC) and alkali processed solvent extracted karanj seed cake (AKC) on various haematological parameters and overall body weight gains in goat kids. Twenty non-descript male kids were randomly divided into fi ve treatment groups viz., T1 (control), T2, T3, T4 and T5 consisting of four kids each, under completely randomized design to make the initial body weight uniform and non-signifi cant. The T1 group was offered groundnut cake (GNC) as a sole source of nitrogen whereas T2 and T3 group were offered SKC @ 8.09% and 16.18% of concentrate mixtures respectively to replace 25% and 50% of GNC nitrogen. Similarly T4 and T5 were fed AKC @ 8.09% and 16.18% of concentrate mixtures respectively to replace the 25% and 50% of GNC nitrogen. No adverse effect of either SKC or AKC was observed on haemoglobin, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, serum total protein, serum albumin and serum globulin. The present study also revealed no signifi cant effect of either SKC or AKC on the overall body weight gain in goat kids. These results indicates that long term supplementation of SKC or AKC up to 50% replacement of conventional nitrogen source have no adverse effect on health as revealed by body weight gain and various haematological values.
Title: Histology and Histochemistry of Oviduct of Adult Bakerwali Goat in Different Phases of Estrus Cycle
Abstract :
Twelve genitalia of apparently healthy, non pregnant adult Bakerwali goat were collected from local slaughter houses immediately after sacrifice. Sections were stained with different staining methods. The oviduct of Bakerwali goat was lined with pseudostratifi ed columnar ciliated epithelium in infundibulum and ampulla whereas pseudostratifi ed columnar nonciliated epithelium in isthmus. The thickness of tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis of oviduct increases towards the isthmus and was significantly higher in luteal phase of estrus cycle whereas height of epithelium was significantly higher in luteal phase but decreased towards the layer of muscles in the terminal part of isthmus. The height of lining epithelium was significantly higher in luteal phase than follicular phase in all three segments of oviduct. In the luteal phase, apical blebs with PAS positive material ere seen above lining epithelium. The cytoplasm of glandular and lining epithelium showed strong reaction with Alcian blue
and mild reactivity for bound lipids with Sudan Black B. Tunica muscularis showed moderate reaction for Alcian blue showing
presence of acidic mucopolysaccharides and mild reaction for bound lipids with Sudan Black B.
Title: Repair of Humeral Fracture in a Peregrine Falcon by Nailing of an Injection Needle
Abstract :
A young peregrine falcon was presented with a right midshaft open fracture of the humerus. This report describes an innovation technique for intramedullary pinning using an injection needle as a pin device of internal fixation.
Title: Allergic Dermatitis Occurrence Pattern in Canine of Jammu Region, India
Abstract :
The study was conducted to record the prevalence of allergic dermatitis in canine amongst the dermatitis cases presented at the Veterinary Clinics and Teaching Hospital, F.V.Sc & A.H., R.S Pura, Central Veterinary Hospital Talab Tillo in Jammu region. Diagnosis was done by intradermal skin testing, IgE level, clinical score status on the basis of CADASI. Prevalence of allergic dermatitis was 1.93% (18/930) with maximum prevalence recorded in month of July (27.77%) from the cases. Amongst the allergic dermatological affl ictions in canine population, different types of dermatitis observed were atopic (61.11%), fl ea allergy (16.66%), contact allergy (16.66%) and drug allergy (5.55%). Dogs belonging to the age group of two to four year were found most susceptible to allergic dermatitis. Males were found to be more susceptible to allergic dermatitis than females. Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. were the main bacteria isolated from secondary bacterial dermatitis cases.
Title: Determination of Sperm Transfer Time and Retention times of different Regions of Hamster Epididymis
Abstract :
Most of the scientific researches deal with the epididymal sperm maturation but not with the storage of sperms in epididymis. The present study was carried out to determine sperm transfer time, sperm retention time and sperm motility in different regions of hamster epididymis after placing ligations. Ligations were made at the initial segment of the epididymes. The total number of sperm was assessed using the haemocytometer counting method and sperm counts were taken on defined time intervals starting from the 3rd day to the 78th day of post-ligation. Total sperm count was decreased 50% by 3 days in caput and corpus regions and by 15 days in cauda region. Yet, there were a few numbers of sperm in all regions of hamster epididymis even after 78 days of post-ligation. By 15 days, sperm motility was decreased rapidlyin all epididymal regions and the majority of sperms were immotile by the 24th day of post-ligation. Both sperm counts; immotile and motile sperms in control side was significantly different compared to that of the ligated side of the epididymis (p< 0.05). Sperm emptying time was approximately 18 days in the caput alone, 14 days in the corpus and 46 days in the cauda. It is concluded that in the ligated hamster epididymis sperm transfer takes more than 78 days. The findings of the present study will be vital for future studies on mechanisms of sperm transport and sperm storage in the cauda epididymis in detail.
Title: Effect of Temperament on Some Blood Biochemical Parameters and Growing Traits of Lambs During Fattening
Abstract :
Aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of temperament on certain metabolic parameters (cortisol, glucose, serum fructosamine, triglyceride, albumin, total protein, urea), as well as daily weight gain in fattening lambs. Eight calm (score 1) and eight nervous (score 4 and 5) German Mutton Merino ram lambs were involved in the investigation on a sheep farm. Lambs’ temperament was evaluated by a temperament test (movements of animals were assessed in 5-score system during weighing – from 1: calm, to 5: nervous - while spending 30 sec on the scale) at three times: 1st, 20th and 40th days of the 40-day experiment. The blood samples were taken immediately after temperament scoring. The calmer lambs had lower (P<0.05) concentrations of plasma cortisol (17.11 nmol/l), serum fructosamine (346.53 μmol/l), triglyceride (0.214 mmol/l), and urea (3.31 mmol/l) as well. In addition calm lambs had higher (P<0.05)daily weight gain (466.67 g/day), compared to the nervous animals (25.13 nmol/l, 503.76μmol/l, 0.275 mmol/l, 5.51mmol/l and 345.36 g/day, respectively). These results suggested that lambs’ blood biochemical parameters influenced by temperament, nervous and calm lambs differ in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, demonstrated by an increase in urea, triglyceride and serum fructosamine in nervous lambs.
Title: Prevalence of Antibodies to Coxiella burnetii in Camel Milk in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia: a Comparison with Serum
Abstract :
Antibodies against Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q-fever, were detected in lactating camels, cows and goats in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia, using an indirect ELISA test. A total of 246 milk samples collected from 69 camels. 90 cows and 87 goats were tested. Milk samples from 43 camels (62.32%), 30 cows (33.33%) and 22 goats (25.29%) were positive for anti-C. burnetii antibodies. Serum samples collected simultaneously from the same animals and tested by ELISA revealed anti-C. burnetii antibodies in 46 camels (66.67%), 38 cows (42.22) and 14 goats (16.20%). A signifi cant correlation between ELISA results in milk and serum was observed in the species tested. These results confi rm that ELISA can be used in milk instead of serum to detect antibodies against C. burnetii in lactating camels and other animals
Title: Effect of Oral Supplementation of Putrescine and L-glutamine on the Histomorphology of Small Intestine and Growth Performance in Broiler Chickens
Abstract :
A work was conducted to study the effect of putrescine and L-glutamine supplementation on histomorphology of small intestine in broiler chickens. Five groups of ten chicks each in three replicates reared up to 42 days were used for this study. Putrescine and L-glutamine were orally supplemented at 0% level as control (T1), putrescine 0.05% (T2), putrescine 0.1% (T3), L-glutamine 0.5% (T4) and L-glutamine 1% (T5) from 0 day to 7 days after hatch. At 2nd and 3rd week of age, 3 birds from each groupwere slaughtered and tissue samples from small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) were collected for histomorphological studies. Statistically signifi cant (p<0.01) increase in duodenal and jejunal villi length, width,crypt length and ileal villi length and width were observed in L-glutamine fed groups than putrescine and control groups. There was no signifi cant difference in duodenal crypt length/width, jejunal crypt width and ileal crypt length/width. It can be inferred that L-glutamine promoted the intestinal villi development during early posthatch life, thus increasing the nutrients absorption and growth performance as body weight gain in broiler chickens
Title: Epigenetic Reprogramming of Adult Mammalian Cells into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) - An Emerging Paradigm
Abstract :

The field of stem-cell biology has been catapulted forward by the startling development of reprogramming technology. The ability to restore pluripotency to somatic cells through the ectopic co-expression of reprogramming factors has created powerful new opportunities for modelling human diseases and offers hope for personalized regenerative cell therapies. Worldwide increases in life expectancy have been paralleled by a greater prevalence of chronic and age-associated disorders, particularly of the cardiovascular, neural and metabolic systems. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are an emerging paradigm that may address this. Reprogrammed somatic cells from patients are already applied in disease modelling, drug testing and drug discovery, thus enabling researchers to undertake studies for treating diseases ‘in a dish’, which was previously inconceivable. Although there are currently several strategies to deliver reprogramming factors to induce iPSCs. In this study we have focus is on utilize plasmid vector to reprogramm because of convenience, reasonable efficiency and zero genes fingerprints and xeno free production of iPSCs. This virus-free technique reduces the safety concern for iPScell generation and application, and provides a source of cells for the investigation of the mechanisms underlying reprogramming and pluripotency.

Title: Effect of Chitosan Coating Enriched with Cinnamon Oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on Storage Stability of Refrigerated Chicken Meat Nuggets
Abstract :
The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the shelf-life of chitosan and cinnamon oil coated chicken meat nuggets under refrigeration conditions. Three types of coated nuggets were developed viz., Meat coated with Chitosan (1%) and Cinnamon oil (0.05%) (T1), direct addition of Chitosan and Cinnamon oil in emulsion (T2) and nuggets dipped in Chitosan and Cinnamon oil (T3) and were aerobically packaged in low-density polyethylene pouches and assessed for various storage quality parameters under refrigerated (4±1°C) conditions during 28 days of storage. T2 had slightly higher emulsion stability and yield although no significant difference (P>0.05) in between samples. T1 exhibited better storage stability as indicated by lower lipid oxidation than other treatments and the control. Texture profile studies indicated that T2 sample had higher hardness value than other samples. SPC significantly (P<0.05) increased in all the samples with control having the highest value followed by T1, T3 and T2 throughout the storage period. T2 sample exhibited lowest sensory scores and were not accepted by sensory panellist while T1 and T3 samples had better acceptability. It was concluded that chitosan in combination with cinnamon oil had synergistic effect to extend the shelf-life of products (T1 and T3)
Title: Characterisation of Mizoram Native Cattle of Indian Origin
Abstract :
A total of 33 farmers from 11 villages of Champhai and Kolasib districts were interviewed and 237 animals of different age and sex were recorded for physical and morphometric characteristics and performance to characterise indigenous cattle of Mizoram state. Based on the maximum number of indigenous cattle revealed from livestock census, two districts were selected for survey viz. Champhai (6663) and Kolasib (4720). Animals were reared mainly on extensive management conditions. The body colour varied in different colours i.e. brown (85%), black (11%) and gray (41%). Animals were small in size with cylindrical type of body. Udder was small and milk veins were not prominent. The daily milk production ranged from 1.5 to 3.5 kg. The average milk yield was 1.54±0.11 kg. The average age at first calving, lactation length, dry period, service period, calving interval, herd life and number of calving during life time were 1160 days (28 to 42 months) 178 days (150-210 days), 132 days (120-150 days), 121 days (90-120 days), 638 days (12-24 months), 15-20 years and 8-10 calving, respectively. A pair of bullock may plough about 0.5 acre of land in 5-6 hours. Different body measurements revelead that animals are small in size. It was observed that cows had good potential for milk production in the difficult climate. There is urgent need plan genetic improvement programs to improve the productivity of indigenous cattle of the state.
Title: Body Conformation in Tharparkar Cattle as a Tool of Selection
Abstract :
For present investigation, Tharparkar cows available at Cattle and Buffalo Farm, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar (U.P.) were used. Body conformation scoring was done as per modifi ed International Committee on Animal Recording (2012). Measurements were taken in centimeter (cm) before morning milking and prior to any feed intake using graduated measuring stick, vernier caliper and fl exible meter tape. In Tharparkar cattle, the average score points (ASP, under 1-9 point scale score system) for body conformation traits like stature (5.02: intermediate), chest width (4.71: intermediate), body depth (4.75: intermediate), angularity (5.60: intermediate), rump angle (5.55: intermediate), rump width (4.80: intermediate), rear leg rear view (7.39: parallel), rear leg set (5.27: intermediate), foot angle (7.09: steep), fore udder attachment (6.44: strong), fore teat placement (3.80: intermediate), teat length (4.71: intermediate), udder depth (5.71: intermediate), rear udder height (3.46:intermediate), central ligament (5.27:  intermediate), rear teat placement (5.82: intermediate), locomotion (7.20: no abduction), hock development (7.28: dry), bone structure (6.64: fi ne and thin), rear udder width (5.64: intermediate), teat thickness (2.61: narrow), muscularity (6.00: intermediate), hump size (3.98: intermediate), dewlap size (5.04: intermediate) and naval fl ap
size (3.09: intermediate) were assessed. Most of the body conformation traits in Tharparkar cows were of intermediate nature
and of desirable type, moreover, some traits also showed the presence of undesirable ASP, which expressed scope for further
improvement. Thus, present investigation gave explicit clue to bring Tharparkar cattle at par with other exotic breeds, if little effort is made to incorporate these conformation traits in selection program.
Title: Clinico-haemato-biochemical, Peritoneal Fluid and Rumen Fluid Alterations in Buffaloes with Peritonitis
Abstract :
This study was designed to investigate the clinico-haemato-biochemical, rumen fl uid and peritoneal fl uid alteration in buffaloes
with peritonitis. Buffaloes with peritonitis had anorexia, dehydration, abdominal distension, ruminal atony, pain, fever, reduced milk yield and loss of defecation. Pungent smelling peritoneal fluid was yielded on abdominocentesis. Hemato-biochemical alterations revealed absolute neutrophilia, increased levels of plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, globulin and fi brinogen and decreased levels of plasma sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride. Peritoneal fl uid analysis showed increased total leucocyte count, neutrophil count and total protein level. Whereas, rumen liquor of diseased buffaloes had microbial inactivity, increased methylene blue reduction time, increased ammonia nitrogen and decreased total volatile fatty acids.
Title: Effect of Urea on Hematological and Selected Biochemical Parameters of Ggrowing Somali Lambs
Abstract :

A study was carried out to evaluate the probiotic dahi and to develop eco friendly cups using areca nut sheath and to utilize it to store the probiotic dahi. The different packaging materials namely plastic cups (control), oxo-biodegradable cups and areca nut sheath cups were used to evaluate the keeping qualities of probiotic dahi. Physico-chemical properties, microbial qualities and sensory evaluation were carried out on the product stored in different containers. Statistical analysis showed there was no significant difference between different packaging materials. Sensory analysis of probiotic dahi in different packaging materials was carried out. Statistical analysis showed that the appearance and overall acceptability scores significantly differed in different packaging materials. There was no significant difference in flavor, body/texture and sourness score of probiotic dahi in different packaging materials.

Title: Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Atorvastatin with Silymarin and Rutin in Hepatotoxic Rats with a Special Reference to Functional Status of CYP3A4 Enzyme
Abstract :
The study was conducted to assess the functional status of CYP3A4 substrate (atorvastatin) in hepatotoxicity model treated with silymarin and rutin for a period of 14 days in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced with acetaminophen (500 mg/Kg po once daily for 3 days) in adult male Wistar rats in 3 groups. Group 1: Normal control, Group 2, 3 and 4 were administered distilled water
(5 ml/kg po once daily), silymarin (25 mg/Kg po once daily) and rutin (20 mg/Kg po once daily), respectively subsequently for 11 days from the last dose of acetaminophen. On the 15th day, a CYP3A4 substrate (atorvastatin @ 10 mg/kg po) was administered in all the groups and blood samples were collected at predetermined intervals. Pharmacokinetic interaction studies
were conducted for evaluation of CYP3A4 activity using the specific substrate atorvastatin in all the groups. Mean plasma concentration (Cmax), half-life (t1/2β), area under the plasma cconcentration-timecurve (AUC) and mean residence time (MRT) of groups 2 and 4 were signifi cantly (p<0.05) increased and elimination rate constant (β) was signifi cantly (p<0.05) decreased in acetaminophen treated group as comparison to the normal control group. The kinetic profile of silymarin-treated group 3 was comparable to group 1 for single dose study. All the pharmacokinetic parameters of atorvastatin revealed significant correlations between hepatotoxic control and rutin treated group, while silymarin treated group showed signifi cant alterations in the kinetic profile suggesting its hepatoprotective effect.
Title: Physico-Chemical and Sensory analysis of Probiotic Dahi Packed in Oxobiodegradable and Areca Nut Sheath Cups
Abstract :A study was carried out to evaluate the probiotic dahi and to develop eco friendly cups using areca nut sheath and to utilize it to store the probiotic dahi. The different packaging materials namely plastic cups (control), oxo-biodegradable cups and areca nut sheath cups were used to evaluate the keeping qualities of probiotic dahi. Physico-chemical properties, microbial qualities and sensory evaluation were carried out on the product stored in different containers. Statistical analysis showed there was no significant difference between different packaging materials. Sensory analysis of probiotic dahi in different packaging materials was carried out. Statistical analysis showed that the appearance and overall acceptability scores significantly differed in different packaging materials. There was no significant difference in flavor, body/texture and sourness score of probiotic dahi in different packaging materials.
Title: Shelf-Life of Developed Instant Idli Mixes Incorporated with Chicken Meat Powder
Abstract :
A study was conducted to evaluate the shelf life of developed instant rice idli mix incorporated with 20% chicken meat powder (CMP) and instant semolina idli mix incorporated with 30% CMP under laboratory conditions. The control sample of rice idli mix was prepared using rice grit, salt, spice mix, sodium bicarbonate, citric acid, sodium carbonate and dry curry leaves and the control semolina idli mix was prepared by replacing the rice grit with semolina. The products were packed in low density polyethene bags and stored at an ambient temperature (30±2oC) for 90 days and samples were drawn at an interval of 0, 15th, 30th, 60th and
90th day to assess their shelf life. TBA values of CMP incorporated idli mixes were higher than their controls during storage. Moreover, TBA and pH values increased in all idli mixes during storage up to 90 days at an ambient temperature (30±2oC). The reconstituted idlies had desirable organoleptic properties as indicated by the taste panel studies. It is concluded that the rice idli mix incorporated with 20% CMP and semolina idli mix incorporated with 30% CMP could be stored for 60 days and 90 days, respectively, without any significant deterioration in microbiological quality and with acceptable sensory attributes.
Title: Comparative Study of Seasonal Variations on Hematological Profile in Sahiwal Cows (Bos Indicus) and Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis)
Abstract :
Six apparently healthy, non-lactating and non-pregnant Sahiwal cows and Murrah buffalo each above two years of age were selected to evaluate the effect of seasonal variations on hematological parameters. Blood samples were collected aseptically by jugular vein puncture during peak winter and peak summer seasons. The present investigation revealed the mean values of Hb, PCV, TEC, neutrophils, MCH, MCHC were significantly higher (P<0.05) in Murrah buffalo during summer season as compared to their winter season. On the other hand, in Sahiwal cows except PCV (P<0.05) other hematological parameters were found to be statistically nonsignificant
(P>0.05). The neutrophils/lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher
(P<0.05) during summer as against the winter season in case of Murrah buffalo, whereas no significant alternation was registered in case of Sahiwal cows. These findings suggested that Murrah buffalo are more prone to stress due to seasonal variations in comparison to Sahiwal cows.
Title: Characterization of New MHC (Bubu) -DQB Allele in Buffalo
Abstract :
A partial 517 nucleotide long DQB cDNA was amplified and sequenced from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and was named as Bubu-DQB*2. The
Bubu-DQB*2 showed 96.6% and 92% homologies with cattle (BoLA)-DQB2 and -DQB1 sequences, respectively, whereas 95.6, 96, 90.3, 86 and 90% homologies with sheep, goat, pig, dog and human, respectively. The Bubu-DQB*2 showed 20 nucleotide changes including eight as non-synonymous substitutions compared with Bubu-DQB allele already reported. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Bubu-DQB*2 evolved earlier to the diversification of common DQB alleles of ruminants. New Bubu-DQB*2 allele might be vital to produce specific presenting molecule, which can recognise different pathogens in buffaloes.
Title: Effect of Glutamate Supplementation upon Semen Quality of Young Seasonally Sexual-Inactive Dorper Rams
Abstract :

The aim of this study was to determine if exogenous administration of glutamate to young Dorper rams is able to enhance semen quality under long-day photoperiods in northern Mexico (25° north). Dorper rams (n=10) with homogeneous live weight (LW; 56±0.9 kg), body condition score (BCS; 3.2±0.1 units) and scrotal circumference (SC; 31.9±0.38 cm) were randomly divided into two experimental groups and treated with: i) GLUT (n=5; 7 mg kg-1 LW of glutamate, every 3d × 28d, im.) and ii) CONT (n=5; 1 mL of saline, every 3d × 28d, im.). At the end of the experimental period (d28), semen was collected throughout the use of an artificial vagina; different quality and quantity parameters were evaluated. The ANOVA reveled treatment differences (P<0.05) regarding sperm concentration with the largest value observed in the GLUT-rams (4,260±95.9 × 106 cells) regarding to the CONT-rams (2,828±209.2 × 106 cells). Yet, when considering the rest of the response variables which included ejaculation latency (47 ± 15.8 sec), seminal volume (1.1 ± 0.15 ml), total number of ejaculated sperms (4024.5 ± 696.5 × 106 cells), mass motility (2.1 ± 0.3 units) and the percentage of sperms alive (57.5 ± 9.4 %), no statistical differences (P>0.05) were observed between treatments. Results of this study unveils to glutamate as an interesting molecule positively affecting the spermatogenesis process by increasing the sperm concentration of young Dorper rams during photo-inhibitory reproductive schemes. Results also denote interesting outcomes not only to other animal industries but may also embrace translational applications.

Title: Constraints perceived by dairy farmers in adoption and repayment of dairy loans
Abstract :
The present study was conducted on two villages of one block of Hoshiarpur
District of Doaba region of Punjab to find constraints perceived by dairy farmers in adoption and repayment of dairy loans. Majority of dairy farmers belong to different categories according to herd size. Most of dairy farmers considered shortage of quality breed animals, too many intermediates, of milk, high cost of feed and fodder, expensive animals, low milk production and high rate of interest, problem of financial guarantor, policy of banks, low price of milk and inadequate loan amount as the serious problem
Title: Differentiation of Marek’s Disease Virus Isolates from India by Sequence Analysis of Meq Gene
Abstract :

The main aim of the present study was to investigate sequence diversity and mutations in the Meq gene of Marek’s disease viruses (MDV) isolated in India. To understand the molecular characteristics of MDV Meq gene, the sequence generated from Directorate of Poultry Research (DPR) farm and commercial poultry farms isolates were compared with published sequences of Indian isolates. Sequence analysis showed that all of the isolates contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1020 nucleotides, which encoded a 339 amino acid peptides. In the present phylogenetic study, Meq gene sequence generated from MDV strains of DPR isolate was found to share a clade with previously published DPR strains depicting homogenecity in MDV strain prevalent in DPR farm of Hyderabad. The Meq gene sequence of MDV strains amplified from commercial poultry farm found to be evolutionary closer with Ludhiana isolates. Amino acid sequence decoded from Meq gene sequence revealed that four consecutive proline repeats are three in number in DPR isolates while it ranges from 4-5 quadruple proline repeats in commercial farms samples. The published MDV strains from India has 4-5 consecutive four proline repeats in strains from the commercial farms. In the present study, a single point mutation was recorded in Meq gene sequence of DPR isolate where proline was replaced by serine at 233 positions. This mutation is recorded for the first time in Meq gene sequence of Indian isolates. The present study shows that the MDV strains from DPR farm were more virulence than other Indian isolates.

Title: Prevalence of Aeromonas spp. and its Virulence Genes in Samples of Carabeef and Mutton
Abstract :

A survey was conducted to ascertain the distribution and virulence of Aeromonas spp. (species) in carabeef and mutton samples in Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, India. Conventional method using Aeromonas isolation medium and Ampicillin Dextrin agar, PCR targeting 16S rRNA were used to identify Aeromonas spp. in meat samples. Conventional cultural method revealed 28% and 40% positives in mutton and carabeef, respectively whereas PCR assay detected 32% (mutton) and 44% (carabeef) positives suggesting that PCR has a better sensitivity than the cultural method. PCR positives were examined for the presence of toxin genes. Both aerolysin (37.5% in mutton and carabeef) and thermostablecytotonic enterotoxin (36.3%)

Title: Cell Mediated Immune Response of Cow Urine with Withania Somnifera and Tinospora Cordifolia
Abstract :
To study the immunomodulatory effect of cow urine ark(distillate) and medicinal herbs, evaluation of cell mediated immune (CMI) response by delayed type hypersensitivity(DTH) reaction to 2,4-dinitro chloro benzene (of experiment DNCB) in the broilers of group I(control), group II(ark treated), group III(ark and W.somnifera treated), group IV(ark and T.cordifolia treated), group V(ark, W.somnifera and T.cordifolia treated) and group VI(ImmuPlus-a polyherbal preparation treated) was carried out. The result indicated that DTH reaction in the broilers of group VI was most severe at 24 hours post challenge on 42nd day of experiment than that followed by group V, IV, III, II and I. DTH response indicates that cow urine ark and medicinal herbs are a potent immunomodulatory agent enhancing the cell mediated immune response. One of the explanations forwarded to justify the beneficial effect of cow urine and medicinal herbs in diseased stress is the non specific enhancement of immune status of the individual.
Title: Chronic Fascioliasis as Cause of Unthriftiness in Sheep with Reference to its Impacts on Blood Constituents
Abstract :
Ten adult sheep (2-4years of age) and eight lambs (5-12 month old), of both sexes were involved in this study. Ten apparently healthy sheep (5 adults and 5 lambs) were also used as a control group. The selected animals were presented with prominent clinical signs of progressive weight loss (in adults), underweight (in lambs), profuse watery diarrhea and edematous swelling of the intermandibular space. Blood as well as fecal and feed samples were analyzed for the selected parameters. The obtained results for hematological values revealed significant decrease (P<0.05) in the total erythrocytic cell counts, hemoglobin concentration and packed
cell volume in both sheep and lambs if compared with those of the apparently
healthy ones. The mean values of mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were
significantly increased associated with significant decrease (P<0.05) in mean
corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) indicating a macrocytic
hypochromic anemia. Also there was significant increase (P<0.05) in the total
leucocytic counts with marked eosinophilia in ill thrifty sheep and lambs when
compared with those of the apparently healthy ones.
Title: Seroprevalence of Canine Leishmaniasis in Owned and Stray Dogs from Ggrenada, West Indies
Abstract :The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Leishmania antibodies in two populations of dogs (owned and stray) in Grenada, West Indies. Leishmainiasis caused by a hemoflagelate protozoan, is zoonotic disease that affects a wide range of animals including man. Dogs are considered main reservoir for the organism. Antibodies to Leishmania spp were determined in serum samples from 836 dogs (344 stray and 492 owned dogs) using qualitative immunochromatographic dipstick tests (ICTs) based on recombinant antigens specific for visceral leishmaniasis (Kalzar detect rapid test:In Bios, USA). Seropositivity for leishamanis spp. was detected in 23 dogs (2.7%, 95% confidence Interval (CI) 1.06%to 3.8%). Thirteen of these were stray dogs (3.7%) and ten were owned dogs (2.0%). Results from this study indicate that dogs in Grenada are exposed at a low level to leishamaniasis.
Title: Comparative Performance Among Different Genetic Groups of Large White Yorkshire Crossbred Pigs
Abstract :
The Present investigation was carried out to analyse the data on growth and
reproductive traits in Large White Yorkshire (LWY) crossbred pigs. A total of 1635 records of two genetic groups i.e. 50% crossbred (n=845) and 75% crossbred (n=790) LWY x Desi, spread over the 16 years (1994 to 2010) were taken from the animals maintained under All India Coordinated Research Project on pigs, at Livestock Farm, JNKVV, Adhartal, Jabalpur (M.P.) At slaughter age, 75%LWY were found to be slightly heavier than the 50% LWY crossbreds. The genetic group and year had significant effect (Pd”0.05) on almost all body weights. A significant year effect (Pd”0.05) was observed for all the traits. Littersize at birth had a significant (Pd”0.05) effect on litter weight at birth.
Title: Study of Correlation Between Body Weight and Conformation Traits in Coloured Synthetic Dam Line Broiler Chicken at Five Weeks of Age
Abstract :
In coloured strain of synthetic dam line broiler chicken correlation between body weight and conformation traits were studied at 5th week of age. Body weight, breast angle, shank length and keel length were measured in both males and females. The genetic, phenotypic and environmental correlation between 5th week body weight and each with breast angle, shank length and keel length from sire components of variance and covariance were positively and statistically significant (P<0.01). It was concluded that individual selection for high body weight at 5th week of age would be most effective and, correlations between body weight and each with breast angle and shank length are higher in males while body weight and each with breast angle and keel length are higher in females.
Title: Development of Chicken Meat Powder Incorporated Instant Idli Mixes
Abstract :
A study was conducted to standardize the instant rice idli mix and instant semolina idli mix incorporated with chicken meat powder (CMP), simultaneously. The control sample of rice idli mix was prepared using rice grit, salt, spice mix, sodium bicarbonate, citric acid, sodium carbonate and dry curry leaves and the control semolina idli mix was prepared by replacing the rice grit with semolina. Three different levels of chicken meat powder viz.10%, 20% and 30% were tried for development of both rice and semolina idli mixes. The developed products were selected on the basis of sensory attributes and evaluated for their physicochemical properties. Incorporation of chicken meat powder in rice idli mix at 20% level and in semolina idli mix at 30% level were found to be optimum for development of idlies. CMP incorporation in both the idli mixes decreased the percent moisture content and increased the protein, fat and ash content signifi cantly. The percent protein content of reconstituted idlies prepared from rice idli mix incorporated with 20% CMP and semolina idli mix incorporated with 30% CMP increased signifi cantly from 3.38 to 8.28 and from 4.49 to 12.50, respectively. However, cooking yield of both rice and semolina idlies was decreased and the pH value were increased signifi cantly on incorporation of CMP. Hence, we conclude that by incorporating 20% and 30% CMP in rice and semolina instant idli mixes, respectively both the overall acceptability score and amount of nutrients were improved.
Title: Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) Leaf Powder on Oxidative Stress Marker in Broilers
Abstract :
The study was conducted on 72 - day old straight run commercial broiler chicks (DOC) till 6 weeks of age to investigate the effect of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf powder (TLP) on the hematological parameters of broilers. Chicks were randomly divided into four groups of 18 chicks each. Control group received standard broilers diet. Chicks in second, third and fourth group received standard broilers diet supplemented with Tulsi leaf powder (TLP) @ 0.25, 0.50 and 1 percent. Blood samples were collected at the end of 6th week from the wing vein in sterile heparinized tubes. Plasma was separated by centrifugation for determination of oxidative stress marker in broilers. Results revealed a significant effect of TLP in feeds as alkaline phosphatase level was significantly (P<0.05) lower in diets supplemented with 0.5 % and 1.0% TLP.
Title: Evaluation of Wound Healing Properties of Herbal Medicaments on the Basis of Clinical and Haemato-biochemical Changes
Abstract :

The present study was conducted on 24 dogs irrespective of sex, breed and aged between 1year to 8 years with different types of wounds. The animals were randomly divided into four groups. Each group consisted of 6 dogs. The animals of group I were treated with povidone iodine (5.0%) and in group II, III, IV animals were treated with the herbal ointment which were prepared from hydroalcoholic extract of Marigold leaves, Guava leaves and 1:1 mixture of both extract for 7 consecutive days. Clinical and haematological parameters were recorded at different time intervals in all four groups. The study revealed better wound healing properties of the Ointment of 1:1 mixture of Marigold and Guava (10% w/w) leaves extract without any side effect as compared to povidone iodine 5%, ointment of Marigold leaves extract (10% w/w) and ointment of Guava leaves extract (10% w/w) on the basis of clinical and haematological parameters

Title: Effect of Various Genetic and Non-genetic Factors on Reproductive Traits in Large White Yorkshire Crossbred and Tamworth Crossbred Pigs
Abstract :
The data on reproductive performance of 1850 crossbred pigs belonging to three genetic groups viz. ½ LWY-desi crossbred (845), ¾ LWY-desi crossbred (790) and ½ Tamworth-desi crossbred (215) maintained at AICRP on Pigs, Adhartal, Jabalpur (M.P.) covering period from 1994 to 2010 were subjected to least squares analysis to study the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors. The least squares means for litter weight at birth were 7.18±0.24 and 6.61±0.24 kg for ½ and ¾ LWY-desi crossbreds and 7.13±0.24 kg for ½ Tamworth-desi crossbreds respectively. The least squares means for litter weight at weaning were 55.82±2.58,
61.03±2.31 and 61.93±3.54 kg for ½ LWY-desi, ¾ LWY-desi and ½ Tamworthdesi crossbred respectively. The present investigation showed a significance influence of period and season of birth on litter traits indicated the potential for optimizing production performance of pig providing optimal environmental conditions.
Title: Immunohistochemistry of Canine Hair Follicle Stem Cells (cHFSCs) by using CK15 and CK19
Abstract :

Adult body harbors powerful reservoir of stem cells that maintains homeostasis by tissue regeneration and in response to disease and injury. Hair follicle is a dynamic mini organ supporting important biological functions of the body in maintaining homeostasis and skin tissue self-renewal. This study was carried out with the objective of finding the adult stem cells in canine hair follicular tissue. To conduct this study, adult canine skin samples (n=12) irrespective of breed and sex were collected. To characterize the hair follicle stem cells, paraffin sections of canine hair follicles were immunostained with positive hair follicle stem cell markers like Anti- cytokeratin 15 (CK15) and Anti-cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and FITC conjugated and HRP conjugated secondary antibodies were used. Immunoreactivities for CK15 and CK19 were observed in the bulge/isthmus region of hair follicles in between the infundibulum and suprabulbar regions and occupied most part of the peripheral layer of outer root sheath cell. Immunophenotyping of canine Hair Follicle Stem Cells (cHFSCs) in the bulge region of hair follicle helps in confirmation of in vitro culture of cHFSCs from the bulge region which will be further used for translational research.

Title: Decline in Reproductive Performance in High Producing Murrah Buffalo
Abstract :
In the present investigation the average performance of various performance traits in Murrah buffaloes has been studied. Data on 1224 lactations of Murrah buffaloes scattered over 19 years from January 1993 to October 2011 maintained at organized herd of National Dairy Research Institute. A total of 522 buffaloes completed first lactation and 368, 226 and 108 animals completed second, third and fourth lactations, respectively. Following traits were studied, age at first calving (AFC), days to first service (DFS), service period (SP), pregnancy rate (PR), lactation length (LL), 305 days or less milk yield (305 DMY) and 305 days or less wet average (WA). Study revealed that average performance of AFC, DFS and SP was 43.97 ± 0.36 months, 90.10 ± 1.60 days and 139.91 ± 2.96 days. Overall average pregnancy rate was estimated as 0.36 ± 0.013 whereas it was found to be 0.34 ±
0.02, 0.39 ± 0.02, 0.33 ± 0.03, 0.38 ± 0.05 for first, second, third and fourth
parity, respectively in Murrah buffalo. The average performance of LL, 305 DMY, WA were estimated to be 284.38 ± 1.08 days, 2034.42 ± 20.79 kg and 7.29 ± 0.06 kg. It may be inferred that intense selection of buffalo for milk production if continued for long with giving due attention to reproductive traits then it is likely to cause deterioration in reproduction traits in days to come.
Title: Effect of Mitomycin-C Inactivation on Expression Pattern of Pluripotency Related Transcriptional Factors in Buffalo Fetal Fibroblasts and Wharton’s Jelly
Abstract :
Present study examined the effect of mitomycin-C (MMC) treatment on expression profi le of pluripotency genes (Oct-4, Sox-2 and Nanog) in buffalo fetal fi broblasts (BFFs) and Wharton’s jelly (BWJ) stem cells, generally used as a feeder cell support to grow the pluripotent stem cells. In a time dependent study, a variable response in relative mRNA expression of pluripotency genes was observed, expression of Oct-4 in BFF declined immediately post MMC inactivation but a signifi cant elevation (P<0.05) was noticed later on. The relative mRNA expression remained unchanged in BWJ, up to 24 h post MMC treatment and thereafter, it increased signifi cantly (P<0.05). A similar trend for the expression pattern of Sox-2 and Nanog was observed in both the cell types. MMC inactivation caused an upregulation in the expression of Sox-2 and Nanog in BFF while it remained unchanged (P>0.05) in BWJ. Results of this study suggests that MMC inactivation of the cells used as feeder support modulates the expression profi le of pluripotency genes and this alteration in gene expression pattern is variable in different cell types.
Title: Seasonal Prevalence and Antibiogram Profile of Bacterial Isolates from Bovine Mastitis
Abstract :
The current study examines the prevalence and seasonal occurrence of major bacterial pathogens and effect of different
antibiotics on bacteria isolated from 935 bovine mastitic milk samples in northern region of India for characterization and
culture sensitivity against different antibiotics. A major proportion of mastitis samples- 412 (44%) were recorded during rainy
season, while, samples in equal shares, 276 (28%) and 247 (27%) were documented in winter and summer seasons, respectively.
Out of total 935 mastitic milk samples, 889 (95%) samples showed microbial growth, while, 46 (5%) samples were found
negative for any bacterial growth. Among total isolated bacteria, Gram positive- 471 (53%) shared a major proportion, followed
by Gram negative 341 (38%), while a small part of 53 (6%) and 24 (2%) samples yielded mixed unidentifi ed cultures and Candida species, respectively. In antibiogram study, gentamicin (91.21%), ciprofl oxacin (89.60%), enrofl oxacin (88.28%) and tetracycline (71.30%) were found to be highly effective antibiotics, while, penicillin (86%), colistin (83.30%), cloxacillin (78.62%), amoxycillin (70.71%) and ampicillin (62.51%) showed least effect against both Gram positive and negative bacteria. The present study showed that there was close association between season, bacterial pathogens and occurrence of of bovine mastitis. Overall, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and E. coli contributed as major mastitis dweller bacteria.
Title: Surgical Management of Ruminal Impaction due to Indigestible Foreign Bodies in Cattle
Abstract :
A Nine year old cow was presented with the history of chronic recurrent tympany for the last 2 months. On rectal examination, foreign materials were palpated inside the rumen. Rumenotomy through le flank
approach using paravertebral nerve block was done. Around 10 kg of foreign materials were removed and the animal regained normalcy successfully.
Title: Antimicrobial Profile of Clostridium Perfringens Isolates from Dairy Products
Abstract :
The aim of the present study was to observe the antimicrobial profile of isolates of Cl. perfringens from pasteurized milk and milk products (icecream and shrikhand) against 16 antibiotics. Antimicrobial profile revealed that few drugs like amikacin, piperacillin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cephoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol were showing higher sensitivity. Antibiotics like erythromycin and gentamicin were displaying intermediate sensitivity. Drugs like tetracycline, ampicillin, penicillin, co-trimoxazole and cloaxacillin showed higher resistance. While, lincomycin was observed to be almost resistance to Cl. perfringens isolates.
Title: Detection of papC Genes From E. coli Isolates of Pork Origin
Abstract :
Thirty six E. coli isolates belonging to 18 serotypes and rough strains recovered from pork were evaluated for presence of papC gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The papC gene was detected in 12 (33.3%) isolates of E. coli (serogroups viz. O1, O5, O12, O24, O49, O75, O127 and O147), however, papC genes were not observed in rough strains of E. coli. The study suggests that pork may be a potential source of pathogenic E. coli with papC gene to humans.
Title: Effect of Heat Stress on Haemato-biochemical and Endocrinological Profile
Abstract :
Present study was planned to investigate the cause of postpartum true anoestrus in buffaloes during summer through the analysis of hemato-biochemical and endocrinological profile of anoestrus buffaloes. Blood samples were collected from 50 buffaloes belonging to two groups i.e. cyclic (n=10), and summer anoestrus buffaloes (n=40) animals respectively. The samples were analysed for haematological parameters including total erythrocytes count (TEC), total leukocytes count (TLC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration(MCHC), biochemical parameters viz., glucose, total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, alanine amino transaminaseand aspartate transaminase, calcium, phosphorus, manganese, zinc, copper cobalt and hormones of the plasma sample viz., progesterone, estradiol tri-iodothyronine (T3) thyroxine (T4) and cortisol using commercially available kits. The results revealed that Hb and MCH varied significantly (P<0.05) between the groups and other haematological parameters did not vary between two groups. In biochemical parameters glucose, total protein, albumin and total cholesterol were significantly (p<0.05) lower in anoestrus buffaloes than normal cyclic buffaloes and the progesterone, estradiol, tri-iodothyronine and the cortisol concentration varied significantly (P<0.05)between two groups. It can be concluded that variation in some hematobiochemical and hormonal levels might be the cause of the anoestrus during summer stress in buffaloes.
Title: Study of Prevalence of Arcobacter butzleri in Chicken Meat, Mutton, Chevon, Carabeef and Milk using Conventional PCR
Abstract :

The reports of prevalence of Arcobacter butzleri in mutton, chevon and cara beef are very rare in India. The foods of animal origin included in the present study are mutton, chevon and cara beef in addition to chicken meat and milk. A total of 154 samples viz. 23 for mutton, 20 for chevon and 10 for carabeef were collected from retail meat shops, Bareilly, U.P, India; 70 samples of chicken meat were collected from CARI, IVRI, Bareilly India and 30 milk samples were collected from various milk suppliers, vendors and dairy farms, Bareilly, India. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based screening was employed in this study to determine the prevalence of Arcobacter butzleri in the collected samples. PCR assays used in the present study were standardized as per the protocol of Houf et al. (2000). The optimised PCR assay gave an amplification product of 401 bp size in 18 samples out of 154 and it was specific only for Arcobacter butzleri and not for other related bacterial DNA’s tested like that of Arcobacter cryaerophilus, Arcobacter skirrow, C. jejuni, C. coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli. While 12 of chicken meat, 03 mutton, 01 chevon, 01 carabeef, 01 milk samples were positive by PCR giving the respective prevalence of 17.14%, 13.04%, 5%, 10% and 3.22%. The overall prevalence of Arcobacter butzleri in the screened samples was found to be 11.69%.

Title: Prevalence and Economic Significance of Hydatidosis in Cattle Slaughter at Debretabore Abattoir, North Gondar, Amhara region, Ethiopia
Abstract :
Hydatidosis, caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most important helminthzoonosis in the world. The distribution of hydatidosis is normally associated with underdeveloped countries, especially in rural communities where humans maintain close contact with dogs and various domestic animals, which may act as intermediate hosts. A crosssectional study on bovine hydatidosis was conducted in Debretabore municipality abattoir from July 2012 to September 2012 with the aim of investigating the prevalence and economic losses in cattle slaughtered for human consumption. Out of the total 384 cattle examined 106 (27.64%) were found infected with hydatidosis. From the examined animals 51 (13.28%), 34 (8.85%), 16 (4.17%) and 5(1.3%) contained hydatid cysts in their lungs, livers, hearts and kidneys respectively. Age related infection was signifi cant in that older animals were more infected (P<0.05). Assessments of hydatid cyst with body condition scoring were made; accordingly cattle with poor body condition scouring had higher prevalence (p= 54.72%), medium (33.02%) and fat (12.26%) were examined from infected animals. Plan based control measure against the source of infection of Hydatidosis should practice for decreasing tendencies in prevalence.
Title: Identification and In-silico Annotation of Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of the Candidate Gene Association with the Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor Disease
Abstract :
Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a histiocytic tumor of the dog that mainly affects the external genitalia, commonly found at tropical and subtropical zones. In the present investigation, we undertook this work mainly to perform a computational analysis of snSNP in the BTNL2 to identify the possible mutations and proposed the model structure of the mutant protein. Four deleterious mutations were identified in BTNL2 in 109 and 319 residual positions. Moreover, we constructed the homolgus structure of native and mutant proteins to predicate the stability. I-Mutant was used for routine analysis of protein stability and for the single site mutation analysis. It was found that mutation of L to S at residual position 109 and A to T at 319 residue position has shown maximum negative effect on the protein stability and considered for further analysis. The mutational effect on the protein function was analyzed by project HOPE. It was found that the wild-type residue is very conserved, but a few other residue types have been
observed at this position too. Based on conservation scores this mutation is probably damaging to the protein. The present investigation was further used for molecular expect of the CTVT infection which might be useful in diagnosis and prevention of CTVT in canine.
Title: Fracture Occurrence Pattern in Animals
Abstract :
The overall incidence of fracture was recorded as 0.95 per cent for all species of animals. The incidence of fracture in dog was 0.76 per cent. Dog was observed as the most common species presented with a fracture followed by goat and other species. The mean age was recorded to be 26.32±5.14 months. Fifteen animals (78.95%) were noticed in age group of 12-36 months. Majority of animals were non-descript (42.10%). Fracture was recorded more in male animals (77.78%). An automobile accident (42.10%) emerged to be the major cause of fracture, whereas a fall from height (31.58%) was second common cause of fracture.
The femur was found to be the most common bone (47.37%) involved in the fracture, seconded by tibia-fi bula (36.84%), which was followed by radius-ulna (15.79 %). The radiographic examination conducted in two orthogonal views revealed that 14 (73.68%) fractures were multiple whereas, 5 (26.32%) fractures were comminuted
Title: Effect of Eugenol (Eugenia Aromatica) Treatment and Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) on Storage Stability of Chicken Noodles during Storage at 35±2°C Temperature
Abstract :
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eugenol treatment and modifi ed atmospheres (50 % N2 + 50 % CO2) packaging (MAP) on the storage stability of chicken noodles stored at 35 ± 2°C for 90 days. A total four treatments were assigned (i) control aerobic (C-AP), (ii) eugenol treated aerobic (ET-AP), (iii) control MAP (C-MAP), and (iv) eugenol and MAP treated (ET-MAP). All samples were evaluated for changes in pH, water activity (aw), antioxidant activity, Lovibond tintometer colour (L, a*, b*), texture profi les, sensory attributes, lipid stability and microbial quality. ET-MAP packaging were significantly (p<0.05) infl uenced oxidative stability of noodle samples. ET-AP and ET-MAP treated samples shown to had higher (p>0.05 antioxidant activity. The standard plate count (SPC) of noodle samples was higher for both aerobic and MAP controls. ET-MAP samples were exhibited greater antioxidant activity and sensory scores but lower SPC and water activity than other samples.
Title: Comparative Efficacy of PercollTM Discontinuous Density Gradient Centrifugation and Glass Wool Filtration Techniques for Spermatozoa Selection in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
Abstract :

Dead and damaged spermatozoa cells present universally in the ejaculates of all eutherian mammals exert toxic effect on contemporary healthy cells mostly through generation of excessive free radicals. This is much more evident during extended period of processing, resulting in poor ejaculate quality. The solution lies in depletion of dead/damaged spermatozoa from the neat ejaculates itself. Thus the objective of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of the protocols such as discontinuous PercollTM density gradient centrifugation (PDGC) and glass wool filtration (GWF) for depletion of dead/damaged spermatozoa from fresh semen in buffalo. Random ejaculates (n=6) of Murrah buffalo bulls were divided into two aliquots after quality assessment: PDGC and GWF protocols (Group I and II, respectively). At the end of the purification protocol, efficiency of the protocols in depleting dead/damaged spermatozoa as reflected by certain quality parameters were evaluated. The mean efficiency (%) of purification protocols based on recovery of spermatozoa was 44.68 and 40.02% for PDGC and GWF, respectively. Moreover significantly (p<0.05) greater values for quality parameters was observed in the Group II (26.4+6.8 vs 68.8+4.4 for acrosome integrity (%); 12.68+6.6 vs 57.7+7.5 for functional plasma membrane integrity (%); 20.3+5.8 vs 80.75+6.7 for viability (%) in Group I and II, respectively). It was concluded that GWF is a better technique than PGDC to filter out dead/damaged spermatozoa from fresh semen with improvement in semen quality and can be a valuable tool in assisted reproductive technology.

Title: Immune Response of Yak (Poephagus grunniens) Following Trivalent Oil Adjuvant FMD Vaccination Along With Immunomodulator
Abstract :
The present investigation was carried out to determine the immunomodulatory effcet of Levamisole on antibody response in
yaks using liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LPBE) following trivalent oil adjuvant FMD vaccine (O, A, Asia-1). Twenty numbers of apparently healthy and young yaks were divided into two groups viz. groups I and II comprising of 10 animals in each group. All the animals of groups I and II were treated with a single dose of broad spectrum anthelmintic, fenbendazole orally prior to vaccination. The animals of group II were injected with Levamisol, six days prior and after FMD vaccination. On 30 days of post vaccination (dpv), there was a sharp rise to the antibody titres against all the 3 serotypes in animals of both the groups and the protective antibody level (log 10 ≥ 1.8) was maintained up to 90 dpv. A drastic fall of antibody titres against all the 3 serotypes was observed at 120 dpv in animals of both the groups. However, the protective antibody titre against the three serotypes at 180 dpv was maintained in few of the animals of the experimental group II but in Group I the protective titre was found up to 150 dpv only.
Title: Effect of Aminoguanidine-Hemisulphate on Amikacin Induced Hematological Alterations in Wistar Rats
Abstract :
In the present study, haematological alterations induced by intraperitoneal administration of amikacin and the effect of aminoguanidine-hemisulphate alone and their combination was studied in wistar rats of either sex.Twenty-four healthy wistar rats divided into 4 groups (I, II, IIIand IV) were taken for the study. The intraperitoneal administration of amikacinat at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg body weight for 28 days (Group-II) caused a significant decrease in haematological parameters like Hb, PCV, TEC and TLC as compared to control-group. Although a significant increase in parameters was found in aminoguanidine treated-rats on day 15th and 29th as compared to day zero within same group. However after the co-administration of amikacin and aminoguanidine, a non-significant change was found in same parameters (Hb, TEC, PCV and TLC) as compared to control.
Title: Toxinotyping of Clostridium perfringens in Poultry from Necrotic Enteritis Cases
Abstract :

Clostridium perfringens is well known causative agent of necrotic enteritis in poultry and is mainly caused by Type A toxin. NetB toxin is found to be one of the newly emerging virulent toxin gene which is also responsible for necrotic enteritis. The present study was carried out to characterize and to type the different toxins associated with C. perfringens in NE cases of poultry. For the present study total 125 samples were collected from poultry birds, out of which 50 samples were of intestinal content from diseased birds, 50 cloacal swabs and 25 intestinal content from healthy birds. These samples were further processed for isolation, identification, and toxinotyping of Clostridium perfringens isolates. Onisolation of C. perfringens on blood agar total 43 isolates were found positive showing a pattern of double hemolysis on blood agar. The positive isolates of C. perfringens were further confirmed by using 16S rRNA species specific PCR. After confirmation isolates were processed for toxinotyping mainly targeting cpa, cpb and cpb2 toxins by using multiplex PCR. On toxinotyping it was found that NE in poultry birds were mainly caused by C. perfringens type A. On virulent gene detection of netB toxin, total 4 isolates were found positive for netB toxin. This study pointed out that C. perfringens type A is responsible for development of NE in poultry along with net B toxin which is a new key virulent factor. Further studies of netB toxoid and C. perfringens type A for vaccine production could minimize the clostridial problems in broiler farms.

Title: Investigating the Effect of Meat Level and Processing Conditions on Quality Characteristics of Extruded Chicken Meat Noodles Using Response Surface Methodology
Abstract :
A three factor three level central composite design was adopted to determine interactive effects of meat level (55-65%), steaming time (12-18 minutes) and drying time (7-9 hrs) on pH, moisture, protein content, fat content and other quality characteristics (Hardness, adhesiveness, total colour change and overall acceptability) of extruded chicken noodles. Moisture, protein, fat level and total colour change was found to be increased with increase in meat level while decreased with increasing processing conditions. However hardness decreased with increasing interaction of meat level and steaming time while increased with interaction of meat level and drying time and inverse were true for adhesiveness. Overall acceptability and pH had negative correlation with interactions. pH showed increasing trend with increase in processing conditions. The models for moisture, pH, protein, fat percentage, allokramer hardness, adhesiveness, total colour change and overall acceptability had the R square values of 0.91, 0.81, 0.83, 0.81, 0.87, 0.91, 0.82 and 0.94, respectively. 120 g (60%) meat level, 15 min steaming time and 9 hrs drying time were found to be optimized level on the basis of desirability plots for the development of chicken noodles.
Title: Effect of Dietary Combination of Probiotics and Prebiotic on Performance Indices and Haematological Parameters in Pearl Guinea Fowls (Numida meleagris)
Abstract :

The study aims to evaluate the effects of a commercial probiotics and prebiotic combination on performance indices and haematological parameters of guinea fowls. A total of forty (n=40) day-old pearl guinea fowls raised to 12-week-old were used for the study. The fowls were wing-banded, weighed individually and randomly allocated into two groups of 20 fowls each, with each having two replicates. Experimental fowls were fed grower diet supplemented with 0.5 g of probiotics and prebiotic combination per kg feed for 8 weeks, while the control fowls were fed a grower diet that was not supplemented. Feed consumption and water intake were recorded daily, chest circumference, body weight, percentage weigh gain and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly, while blood samples were collected in the last week of the experiment to evaluate the haematological parameters. All birds were kept under similar environmental, managerial and hygienic conditions. The results revealed that experimental fowls had significantly (P < 0.05) higher feed consumption, water intake, total protein, packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb), but lower total leucocyte count (TLC) compared with control. No significant difference was observed in other haematological parameters and performance indices between the two groups. In conclusion, 0.5 g/kg diet of prebiotics and probiotic combination improved erythropoiesis and nutritional status of guinea fowls; however, the results of performance indices suggest that this dose may not be optimum, thus necessitating the need for more research using other dosages.

Title: Cytotoxic and Anticancer Activity of F. Racemosa Fruit Extract on MCF7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line by SRB Method
Abstract :

Present study was aimed to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and anticancer activity of F. racemosa on MCF7 human breast cancer cell line. Effect of ethanolic extracts of tender fruits of F. racemosa on MCF7 human breast cancer cell lines by Sulphorodamine B (SRB) assay was carried out. Three observations viz. LC50, TGI, GI 50 were recorded. The absorbance was recorded on an Elisa plate reader at a wavelength of 540 nm with 690 nm. F. racemosa showed LC50, TGI and GI50 activity at ≥ 80 μg/ ml concentration. Thus, it can be concluded that F. racemosa fruit extract hassome cytotoxic and anticancer activity (in vitro)at ≥ 80 μg/ ml concentration of plant extract on MCF7 human breast cancer cell line.

Title: NEWS
Abstract :



Associateship of National Academy of Dairy Science (India) was conferred to Dr. Vikas Vohra, Senior Scientist, National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, Karnal (Haryana) on 26th May 2014.

Title: Effect of Garlic and Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on Production Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Immunological Parameters of Guinea Fowls
Abstract :

A study was conducted on 120 guinea fowls to see the effect of garlic powder and chromium picolinate supplementation on growth performance, carcass characteristics and immunological parameters of guinea fowls. The birds were randomly divided into four treatment groups, having three replications consisting of ten birds each. The birds in the control group (T1) were not given any supplement, whereas, in treatments, birds were supplemented with garlic powder @ 1 % of basal diet (T2), chromium picolinate @ 1500 ppb in drinking water (T3) and chromium picolinate @ 1000 ppb in drinking water plus garlic powder @ 0.5 % of basal diet (T4) respectively. Results of trial indicated that both garlic and chromium picolinate supplementation improved body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (P<0.05) of Guinea fowls. Feed intake of birds was also found reduced (P<0.05) in all treatment groups in comparison to control. At the end of twelve week of age, the carcass traits-eviscerated weight with and without giblet and organ weights did not differ significantly between treatment groups. The abdominal fat expressed as percentage of live weight was significantly lower (P<0.05) in all treatment groups as compared to control group. Immune response as revealed by delayed type of hypersensitivity (measurement of skin thickness) and serum immunoglobulin were improved in all the three supplemented groups. Thus it can be concluded that both chromium and garlic supplementation can improve growth performance and immunity and thus can be used as growth promoters in poultry.

Title: Sialic Acid Content in Colostrum of Two Cross Breed Dairy Goat: Effect of Breed and Lactation
Abstract :
The present study aims to investigate the sialic acid content in colostrum of two crossbred goats, Sannen ×× Beetal and Alpine × Beetal, and to compare the effect of milking time on the sialic acid content between the breeds. Colostrum samples were collected from all the animals, at an interval of 12 hours, beginning at kidding
till 72 hours thereafter. The sialic acid concentrations were estimated from the processed colostrum samples by fluorimetric method. The sialic acid content in colostrum of Alpine × Beetle and Sannen × Beetle goats ranged from 0.19 to 1.03 and 0.17 to 0.98 mg/ml, respectively. Sialic acid concentrations of colostrum in both the breeds were higher at 0 hour of milking and a gradual decrease in their levels was observed till 72 hours of milking. The mean ± S.E. sialic acid concentrations of Alpine × Beetal colostrum at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than their respective values for Sannen × Beetle colostrum. This study indicated that the breed and milking time have significant effect on sialic acid concentration of goat’s colostrum.
Title: Short Term Changes in Teats Following Machine Milking with Respect to Quarter Health Status in Cows
Abstract :
The procedures and practices associated with milking are critically important and people now-a-days are switching over to machine milking to save time and money. Milking equipments if properly maintained have a positive impact on both milk production and milk quality. However, if the equipments are not used as per the recommended standard values it may have some untoward effects on udder health. In the present study the short term effect of machine milking on teats and their relationship with quarter health status was conducted on a total of 872 quarters of 218 apparently healthy lactating cows at 10 machine milked dairy farms of Punjab. The short term effects of machine milking on teats i.e., change in colour and morphology were seen in 22.9 percent (177) and 17.43 percent (152) of teats, respectively. There was no signifi cant relationship between teat colour change and occurrence of mastitis (χ2=1.13; 01 df; P < 0.05). Out of the 177 quarters showing colour change 76 (42.9 percent) quarters showed morphological changes. A signifi cant relationship was observed between change in colour and morphology of teats, immediately after milking (χ2= 84.95; 01 df; P < 0.001).
Title: Serum Haptoglobin Concentration to Monitor Recovery from Postpartum Sub-Clinical Endometritis in Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :
A total of 150 postpartum apparently healthy buffaloes were screened. Out of these 30 buffaloes were found to be positive for sub-clinical endometritis were selected and divided into five groups. The group wise treatment allotted were: Group I (cloprostenol,), Group II (cloprostenol + benzathine cephapirin, single I/U infusion),
Group III (100 ìg E. coli LPS, single I/U infusion), Group IV (500 mg Oyster glycogen, single I/U infusion) and Group V (0.25% Lugol’s iodine 20 ml, single I/U infusion). All the animals were subjected to trans-rectal ultrasonography, endometrial cytology, microbial assay and blood sampling for serum haptoglobin concentration before and after treatment. Total viable bacteria count revealed non-significant (p > 0.05) difference within pre- and post-treatment samples between different treatment groups. Post-treatment total viable bacteria count significantly (p < 0.05) reduced to zero in treatment groups III and IV. Out of 30 pre-treatment uterine lavage samples obtained from all the treatment groups, 25 (83.33%) samples were found positive. E. coli 08 (30.76%) was highly prevalent followed by 07 (26.92%) Staphylococcus spp., 03 (11.53%) Streptococcus spp.,
03 (11.53%) Proteusspp., 03 (11.53%) Acinetobacter spp. and 01 (07.69%) Bacillusspp. Serum haptoglobin concentration in different treatment groups ranged from 76.62 ± 1.58 to 85.83 ± 2.12 ìg/ml prior to treatment and 26.37 ± 0.86 to 42.57 ± 9.08 ìg/ml post-treatment. Significant reduction (p < 0.05) was observed in haptoglobin concentration between pre- and post-treatment values in all the treatment groups. It was concluded that assessment of haptoglobin concentration in sub-clinical endometritic postpartum buffaloes can be used to monitor course of treatment at different points of time.
Title: Prenatal Development of the Lingual Intrinsic Skeletal Musculature, Lingual and Von Ebners Glands of the Tongue in Goat Foetii (Capra hircus)
Abstract :
The present study conducted on the tongue of 18 goat foetii revealed that the differentiation of skeletal muscle was first noticed among the mesenchymal cells at 40 days of foetal age (CRL = 3. 40 cm). These were better differentiated at 62 days of gestational age (CRL=10.0cm) and showed continued gradual development with advancing foetal age. The typical cross striations in the lingual intrinsic skeletal muscles was first observed at 121days of foetal age (CRL = 27.50cm). The first appearance of lingual gland in the tongue of the goat foetii was observed at 62 days of gestation (CRL = 10.10 cm) and the first indication of appearance of Von- Ebner’s gland was observed in the tongue of goat foetii at 120 days ( CRL= 31.1 cm).
Title: Gross Morphological and Morphometrical Studies on Heart of Chital (Axis axis)
Abstract :
The study was conducted on hearts with attached root of major trunks collected from four, approximately 3 years old chital,
brought for post-mortem examination at Centre for Wildlife Forensic and Health, Jabalpur. The heart was washed thoroughly,
weighed (353.75 ± 2.39 gm) and then fi xed in 10% buffered formalin. The right surface was formed mostly by the right ventricle
and a small part by left. About one third of left surface was formed by the right ventricle and the remaining by the left ventricle.
Cranial border was convex measuring 17.35 ± 0.15 cm. However caudal border was short and 10.65 ± 0.06 cm in length. It is
nearly straight and entirely formed by left ventricle. The right and left longitudinal grooves continued with each other at the right side of cranial border and this point of meeting was 2.89 ± 0.04 cm above the apex of the heart. Circumference of heart at coronary groove was 24.12 ± 0.42 cm. Externally the number of serration at edges of appendix of left atrium was deeper and more than the right. Internally in right ventricle three papillary muscles were observed while in left ventricle these were two in number. In right ventricle one unbranched moderator band was observed however in left ventricle these were two in number.
Title: Comparative Efficacy of Different Binders in the Development of Chicken Meat Cutlets
Abstract :
Present study was envisaged to assess the effi cacy of different binders viz. 3% refi ned wheat fl our (T1) and 3% rice fl our (T2) replacing lean meat in the preparation of chicken meat cutlets. The developed products as well as control were assessed for various physico-chemical, instrumental texture and colour profi le, and sensory evaluation. L* values were comparable for T1 and T2 but were signifi cantly (P<0.05) lower than control. The hardness values differ signifi cantly (P<0.05) in treatments than control and recorded highest for T2 and lowest for control. The springiness of the T1 was signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher as compared to T2 but was comparable to control. The juiciness score were signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher for treatments as compared to control. Overall acceptability of cutlets with refi ned wheat fl our (T1) was signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher than control and comparable with T2. Thus it can be concluded that chicken cutlet with 3% refi ned wheat fl our was found optimum.
Title: Effect of Azolla Supplementation on Growth, Immunocompetence and Carcass Characteristics of Commercial Broilers
Abstract :
One hundred and twenty, one week old, Cobb 400 broiler chickens were randomly distributed into three dietary treatments having four replicates each with ten birds. The birds of the control group (T1) were fed a basal diet (23.16% CP 1-3 weeks & 19.68% CP 3-6 weeks) while the other two groups were offered the treatment diets (T2& T3) replacing 4.50% or 5.50%, of the dry matter of the basal diet with dry Azolla pinnata powder on dry matter basis, respectively. Feeding azolla meal did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the weekly body weight gain of the birds during the experimental period. Total immunoglobulins and mercaptoethanol sensitive (IgM) antibody titer (log 2) values in response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the birds fed T3 diet compared to the other two dietary treatments at 6 weeks of age. Cell mediated immune response i.e. in vivo cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity response to lectin phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-P) determined as foot web index was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the T3 birds compared to the other two dietary treatments. Dressing percentage was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T2 compared to the other two treatment groups.
However, there was no significant difference among the treatment groups in the other carcass traits. Thus, it may be inferred that replacement of basal diet with dry Azolla pinnata meal on dry matter basis did not adversely affect the growth and carcass characteristics. Moreover, Azolla pinnata possesses promising immunomodulatory potential in commercial broilers.
Title: Novel Granulocytic Colony Stimulating Factor-based Therapy for Morbidity Reduction in Pancytopenic Dogs with Babesia gibsoni
Abstract :

Vector borne pancytopenia is emerging as a life threatening entity in animals. In India babesiosis is one among the most prevalent tick-borne parasitic diseases of dogs caused by either Babesia gibsoni or Babesia canis. Bleeding due to thrombocytopenia and the concurrent anaemia and leukopenia were difficult to manage. This study assessed the efficacy of Filgrastim in pancytopenia associated with Babesia gibsoni in dogs presented to the Small Animal Medicine Referral Clinic, Madras Veterinary College. The therapeutic practices included Injection Filgrastim @ 10 µg/kg, SC, SID in combination with the standard triple therapy to manage the pancytopenia and the infection. Twenty numbers of PCR positive Babesia gibsoni dogs were used for this study. The animals were divided in to two groups based on therapeutic practices. First group consisted of dogs treated with triple therapy and the second group consisted of dogs treated and evaluated with Filgrastim along with triple therapy. The study showed that there was a significant increase in leukocyte count in Filgrastim treated group when compared to the other group. Integration of G-CSF along with standard triple therapy helped in better survival in pancytopenic dogs with Babesia gibsoni.

Title: Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Desi Chickens in Andhra Pradesh
Abstract :

A total of 150 cloacal swabs were collected from desi chickens, 217 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were identified. The phenotypic antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae was studied for 14 selected antibiotics by disc diffusion method. The selection of antibiotics was based on usage of antibiotics in commercial poultry farms and also based on priority of critically important antibiotics in humans. All Enterobacteriaceae isolates were subjected to multiplex PCR - I and II for detection of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaOXA genes and blaCTX-M, group 1 and 2 genes. Predominant β- Lactamase genes in gut microbiota of desi chicken include blaTEM (90.55%) followed by blaCTX-M group I (25.86%) and blaSHV (9.44%) genes. All the samples were found to be negative for blaOXA and blaCTX-M group 2 genes.

Title: Phenotypic Characteristics of Indigenous Goat of Bundelkha
Abstract :

This experiment was undertaken to know the phenotypic characteristics of indigenous goat. The study was conducted to investigate morphometric characters of goat in four different blocks Charkhari, Jaitpur, Panwari and Kabrai of Mahoba. Characteristics of body weight, body length, heart girth, wither height, fore leg length; hind leg length, head length, ear length, ear width, horn length etc were collected from mature goat. The results indicate that the average litter size, birth weight, weaning weight and body weight gain were comparatively higher in goat of Jaitpur than those of other three blocks. The average numbers of service/conception, post partum heat period (days), age at first heat (days), age at first kidding (days), kidding interval (days), gestation length were 1.45, 49.96, 347.11, 538.03, 358.92, 150.82 respectively in Jaitpur block flock which were comparatively better than the other three blocks. The average litter size, birth weight male, female (kg), weaning weight (kg), body weight gain (g), milk yield (kg) and lactation length in Jaitpur block flock were 1.65, 1.40, 1.16, 6.31, 52.09, 100.38 and 155.96 consequently. The average milk composition of fat, protein, lactose, SNF and mineral were 5.5, 3.9, 5.7, 10.9 and 0.7, respectively in all block. The overall performance of the goat of Jaitpur block flock were comparatively better than the others which may be due to the result of selective breeding, improve feeding, housing, health management etc.

Title: Quality Characteristics of Chicken Meat Cutlets Incorporated with Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) Flour
Abstract :

In view of continuously growing demand of snacks foods worldwide due to rapid changing lifestyle, industrialization and urbanization, the present study was conducted to standardize the incorporation level of finger millet flour for preparation of chicken meat cutlets. Chicken meat cutlets were prepared with different levels of finger millet flour viz. 5, 10, and 15%, and different levels by replacing the lean meat in chicken cutlets formulation. The optimum (mention) level of finger millet was standardized as 5% for incorporation in chicken meat cutlets. Crude fiber and calcium content of chicken cutlets prepared with finger millet flour was significantly higher as compared to control thereby depicting marked improvement in the desirable food trait with health benefits. The product yield of chicken meat cutlets with optimized level of finger millet flour was significantly higher as compared to control. It did not show significant effect on any of the sensory parameters. Storage stability of aerobically packaged chicken meat cutlets with optimum level (mention level) of finger millet flour along with control was further evaluated during refrigerated storage (4±1oC) at regular intervals of 0, 3, 6 and 9 days with respect to physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics. Chicken meat cutlets could be stored safely in aerobic packaging for 6 days at refrigeration condition (4±1oC).

Title: Leptospirosis in Bovines: Haematobiochemical and Urine Analysis Studies
Abstract :
Keeping in view the clinical importance of leptospirosis haematobiochemical and urine analysis were carried out on 500
(cattle-398, buffalo-102) blood/serum and 304 (cattle-232, buffalo-72) urine samples of both seropositive (cattle-51, buffalo-16) and seronegative (cattle-347, buffalo-86) animals from different district of South Gujarat region. A signifi cant decrease in the values of PCV, MCH and MCHC was noted in seropositive group of cattle in comparison to seronegative group. Such difference among seropositive and seronegative groups could not be recorded in buffaloes. The mean values of ALT, AST and bilirubin registered an increase at signifi cant level in seropositive cattle in comparison to seronegative. Among buffaloes, the mean values of ALT increased and total protein decreased signifi cantly (P <0.05) in seropositive buffaloes in comparison to seronegative buffaloes. On urine analyses (n=304; cattle=232, buffaloes=72) hardly any signifi cant difference was noted in various parameter studied in either species in seropositive and seronegative animals. All the urine samples (304) collected were subjected to Dark Field Microscopy (DFM) proved to be negative for leptospires
Title: Metabolic Profiling of Normal and Lame Karan Fries Cows and its Association with Lameness during Transition Period
Abstract :

In high yielding dairy cows, one of the major cause of lameness during transition period is the altered nutritional status of pregnant animal. Concentrations of essential nutrients get varied and often decrease around calving due to physiological factors and thus extra-supplementation is recommended in these animals. Blood measures are frequently used in assessment of the vital nutrients for predicting the risk of lameness during this period. The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of healthy and lame Karan Fries (KF) cows and their association with lameness score during transition period. For this fifteen high-yielding crossbreed (KF) healthy cows and fifteen high yielding crossbreed (KF) lame cows were randomly selected from the Livestock Research Centre (LRC) of National Diary Research Institute, Karnal for pooled blood sample collection. Samples were collected 60d, 15d pre-partum, on the day of calving, and 60d, 15d post-partum. The results revealed that the mean plasma biotin, zinc (below critical level) and calcium (within range) levels were significantly lower (P<0.05) in lame KF cows while β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations was significantly higher, however no significant difference in plasma copper, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations was found in lame cows as compared to normal KF cows during this period. There was also significant (P<0.05) variation of blood biochemical profiles (glucose, NEFA and BHBA) and plasma biotin concentration among different lameness scores (1-5) whereas no relation of mineral profiles (calcium, zinc and copper) was seen with lameness score.

Title: Prevalence and Economic Significance of Cystic Hydatidosis: Bovine at Kombolcha Elfora Industrial Abattoir, North Wollo, Ethiopia
Abstract :
A cross-sectional study design was conducted out from July 2014 to September 2015 Kombolcha ELFORA industrial abattoir to assess the prevalence of hydatid cyst in slaughtered cattle through post mortem inspection procedure of visualization, palpation and incision of vital organs. During study period there were 384 cattle examined by random sampling data collection method. Among 384 examined slaughtered in the abattoir 53 (13.8%) were found harboring hydatid cyst. There were variation in prevalence rate among different geographical location could be do to strain difference of echinoccus granulosus that exist in different geographical location, culture of people, social activities and probably physiological activities of cattle, health condition and duration of exposure time were contributed for infestation. Hydatid cyst were predominantly in lung and liver representing 10% and 6% respectively, because the lung and liver posses greater capillary field which allows these organs efficiently filter the ingestion oncospher from blood liver and lung undergo sequential which is followed by pulmonary filtration action before other are invaded. Higher percentage of hydatid cyst in the lung compared to liver because lung tissue has soft consistency relatively lower reticulo endothelial cell and less abundant connected tissue.
Title: Effect of Ovsynch Estrus Synchronization Protocol on Certain Mineral Profile of Cyclic Murrah Buffaloes in Summer and Winter Season
Abstract :
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Ovsynch estrus synchronization protocol on plasma Zn, Cu, Ca and P levels in cyclic Murrah buffaloes during summer and winter season. The buffaloes were categorized in to two groups: 1) summer (n = 20) and, 2) winter (n = 18). Estrus cycle of buffaloes were synchronized with Ovsynch protocol (Pursley et al. 1995) as per standard procedure followed by artificial insemination (AI) at 8 and 24hrs after second GnRH treatment. The blood samples were collected on the day of start of protocol (d0) and day of AI (dAI) for the estimation of minerals concentration. The pregnancy was confirmed through
sonography on day 45 post-AI. Levels of Zn were lower (P<0.05) in summer as compared to winter season (1.0 ± 0.1 vs. 1.5 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.1 vs. 1.9 ± 0.1 ppm, respectively) whereas Cu, Ca and P levels showed no seasonal variation. Pregnant and Non-pregnant buffaloes had significant lower (P<0.05) concentration of Zn on d0 and AI in summer as compared to winter season (0.9 ± 0.1 vs 1.6 ± 0.2 and 1.2 ± 0.2 vs. 1.7 ± 0.1ppm, respectively and1.1 ± 0.1 vs. 1.5 ± 0.1 ; 1.3 ± 0.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.1 ppm, respectively). The pregnant and non-pregnant buffaloes exhibited similar mineral profiles in both seasons. In conclusion, plasma mineral concentrations remain lower during summer as compared to winter season in buffaloes that could be responsible for lower fertility in summer.


Title: Effect of Cellulolytic Enzymes and Probiotics on Growth Performance of Broiler Rabbits
Abstract :
Administration of enzymes and Probiotics in fattening rabbits improved growth performance and reduced the morbidity and mortality rate. Apart from Probiotics, enzymes are most important protein molecules which catalyze and improve acceleration of feed digestion. Therefore, keeping the above points in view the present study was undertaken to study the effect of enzymes
and probiotics on body weight gain, feed efficiency and digestibility of nutrients. Thirty weaned healthy broiler rabbits with comparable body weights were selected and randomly allotted into three dietary treatments (T1, T2 and T3) of 10 animals each. The effect of enzymes and probiotics on growth performance of broiler rabbits was studied. During the 12th weeks feeding
trial, the cumulative daily weight gain of rabbits were 19.30 ± 2.52, 20.25 ± 2.46 and 19.70 ± 2.56 g /day/rabbit under T1, T2 and T3 respectively. It was observed that there was signifi cant (p < 0.05) difference between enzyme and control group. The average weekly body weight gain recorded at the end of the trial (during 12thweek) was 2097.5 ± 65, 2177.2 ± 77 and 2131.10
± 70 g rabbit under T1, T2 and T3 respectively. It was observed that there was highly signifi cant (p < 0.01) difference between enzyme and control group. Addition of enzymes helps in improving the body weight gain. Hence, can be added to rabbit feed. The following recommendations can be made from the present study that enzyme and probiotics play a very important role in development of immunity against diseases.
Title: Role of Rural Women in Decision Making Process Regarding Livestock Management
Abstract :
Livestock is generally considered a key asset for rural livelihoods. Rural women play critical, diverse roles in livestock production in the rural economies of developing countries as unpaid workers. They embark on various activities of livestock management like watering and feeding of animals, cleaning activities and milking. However, their involvement as decision makers regarding various livestock activities is still dubious. Hence the present study was conducted to determine the contribution of rural women in decision-making in livestock management. A sample of 100 female respondents was selected randomly from fi ve villages of Kathua district of Jammu and Kashmir through multistage random sampling technique. Scrutiny of the data shows that rural women’s participation was relatively high in activities like care of new born calf, care of sick animals, cleaning activities, produce and feeding of animals. However, their participation was relatively low in activities like sale of animals, breeding of animals, fodder harvesting, cultivation and maintenance of animals’ sheds. Male dominance and traditional belief system were the main factors which had affected the involvement of rural women in decision making process
Title: Genetic Polymorphism of Myostatin (MSTN) Gene in Sheep Breeds
Abstract :

Myostatin (MSTN) is one of the most important growth regulatory genes that resulted in higher growth of skeletal muscles in livestock species. So the study was undertaken to identify the polymorphism of myostatin (MSTN) gene as a genetic marker for growth traits in Madras Red, Mecheri and Nilagiri sheep breeds of Tamil Nadu. The blood samples were collected from unrelated animals of Madras Red (n = 127), Mecheri (n = 101) and Nilagiri (103) breeds of sheep from different agroclimatic regions of Tamil Nadu. Part of 5’UTR, exon 1 and part of intron 1 (797 bp) of MSTN gene was amplified with suitable primers. The amplified products were digested with the Msp I and Hae III restriction enzymes. But both the PCR-RFLP results of Msp I and Hae III was found to be monomorphic in all the three breeds of sheep indicating that the MSTN gene is highly conserved and of use in evolutionary studies

Title: Effect of Carrot Powder on the Quality Attributes of Fibre-Enriched Spent Hen Meat Cutlets
Abstract :
The present study was envisaged to develop fibre-enriched chicken meat cutlets with the incorporation of carrot powder. Chicken meat cutlets incorporating four levels of carrot powder viz. 0% (control), 2.0 % (T1), 4.0% (T2) and 6.0% (T3), were prepared by replacing lean meat with carrot powder in the basic formulation of chicken meat cutlets. The developed cutlets were evaluated for various parameters such as proximate, physicochemical, instrumental texture and colour profile, and sensory attributes. The moisture, dietary fibre, cooking yield increased significantly (P<0.05) whereas fat content decreased significantly with the increasing levels of carrot powder. The dimensional parameters were better maintained in the treated groups than control. Hardness value of the cutlet increased significantly (P<0.05) upon the incorporation of carrot powder and the values for T2 and T3 were significantly higher (P<0.05) than T1. Increasing trend was also observed in a* values with increase in the incorporation level of carrot powder which might be due to red colour of carrot powder. The overall acceptability scores of the chicken meat cutlet with 4% carrot powder was significantly (P<0.05) higher than control and other treatment products.
Title: Hospital Prevalence of Canine Hemolytic Anemia in Punjab
Abstract :
The present study was conducted on anemic dogs presented to the small animal clinics of the department of Veterinary Medicine GADVASU Ludhiana, Punjab from September 2014 to August 2015. Total number of the cases screened randomly in this period were 1749 and among them 214 cases were having haemolytic anemia and the prevalence was 12.25%. The most prevalent causes of haemolytic agent was Ehrlichia canis in this study followed by Babesia gibsoni, primary immune-mediated haemolytic anemia, neoplasia, Babesia canis and toxicity.
Title: Contribution of Carcass Cuts in Meat Production of Kadaknath, Aseel and Vanraja Breeds of Chicken
Abstract :

A comparative study was conducted to find out the differences in contribution of carcass cuts in meat production from indigenous breeds such as Vanraja, Aseel and Kadaknath breeds with respect to a broiler strain, Cobb-400. The primal cuts of Cobb-400 had significantly (P<0.05) higher weight than all indigenous breeds. Among indigenous breeds Aseel exhibited higher weight of all primal cuts except neck while lowest values were recorded in Kadaknath with the exception of wing and breast. The highest weight cut was breast in Cobb-400 and Kadaknath while in Vanraja and Aseel, the maximum values were observed for leg. Neck was recorded as lowest weight cut in all chicken breeds.

Title: Study on Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Bovine and Human Schistosomiasis in Bahir Dar and its Surrounding Areas
Abstract :
The study was conducted from November 2010 to March 2011 in Bahir Dar and its surrounding areas, north-western Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence of Bovine schistosomosis and its associated risk factors. A cross sectional study was conducted on coproscopical, abattoir examination to bovine schistosomosis and retrospective study three years health institution record to assess human schistosomiasis. A total of 400 cattle were examined, 300 cattle for field survey and 100 cattle for abattoir survey. From the 300 cattle, 24.3 %( n=73) were found for schistosoma bovis on coproscopic examination. The prevalence of schistosomosis with regarded to body conditions was found 10.3% (poor), 12.3% (medium) and 1.7% (good) and has also statistically signifi cant difference (p= 0.00). The prevalence of the disease was higher in local breed cattle (24.9%) than cross breed cattle (Local x Holstein-Friesian) (18.52%). The prevalence of the disease in was higher in extensive management system (25.18%) than semi-intensive management system (15.38%). However it has no statistically significant difference (P=0.201) between the two management systems. In the second part of the study, 100 cattle slaughtered at Bahir Dar municipal abattoir were examined. Out of these 22 % (n=22) harbored Schistosoma bovis in their mesenteric and portal veins and 10 % (n=10) in coproscopic examination of slaughtered animals. In the third study the infection rate of S. mansoni in human the rate decreases in three consecutive years (2000, 2001, and 2002; 45.1%, 37.0% and 9.8%) respectively. The rate of schistosomiasis was highest in young people (69.0%), adult (15.3%) and old people (7.5%).
Title: Relationship of Body Condition Score at Estrus and Conception Rate in Graded Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :
Seventy graded Murrah parous buffaloes presented for the first postpartum AI maintained under village system of rearing free from apparent pathological abnormalities of the reproductive tract were selected to study the effect of body condition score (BCS) and size of the preovulatory follicle on conception rate. After evaluating Body condition score (BCS) by visual examination and estrus intensity based on the scorecard, Preovulatory follicle (POF) sizes were measured ultrasonographically and grouped as small preovulatory follicle (SPOF), medium preovulatory follicle (MPOF) and large preovulatory follicle (LPOF). The mean values of BCS, intensity of estrus and serum progesterone at AI and on day 10 post AI were estimated and the relation to conception rate was analyzed. Positive correlation was observed with the body condition of the buffaloes at the time of AI to POF size and intensity of estrus. The mean values of BCS in pregnant and non pregnant buffaloes did not differ
significantly and it has a nonsignificant (P>0.05) negative correlation with pregnancy status, however proper nutrition during
breeding season is necessary for acceptable reproduction. It was concluded from the present study that physiological maturity of the follicle rather than its diameter influenced the fertility in graded Murrah buffaloes under field conditions.
Title: An Economic Analysis of Different Farming Systems Prevailing in Udaipur District of Rajasthan
Abstract :
The Present study was conducted in Udaipur District in Southern Rajasthan during 2013-14 with the aim to identify the existing farming systems and to study the economics and income and employment generation by different existing farming systems. Four prominent farming systems were observed in the study area, viz; FSI: Crop + Dairy (C + D); FS- II : Crop + Dairy+ Goat (C + D + G); FSIII : Crop + Dairy + Vegetable (C + D + V) and FS-IV : Crop + Dairy + Goat + Vegetable (C +D+ G + V) Girwa and Gogunda two tehsils were selected randomly for the study. FS - I was being adopted by maximum no. of farmers in Girwa tehsil while in Gogunda tehsil maximum number of farmers adopted FS-III. The total cost of farming system in Girwa tehsil was lowest in FSI and it was highest in FS-IV in both the tehsils. In Girwa tehsil the highest net returns were observed in FS-IV while in Gogunda tehsil highest net return were observed in FS-II due to internal adjustment of costs in taking goat and dairy enterprises along with crop cultivation even though the total costs in these farming systems were also higher. The return per rupee investment in both the tehsils of Udaipur district was highest in FS-IV (C+D+G+V) and On per hectare basis employment generated in Girwa tehsil was minimum in FS-III (225 man days) and maximum in FS-II (250 man days). In Gorgunda tehsil lowest employment was generated in FS-III (C+D+V) (250 man days) and in highest FS-IV (350 man days).
Title: Comparative Study of Three Different Media to Improve Semen Processing and Flow Cytometric Analysis in Bovine
Abstract :

The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of three selected semen processing media: TRIS, TALP and HTF (Human Tubal Fluid) on sperm viability in post-preparation samples to improve flow cytometric analysis. Towards this aim, PI (Propidium Iodide) dye was used to evaluate sperm viability using flow cytometer. Two Cross breed (Karan Fries, KF) and Two Indian breed (Sahiwal, SW) bulls were used for different media optimization. The average sperm viability with TRIS, TALP & HTF media in cross breed (Karan fries) bulls was observed to be 92.09 ±1.93%, 82.61±2.71%, and 79.78±2.94% respectively, whereas, for Indian breeds (Sahiwal) it was 80.03±2.29%, 77.18±1.61 % and 71.32±2.51% respectively. The results revealed that viability of semen obtained from cross breed bulls (KF) is significantly higher in TRIS media (P<0.001) compared to TALP and HTF (P >0.05) whereas for Indian breed bulls (SW), viability of semen in TRIS and TALP is similar with no significant difference (P >0.05). When compared to HTF, semen of SW bull was found to have highest survivability in TRIS (80.03±2.29% vs 71.32±2.51% in TRIS and HTF respectively; P< 0.01). Hence, it can be concluded from the present study that overall TRIS medium is best suited for semen processing and flow cytometric analysis.

Title: Effect of Storage Temperature and Packaging Material on the Quality of Kashmiri Fireen
Abstract :
Kashmiri Fireenis a cereal based Indian dairy product, very popular in Kashmir region of the country. Kashmiri Fireen was prepared from milk, wheat semolina and sugar as per pre- standardized method and packed in three different packaging materials and stored at refrigerated (4 ± 1oC) and ambient (25 ± 1oC) temperature for a period of 20 days. The product was subjected to the microbiological study and sensory evaluation at regular intervals of 5 days for determination of its storage stability. Significant variations were noticed during refrigerated storage as well as at ambient temperature in the sensory and microbiological quality of Kashmiri
Fireen. The product exhibited progressive increase in microbial growth in terms of standard plate count, yeast and mold count and coliform count. It was observed that the product packed in aluminium foil with low density polyethylene (LDPE) laminates showed best results in terms of preservation for 20 days. The sensorial acceptability and microbiological quality of the product remained good and within the prescribed acceptability limits for 20 days at refrigerated temperature and 10 days at ambient temperature while using aluminium foil with low density polyethylene (LDPE) laminates as packaging material. The study revealed that packaging of Kashmiri Fireen in aluminium foil with low density polyethylene (LDPE) laminates combined with its storage at refrigerated (4 ± 1oC) temperature enabled prolonged preservation of the product for 20 days.
Title: Hematological Alterations Induced by Imidacloprid and Ameliorative Effect of Withania somnifera in Female Albino Wistar Rats
Abstract :

Present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of oral administration of imidacloprid on weekly body weights and hematological parameters in female rats and also to determine the protective role of Withania somnifera against imidacloprid induced toxicity. Forty eight (48) female albino Wistar rats were divided into four (4) groups of twelve (12) animals each. Group 1 served as control, groups 2 was given with imidacloprid at the rate of 30 mg/kg b.wt/day, group 3 was maintained as Withania somnifera (WS) control (1g/ kg feed) and group 4 was treated with both imidacloprid + Withania somnifera (dose as above). The experiment was carried out for a period of 30 days and the test compound was administered daily by oral gavage. Blood samples were collected on 15th and 30th day for hematological analysis. A significant (P < 0.05) reduction in weekly body weights were observed in group 2. Hematology revealed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in TEC, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH and MCHC and increase (P < 0.05) in TLC in group 2. The DLC revealed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in neutrophil count and significant (P < 0.05) decrease in lymphocyte count in group 2. Administration of Withania somnifera along with imidacloprid brought moderate protection in all the above parameters.

Title: Study on the Prevalence of Ovine Fasciolosis in Ambasel Woreda, South Wollo Zone,Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia
Abstract :
The present study was carried out in and around Ambasel Woreda namely, Marye, Chafi e and Wuchalie from June 2012 to September 2012. Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence of Ovine fasciolosis. Out of 384 feacal samples examined, 137(35.68%) were found positive for fasciola. Chi-square statistical analysis technique was used to evaluate the variations between the epidemiological area (origin), age, sex and body condition. The prevalence rate of Ovine Fasciolosis with regard to Origin Chafi e (31.72%), Wuchalie (34%) and Marye (44.94%), age (young = 17.99%, and adult = 45.7%), Sex (Male = 34.6% and Female = 36.6%) and Body condition (Good = 18.71% and Poor= 47.16%), were found in the study area. According to the result the disease has a statistical signifi cance association with Age (P = 0.031) and body condition (P = 0.0164) but there was no signifi cant difference among sex groups (P = 0.381) and origin (0.246). Feacal examination indicates that fasciolosis is the most important disease of sheep in the study area by the result of coprological examination. Therefore, the present study indicated that Ovine Fasciolosis was widely distributed with high prevalence in the study area.
Title: Composition of goat milk in Grenada, West Indies: A preliminary study
Abstract :
Goat farming is a common practice on the island of Grenada, West Indies. In the years post-Hurricane Ivan (2004), the dairy goat industry has been gradually evolving into a commercial entity, in order to provide goat milk and milk products to the community. Vital to the sustainability of this industry is the maintenance of a high-quality and reproducible product. However, there are no data available on the current composition of goat milk in Grenada. This preliminary study was undertaken to assess the composition of goat milk to assist farmers in the further development of the Grenada goat milk industry. Using a commercial milk analyzer, 115 goat milk samples from four Grenada parishes were analyzed. The results gave an average of dairy goat milk composition in Grenada, including values for fat (4.53%), protein (3.47%), non-fat solids (9.07%), lactose (4.91%), and total solids (13.60%). Milk values were significantly different among the four parishes, with St. Patrick having the lowest values and St. Andrew the highest. Additionally, there was no significant difference between values derived for Grenada versus those recently reported in the neighboring island of Trinidad. The composition of goat milk in Grenada and the differences among parishes is hypothesized to be influenced in
large part by nutrition. Future plans are underway 1) to advise goat farmers on the husbandry and feeding of goats to optimize the quality of milk and 2) to perform updated analyses on the milk composition postimplementation.
Title: Effect of Different Heat Ameliorating Measures on Micro-Climatic Variables in Loose Houses During Hot Humid Season in Murrah Buffalo Heifers
Abstract :
The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of heat ameliorating measures on micro-climatic variables in the loose houses during hot-humid season. In the study different heat ameliorative measures viz. control (T0), cooling jacket (T1), cooling jacket + forced ventilation (T2) and sprinkler + forced ventilation (T3)
were utilized to ameliorate the thermal stress in Murrah buffalo heifers (n = 24). Daily maximum and minimum temperatures relative humidity (RH) and temperature humidity index (THI) of both micro and macro climate were measured at 10.00 am and 2.00 pm of Indian Standard Time (IST) by using maximum and minimum and
dry and wet bulb thermometer. Significantly (P<0.05) lower maximum temperature was observed in T3, T2 and T1 groups (29.93 ± 0.19, 30.43 ± 0.18 and 31.27 ± 0.19oC, respectively) as compared to T0 group (32.25 ± 0.19oC). However, significantly (P<0.05) lowest minimum temperature was found in T3, T2 and T1groups (25.28 ± 0.22, 25.81 ± 0.23 and 26.60 ± 0.23oC, respectively) and higher minimum temperature in T0 group (27.60 ± 0.22oC). We observed significantly (P<0.05) lower RH in T3 and T2 groups (69.84 ± 0.57 and 71.93 ± 0.51%, respectively) than those of T0 (77.18 ± 0.49) at 2.00 pm. During the peak hot period significantly (P<0.05) lower temperature humidity index (THI) was reported in T3, T2 and T1 groups (78.89 ± 0.24 and 79.43 ± 0.25 and 81.39 ± 0.23, respectively) as compare to T0 group (82.36 ± 0.20). Therefore, it can be concluded that forced ventilation with
sprinklers or cooling jacket is an important mean to protect animals from thermal stress under loose houses during hot-humid season.
Title: Comparative Anatomical Studies on the Uterus of Pati and Chara-Chemballi Ducks during their Laying Periods
Abstract :
In the present investigation, twelve eachPati and Chara-Chemballi ducks were utilized at 42 weeks of age. The uterus was collected immediately after death and studies were made on it. The uterus was a sac- like dilation between the isthmus cranially and the vagina caudally and was located just ventral to the synsacrum. The length, breadth, thickness and weight of uterus of Chara-Chemballi ducks were signifi cantly higher than Pati duck. The mucosa of uterus of both Pati and Chara-Chemballi duck showed many leaf shaped folds. These folds were mainly primary, secondary and tertiary types. In some primary folds concave surface were also present. The surface epithelium of uterus was pseudostratifi ed ciliated columnar in both Pati and Chara- Chemballi ducks. The mean height of lamina epithelialismucosae of uterus was 28.058±0.367µm in Patiduck and 33.228±0.234 µm in Chara-Chemballi duck. The surface epithelium and glandular epithelium showed moderate PAS positive reaction in both Pati and Chara-Chemballi ducks. Histologically, there is no signifi cant difference between thePatiand Chara-Chemballi ducks. However, the height of lamina epithelialis mucosae of oviduct was significantly higher in Chara-Chemballi duck than Pati duck.
Title: Prevalence and Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Mastitis in Dairy Cattle in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a dreaded pathogen in human and veterinary medicine. MRSA as a cause of mastitis in dairy cattle has got profound economic and serious public health significance. A total of 111 dairy cattle were screened for mastitis by CMT from six dairy farms of Jabalpur. The 85 mastitis milk samples were screened for MRSA by bacterial culture method using cefoxitin for enrichment. The MRSA strains were identified and characterized by phenotypic and genotypic methods for virulence determinants and methicillin resistance. The MRSA strains showed β-haemolysis as a predominant haemolysis pattern. The strains were positive for mecA gene which is considered as a gold standard for the confirmation of methicillin resistance. The prevalence of MRSA mastitis in dairy cattle was 16.47%. The MRSA strains were positive for the virulence factors associated with pathogenicity. The economic and public health implication of the finding is discussed.

Title: Development of an Improved Rabbit Model of Spinal Cord Compression by Embolectomy Catheter
Abstract :
The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the efficacy of epidural balloon inflation into the unroofed spinal cord for the creation of a experimental spinal cord injury model in rabbits. Ten New Zealand white rabbits were used for this study. Before operation and after anasthesia with 60 mg/kg ketamine and 6 mg/kg
xylazine. A midline skin incision was done on the lumbar skin at the level of L1-L4 lumbar vertebrae. Paravertebral muscles were bluntly dissected bilaterally. A microhemilaminotomy was done in the right L3 lamina close to the midline. An arteial embolectomy catheter was inserted into the spinal column between the bone and dura mater to the level of L1-L2 intervertebral space. The microballoon was gradually inflated by using a volume-controlled microballoon inflation syringe over a period of 3 minutes. The microballoon was
deflated 8 minutes later and removed completely from the epidural space. All rabbits were paraplegic after the operation. In conclusion, this experimental study demonstrated that the microballoon inflation technique is a very successful method for the evaluation of spinal cord injury in rabbits. Unroofing of the spinal column is extremely important because decompression may be an effective treatment in spinal cord injury. A suitable spinal injury model was created, that is minimally invasive, uniform and easily reproducible.
Title: Multi Drug Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from Canine Pyoderma
Abstract :
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an important opportunistic pathogen of companion animals, especially dogs. Four dogs with a long-term inflammatory skin disorder due to infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius(MRSP) are described. Bacteria was isolated from the skin swab samples from diseased animal and characterized with the different biochemical test and identification strips. Antibiotic resistance pattern has been examined. All strains were shown multidrug resistance pattern and found sensitive
only for Amikacin. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was also found coagulase positive and methicillin resistant strain.
Title: Genetic and Non-Genetic Parameters of First Lactation Milk Yield, Composition and Energy Traits in Karan-Fries Cat
Abstract :

Records of 1471 Karan-Fries cows from 102 sires with five or more daughters per sire during the period 1989-2013 were used to study genetic and non-genetic parameters for First lactation 305-days or less milk yield (FL305MY- kg), First lactation 305 days or less wet average (FL305WA- kg), Average test day milk yield (ATDMY- kg), Average test day fat percentage (ATDFP-%), Average test day fat yield (ATDFY-g), Fat based energy per kg (FBE/kg-cal) and Fat based energy per first lactation 305 days or less milk yield (FBE/FL305MY–kcal). The non-genetic parameters were analysed by fixed linear model. Heritability and phenotypic/genetic correlations were estimated by paternal half sib correlation method and sire variance and covariance, respectively. Period of calving was significant for all the traits. Season had significant effect on all the traits except ATDFP and FBE. Age group was significant for ATDFP only. The FBE/FL305MY had positive and significant (P<0.01) genetic and phenotypic correlations with FL305MY, FL305WA, ATDMY and ATDFY. The positive phenotypic correlation of ATDFP and FBE/kg with composition and energy traits revealed selection for an increased fat percentage will improve the concentrations of other constituents in milk. Higher estimates of heritability, significant genetic and phenotypic correlation between FL305MY and FBE/FL305MY revealed that any of the two traits can be used for genetic evaluation of Karan-Fries bulls when genetic improvement is sought.

Title: Effect of Lactation Order on Morphological Traits of Teat and Udder in Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of lactation order on morphological traits of teat and udder in Murrah buffaloes. A total of 59 buffaloes were selected for the study which were milked twice daily (morning and evening) by hand milking method. From date of calving to 7th month of lactation, the udder morphological traits viz. teat length, teat diameter, distance between teats, udder dimension, udder depth and height of udder from the ground were recorded fortnightly by using measuring tape and vernier calliper. The teat length (cm) of left fore quarter in 7th lactation order was signifi cantly (p<0.05) higher (9.43 ± 0.19) than fi rst (6.77 ± 0.11), second (7.93 ± 0.07) and third (7.91 ± 0.17) lactation orders. The teat diameter (cm) of left fore quarter in 1st lactation order was signifi cantly (p<0.05) lower than all other lactation orders. The distance
between right fore and left fore teats in 5th lactation order was signifi cantly (p<0.05) higher than 8th lactation order. Further, the udder depth rear in 9th lactation order (20.05 ± 0.27) was signifiantly (p<0.05) higher than 8th lactation order (17.11 ± 0.32). The height of udder base from the ground was signifi cantly higher in fi rst lactation order than subsequent parity except for 2nd lactation order. It was concluded that udder morphological traits of Murrah buffaloes varied from lactation to lactation order as the age advanced which could be deciding factors for selection of precious dairy animals to maximize the profi tability at farm.
Title: Effect of Solid State Fermentation (SSF) Biomass Supplementation on Growth Performance of Kid
Abstract :
Present study was carried out to study the eff ect of solid state fermentation (SSF) biomass on growth performance of Surti growing kids. Fourteen kids (4-7 months age) weighing around 9 kg, were randomly divided in two groups of 7 each. All the kids were fed rations containing 50 % jowar straw and 50% compound concentrate mixture. Animal of group 1 served as control and were off ered TMR (total mixed ration) without biomass, while animals of another group were off ered solid state fermentation (SSF) biomass @ 4% in the TMR, All the experimental kids were weighed at weekly intervals and body measurements (height at wither, body length and heart girth) were taken fortnightly in the morning for two consecutive days before feeding and watering for the entire experimental period of 90 days. Average total gain (ATG) during 90 days experimental period was 4.47 and 5.23 kg with average daily gain (ADG) of 46.53 and 54.42 g in control and treatment groups respectively. The results revealed an improvement of about 17% in average daily gain though remained statistically similar between the two groups.
Title: Activity of Enzymatic Antioxidants and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Seminal Plasma of Murrah Bulls during Cryopreservation
Abstract :
Semen samples with mass motility of 4+ or more and an initial progressive motility ≥ 80% collected from murrah buffalo bulls were utilized for study. Semen samples were evaluated for various seminal attributes, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and total antioxidant capacity at fresh, pre-freeze and post-thaw stage. Seminal attributes (progressive motility, viability, acrosomal integrity and hypo-osmotic swelling response) were signifi cantly (p<0.05) higher in bull II as compared to bulls (I & III) at pre-freeze and post-thaw stage. Superoxide dismutase was signifi cantly higher in bulls (II & III) than bull I at fresh stage (p<0.05) and signifi cantly (p<0.01) higher in bull II as compared to bulls (I & III) at pre-freeze and post-thaw stage. Catalase was signifi cantly higher in bull II than bulls (I & III) at fresh (p<0.05) and pre-freeze (p<0.01) stage. Signifi cantly, higher total antioxidant capacity was noticed at pre-freeze (p<0.05) and post-thaw (p<0.01) stage in bull II and bulls (II & III), than bulls (I & III) and bull I, respectively. On the basis of our fi ndings, it could be concluded that seminal enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase & catalase) and total antioxidant capacity varied among bulls at various stages of cryopreservation. There was progressive reduction in activity of enzymatic antioxidants and total antioxidant capacity from fresh to post-thaw stage.
Title: Assessment of in situ Feeding Regimen of Dairy Cattle of R.S. Pura Block of Jammu District, India
Abstract :
Study was conducted with the objective of assessing the in situ feeding regimen of dairy cattle managed by marginal livestock farmers of R S Pura block of Jammu District. Three well inhabited villages of R S Pura block were selected. In each village, 10 dairy farmers (herd size 2-5 dairy cattle) were randomly selected as respondents for survey and for feed sample collection. Results indicated that cattle farmers are primarily agriculturist of middle age with formal education up to primary level and with land holdings of marginal or small size. Dairy cattle of respondents were mainly 2-5 years in age. Almost two-third of the surveyed animals were non-pregnant multiparous animals. More than half of the surveyed animals were medium milk producers, whereas 27.78% producing more than 10 lts per day. The feeding during post kharif period was green berseem fodder and paddy straw based, supplemented with wheat bran, cotton seed cake and/or commercially available compounded feed. Feeding regimen in post-rabi season is mainly based on maize fodder with paddy straw. Wheat bran, mustard oil cake and compounded feed are the major supplements. No farmer was providing mineral mixture to the livestock; however, all of them
were supplementing diet with salt. It may be concluded that except berseem, there is dearth of leguminous fodder in dairy cattle
diet of surveyed region and therefore conservation of berseem as hay needs to be encouraged to ensure year round availability
and mineral supplementation needs to be increased especially in diets of high milk yielders.
Title: Estimation of Genetic Parameters of Lifetime Performance Traits in Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :
The data on 171 Murrah buffaloes sired by 49 pertaining to lifetime performance traits were collected from history cum pedigree sheets maintained at Buffalo Research Centre (BRC), Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar over a period of 20 years from 1990 to 2009. Analysis of variance done by restricted maximum likelihood method of Harvey (1990) using mixed linear regression model with regression effect of age at fi rst calving. The overall least squares means for lifetime milk yield (LTMY), productive life (PL), milk yield per day of productive life (MY/PL), herd life (HL) and milk yield per day of herd life (MY/HL) averaged as 8607.93±481.93 kg, 1161.59±54.17 days, 5.59±0.15 kg/day, 3340.22±120.67 days and 2.55±0.10 kg/day, respectively. The effect of period and season of calving and age at fi rst calving (linear and quadratic) was statistically non-significant on all the lifetime performance traits under study except that significant effect of period of calving on MY/PL. The heritability estimates along with standard errors for different lifetime performance traits were obtained as 0.18±0.10, 0.26±0.17, 0.11±0.04, 0.26±0.20 and 0.29±0.13 for LTMY, PL, MY/PL, HL and MY/HL, respectively. The
genetic and phenotypic correlations among lifetime performance traits were positive and high except genetic and phenotypic associationship of HL with MY/HL and MY/PL. Therefore, moderate to high genetic correlations among lifetime traits indicated that selection based on any one of these traits could result into improvement through positive correlated response in all other traits.
Title: Preparation and Functional Characterization of Decellularized Bovine Tendon Scaffolds for Tendon Tissue Engineering
Abstract :
The study was conducted to develop a naturally derived tendon tissue engineered scaffold with the preservation of the native ultra-structure, tensile strength and biochemical composition of the tendon extracellular matrix. Decellularization was achieved by using two different protocols viz. repeated freeze and thaw technique and
2% SDS. In vitro evaluation of the graft was done by H&E staining, Masson-Trichome staining, Alcian blue staining, DNA quantification analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The in vitro evaluation suggested that SDS was better than freeze and thaw technique in terms of effective decellularization. The cell removal was better in SDS group than freeze and thaw as depicted by H&E staining and DNA quantification. Also the structure and alignment of collagen fibers were preserved in SDS group. The intrinsic ultra structure of tendon tissue was well preserved based on scanning electron microscopy examination.
Title: In vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Efficacy of Condensed Tannins Containing Tree Leaves Extract of Jammu Province
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to assess the antioxidant potential and antibacterial efficacy of lyophilized condensed tannins (CT) extract from locally available tree leaves (Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Ficus religiosa, Leucaenea leucocephala and Psidium guajava) against bacterial species (viz. Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus). Antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1-Diphenyl-2- picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and total reducing power assays. Lyophilized CT extracts of P. guajava and E. jambolana showed significantly (P<0.05) higher antioxidant potential compared to standard ascorbic acid and other CT sources. Antibacterial efficacy was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) using micro dilution method. The MIC and MBC values of CT extracts were significantly (P<0.05) higher for F. religiosa and L. leucocephalla then that of A. nilotica, E. jambolana and P. guajava. The MBC value for S. enteritidis was lower than E. coli and. S. aureus. Lower MIC and MBC values against E. coli, S. aureus and S. enteritidis in CT extracts of different sources showed better results compared to E. faecalis which showed statistically non-significant difference among all CT sources. It may be concluded that all CT sources possess antioxidant and antibacterial efficacy and were found to be effective against E. coli, S. aureus and S. enteritidis except E. faecalis and the comparison among the CT sources, E. jambolana and P. guajava were found to be most potent CT source as well as potent alternative antioxidant and antibacterial agents.

Title: Effect of Niacin Supplementation on in-vitro Rumen Fermentation Pattern in crossbred Cattle
Abstract :
An in vitro experiment was conducted to study the effect of supplementation of different levels of niacin (0, 300, 400, 500, 600,
700 and 800 ppm) on rumen fermentation and digestibility. The substrate comprised of concentrate mixture, maize fodder and wheat straw (40:20:40). Results revealed that TCA-ppt. N (mg/100 ml incubation media) and TVFA concentration (meq/100 ml incubation media) were signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher at 600 ppm (17.56; 7.28) as compared to control (12.12; 6.38). The molar proportion of propionate was also higher at 600 ppm (26.52%) as compared to control (25.87%). The total gas (ml) production increased in a linear fashion whereas methane level decreased signifi cantly (P<0.05) with graded levels of niacin. The NH3-N (mg/100 ml incubation media) decreased signifi cantly (P<0.05) from 15.26 (control) to 10.71 (600 ppm). The IVDMD (%) and IVOMD (%) also increased from 44.04 to 48.04 and 53.91 to 57.38, at 0 and 600 ppm niacin supplementation, respectively. The three higher levels of niacin viz. 600, 700 and 800 ppm had comparable fermentation parameters viz. digestibility, total gas, methane, TCA-ppt. N, TVFA, acetate, propionate and butyrate. It was concluded that 600 ppm niacin level is comparatively better than other niacin levels
Title: Influence of Condensed tannins Supplementation through Ficus infectoria and Psidium guajava Leaf Meal Mixture on Nutrient Intake and Clinical Chemistry in Lambs
Abstract :
This study examined the effect of condensed tannins (CT) through Ficus infectoria and Psidium guajava leaf meal mixture (LMM) on nutrient intake, calcium and phosphorus retention and clinical chemistry in lambs. Twenty four non-descript lambs 6 months of age with average body weight 10.07±0.59 kg were randomly divided into 4 dietary treatments (CT-0, CT-1, CT-1.5 and CT-2) consisting of six lambs in each in a completely randomized block design. Blood-biochemical profile was monitored at 45 days intervals. The intake (g kg-1 W0.75) of dry matter and organic matter were significantly (P<0.05) lower in control (CT-0) as compared to CT supplemented groups. LMM was given to lambs to supply CT @ 1, 1.5 and 2% in CT-1, CT-1.5 and CT-2, respectively. The Hb and PCV levels were highest (P<0.05) in CT-1.5 followed by CT-1, CT-2 and CT-0, respectively. CT Supplementation significantly (P<0.01) reduced serum urea level in CT-1, CT-1.5 and CT-2 groups as compared to CT-0. Serum proteins differed significantly (P<0.05) among various dietary treatments. Serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine levels were comparable among all treatment groups. Similarly, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase did not differ significantly among dietary treatments. Alkaline phosphates was significantly (P<0.05) higher in CT-1.5 as compared to CT-2, however, CT-1 and CT-2 have intermediate values between CT-1.5
and CT-0. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT at moderate level (1-2 %) did not exert any adverse effect on
blood chemistry; however, some blood parameters and nutrient intake was improved considerably.
Title: Colour-coded and Pulsed Doppler Sonography of Testicular and Prostatic Artery in Dog
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to measure the various indices of Testicular and Prostatic Artery in Dogs at Different Age using Colour-coded and pulsed Doppler Sonography. Colour-coded and pulsed Doppler sonography was used to study the blood fl ow of the testes and prostate gland in a total of 6 mongrel male dogs at different age starting from 4 weeks of age. After detection of the vessels by colour-coded Doppler sonography, the blood fl ow patterns were determined by pulsed Doppler sonography and measured the Peak systolic Velocity
(Vmax) , the end-diastolic velocity (Ved), the pulsatile index (PI) and resistance index (RI) in relation to their age. Results: The physiological testicular fl ow pattern was monophasic with a high diastolic fl ow While the prostatic blood fl ow pattern was biphasic. Vmax, Ved, PI and RI of testicular artery show variation with age of mongrel dogs. The results of the present investigation demonstrate that the colour-coded and pulsed Doppler sonography give additional valuable information which improves the andrological diagnostics in the dog.
Title: Pathomorphological Changes in Various Organs of Experimentally Induced Salmonellosis in Mice
Abstract :
In the study, a total of 36 BALB/C mice divided into twelve equal groups were used. Eleven groups were administered 50 μl of inocula containing 107 CFU prepared from eleven isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium, administering one isolate in each group.
One group was kept as negative control and each mouse in this group was given 0.5 ml of normal saline per os.The study was conducted for 15 days during which symptoms viz., ruffl ed feathers, hunched posture, etc., exhibited by the mice were observed and deaths were recorded. At necropsy, gross lesions of moderate to severe focal hepatic necrosis characteristic of Salmonella infection were observed. In some cases, brain and spleen were congested. No signifi cant gross lesions were observed in heart, lung and kidney. Salmonella was isolated from liver, spleen and brain of mice that died1st to 4th day post- exposure. Surviving mice were sacrifi ced on 14th day post- exposure, three of these had necrotic foci on the liver and Salmonella was isolated from all of these mice.
Title: Prevalence of Arthropods Intermediate Host Infected with Parasitic Larval Stage in and Around Ranchi
Abstract :
The study was conducted to find out the prevalence of different arthropod intermediate hosts infected with different parasitic larval stages in and around Ranchi. A total of eighteen hundred different arthropods intermediate host viz., Ticks, Mites, and Ants (600 each) were examined microscopically to find out the prevalence of parasitic stage of different parasite. 3.17 % ticks were found infected with different parasites, out of which 2.29% Hyalomma and 4.40% Boophiluswere found harbouring parasites. Amongst oribatid mites,
overall prevalence was found to be 2.83 %.with the percentage of infection in Oppiaspp .and Mesostigmata oribitid mites were 2.52% and 4.07% respectively. Amongst ants, 26 (4.33%) were found infected with parasitic larval stage. The percentage of infection in Camponotus compressusand Myrmicaria brunnea ants were
5.79% and 4.97% respectively.
Title: Effect of Prepartum Concentrate Supplementation on Blood Biochemical Profiles of Native Ewes in Coastal Odisha
Abstract :
Present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of concentrate supplementation on the periparturient blood biochemical profiles of native ewes, two months before expected date of lambing in coastal Odisha. Forty (40) pregnant ewes were randomly distributed into two treatment groups (T1 and T2) based on their body weight, age and parity. First group (T1) was maintained on grazing only, while the second group (T2) was supplemented with a balanced concentrate mixture @ 200 g/sheep/day along with grazing. Blood samples were collected one month before and one month after parturition for analysis of serum glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea and creatinine. Significant (P<0.05) increase was observed for serum glucose and globulin, both before and after parturition in (T2) (before: 56.65 ± 1.86 mg/dl and 5.08 ± 0.59 g/dl; after: 53.93 ± 1.62 mg/dl and 4.04 ± 0.32 g/dl) as compared to T1 (before: 51.23 ± 1.90 and 4.12 ± 0.45g/dl; after: 45.88 ± 1.57 mg/dl and 3.25 ± 0.45 g/dl). Non significant results were observed for rest of the biochemical parameters studied between the control and the treatment both before and after lambing. It was concluded that prepartum concentrate feeding @ 200 g /day/ewe is required to maintain the glucose and globulin level in ewes after compensating the energy needs of growing foetus and colostrum production in mammary gland.
Title: Plasma iron, Hemoglobin and Packed Cell Volume during Puerperal Period in Beetal Goats
Abstract :

The present research work was undertaken to study the puerperal hematological changes in Beetal at different stages of parity in Jammu region, J&K. Thirty six adult Beetal goats were categorized into 3 parity groups viz. group-A (1-3 parity), group-B (4-6 parity) and group-C (7-8 parity). Blood samples were collected 3 and 1 week before and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks after kidding. The hemoglobin, PCV and plasma iron was analyzed from the collected blood samples. Analysis of haematological parameters viz. Hb and PCV revealed significant decline during the 1 week before and 1 (p<0.001) and 4 (p<0.005) weeks after kidding compared with 16 weeks after kidding. Prevalence rate of anaemia in goats having Hb level <8 g/dl and PCV level <22 per cent was highest 1 week after followed by 1 week before and 4 weeks after kidding. Low plasma iron levels were observed during peri-partum period. No significant difference in levels of Hb and PCV among various parity groups was observed. Physiological conditions- late pregnancy and early lactation are accompanied with marked decrease in Hb and PCV levels

Title: Seroprevalence of Bluetongue Virus in Small Ruminants of Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh, India by Competitive ELISA
Abstract :
Bluetongue is an infectious, noncontagious, vector borne viral disease causing heavy morbidity and mortality. Disease is prominent in sheep with apparent clinical signs while goats and bovines may serve as reservoir hosts. Most of the times fi eld veterinarians diagnose bluetongue based on clinical signs only. The serological tests like competitive ELISA (c- ELISA) are helpful in diagnosis and prevalence studies of bluetongue. Serosurveillance of bluetongue virus in sheep (n=350) and goat (n=100) of Krishna district (AP) was conducted
using commercially available c-ELISA kit. The results revealed that among 450 serum samples, 62.66% (63.71% in sheep and 59% in goat) were detected positive for bluetongue virus antibodies.
Title: Water Quality and Nutrient Dynamics of Biofloc with Different C/N Ratios in Inland Saline Water
Abstract :

A study evaluating water quality and nutrient dynamics in inland saline water was carried out using biofloc technology with different C/N ratios employed to raise Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. The study was carried out for 60 days in FRP with no water exchange. Salinity, temperature, Dissolved oxygen, pH, nutrients, Biofloc Volume and Total Suspended Solids were monitored. All biofloc units indicated reduction in alkalinity at 40th day except the treatment with highest (25:1) C/N ratio, pH and alkalinity was not significant different among various treatments. Dissolved Oxygen was found to be significantly decreasing with increasing C/N ratios. The least Dissolved Oxygen was recorded at higher C/N ratios of 20:1 and 25:1 at the end of experiment. The Total Ammonical Nitrogen (TAN) and NO2–Nin C/N ratios 15:1 and 20:1 were found to have a significantly decreasing in trend after 20th and 18th day respectively. The NO3–N, PO43-–P, BVF and TSS in biofloc were shown an increasing trend in all the experiments. The present study elucidates the suitability of optimum C/N ratios in biofloc for maintaining the water quality to raise L. vannamei in inland ground saline water. The finding could help in reducing the environmental concern saline waste water discharge from the shrimp pond to the land.

Title: Effect of Dietary L-Carnitine Supplementation with Animal Fat on Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chicken
Abstract :
Study was carried out to find out the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on carcass characteristics in Venncobb broiler chicks fed with diet containing animal fat. Eighty day old commercial broiler chicks were randomly allotted to two treatment groups (T1 and T2) with four replicates of ten chicks each. The birds were fed with standard broiler chicken ration (BIS, 1992) containing 5% animal fat. T1 was the control, while T2 was supplemented with L-carnitine (900 mg/kg feed). At the end of 42 days, five birds from each treatment were slaughtered in order to determine carcass traits and organ weights. The results revealed that the supplementation
of L-carnitine lowered the abdominal fat content of birds. However, L-carnitine supplementation had no effect on the body weight gain, slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, giblet yield percentage and weight of internal organs.
Title: Microbiological Analysis and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Water for Wild Animals in Nandankanan Zoo, Odisha
Abstract :

The incidence and prevalence of bacterial pathogens affecting zoo animals is increasing due to consumption of contaminated water containing the various persistent bacterial pathogens with increased antimicrobial resistance. The consumption of this antimicrobial resistance water causes transmission of several water borne bacterial diseases. Hence to save the lives of wild animals and to protect the ecological balance of our environment, a critical routine systemic analysis of supplied water with good monitoring practice and development of a database for routine screening of the water for captive animals is very much essential. So, the experiment was conducted to assess the microbial load in the form of CFU/ml and the identification of antibiotic resistant bacteria by antibiotic resistance test (ABST) in the supplied water from the enclosure pools at Nandankanan Zoo, Odisha. It was found that several bacterial isolates like E. coli, Pseudomonas spp, Salmonella and Corynebacterium spp are exclusively present in this contaminated water based on the cultural, morphological and biochemical characterization. Under antibiotic sensitivity test (ABST), tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was found resistant for E.coli in all the collected samples of wild animal species including birds and reptiles. Cephalothin and Sulfisoxazole were moderately resistance to E. coli in case of birds whereas Gentamycin and Neomycin were moderately resistance to the sample collected from Lions enclosure.

Title: Physico-chemical Properties of Mutton Patties Prepared from Munjal and Harnali Breeds of Sheep
Abstract :

Meat obtained from Munjal and Harnali breeds of sheep were used for preparation of patties and were analyzed for quality attribues. The breed effect on the product quality was analyzed to produce a detail picture in reference to the parameters like physicochemical, textural, sensory characteristics. It was found that Munjal and Harnali breeds have no significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on physico-chemical and functional properties of patties. The color parameter indicated that L* and a* values have no significant (p ≤ 0.05) difference but b* values have significant (p ≤ 0.05) difference. However the Texture Profile Analysis and sensory panel scores indicated a lower quality attributes for the products prepared from the Harnali breed in comparison to Munjal. Hardness, gumminess, chewiness, firmness and toughness of patties have significant (p ≤ 0.05) difference. The microbial count indicated more than 6 log cfu/gm after 20 days of storage indicating a shelf life of less than 20 day in refrigerated storage.

Title: Effects of Storage Type and Inclusion of Sodium Propionate on Microbial Profile of Feed Ingredients Commonly Used in Pig Diets
Abstract :
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of storage type and inclusion of antifungal agent (sodium propionate) on microbial profile of feed ingredients commonly used in pig diets. Total of six feed ingredients (corn, wheat, soybean meal (SBM), corn DDGS, fish meal and poultry by-products) were stored in granary or feed bin with or without antifungal agent (0.30% sodium propionate) for 8 weeks period and microbial profile were investigated at the beginning of the experiment (week 0) and at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of
storage. At the beginning of the experiment, microbial profile of all feed ingredients were not different ( p>0.05) among ingredients stored in granary or feed bin with or without sodium propionate. Irrespective of storage type and addition of sodium propionate, salmonella was not detected in any of all feed ingredient during 8
weeks of storage period. Inclusion of sodium propionate reduced ( p<0.05) populations of staphylococci in corn (2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks), wheat (8 week), SBM, DDGS, fish meal and poultry by-product (4, 6 and 8 weeks). Clostridia populations were reduced ( p<0.05) in sodium propionate added corn, SBM, DDGS, fish meal, poultry by-products (4, 6 and 8 weeks) and wheat (6 and 8 weeks). Coliforms populations were reduced ( p<0.05) in all sodium propionate added ingredients at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of storage, whereas the inclusion of sodium propionate reduced total anaerobic bacteria in fish meal, (2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks), poultry by-product (2 and 4 weeks), SBM (4 and 6 weeks) and corn, wheat, DDGS (4, 6 and 8 weeks).Yeast and mold count were reduced ( p<0.05) in wheat, SBM, DDGS, fish meal and poultry by-products (week 4, 6, and 8) and corn (week 6 and 8). However, storage type (granary vs. feed bin) had no effects ( p>0.05) on populations of staphylococci, clostridia, coliforms, total bacterial count, yeast and mold counts during any storage period. The results obtained in the present study indicated that microbial profile of feed ingredients was not affected by storage type (granary vs. feed bin), but the inclusion of sodium propionate improved the microbial profile of all feed ingredients commonly used in pig diets.
Title: Study on Neuroendocrine Disrupting Potential of Cadmium in Rats and Evaluation of Role of Green Tea
Abstract :

The protective role of green tea extract was studied in neuroendocrine disrupting actions of cadmium. Twenty four weaned Sprague dawley male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 rats in each .Group 1 served as Sham control, Group 2 was treated with CdCl2 @5mg/kg b.wt. per orally for 3 months, Group 3 was treated with Green tea extract(1.5%) and Group 4 with CdCl2 + green tea extract. The serum testosterone, Tri-iodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) hormones were monitored at monthly interval. At the end of 3 months rats were sacrificed and testes were collected for estimation of thio barbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS), reduced GSH, protein carbonyls and sperm count. Before sacrifice, rats were subjected to elevated plus maze (EPM) and morris water maze (MWM). Administration of CdCl2 resulted in decrease of serum testosterone, T4 hormones, testicular GSH, sperm count and increase in serum T3 and testicular TBARS and protein carbonyls while, number of entries and time spent in open arm of EPM increased and the total distance travelled in MWM increased. Treatment with green tea significantly ameliorated (p<0.05) toxic effects of CdCl2 by restoring biochemical and hormonal profile to normal. It is concluded that green tea extract exhibits neuro-endocrine protective property in CdCl2 induced neuroendocrine disruption.

Title: A Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence and Identification of Major Ixodid Tick Parasites of Cattle in Gondar Town, North West Ethiopia
Abstract :
A cross- sectional study was conducted from November, 2015 to April, 2016 in Gondar town with the objective to estimate the prevalence of ticks, to investigate their genera and assessing association with the different risk factors such as breed, sex, age, body condition scores, and management system. Adult ticks were collected from 384 cattle from local and cross-breed
cattle. Out of the total of 384 cattle examined, 287(74.7%) were found to be infested by one or more genera of tick parasites. A total of 919 adult ticks, which belongs to four genera of ticks were collected and identifi ed using stereomicroscopy. In this study Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Amblyomma, and Boophilus were identifi ed as 27%, 26%, 25.3%, and 21.7% respectively.
The prevalence of male and female animals was found to be 136 (68%) and 151 (82.06%) respectively. According to their management variation animals kept in extensive and intensive farming system were infested with 207 (76.1%) and 80 (71.4%) respectively. The prevalence in local and cross breed was 180 (77.58%) and 107 (70.39%) respectively. The prevalence in young and adult animals was found to be 104 (72.3%) and 183 (76.25%) respectively. Based on their body condition score of animals, poor 176 (75.8%), medium 71 (80.68%) and good body condition 40 (62.5%). In this study there was statistically significant association of infestation rate with the sex of the animals (P<0.05) and x2=10.042. Special attention should be given to the control and prevention of ticks.
Title: Effectiveness of different hCG and GnRH based protocols in progesterone primed goats on estrus induction and reproductive outcomes in out-off-season goats
Abstract :
We evaluated whether Gonadotrophin releasing hormone incorporation to the Human chorionic gonadotropin protocol improves the sexual response during the natural anestrous season in goats. Thirty-two adult multibreed anovulatory goats (n = 8, four groups), received 20 mg progesterone i.m. on d-1; on d0, all goats received 7.5 mg prostaglandin F i.v. and control group (CG) 0.5 mL of saline i.m., hCG group (GH) 100 IU of hCG i.m., hCG+GnRH group (GN) 100 IU hCG i.m. + 8.4 µg of GnRH at once, and hCG+GnRH-24h group (GN24) 100 IU hCG i.m. + 8.4 µg of GnRH 24 h apart. GN, GN24 and GH depicted estrus and ovulatory activity, favoring the GH (25%, 25% and 100% for both variables, respectively). Regarding pregnancy rate, the largest values (P<0.05) were observed in GH (12%, 12% vs 75%, respectively). A protocol based on P4+PGF+hCG was the best option to induce and synchronize estrus as well as ovulation regarding the administration of GnRH during the natural anestrous season in goats.
Title: Standardization of Acidity Level in Hurdle Treated Chicken Croquettes using Lactic Acid
Abstract :
Study was conducted to standardize the acidity level of hurdle treated chicken croquettes (treated with humectants in combination
of 0.5% carrageenan + 5% texturized soya protein) using lactic acid. Three different treated meat batters having pH 6.0 (T1), 5.6 (T2), 5.2 (T3) along with control (C) were prepared using chicken meat along with other ingredients in required quantity. The products were examined for different physico-chemical quality, texture & colour profi les and sensory quality. It was revealed that water activity was significantly (P<0.05) lower in T3 than in T2, T1 and control. Product pH, emulsion stability and cooking yield was significantly (P<0.05) lower in T3 as compare to other treatments and control. The colour profile showed a significantly lower L value and lower a* value in T3 as compare to C, T1 and T2.,while the texture profile exhibited a significantly (P<0.05) lower value for hardness, springiness, stringiness, chewiness, gumminess and resilience and cohesiveness in the T3 product as compared to other batches. The evaluation of sensory attributes showed a significantly higher score for flavour, juiciness and overall acceptability in respect of T2. Hence it was concluded that meat batter having pH 5.6 was the preferred pH for the preparation of chicken meat croquettes.
Title: Biometric Studies on Frieswal Heifers Born Under Field Conditions
Abstract :
A total of 58 Frieswal heifers from fi ve different artifi cial insemination (A.I.) centres were selected to study 14 biometric traits.
The overall least- squares means for 58 heifers were 117.3 ± 2.1 cm for BL, 109.7 ± 1.5 cm for HAW, 141.4 ± 2.8 cm for CG, 146.4 ± 3.1 cm for PG, 40.9 ± 0.9 cm for FL, 27.9 ± 1.0 cm for FW, 18.1 ± 0.4 cm for EPL, 65.7 ± 1.2 cm for HE, 34.3 ± 1.6 cm for HK, 105.7 ± 1.5 cm for HPB, 110.7 ± 1.7 cm for HHB, 4.61 ± 0.26 mm for ST, 224.3 ± 11.3 kg for BW and 3.02 ± 0.09 m2 for BSA respectively. Higher values for various biometric traits were observed in Pantnagar A.I. centre. Higher values for various traits were observed in heifers reared by farmers having herd size up to 3 AUE, and also for the heifers reared by landless farmers. Land holding also had a signifi cant effect on FW. However, there was no signifi cant effect of AI centre, education level and season of birth on any of the traits and the majority of the heifers of this age group were pregnant
Title: Effect of Eugenia jambolana and Psidium guajava Leaf Meal Mixture Supplementation on Performance, Biochemical Profile and Histopathological Changes of Broiler Chicks
Abstract :

Present study was undertaken in 120 day-old broiler chicks, randomly distributed into 4 dietary treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4 supplemented with leaf meal mixture (LMM) of Eugenia jambolana and Psidium guajava @ 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 % of diet, respectively) each having 3 replicates (10 chicks/ replicate) in a complete randomized block design (CRD). Experimental chicks were fed basal diets (starter and finisher) supplemented with graded levels of LMM. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded at weekly intervals. Two birds from each replicate were slaughtered at the end of feeding trial (42 days). Blood samples were collected and serum separated for biochemical profiles. For histopathological examination, representative tissue samples were collected in 10% neutral buffer formalin and then processed for paraffin embedding employing alcohol as dehydrating agent and xylene as clearing agent. Sections were cut at 4-5µm thickness and stained by routine haematoxylin and eosin method. On histopathological examination of liver, kidney, heart and intestine of T1 and T2 groups showed normal integrity, mild to moderate histopathological changes in T3 group, while, T4 showed drastic histopathological changes. It was concluded that E. jambolana and P. guajava LMM supplementation (2.5% or even 5%) maintained birds performance, minor histopathological changes and producing healthy low cholesterol broiler meat. The LMM incorporation (2.5%) in the diet of broiler chicks may be recommended as socioeconomic, alternative functional feed resource.

Title: Molecular Detection and Therapeutic Management of Exudative Epidermitis in Swine
Abstract :
Of 343 swine examined, 34 (9.91%) were found to be affected with exudative epidermitis from which 39 S. hyicus and 6 S. aureus isolates were recovered. Out of 39 S. hyicus, 34 S. hyicus isolates were found to be positive for virulence genes of which, 6 isolates (17.64 %) were positive for exhA gene and 28 isolates (82.35 %) were positive for exhD gene with an exhibited band size of 316 bp and 588 bp respectively in PCR. Early recovery of swine with exudative epidermitis was found with amoxyclav with supportive therapy than ceftriaxone and tazobactam combination with supportive therapy though the recovery rates with both the antibiotics were 100 per cent.
Title: Gastrointestinal Helminthic Challenges in Sheep and Goats in Afro-Asian Region: A Review
Abstract :

Sheep and goats, being hardy and prolific in their growth, play a crucial role in cultural and socioeconomic life of rural poor under privileged people in Afro-Asian countries by providing meat, milk, wool and hide to them. Gastrointestinal helminthic infections are worldwide problem in ruminants. They results considerable loss in them causing mortality and poor production. Various helminthes types like trematodes, cestodes and nematodes are prevalent in different climates and geographical regions depending on rearing systems, intermediate host’s availability and management practices. Epidemiology of helminthic diseases, though variable at times, is determined by various factors like treatment, climate and poverty (socio-economic and traditional practices). The study oversees gastrointestinal helminthic challenges in goats and sheep faced in Afro-Asian region in last decade. Methodology involves exhaustive exercise of screening and massive literature hunt which included published research, both abstracts and full length papers on the subject in last 10 years in addition to authors own observations. The diseases like Fasciolosis, Dicrocoelosis, Amphistomosis in trematodes, Monieziosis, Avitellinosis in cestodes and Haemonchosis, Trichostronglylosis, Oesophagostomosis, Trichuriosis, Strongyloidosis in nematodes were still serious challenges in the region threatening the small ruminant production. Frequent reports on Marshallgia, Ostertagia, Nematodirus, Stilesia, Thysaniezia spp. from this region showed emerging threats. Infections like Camelostrongylus, Graphidiops, Parabronema and Skrjabinema spp. were scarcely distributed. The paper reviews scientific work and developments of last 10 years on occurrence, distribution and epidemiology of common gastrointestinal helminthic infections of sheep and goats in Afro-Asian region with future research prospective in light of newer scientific approaches

Title: Inuence of Non-Genetic Factors on Birth Weight of Tellicherry Kids Reared under Intensive Goat Farming in Tamil Nadu
Abstract :
A study was conducted in sixty numbers of tellicherry kids at a well managed private farm, Chennai in 2014. The factors assessed were sex of the kid, type of birth (single, twin and triplet), age of the doe and weight of the doe at the time of kidding. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS statistical package program (SAS, 1998). Diff erence between two means was evaluated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The overall least squares mean of birth weight and type of birth in Tellicherry goats was 1.95±0.08 and 2.27±0.09 respectively. Our fi ndings revealed that type of birth, sex of the kids and age and weight of the doe exerted a significant effect (P<0.001) on birth weight of kids. It was concluded that farmers should consider the age as well as weight of the dam before breeding for be er birth weight of kids.
Title: Retrieval and Recovery Rate of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Oocytes Through Aspiration Technique
Abstract :
The objective of the present study was to retrieve good and excellent quality of oocytes from the ovaries of buffalo having unknown reproductive history by using the aspiration technique. The retrieval as well as recovery percent was recorded. Total nine hundred and twenty ovaries were collected during the period of study, on an average 20 ovaries were collected per slaughter. Buffalo cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC’s) were retrieved by aspiration technique and further graded on the basis of cellular investment and homogenicity in to grade A, B, C and D. The mean recovery rate (i.e. no. of oocytes/ ovary) was 2.20 ± 0.08, while that of grade A, B, A+B were 0.82 ± 0.03, 0.53 ± 0.03 and 1.35 ± 0.06, respectively. The mean retrieval percent of Grade A, B and A+B COC’s were 37.10 ± 0.67, 23.74 ± 0.62 and 60.83 ± 0.84, respectively. The present finding led to the conclusion that aspiration technique seems to be a very promising technique for retrieval of developmentally competent oocytes from surface follicles and not from the deeper cortex which contained developing oocytes. By using aspiration technique, less amount of tissue debris obtained which may otherwise have adverse effect on the oocytes maturation and subsequent development of poor quality of embryos in vitro.
Title: Effect of Feeding Compressed Complete Feed Block Containing Guar Meal on Blood Biochemical Profile of Crossbred Calves
Abstract :
A study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding compressed complete feed block (CCFB) containing 5% guar meal on the blood biochemical profi le in the crossbred (CB) calves. Twelve growing crossbred male calves (6-10 months old), were selected
and divided into two groups (six in each) by using paired random design. The control group (T1) was fed CCFB alone while treatment group (T2) was fed with CCFB containing 5% guar meal. Both the diets were iso-nitrogenous and were formulated to meet the requirement of 600 g/d average daily gain. The study was conducted for 120 days. Blood was collected to harvest the serum and serum metabolites were analyzed using standard protocol. The mean values for Hb (mg/ dl), serum glucose (mg/ dl), total protein (g/dl), albumin (g/dl), globulin (g/dl), A: G ratio, SGOT, SGPT (IU/L) and serum urea-N (mg/dl) of all the experimental CB calves were found to be statistically similar with that of the control group. It is concluded that the inclusion of guar meal at 5% in CCFB has no any adverse effect on the blood biochemical profi le in the CB calves in long term feeding.
Title: Effect of FecB Gene on Body Weight in Black Bengal Goat
Abstract :
FecB gene is first described gene which has been found to increase ovulation rate and litter size in sheep. But, work related to genetic mechanism and genetic markers for caprine proliferation has not been done so much. The present study was aimed to screen Black Bengal goat population for polymorphism of FecB gene and to study its effect on body weight at different growth stages. DNA samples from 96 animals were isolated and subjected to PCR. Amplified fragments obtained were allowed for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for the detection of single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) variants. Among all samples, three different SSCP variants were found which were marked as AA, AB and BB. The highest genotype frequency was observed for AB (0.38), which was followed by BB (0.33) and AA (0.29). Least-square analysis of variance showed significant (P<0.01) effect of genotype on body weight at birth only. The least square mean of body weights at birth for genotype BB (01.17±00.03 kg) was significantly lower than that of genotype AA (01.43±00.03 kg) and genotype AB (01.36±00.02 kg). It was also observed that genotype had non-significant effect on body weight at 4-week, 8-week, 12-week, 24-week, 36-week and
48-week of age. These results indicate that effect of FecB on body weight was limited at birth only. No significant effects were found on growth rate at later stage of life. FecB gene was hitherto linked to prolificacy. So, the effect of FecB gene on other traits has important bearing if the research is continued further with more number of species specific primers at other loci.
Title: Prevalence and Risk Factor Identification of Calf Coccidiosis in and Around Bahir Dar Town in Amhara Regional State, North West Ethiopia
Abstract :
A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to April 2015 in and around Bahir Dar town to determine the prevalence of Coccidia infection in calves and to identify associated risk factors. Fecal samples were collected from a total of 384 randomly selected calves with the age of under 2 years. Collected fecal samples were examined for the presence of Eimeria oocyst by fl otation technique. Out of 384 calves, 73 (19.01%) were found to be positive for Eimeria oocyst. Analysis of potential risk factors has revealed that; there was statistically signifi cant difference (P< 0.05) in the prevalence of coccidia infection to different age groups of animals, fecal consistency, origin, body condition, hygienic status and management system. However, the difference was not statistically signifi cant (P>0.05) between coccidia infection with sex and breed of calves. In conclusion, the present fi nding has demonstrated that calf coccidia are one of the most important pathogens in calves in the study area. Therefore, further epidemiological investigations are required to determine the Eimeria species composition and different agro ecological risk factor on the occurrence of the disease.
Title: Dietary Supplementation of Ascorbic Acid on Hemato-Biochemical and Hormonal Parameters in Swamp B
Abstract :

Effect of ascorbic acid on hemato-biochemical and hormonal profile of swamp buffaloes were investigated during summer and post summer months. Eighteen swamp buffaloes (Avg. b.wt.336.24±10.27kg, age 3.5 years) were divided randomly into three groups of six each. The animals were supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA) at the rate of 0, 10 and 15 g/animal/day for 150 days and designated as T 1, T2 and T3. Blood was collected on 0, 30th, 60th, 90th, 120th and 150th day of the experiment and analysed. Results indicated that the value of haemoglobin (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and thyroxin was higher (p<0.05) in T3 as compared to T1 and T2 groups. The value of Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) was significantly (p>0.05) higher while total leucocytic count (TLC), neutrophil, eosinophil, total protein, AST (Aspertate aminotransferase) and ALT (Alanine aminotransferase) was lower in T2 and T3 as compared to T1. Across the treatment T2 and T3 showed significantly (p<0.05) higher tri-iodothyronine and lymphocytes and (p<0.05) lower serum glucose and cortisol concentration as compared to T1. From this study, it is concluded that dietary supplementation of AA modulated hemato-biochemical and hormonal parameters in beneficial ways in swamp buffaloes to cope up thermal stress during summer and post summer months. The dose rate of AA 15 g/day/animal found to be more effective than 10 g/d/animal.

Title: Effect of CIDR on Conception Rate in Repeat Breeding Cattle Inseminated with Liquid Semen
Abstract :
A trial was conducted to study the effect of CIDR on conception rate (CR) in repeat breeding (RB) Vrindavani cows following insemination with liquid semen. After insemination with liquid semen, the experimental RB cows were divided into two groups: group-I (n=13) was treated with CIDR between day 5 and 18 post-insemination, while group-II (n=12) was kept as negative control. Pregnancy diagnosis was done on day 60 post-insemination by per rectal palpation. Conception rate (%) in CIDR treated group was 5/13 (38.46%), whereas, it was 2/12 (16.67%) in the control group. Though the increase of CR by 21.79% in the CIDR treated group was statistically non-signifi cant as compared to the control
Title: Influence of Alteration of Dry Period Feeding Management on Body Weight and Body Measurements of Jersey Crossbred Cows at Lower Gangetic Region
Abstract :

Alteration during far off dry period feeding management was done to see its effect on body weight and body measurements of Jersey cross bred cows. This study was conducted on 14 healthy dairy animals which were separated into two comparable groups on the basis of almost similar age groups, parity, body weight, and body condition score. Statistically analyzed data revealed that there was significantly higher (p<0.01) tail head thickness in overall dry period and at calving in control group animals than treatment group animals. Significantly higher (p<0.01) overall abdominal girth after 4 months of lactation was found in control group animals as compared to treatment group animals. Significantly higher (p<0.01) body length during overall dry period and at calving was noticed in control group animals. Non significant (p>0.05) difference was reported in body weight and heart girth among control and treatment group animals. The coefficients of correlation indicated high and significant (P<0.01) correlation among body condition score, tail head thickness, body length, heart girth, abdominal girth in this study. It can be concluded that alteration of feeding management practices during far-off dry period does not significantly change body weight during dry period and post partum period but can lead to significant difference in some body measurements of Jersey crossbred cows at tropical lower Gangetic region. Correlation of parameters suggested that the larger body sized animal of same breed may produce more milk.

Title: Studies of Some Hormonal Parameters in Rambouillet Sheep during Seasonal Migration in Jammu Region
Abstract :
The investigation was undertaken to study some hormonal parameters in migratory Rambouillet sheep of Jammu (India) during seasonal uphill and downhill migration. Thyroid hormons and cortisol concentrations were analysed in male and female sheep of 1-2 years (young) and 2-4 years (adult) of ages. Non-significant increase of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) levels were recorded during uphill migration. Highest thyroid hormones concentrations were found immediately after reaching the high altitude in all
groups. During downhill migration, thyroid hormone levels increased non-significantly at mid station and remained high at base station as compared to the values of high altitude. Again, non-significant increase of cortisol level was recorded in both uphill and downhill migration in all the groups. The cortisol and thyroid hormone levels were found higher in young as compared to adult sheep. The cortisol levels were found higher in female animals, whereas non-significantly higher thyroid hormone levels were recorded in male animals.
Title: Prevalence of Tropical Theileriosis in Cattle in Chhattisgarh State
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to record the prevalence of Bovine Tropical Theileriosis (BTT) caused by the protozoan parasite, Theileria annulata in cattle. Animals were screened on the basis of clinical signs like fever, anorexia, with or without superfi cial lymph node enlargement, blood smear and lymph node biopsy examination for presence of Theileria annulata. Out of 150 cattle screened, 35 (23.33%) were found to be positive for Tropical theileriosis. The prevalence of Tropical theileriosis was higher in female (25.45%) than male (17.5%). The prevalence of Tropical theileriosis in cattle in respect to age showed highest prevalence (24.34%) in adult cattle of above 3 years age, followed by 23.80 % in the age group of 1 to 3 years and 14.28% in 0 to 1 year. The prevalence of Tropical theileriosis in respect to breed was maximum in HF cross (29.85 %) followed by 23.33 % in Jersey cross, 15.38 % in Sahiwal, and 14.81% in Gir.
Title: Prevalence of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites in stray dogs (Canis familiaris) from Grenada, West Indies
Abstract :

In the present study, fecal samples from 445 stray dogs, collected during July 2008 to December 2012 were examined for gastrointestinal parasites. Fecal samples were collected throughout the six parishes of the country, under the national rabies control program. Fecal samples were examined for gastrointestinal (GI) parasites by flotation technique. Out of 445 dogs 394 (88.5 %) (95% Confidence interval (CI) 84.54% to 91.46%) dogs were found infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites. The results revealed the presence of at least one parasite egg of 73 % Ancylostoma spp., 15.7 % Trichuris vulpis, 3.8% Toxocara canis, 1.4% Coccidia spp. and 1.1% Strongyloides spp. The prevalence of the GI parasites according to stray dog age groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05, χ2). There was no significant difference between male and female dogs (p>0.05, χ2). Analyzing the prevalence of GI parasites in various age groups the results showed that dogs under 12 weeks of age had a higher prevalence than juveniles (12-24 weeks) and adults (over 24 weeks). The presence of zoonotic parasites in stray dogs in Grenada, poses possible risks of contamination of the environment which may have public health implications

Title: Constraints Faced by the Households in Existing Farming Systems in Chittorgarh and Banaswara Districts of Southern Rajasthan
Abstract :
Chittorgarh district from Agroclimatic zone IV-A and Banswara district from zone IV-B was selected for the study of integrated farming systems, as these districts have high potential for development of agriculture and livestock. Multi stage random sampling plan was used in two villages of two different tehsil from each district in such a way that one has highest proportion of irrigated
area and other one have highest share of rainfed area to total net sown area. Fifteen households from each village were selected. Thus a total sample of 120 households was selected, representing 60 households from rainfed and 60 households from irrigated farming systems. There were four farming systems prevalent in the rainfed and irrigated condition of Chittorgarh and Banswara districts. Farming system (FS-I) describes crops + vegetables and crops + dairy cattle forms FS-II. Crops + dairy + goats constituted the FS-III. Crops either supported by poultry or orchards were the part of FS-IV in both the situations of the selected districts. In rainfed and irrigated area of Chittorgarh and Banswara districts households reported as lack of timely availability of good quality seeds, followed by lack of availability of agricultural labour in peak season, low price of farm produce at the time
of harvest and high cost of quality seeds. Constraints faced by households in livestock enterprises in Chittorgarh and Banswara districts were low productivity, non-availability of green fodder, lack of A.I and veterinary facilities and high cost of feed and fodder were the most important constraints.
Title: Comparison of Decellularized Bubaline Diaphragmatic Scaffold with Synthetic Polygalactin and Polypropylene Composite Mesh for Perineal Hernioplasty in Dogs
Abstract :

Present study was planned to compare xenogenic decellularized bubaline diaphragmatic scaffold with synthetic polygalactin and polypropylene composite mesh for repair of perineal hernia in dogs. Twelve dogs suffering with perineal hernia were randomly divided in to two equal groups. In group I perineal hernioplasty was done with Synthetic polygalactin and polypropylene composite mesh while in group II, with decellularized bubaline diaphragmatic scaffold (dBDS). Mean surgical time was 59.17 ± 14.04 and 57.50 ± 6.15 minute in group I and II respectively. Swelling, redness and warmth increased significantly (p<0.05) on day 3 in both the groups. In group II initially significantly (p<0.05) increased exudation was observed on day 3 which reduced gradually. Degree of pain after surgery was significantly (P<0.05) decrease on day 3 in both the groups. Neutrophil count was significantly (p<0.05) increased and correspondingly lymphocyte count significantly (p<0.05) decreased on day 7 in group I while in group II no significant difference within the group was observed. Colour Doppler ultrasonographic examination revealed no vascularization on 0 day in both the groups. Neovascularization was observed on day 30 in group I and day 14 in group II on Colour Doppler ultrasonographic examination. It was increased on day 90 in both the groups. The complication encountered in the present study includes local seroma, suture dehiscence due to self mutilation, constipation and fistula formation. Decellularized bubaline diaphragmatic scaffold was well accepted by all the animals and showed less complication than synthetic mesh.

Title: Effect of Coumestrol on Efferent Ductules in Dogs
Abstract :
The present study was conducted on twelve adult stray dogs of age 2 – 3 years, weighing 14 - 18 kg and randomly divided into three groups. Animals in group I (n = 5) and group II (n = 5) were orally given 300 and 500 microgram coumestrol dissolved in di-methyl sulfoxide in the commercial dog treats on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28, respectively. Animals in control group III (n = 2) were given DMSO alone as per above schedule. Castration was done one week after the completion of the treatment. Tissues for histology and electron microscopy were fi xed in Bouin’s fi xative and Karvonsky’s fi xatives, respectively. Epithelial lining of the efferent ductules was composed of cuboidal or columnar epithelium having ciliated and non- ciliated cells. Cellular architecture of the efferent ductules was normal. Scanning electron microscopy revealed normal efferent ductules with presence of cilia on luminal surface. In conclusion, oral feeding of 300 microgram and 500 microgram of coumestrol has no adverse effects on the functioning of efferent ductules in dogs and at this dose rate, this compound cannot be used for population control of stray dogs. 
Title: Cloning and Sequencing of Thioredoxin Reductase (trxB) Gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Isolated from Poultry
Abstract :
Thioredoxin reductase (TrxB) is a flavoprotein which acts as an integral part of Thioredoxin (Trx) system. This Trx system produces reducing equivalent in various oxidation-reduction reaction which ultimately targets in various metabolic processes inside cell. TrxB must be playing role in combating various stress conditions confronted by Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) inside its host. The aim was to clone and sequence Thioredoxin reductase (trxB) gene of ST strain E2375 and to construct a phylogenetic tree based on the information obtained after aligning the trxB sequence with other serovars of ST. Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) strain E2375 was procured from National Salmonella Centre, Indian Veterinary Research institute, Bareilly, India. Genomic DNA was isolated from the bacteria followed by amplification of Thioredoxin reductase(trxB) gene by PCR. The gene was restriction digested and cloned into a vector pET28c(+). The cloned trxB plasmid was transformed into NEB 5-alpha cells. The gene was sequenced and submitted in the gene bank. After multiple alignment analysis of that sequence by
BLAST, a phylogenetic tree was constructed with the help of MEGA4.0 software. The sequence of trxB was found to be highly
conserved among the salmonella serovars.
Title: Haemato- Biochemical Alterations in Subacute Oral Toxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Wistar Rats
Abstract :
The present study was carried out to determine the extent of haemato-biochemical alterations in 28 days repeated dose oral toxicity of sodium fl uoride (NaF) at three dose levels in Wistar rats. The administration of NaF caused dose dependent reduction (p ≤ 0.01) in the levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and lymphocyte percent while an increase in mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and neutrophils of all the rats belonging to group II (5 mg/kg body weight, per os), group III (25 mg/kg body weight, per os) and group IV (50 mg/kg body weight, per os) as compared to rats of control group (group I). Macrocytic- normochromic anaemia was recorded in NaF intoxicated rats. Biochemical alterations were dose dependent elevation (p ≤ 0.01) in plasma enzyme activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in group II, III and IV in comparison to rats of control group. Hyperglycaemia (p < 0.01) was recorded in rats of group III and IV. Hypoproteinaemia (p < 0.01) and hypoglobulinaemia (p < 0.01) were seen in Wistar rats of group II, III and IV as compared to control group. Moreover, increased (p < 0.05) albumin to globulin ratio, blood urea nitogen, creatinine and uric acid levels were observed in the intoxicated rats of group II, III and IV as compared to control group. Thus, it is concluded that 28 days subacute toxicity of NaF in wistar rats has adverse effects on haemato-biochemical profi le. 
Title: Prevalence and Financial Losses of Lungworm Infection in Sheep in South Wollo Zone, Ethiopia
Abstract :

This cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2013 and March 2014 to determine the prevalence of lungworms in sheep in two districts of South Wollo zone, Amhara region, Ethiopia. Alongside the financial losses encountered due to lungworm infection in sheep during retrospective study in Dessie municipal Abattoir was also assessed. A total of 477 fecal samples collected from sheep were examined using modified Baerman technique. Out of which 218 were found to be positive (45.71%). The lungworm species were Muellerius capillaris 212(23.48%), Dictyocaulus filaria 39(8.18%), Protostrongylus rufescens 28(5.87%) and mixed infection 39(8.18%) either with two or three species. The prevalence of lungworm infection was significantly different between sexes (χ2=32.2, P= 0.000), age groups (χ2=72.561, p=0.000) and body conditions (χ2=113.66, p=0.000). Prevalence was significantly higher in female sheep (57.94%), sheep of above 3years of age (69.01%) and poor body condition (89.62%) than males, sheep of less than 3years of age (<1 year, 1-3years) and medium/good body conditions, respectively. Moreover, sheep showing respiratory clinical syndromes, kept under extensive management system and sampled during wet season showed statistically significant variation (p<0.05) when compared with those sheep without respiratory syndrome, kept under semi-intensive management system and sampled in dry season, respectively. The mean annual financial losses by organ condemnation and carcass weight reduction due to lungworm infection in sheep slaughtered at Dessie municipal abattoir were estimate to be 7445549.6 ETB, equivalent to 402462.1USD.

Title: Bioinformatics through the history-EDITORIAL
Title: Growth Performance, Behaviour and Faecal Consistency of Kids Fed on Guar Meal
Abstract :
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Guar meal, an unconventional feed on growth performance, behavioural traits, faecal consistency in kids (3 months old) with an average body weight of 9.46 ± 0.15 Kg divided into three equal groups (D1, D2 and D3) following completely randomized design. Experimental diets were formulated by replacing ground nut cake (GNC) from the control (D1) group, with guar meal at 50 (D2) and 100% (D3) level in the concentrate mixture. Dietary replacement of GNC with unconventional protein source (GM) either at 50 or 100% had no negative influence on dry matter intake and feed conversion ratio. ADG was signifi cantly (P<0.01) higher in D2 group but comparable to that of D1 group. No signifi cant difference was observed in behavioural aspects in kids fed on three different rations. The percentage of time spent on eating was recorded highest in all the groups. Faecal consistency score was significantly (P<0.05) higher in kids fed D3 ration compared to those fed D1 and D2. Guar meal based diets were found to be more economic than conventional type. 
Title: Nutrient Digestibility and Plane of Nutrition of Different Varieties of Normal and High Quality Protein Maize (HQPM) Fodder at Pre-cob and Post-cob Stage in Lactating Sahiwal Cows
Abstract :

The objective of the study was to evaluate the nutrient intake and digestibility of four different varieties (HTHM 5101, DHM 117, HM 5 and Shaktiman/900M Gold) of normal and three (HQPM 5, HQPM 7, HQPM 9/ Vivek) HQPM fodder at pre-cob and post-cob stage in lactating sahiwal cows. Thirty-two multiparous Sahiwal cows in early to mid lactation were selected from herd maintained at ILFC, Mathura and were divided into eight group of four animal each. The seeds of experimental varieties were procured from International Maize and Wheat Centre (CIMMYT) New Delhi and the fodders were cultivated under identical conditions in different plots.. Each group was fed with different variety of maize along with basal diet.. Two digestibility trials of seven days were conducted both at the end of feeding of pre and post cob stages of fodder respectively.. The variety DHM 117 have shown higher (P<0.05) DCP and TDN intake at both pre and post-cob stages of the fodder. The digestibility of DM, OM and CP was significantly (P<0.05) higher for DHM 117 whereas, in post cobs stage the normal varieties (DHM 117, HM 5, and HTHM 5101) exhibited higher DM and OM digestibility. However, the digestibility of DM, OM and CP was lower for HQPM 9 and HQPM 5 varieties at both stages respectively. From the present study varietal effect was observed and the variety DHM 117 have shown higher intake and digestibility at both pre and post-cob stages however long-term study with large number of animals is advisable. for recommendation.

Title: Characterization of Exon4 of FSTN Gene and its Association with Growth Traits in PD-1 Broiler Chicken
Abstract :
Follistatin play vital role in biological processes which includes cell proliferation, differentiation, and skeletal muscle growth. The present study was carried out to study polymorphism of exon4 of follistatin gene and its association with body weight in PD-1, a broiler line of chicken. A product of 225 bp of exon-4 was amplified and structural variability was studied using polymerase chain reaction, single strand confi rmation polymorphism and sequencing method. This study revealed that the FSTN gene was monomoprphic at exon4. Growth data was also analyzed, the growth performance of male and female differed
significantly at six week of age.
Title: Factors Determine the Use of Indigenous Technical Knowledge by Dairy Farmers of Kathua, J&K in Animal Husbandry Practices
Abstract :
The present study was undertaken purposively in Kathua district of J&K to identify and prioritize the factors determining the use of Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITKs) by dairy farmers in animal husbandry practices. 120 dairy farmers from six villages of three blocks of kathua district (Hiranagar, Billawar and Barnoti) were selected as respondents who had at least one milch animal and those practicing ITKs at the time of investigation. The results of the study revealed that “locally and easily available medicinal plants”
was the most important perceived factor followed by “farmers having deep knowledge of ITK”. In addition “distant location of Veterinary hospital, non availability and high cost of Veterinary medicines” was perceived as the third most important factor that determine the use of ITKs by the dairy farmers in maintaining animal health. Easy availability of indigenous plants, deep knowledge and trust regarding ITK were the main factors that determine the use of ITKs by the dairy farmers.The reason for adoption of ITKs may be due to the fact that it suits their beliefs, habits and traditional values and can be performed using available resources.
Title: Quality Evaluation of Milk Products Retailed in Hisar City of Haryana State
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to determine the chemical quality and microbiological safety of some selected milk products retailed in Hisar city of Haryana state. Samples of burfi, paneer, rasogolla and gulabjamun were collected three times from five different sweet shops of Hisar city. The chemical and microbiological analysis of samples were carried out and compared with Indian standard (IS) as given by Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS). Significant (P<0.05) deviation in moisture, titratable acidity and lactose content of burfi from specification were observed. Chemical analysis of paneer, rasogolla and gulabjamun also indicated a variation from the specification. Microbiological safety was assessed by determining standard plate count (SPC) and coliform counts. SPC of rasogolla samples was reported significantly (P<0.05) higher than specification. The coliform count was found under specified limit by BIS. The higher bacterial load indicated poor hygiene practices during preparation and packaging of products and which may cause serious health hazards to consumers.

Title: Protective Role of L-ascorbic Acid in Oxidative Stress Induced by Repeated Oral Administration of Bifenthrin in Wistar Rats
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to evaluate the modulatory role of L-ascorbic acid against oxidative stress in bifenthrin intoxicated rats. Rats were divided into four groups with six rats in each group. Group I animals received corn oil and served as control while as group II animals were orally treated with bifenthrin @ 5.8mg/Kg/day. In group III, vitamin C was orally administered @ 60mg/Kg/day where as group IV received both vitamin C and bifenthrin @ 60mg/Kg/day and 5.8mg/Kg/day respectively. After 30th day of treatment, blood samples were taken and analysed for oxidative stress parameters. Significant (P<0.05) increase in MDA levels was observed in bifenthrin treated animals as compared to control and vitamin C treated animals. Blood glutathione level decreased significantly (P<0.05) in bifenthrin intoxicated animals as compared to control. Similarly, the activities of antioxidant enzymes viz., SOD, GSH-Px, GST and CAT decreased significantly (P<0.05) in bifenthrin treated rats as compared control. Ameliorative group receiving both bifenthrin and L-ascorbic acid significantly restored the normal values of various oxidative stress parameters except GST

Title: Evaluation of Vitamin D3 - Calcium Therapy in Rachitic Dogs
Abstract :

This study was designed to evaluate the influence of treatment on clinical signs, cortical indices (CI) of radius and ulna (measured radiographically), and serum concentrations of the Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and osteocalcin (OC, bone biomarker) in 12 rachitic dogs. The dogs were treated with vitamin D3 @ 20, 000 IU/kg body weight (BW) intramuscularly at a weekly interval along with daily oral Ca supplementation @ 25 mg/kg BW for two months. Dogs were re-evaluated at 30th and/or 60th day post-treatment. Nine apparently healthy dogs were kept as control for comparison of CI and biochemical parameters. Data were analysed by paired and two-sample t-tests. Results showed appreciable improvement in most of the clinical signs within the 1st month of treatment. When compared to control group, at day 0, serum P concentration did not vary significantly (p<0.05), CI and serum concentrations of Ca, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and OC were lower (p<0.05), while ALP was higher (p<0.05) in rachitic dogs. Moreover, during the treatment period, serum P concentration did not change significantly (p>0.05) while serum Ca increased (p<0.05) and ALP decreased (p<0.05) from the baseline values. There were significant differences between the pre- and post-treatment values of CI and Ca to P ratio (p<0.05). Serum concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and OC increased post-treatment at day 60 (p<0.05). In this study, treatment with vitamin D3 and Ca stimulated bone remodelling, as demonstrated clinically and by significant increase in the serum concentrations Ca, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and OC.

Title: Isolation and Identification of Microorganisms from the Upper Respiratory Tract of Equines in Himachal Pradesh
Abstract :

The present investigation was conducted to identify different bacterial agents associated with the respiratory infections of equines in the submountaineous region of Himachal Pradesh. Nasal swabs were collected from a total of 119 animals, including horses (n=59) and mules (n=60), exhibiting respiratory disease manifestations (n=20) as well as apparently healthy animals (n=99); and subjected to routine cultural, staining and biochemical examinations for the identification of the isolated bacteria. The bacterial genera thus isolated and identified included Staphylococcus spp. 12 (38.71%), Corynebacterium spp. 6 (19.35%), Bacillus spp. 3 (9.68%), Streptococcus spp. 2 (6.45%), Micrococcus spp. 2 (6.45%), Pseudomonas sp. 1 (3.23%) and others 5 (16.13%) from the 15 samples from diseased equines; and Staphylococcus spp. 83 (44.62%), Corynebacterium spp. 30 (16.13%), Bacillus spp. 33 (17.74%), Micrococcus spp. 12 (6.45%), Streptococcus spp. 6 (3.23%) and others 22 (11.83%) from the 81 samples from apparently healthy animals, whereas, 23 samples were bereft of any bacterial growth. Further speciation of Staphylococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp. and Bacillus spp. was also carried out by means of biochemical tests.

Title: First report of Maedi-Visna and Caprine Arthritis- Encephalitis viruses in Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract :

Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) in sheep and Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats, two genetically related diseases caused by small ruminant lenti viruses (SRLVs). These viruses are reported to pose serious economic threats in industrialized countries. The present study reports the epidemiological presence of antibodies by using ELISA test against these viruses in small ruminants in Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh. The seropositivity was recorded as 4.28% against MVV and 4.5% against CAEV with an overall seropositivity of 4.32%.

Title: Association of Different Genetic Variants of Alpha S2-Casein Gene (CSN1S2) with Milk Production Traits in Cattle
Abstract :

The present experiment has been planned to study the association of different genetic variants of αS2-Casein gene (CSN1S2) with lactation length (days), fat (%) and protein (%) in Malvi, Nimari, Sahiwal and HF crossbred cattle. The analysis of variance for different genotypes of αS2-casein gene in four breeds of cattle was found significant (P<0.01) for lactation length (LL) trait. Significantly higher LL was recorded in AA genotype of HF crossbred, while, the lowest LL was noticed in AB genotype of Nimari. The mean LL between AA and AB genotype of Malvi, Sahiwal and HF crossbred cattle showed non-significant difference. The higher mean fat (%) was noticed for AA genotype than AB genotype of Malvi and Nimari, however, in HF crossbred higher fat (%) was observed for AB genotype. The mean fat (%) between AA and AB genotypes showed non-significant difference in Malvi, Sahiwal and HF crossbred cattle but the mean protein per cent was significantly higher in Malvi and Nimari and non-significantly higher in HF crossbred for AB genotype as compared to AA genotype. Among the different genotypes of all four breeds of cattle, significantly higher protein per cent was recorded in Nimari for AB genotyped animals.

Title: Effect of Feed and Feeding Strategies on Oocytes Development in Labeo rohita:A Histomorphological Study
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to study the effect of different diets and feeding strategies on the development of oocytes during the pre spawning and post spawning period in Labeo rohita. The study showed the presence of oocytes in different developmental stages viz., primary growth phase, secondary growth phase, maturation phase, post ovulatory phase and atretic oocytes during both pre spawning and post spawning period. The primary growth phase comprised of oogonia stage, chromatin nucleolus stage, early perinucleolar stage and late perinucleolar stage, whereas, the secondary growth phase was differentiated as cortical alveolus stage, early vitellogenic stage and late vitellogenic stage, and early and late types of atresia. The percentage occurrence (92-28 %) of these different stages varied during pre spawning and post spawning period respectively The study revealed that (65%) of the oocytes were in the vitellogenic and maturation phases during pre spawning period, while as perinuclear stage and atretic oocytes (27.6%) were seen during post spawning period. All the developmental stages showed more active oocytes in the ovaries of fish fed with vitamins and minerals indicating that diet influences the reproductive efficiency of the fish

Title: Effect of Different Doses of Poultry Manure and Cow Dung on the Growth of Indian Major Carp, Catla catla
Abstract :
In view of the beneficial and some harmful impacts of use of livestock manure in fish farming, the present experiment was designed to assess the growth of Catla catla under the influence of low, medium and high doses of cow dung and poultry manure. Experimental water in tubs were treated with low (TC1)@ 10,000kg/
ha, medium (TC2) @ 15,000kg/ha and high (TC3) @ 20,000 kg/ha doses of cow dung and also with low (TP1) @ 8,000kg/ha, medium (TP2) @ 10,000kg/ha and high (TP3) @ 12,000 kg/ha doses of poultry litter, respectively along with control (T0). The control were maintained on conventional feed without nutrient input. Recording
of length and weight to know specific growth rate (SGR) and condition factor (CF) was done initially and after 60 days at the end of the experiment. Fish were also observed for mortality throughout the experiment to calculate the survival rate. The treatment with poultry manure and cow dung caused significant change (P<0.05) in length when compared to T0. Maximum increase in length of fish was observed in TC1 and TP2 throughout the experiment period. While in TC3, no growth was recorded till the end of experiment. Maximum weight gain was also observed in TC1. Highest values of SGR% and CF were seen in TC1. Maximum survival rate (%) was recorded in T0 and TC2 followed by TC1.
Title: Smallholder Pig Farming for Rural Livelihoods and Food Security in North East India
Abstract :

Smallholder pig farming is an important livelihood resource for the poor and tribal people in India. However, the smallholder pig farms are faced with a number of problems. The present study thus aimed to build up the capacity of the smallholder pig farmers by some interventions on knowledge build up, pig variety replacement, shelter management and veterinary services in Tripura, a State of North East India. Two-stage stratified random sample survey on 178 smallholder tribal farmers using pre-designed, semi-structured questionnaires was conducted to collect information before and after the interventions. The majority of the beneficiaries (83.71%) belonged to either low or medium income groups, of which 14.04% of the beneficiaries were the poorest group in the present study. After the shelter management and adoption of improved husbandry practices, a good and very good conditions in and around the pig shelters were recorded among 71.34% and 24.16% of the beneficiaries, respectively. Non- descriptive, local pigs (50%) were replaced by high yielding indigenous or exotic or crossbred pigs in the study area. Previously, 86.51% of the farmers reared pigs for fattening purpose, while 92.13% of the farmers practiced breeding of sows for piglet production after the intervention. The present interventions have brought significant impact (p<0.05) on rearing factors as well as socio-psychological factors. The implementation of ‘piglet production farming system’ augmented food security by 148 days.

Title: Effect of Non-Genetic Factors on Somatic Cell Count in Tharparkar Cows under Hot Arid Region of Thar Desert Area
Abstract :
The study was conducted to determine the effect of non-genetic factors on Sub-Clinical Mastitis (SCM) and to investigate the relationships between these factors with Somatic cell count (SCC) in Tharparkar Cattle raised at Livestock Research Center, Chandan, Jaisalmer in Thar desert of Rajasthan, India. Quarter wise milk samples were collected and examined by somatic
cell count to check the status of subclinical mastitis. Data were collected from the record register maintained at farm and data evaluated by Parity, Stage of Lactation and Season of calving by the SPSS packet program. On analysis of variance result revealed that the parity had highly significantly (P<0.01) effect on SCC. Higher incidence of SCM was in later parities in comparison to primiparous animals. No statistical difference was found between different stages of lactation. Season of calving had significant (P<0.05) effect on SCC. Lower incidence of SCM and SCC were revealed in summer and winter season of calving as compared to the autumn and rainy season of calving groups. So it can be concluded from the present study that the non-genetic factors like parity, stage of lactation and season of calving have a significant effect on Milk SCC. Thus, dairy farmers are advised to spend more time on their herds and given extra care to their animals in later parity stage, early stage of lactation and in the autumn or rainy season of calving to prevent the infection of sub-clinical mastitis.
Title: Effect of Replacement of Wheat Straw with Maize Cobs with or without Physico-Chemical Treatment on Degradation of Dry Matter, Truly Digestible Organic Matter and Production of Microbial Biomass of Composite Ration In Vitro using Goat Rumen Liquor
Abstract :
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of replacement of wheat straw by different levels of maize cobs in composite ration on in vitro degradation of dry matter, truly digestible organic matter and production of microbial biomass in order to determine its level of supplementation in ruminant ration. Wheat straw was replaced by maize cobs @ 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100% level to formulate composite rations. The different formulae of composite rations were used for in vitro gas production studies using goat rumen liquor with wheat straw. In physical treatment only soaking was done while under chemical treatment application of urea, molasses and combination of both urea and molasses were applied before conducting in vitro studies using goat rumen liquor. Proximate composition, fi ber fractionation and calcium and phosphrous content of all the composite rations were estimated. The in vitro degradability of maize cobs based diets is better than wheat straw based composite ration. There was no signifi cant (P>0.05) improvement in per cent IVDMD of maize cob based diet by water soaking irrespective of the soaking period, however, a signifi cant (P<0.05) improvement in in vitro degradation parameters were observed with urea-ammoniation of maize cobs. No benefi t of molasses treatment either in isolation or in combination was observed over maize cobs utilization as compared to urea-ammoniated maize cobs. It is concluded that feeding value of maize cobs is similar to wheat straw as indicated by IVDMD while urea-ammoniation appears to be the ‘treatment of choice’ for improving nutritive value of maize cobs.
Title: A Retrospective Study of Tumors of the Nasal and Paranasal Regions of Dog in Grenada, West Indies
Abstract :
This retrospective study on tumors of canine nasal and paranasal regions covered the period from 2001 to 2014. It involved review of biopsy and necropsy reports submitted to Pathobiology laboratory of the St George’s University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Grenada, West indies. Out of a total 987 dogs with neoplasia in various sites of the body, 14 (1.4%) were diagnosed in nasal and paranasal regions. The type and number of these tumors were in descending order as follows: Transmissible venereal Tumor 4 (29%), Adenocarcinoma 4 (29%), Chondrosarcoma 3 (21%), Squamous cell Carcinoma 2(14%), and Adenosquamous Carcinoma 1(7%). Majority of dogs affected with tumors in nasal and paranasal regions were local mixed breed referred to as Pothounds (7), others were Collie/mix (1), and a few were pure breeds: Rott weiler (3), Pitbull (1), German shepherd (1) and Doberman (1). The mean and median age of the affected dogs was 8 years with a range of 2.5 years to 14 years. As far as authors are aware, there is no published report on neoplasms in the nasal and paranasal regions of dogs from Grenada and the wider Caribbean. This is the fi rst report on neoplasia of nasal and para nasal regions of dogs from Grenada.
Title: Endocrine Status of Serum Testosterone, Estrogen and Thyroid Hormones in High Fertility Breeding Buffalo Bulls and their Male Calves
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to assess the endocrine status of serum testosterone, estradiol and thyroid hormones in good fertility breeding buffalo bulls and their male calves. Fifteen buffalo bulls were categorized into good fertility bulls on the basis of semen evaluation and reproductive history. Thirty one male calves were selected from these fi fteen buffalo bulls. Average testosterone concentration was higher (p<0.05) in adult buffalo bulls than male calves (2.93 ± 0.44 ng/ml versus 1.20 ± 0.35 ng/ ml). Similarly estradiol concentration in adult buffalo bull was (p<0.05) higher (51.66 ± 2.54 pg/ml) as compared to male calves (15.352 ± 2.47 pg/ml). Serum TSH was found higher (p<0.05) in adult buffalo bulls(18.83 ± 4.15 µIU/ml) than their male calves (7.08 ± 2.48 µIU/ml) but serum concentrations of T3 and T4 were similar in adult buffalo bull and their male calves (5.84 ± 0.60 ng/ml and 4.96 ± 0.52 µg/dl versus 3.73 ± 0.38 ng/ml and 3.34 ± 0.29 µg/dl, respectively)
Title: Production Cost of Mutton Nuggets Developed by Incorporating Flaxseed Flour, Blend of Essential Oils and their Selected Combinations
Abstract :

In the present study, production cost of mutton nuggets formulated with pre-optimized level of flaxseed flour (8%) (T-1), blend of essential oils (0.25%) (T-2) and their selected combination (4% flaxseed flour + 0.25% blend of essential oils) (T-3) were studied in comparison to that of the control. Optimization of levels for flaxseed flour and blend of essential oils was done under different experiments based on sensory attributes and those having sensory status closer to control were selected. It was found that the production cost of 1 kg product was ` 428.16, 392.41, 436.01 and 418.16 for control, flaxseed, essential oil (EO) and combination of flaxseed and essential oil incorporated mutton nuggets, respectively. Thus, it was concluded that formulation with 8% flaxseed flour at the cost of lean meat was most economic among the various other combinations.

Title: Comparative Gross Anatomy of the Sternum in Peacock (Pavo cristatus), Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and White-breasted waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurlus)
Abstract :

Comparative gross anatomical studies were conducted on the sternum of peacock, turkey, duck and white breasted waterhen. In peacock and turkey the sternum was quadrilateral strongly concave plate like whereas, in duck and white-breasted waterhen, it was rectangular in shape. The spina sterni was large, quadrilateral in shape with a large foramen at its root in peacock and turkey. In duck and white breasted waterhen the spina sterni was pointed and no foramen was present in it. Processus lateralis cranialis was hamulus shape, directed cranio-laterally and did not extend up-to the spina sterni in peacock, whereas in turkey it was dagger shaped, extended beyond the apex of spina sterni. In duck, the processus lateralis cranialis was hook like and lag behind the spina sterni. In white breasted waterhen it was large, triangular shaped and extended up-to the base of spina sterni. In peacock, two foramen pneumaticum medianum were present on the mid line at the dorsal surface of body of sternum. In duck single median pneumatic foramen was present on the mid line close to anterior border of sternum. The processus thoracicus was absent in duck and white breasted waterhen. The processus caudalis lateralis was long and narrow, widened out in its terminal in peacock and turkey, but in duck and white-breasted waterhen, the process was clasp like. In peacock, turkey and duck this process did not reach up-to the caudal end of the metasternum but in white–breasted waterhen, it reached beyond the caudal end of the metasternum.

Title: A Study on Growth Performance of Weaned Kids of Sirohi Goat Fed with Different Levels of Concentrates
Abstract :

The present investigation was conducted a study on growth performance of weaned kids of Sirohi goat fed with different levels of concentrates for the effect of concentrate feeding on body weight gain. Twenty four kids of Sirohi breed between 3-4 months age were randomly selected on the basis of uniform body weight, age and divided into 3 groups of 8 kids each at the goat farm of S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner. Group T1 served as control supplemented with 50 g concentrate per kid per day for 3 months. Group T2 (treatment) supplemented with 50, 100 and 150 g concentrate and T3 (treatment) with 100, 150 and 200 g concentrate per head per day for 1st, 2nd and 3rd month, respectively. Other management practices were similar for each group. Fodder of khejri loom was offered ad-libitum to all groups. Body weight of kids was recorded weekly. Group T3 fed with more quantity of concentrate achieved the highest (85.77 g/day) average weekly weight gain followed by T2 (69.22 g/day) and control group T1 (61.33 g/day). Maximum average total weight gain per kid was observed in group T3 (7.72 kg) followed by T2 (6.23 kg) and least was found in T1 (5.52 kg). Thus, from above findings it can be concluded that T2 and T3 treatments showed significantly improved growth performance in Sirohi kids and higher level (T3) was relatively the best level in terms of both biological and economical returns.

Title: Seroprevalence of Bluetongue among Sheep Population of Odisha
Abstract :

Serum analysis was performed during October 2015 to April 2016 to ascertain the prevalence of bluetongue (BT) virus infection among sheep population in Odisha. Samples were collected randomly from apparently healthy sheep from 10 different agro-climatic zones of Odisha. Serum samples were screened for BT virus (BTV) antibodies using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) at Division of Virology, IVRI, Mukteswar. Out of 217 samples screened, 60.36% samples were found positive for BTV infection. The prevalence of BTV antibodies in different agro-climatic zones ranged from 38.09% to 100%. This seroprevalence picture of BT, first of its kind, unfolds this viral infection among sheep population in Odisha.

Title: Evaluation of Diuretic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Dolichos biflorus Seeds against Ethylene Glycol Induced Renal Stone in Experimental Rats
Abstract :
Aqueous extracts of seeds of Dolichos biflorus was evaluated for its diuretic activity against experimentally induced renal stone in rats. The animals were grouped into seven groups of six animals each. Hyperoxularia was induced by giving ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride to a final concentration of 0.75 % and 2% in
drinking water for a period of 28 days. The first group of animals served as negative (healthy) control and received normal distilled water. The second group served as positive (untreated) control and no extract was given to this group. Rest groups received aqueous extract of Dolichos biflorus at a dose of 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mg/kg. The urine volume was recorded for all the groups after every seven days for about 28 days. The extracts treated groups showed increase in total urine production and the extract treated group (300 mg/kg) showed significantly and markedly increased the urine output (p < 0.01). There was significant (p < 0.01) decrease in pH of positive control rats as compared to extract treated rats. Urinary pH also showed dose dependent effect, the higher the dose the lesser the decrease in pH of urine. The extract treated rats showed lesser decrease in pH as compared to positive control rats. Crystals in urine also varied with dose of extract and lesser crystals were found in rats treated with higher dose of extract and maximum crystals were found in positive control group. These findings suggest the possible traditional use of this plant in nephrolithiasis as diuretics.
Title: Nesting Preferences of Birds in Relation to Exotic Trees in Ludhiana, Punjab
Abstract :

Birds have very close association with trees. Trees offer a platform to birds for nesting, roosting, foraging, breeding and feeding purposes. The introduction of exotic (non-native) flora can effect or modify inherent species richness, communal alignment and species abundance, as well as species relationships and communal structure. Birds are exclusively sensitive to alterations both in terms of environmental and ecological. Introduction of exotic trees and human disturbance have also affected the bird diversity. The main objective of the present study was to find out the nesting preference of avian species in relation to exotic trees at two selected locations i.e. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Location I) and Gurpal Nagar, Ludhiana (Location II) from June 2018 to July 2019. Five different exotic trees species selected were Safeda (Eucalyptus tereticornis), Poplar (Populus deltoides), Bottle brush (Callistemon viminalis), Monkey Puzzle (Araucaria araucana), Silver Oak (Grivillea robusta). A total 31 nests (6 on Bottle brush tree, 2 on Silver oak tree, 7 on Poplar tree, 16 on Eucalyptus tree) were recorded. Out of these, 5 nests were of Baya weaver Ploceus philippinus, 4 nests were of Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri, 20 nests were of House Crow Corvus splendens and 2 nests were of Common Myna Acridotheres tristis. Four bird species were observed nesting at location I while only one was observed at location II. Less bird diversity recorded was at location II (8) as compared to location I (23) because of the anthropogenic activities which disturbed the natural habitat at that location.

Title: Assessment of Pre and Final Year Undergraduate Veterinary Students Information Literacy Competencies and Attitude towards e-Learning
Abstract :
The study was conducted to assess the information literacy competencies of pre and final year undergraduate veterinary students and their attitude towards e-learning. The 120 pre-final and final year veterinary students studying at Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana were selected randomly and data was collected with the help of a
structural questionnaire consisting of 25 items with respect to concept identifi cation, search strategy, document types, search tools, use of results and e-learning. The study revealed that only 12.5% of the veterinary students belonged to high knowledge level category whereas majority of them 68.3% (P<0.01) possessed low knowledge towards information literacy competencies. A high percentage of veterinary students lacked the necessary knowledge and skills to identify main concept and significance of words (52.5%), to opt appropriate search strategy (83.1%), to select required document types (42.1%), to utilize efficient search tools (73.8%) and to evaluate and use results (68.8%). Only 18.3% students had ability to use computer as experts. About 62.5% respondents used search engines as e-learning tool. About 87.9 and 89.7% male and female respondents possessed favourable attitude towards use of e-learning tools. Gender and OCPA had no significant association with knowledge level as well as e-learning attitude of veterinary students. The study revealed notable gaps among students towards information literacy competencies and e-learning, hence, teaching of credit-bearing Information Literacy courses is imperative to enhance undergraduate veterinary students’ knowledge and information seeking skills.
Title: Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli from Milk
Abstract :

Milk plays a major role as a source of nutrition in the diet but contaminated milk can be a source of harmful bacteria. Escherichia coli is opportunistic pathogen and is responsible for a wide range of infections. The prevalence of pathogenic multi-drug resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli is increasing and becoming a global concern. A study was carried out to isolate ESBL producing E. coli from 150 milk samples from Anand and around villages. Total 94(62.66%) samples were found positive as E. coli by isolation on MacConkey and Eosin Methylene Blue agar which were confirmed by primary & biochemical tests including Gram’s staining. Antibiotic sensitivity test (ABST) was performed against 6 antibiotics and isolates found resistant to Aztrionem: 58(61%), Cefoxitin: 20(21%), Ceftriaxone: 56(59%), Ceftazidime: 62(65%), Cefpodoxime: 34(44.73%) & Ceftazidime + Clavulanic acid: 8(8.5%). A total 34(36.17%) ESBL producing E. coli were phenotypically confirmed by ABST and Epsilometer test. Genotypic confirmation of 34 isolates was done by PCR and isolates found positive for bla CTX M-3 gene: 18(52.94%), bla CTX M-9 gene 6(17.64%), bla SHV gene: 5(14.70%) and bla TEM gene: 5(14.70%). In summary, analyzed milk samples were found to have a health risk for consumers due to contamination by ESBL producing E. coli, their pathogenicity and treatment failure as a result of antibiotic resistance.

Title: Standardization of Protocols for Extraction of Aloe vera and Cinnamon Bark Extract
Abstract :

The present study was envisaged to optimize the extraction protocols viz. time, temperature and solvent concentration for extraction of phyto-extracts from aloe vera and cinnamon bark based on antioxidant efficacy in-vitro. These were optimized using Box-Behnken Design (BBD) and completely randomized design (CRD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A total number of 17 different combinations of time, temperature and ethanol concentration in BBD and 13 different combinations of time, temperature in CRD were considered for optimizing extraction protocols for aloe vera and cinnamon respectively. The in-vitro 1, 1 diphenyl-2picrylhydrazyl (DPPH % inhibition) and 2,2′-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) ABTS+ radical scavengering activity of aqueous extract of cinnamon bark was recorded highest for the combination of 99% concentration at 80°C temperature for 3h amongst all 13 runs. The 90% ethanolic extract of aloe vera and cinnamon bark exhibited higher in-vitro antioxidant ability than aqueous extract at time, temperature combination of 15 min for 65°C and 9h for 60°C respectively.

Title: Replacement of Animal Model for Propagation of Classical Swine Fever Challenge Virus by Adaption in the PK-15 Cell Line
Abstract :

Classical swine fever (CSF) challenge virus has been adapted in PK-15 cell line from infected splenic suspension of the challenge virus maintained hitherto by pig to pig passages. Confirmation of viral presence was done by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT). A reasonably good titre of 106.5 TCID50/ml was obtained at 6th passage level. The cell culture adapted challenge virus at a dose of 105.0 TCID50 produced CSF symptoms in pigs from 2nd days post infection (dpi) onwards and succumbed to the infection between 11-12 dpi. Cell culture adapted CSF challenge virus offers advantage to inoculate exact virus particles over the traditional tissue suspension (20% w/v) in potency testing. Adapted challenge virus will replace the use of pigs for propagation of challenge virus; hence follows 4 R’s (replacement, reduction, refinement and rehabilitation) principle. This challenge virus can be attenuated by further serial passages and can be used to develop indigenous live attenuated cell culture based vaccine.

Title: Retrospective Inspection and Dissemination Pattern of Common Metabolic Ailments among Hilly and Tarai Region Goats of Uttarakhand
Abstract :

Goats are considered as an important animal not in present scenario but also from ancient time. Due to increasing frugal interest of goat farming globally, profound animal husbandry practices are attaining importance under the target of obtaining quality products along with good animal health and welfare. During the transition phase of life, noticeable alterations in the endocrine and metabolic status of the dairy ruminants were registered. Among small ruminants i.e. goat’s hypocalcaemia, hypoglycemia/Pregnancy toxemia and hypomagnesaemia are the common metabolic disorders which normally precipitated during metabolic anxiety phase. The present study was conducted during the period of 1st January 2019 to 31st December 2019. During this period we had registered total 957 goats at Kalsi, Chakrata areas of district Dehradun, Chorgalia, Kotabagh, Kaladhungi areas of district Nainital and Shetlai, Pantnagar, Bazpur areas of district Uddham Singh Nagar beside this we had also included the concerned cases from Government Veterinary Hospital Outpatient departments (OPDs) of the above said areas in Uttarakhand. In the present study, we had performed a prevalence study over common occurring metabolic diseases of goats like hypocalcaemia, hypoglycemia/pregnancy toxemia and hypomagnesaemia. Besides this, we had also studied the dissemination pattern of common occurring metabolic diseases on the basis of their age groups and parity.

Title: A PCR Assay for Identification of Buffalo Origin of Tissue by Amplification of the mt. D-loop Gene
Abstract :

The present study was carried out with aim to develop and standardize the protocol for species-specific PCR assay for detection of tissue of buffalo origin. Muscle tissue samples from viz: cattle (postmortem), buffalo, sheep, goat and pig were used to extract the DNA and the good quality DNA samples having OD260:280 of 1.8-2.1 were used in this study. Species-specific primers for buffalo was designed through homology comparisons of the mitochondrial gene regions from these species using Megalign (DNA- STAR) and designed primer pairs were tested for their specificity by BLAST analysis. The PCR conditions were optimized in terms quantity and concentration of various components for PCR mix and annealing temperature. The developed assay was evaluated for its species specificity and sensitivity. Efficacy and reliability of developed assay was also validated on known samples, samples from meat admixture and samples subjected to diverse heat treatment viz: boiling, autoclave and microwave. The developed species-specific PCR assay resulted in amplification of DNA template exclusively from buffalo samples and resulted in amplified PCR product of 742bp. Sensitivity of the assay was determined by making 10-fold serial dilution of genomic DNA, which showed that only 10ng of absolute DNA content, was required for PCR amplification and successful identification of tissue of buffalo origin. Thus, it was concluded that developed species-specific PCR assay is effective in identification of tissue of buffalo origin.

Title: Haemodynamic and Electrocardiographic Changes Following Epidural Ropivacaine with or without Dexmedetomidine in Black Bengal Goat
Abstract :

The aim of this study to find out the effect of ropivacaine and its combination with dexmedetomidine in goats on systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and electrocardiographic changes. A total of 10 clinically healthy goats of 1-3 years aged and weighing between 10-15 kg were used for the present experiment. All the animals were randomly divided into two groups of five animals each. Ropivacaine (0.75%) @ 1 mg/kgbwt was epidurally administered in the lumbosacral space in group I whereas, the animals of group II were given dexmedetomidine @ 2 μg/kgbwt in combination with ropivacaine hydrochloride (1 mg/kgbwt). Haemodynamic parameters viz. SAP, DAP and MAP revealed non-significant alterations in group I, whereas, group II showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in SAP and MAP at different intervals of observations. Electrocardiogram revealed bradycardia in group II with prolongation of RR intervals, QT intervals and width of QRS complex, whereas, in group I these changes was variables which of little significance. In conclusion, the ropivacaine in combination with dexmedetomidine was synergistically decreasing the systolic arterial and mean arterial pressure within normal physiological limits and transient changes in ECG. Hence ropivacaine along with dexmedetomidine can be used in cardiovascular compromised animals.

Title: Utilization of Animal Power for Low-Density Briquettes Production
Abstract :

Draught animals have been the backbone of Indian agriculture through ages for supplying draught power. Animal operated implements available in the country are primarily meant for field operation and haulage. Therefore animals remain idle for a considerable period for which the farmer continues to provide fodder and shelter. It is estimated that the annual use of animals is limited to 300-350 hours only but the potential use of animal in a year is nearly 1800 hours. To achieve this target an appropriate, cost effective and easy to operate biomass briquetting machine operated by animal power rotary mode unit was developed. The machine was tested to produce low density briquettes by different biomass like charcoal, paddy husk, pigeon pea stalk and saw dust. On the basis of proximate analysis charcoal briquette has highest calorific value of 4480 Kcal/kg followed by pigeon pea stalk, saw dust and paddy husk having calorific value of 4200, 3890 and 3200 Kcal/kg respectively. The highest machine efficiency was 88.33 % for charcoal briquette followed by 85.76%, 86.00% and 83.20% for paddy husk, pigeon pea stalk and saw dust briquette respectively.

Title: Gross and Histomorphological Studies of Liver in Neonatal Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
Abstract :

Rabbit is a laboratory animal and is used to conduct wide variety of experiments for the welfare of human as well as animals. Liver is the main organ of metabolism and study of xenobiotics is usually carried out in this particular organ. The present study was conducted on six rabbits (non-descript) between 0-3 days of age, procured from laboratory of department of Microbiology, college of Veterinary Science & A.H. Jabalpur. The liver was carefully dissected out and fixed in 10% formalin. After gross measurements tissue samples were processed and 5-6 μm thick paraffin sections were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin stain and silver impregnation method for histological studies. Mean weight, length, width and height of liver were 16.30±0.37gm, 2.52±0.05 cm, 2.15 ±0.04 cm and 1.07 ±0.03cm respectively. The liver was comprised of two main lobes, right and left, that are separated by a deep median cleft. There were five lobes viz., Left Lateral, Left Medial, Right, Caudate and Quadrate lobes. The extent of the caudate process was bigger than that of the papillary process and the smallest structure in length and height was quadrate lobe. Histologically Mitoses was observed in the liver cells. The cell outline was indistinct and cytoplasm showed extreme variation in appearance as vacuolated, granular, deep staining or pale. There was presence of haematopoietic cells (megakaryocytes) in the stroma of liver.

Title: Assessment of Factors for External Injuries and Welfare Problems of Equine in South Wollo Zone Amhara Region, Ethiopia
Abstract :

A cross-sectional study was carried out in selected districts of South Wollo zone of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia during the period between April 2013 and December, 2013 to identify the major factors associated with external injuries in equines. Moreover, 180 randomly selected farmers were interviewed to collect relevant data on equine management and welfare issues. 586 working equines (346 donkeys and 240 mules) were examined clinically for screening injuries on body parts. Among the equines, 95.9% donkeys and 80.8% mules were used as pack animals. 63%, 27% and 9.8% of donkeys and 35%, 56.7% and 8.3% of mules were in thin, medium and good body condition score, respectively. The study revealed 66.6% overall prevalence of external injuries. The incidence of external injury in these animals was independent of age and species. Injuries caused by improper harness (saddle) design and overload were more common in both donkeys and mules. Injuries were most common in the back (31.8%), brisket region (12.3%), flank (10.8%) and tail base (6.2%). Out of a total of 108 interviewed farmers, 13.8% did not provide any treatment to their equines and 33.4% used their equine continuously regardless of the presence and severity of injures. In general, improper harnessing, overloading and ill-fitted saddle design were the major causes of external injuries in working equines of the area. The study disclosed higher prevalence of external injuries and absence of proper management of working donkeys and mules in south Wollo zone. Thus, a comprehensive equine health and welfare promotion program should be taken without any delay to alleviate the existing problems in the near future.

Title: Analysis of Socio-economic Characteristic of SHG (Self-Help Group) of Women Associated With Dairy Farming
Abstract :
SHG empowered the rural women socially, economically and politically and thus overall development of women and reduction of poverty in the nation. Micro- enterprise establishment for economic empowerment is one of the major objectives of SHG movement. More than 400 SHG have formed in the Udhampur district by various govt. agencies and NGOs. Out of these, 10 SHG villages were selected through simple random sampling and 15 women who were associated with dairy farming selected and thus forming a sample of 150 respondents. The study revealed that the majority of SHGs women associated with dairy were of middle age group, having 3to 5 milch animals, smaller family size, middle level of annual income( 50001 to 100000) and having cemented pucca house. Besides it was also observed that majority of respondents were lack of mass media exposure towards processing activities and farmer women were having medium level of change proneness, economic motivation and risk taking capacity.
Title: Karyomorphological Studies of Kangayam, Pulikulam, Crossbred Jersey and Crossbred Holstein Friesian Bulls
Abstract :

The present study was carried out in four genetic groups of cattle, viz. Kangayam, Pulikulam, crossbred Jersey and crossbred Holstein Friesian, to compare the karyomorphological pattern between Bos indicus and Bos taurus x indicus bull calves. Metaphase chromosomal spreads obtained by short term lymphocyte culture technique revealed chromosomal complement (2n) of 60, with 29 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes in four groups. All the autosomes were acrocentric, X-chromosome was sub-metacentric and Y-chromosome was acrocentric in Bos indicus and metacentric in crossbred bulls. There was no significant difference in relative length, arm ratio, centromeric index and morphological index of autosomes and X-chromosome between indicine and taurine groups; but Y-chromosome differed significantly (P˂0.01) in relative length between Bos indicus and Bos taurus x indicus crosses. Y-chromosome polymorphism could help in the determination of breed origin and male lines used in the breeding programmes in order to prevent the possible interferences in the process of reproduction.

Title: Efficacy of Indirect Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay and Passive Haemagglutination Test for the Diagnosis of Bovine Herpes Virus -1 (BHV-1) Infection
Abstract :
A total of 255 sera were collected from unvaccinated crossbred (174) and indigenous (81) cattle and buffalo having history of respiratory and reproductive disorders. All the sera sample were subjected to indirect ELISA and passive haemagglutination (PHA) test for the detection of BHV-1 antibodies. Indirect ELISA and PHA test detected significantly (P<0.01) varied prevalence of BHV-1 antibody i.e. 60.39 % and 35.69%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of PHA test in comparison with indirect ELISA was 55.19% and 94.06%, respectively. Moderate agreement (kappa = 0.442) was noticed between ELISA and PHA for the diagnosis of BHV-1 antibodies. Significantly (p< 0.01) higher prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies was observed in crossbred (70.11%) as compared to indigenous cattle and buffalo (46.91%). Hence, it is be concluded from present investigation that the indirect ELISA could be reliable and sensitive test than PHA test to screen BHV-1 antibody.
Title: Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) Supplementation on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Economics of Broilers
Abstract :
One hundred and eighty (n=180) day old white commercial broiler chicks (Cobb 400) were randomly divided into three groups to study the effects of garlic supplementation on growth performance. Dietary treatments were control (T1- basal diet only), garlic powder supplemented at 0.1% (T2) and 0.5 % (T3). Daily feed intake, weekly body weight and residue left any were recorded to calculate the feed conversion ratio. At the end of experiment six birds from each group were sacrificed to determine the carcass characteristics. Results revealed that dietary supplementation of 0.1% garlic powder (T2) significantly (P<0.01) improved body weight, body weight gain, feed intake and FCR as compared to birds supplemented with 0.5 % garlic powder (T3) and control (T1). Dietary supplementation of 0.1% garlic (T2) resulted in significant (P<0.05) improvement in dressed yield as compared to T3 and T1. On the other hand, comparable (P>0.05) effect was observed on shrinkage loss, blood loss, feather loss, eviscerated yield and relative weight of giblet. Mortality (%) in T1, T2 and T3 was 3.33,
0.00 and 1.67, respectively. Total feed cost, total cost/kg live weight and total cost/kg meat was reduced (P<0.05) in 0.1% garlic (T2) as compared to 0.5 % garlic (T3) supplemented birds or control (T1). Thus, dietary supplementation of 0.1 % garlic had beneficial effect on growth performance, dressed yield and cost of production.
Title: Effect of Fibrolytic Enzyme on Nutrient Utilization and Rumen Fermentation Pattern in Sheep
Abstract :
Effect of fibrolytic enzyme supplementation on nutrients utilization of sheep was studied. Twelve male Patanwadi sheep (12-15 month) were randomly divided in two groups of 6 each. Sheep were fed rations containing 50 % wheat straw and 50% compound concentrate mixture. A fibrolytic exogenous enzyme @ 0.025% was added to the ration of animal fed TMR. At the end of 14 weeks experimental period, animals were kept on digestion trial and three animals of each group were used for rumen fermentation analysis. There was no difference in final body weight between the groups due to enzyme treatment. There was non-significant difference on intake of dry matter and organic matter and also digestibility of DM, OM, CF and EE were not affected by treatment. However, the digestibility of CP and NFE were observed significantly (p<0.05) higher in treatment group as compared to control group. There was no significant effect on pH, TVFA, ammonia-N and NPN concentrations. However, the Total-N and protein-N concentration were significantly higher in treatment group as compared to control group. The daily feed cost was ` 6.04 and 5.90 under T1 and T2, respectively (P>0.05) which was somewhat lower in T2 in comparison to T1. It could be concluded that fibrolytic enzyme have no effect on feed intake, body wt gain, digestibility except protein utilization.
Title: Effect of Thermal Stress on Haematological Parameters and Enzymatic Activities in Two Breeds of Goat after Thermal Stress
Abstract :
The influence of thermal stress (heat and cold stress) on haematological parameters and some enzyme activities were studied in Beetal and Toggenberg goats. A total of 36 healthy adult (2-4 years of age) female Beetal and Toggenberg goats were selected. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and ALP (alkaline phosphatase) activities. Haemoglobin concentrations were found significantly higher (P<0.01) in all seasons, whereas, significantly higher (P<0.01) PCV was found in summer and autumn; ESR in summer season only in Toggenberg as compared to those of Beetal goat. In between three different seasons, irrespective of breed, haemoglobin, packed cell volume and ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) values were significantly higher (P<0.01) in summer followed by autumn and winter season whereas alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was significantly higher (P<0.01) in winter than those of other two seasons. In between the breeds, significantly higher (P<0.01) enzyme activities (AST, ALT and ALP) were found in Toggenberg goats in all seasons as compared to Beetal. When the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) values were considered separat ly in Beetal and Toggenberg goats in different seasons, significantly higher (P<0.01) activities were found in summer followed by autumn than those of
winter season in both the breeds.
Title: The Relationship Between Meat Quality Characteristics and Nutritional Composition of Nandanam Quail-III Slaughtered at Different Ages
Abstract :
In recent years, Japanese quail meat has gained much popularity among consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the meat quality characteristics and nutritional composition of Nandanam Quail-III (Coturnix coturnix japonica) meat as influenced by age at slaughter. Totally twelve birds were divided into two different age groups. The birds were slaughtered and breast muscle was obtained. The meat quality characters, proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid content of meat of two age groups were analysed. The significant difference (P<0.01) was observed in muscle fibre diameter, myofibrillar fragmentation index, moisture, protein, fat, major amino acids, total saturated fatty acids, total P/S, cholesterol content between two age groups. Based on the results it was concluded that the meat of young Nandanam Quail-III had the superior meat quality characters in terms of less fibre diameter, lesser myofibrillar fragmentation index and nutritional composition like less fat, saturated fatty acids, higher poly unsaturated fatty acids and amino acids.
Title: Draftability of Kutchi Camel under Agro Climatic Condition of Middle Gujarat
Abstract :

Present study was conducted on five clinically healthy adult Kutchi camels (B.wt. 450-550kg) with the objective to assess the effect of different payloads (L1-1500kg, L2-2000kg and L3-2500kg), under different seasons (S1- hot dry, S2-hot humid and S3- winter) and work rest cycles (WR1: 2h (W) - 1h (R) - 2h (W) - 1h (R) + 2h (W) and WR2: 1h (W) - 15 min (R) - 1h (W) - 15 min (R) - 1h (W) - 1h (R) - 1h (W) - 15 min (R) - 1h (W) - 15 min (R) - 1h (W). The Kgf, Hp, power output (W), stride (no/100m), time (sec/100m), stride length (m) and duration of stride/sec were recorded significantly (p<0.05) higher under L2 and L3 as compared to L1 under different work rest cycles, whereas speed (m/sec) declined significantly (p<0.05) under L2 and L3 as compared to L1. The no of strides/sec did not differ under any pay loads under different work rest cycles. The Hp, power output (W), speed (m/sec) and number of stride/sec increased significantly (p<0.05) under S2 and S3 as compared to S1 whereas time (sec)/100 m and duration of stride/sec declined significantly (p<0.05) under season S2 and S3 as compared to S1. The stride length (m) recorded significantly (p<0.05) high in S2 an compared to S1 and S3. The Kgf did not alter in any season.

Title: Storage Stability of Chevon Rolls Incorporated with Ethanolic Extracts of Aloe vera and Cinnamon Bark at Refrigeration Temperature (4±1°C)
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to assess the storage stability of chevon rolls prepared by incorporating various phyto-extracts viz. Control (C), T1 (chevon rolls with 0.40% ethanolic aloe vera extract) and T2 (chevon rolls with 0.25% ethanolic cinnamon extract) during refrigerated storage (4±1oC) under aerobic packaging conditions. Chevon rolls were stored for 35 days and analyzed for pH, oxidative stability, microbial and sensory attributes at a regular interval of 7 days. The pH followed gradual decreasing trend with the advancement of storage period irrespective of treatments. The various oxidative stability parameters such as PA (peroxide value), TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reacting substances) and FFA (free fatty acid value) followed an increasing trend in all products with treated samples (T1 and T2) showed lower value than control. Standard plate count and psychrophilic count were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in treated products than control and microbial count was better maintained in T2 than control. As the days of storage increased, scores for overall acceptability showed significantly (P<0.05) decreasing trends, however the score was recorded highest for T1 during entire storage. Thus chevon rolls could be successfully stored upto 28 days under refrigerated condition (4±1°C) under aerobic packaging.

Title: Animal Welfare Practices followed by Dairy Farmers of Kathua District of Jammu and Kashmir State
Abstract :
As we all are aware that safe and quality milk is being produced from healthy animals using management practices that are sustainable from an animal welfare, social, economic and environmental perspective. This study was carried out to fi nd out the common animal welfare practices being practiced by randomly selected 120 dairy farmers in the four blocks of Kathua district of Jammu and Kashmir state of India. For the study, a door to door survey was conducted using semi-structured interview schedule to collect primary data on various dairy animal welfare practices like calf rearing, feeding, housing, breeding, health care and milking welfare keeping in mind the “Five Freedoms” concept for animal welfare. Data from the study revealed that 100 percent of the farmers took care of the calves at the time of birth, provided colostrums (44%) after the removal of placentaand fed milk to their calves for more than four months after birth, but as far as total calf welfare was concerned they were not practicing cutting, ligation and disinfection of naval cord as required. They were also providing necessary amount of greens and concentrates to their animals and in some parts of district, they had maintained the standards of feeding welfare by exposing their animals to green pastures. Majority of the respondents had constructed a separate (54%) and well directed (61%) houses for their animals. Height of the shelters was suffi cient (67%) and had kacha fl oor (51%) in their animal sheds. Regarding the breeding welfare practices, majority of the respondents were practicing artifi cial insemination method and also got their animals examined after 90 days of insemination, which was a good breeding welfare practice. Majority of them had provided proper prophylactic measures to their animals from contagious diseases for their health welfare. They were milking their animals twice a day in the same place where they usually tied them. Majority of them were following good milking welfare practices by
cleaning their hands, utensils and udder of the animal before milk
Title: Detection of Anti Mycoplasma gallisepticum Antibodies in Different Age Group of Chicken by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay
Abstract :

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an important Mycoplasma species, causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry. Present study was conducted with the aim of detection of anti Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibodies in different age group of chicken by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Chicken serum samples were collected from different areas and unorganized farm of district Rewa (Madhya Pradesh). A solid phase blocking ELISA test was performed in serum samples using SVANOVIR MG-Ab, Sweden kit. Around 98 serum samples of different age group of chicken were collected. Chicken were divided into four different age groups viz. group I (6-24 Wks), II (25-42 Wks), III (43-60 Wks) and IV (61-77 Wks), each group further divided into three subgroups according to age. Age wise study of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibody detection revealed that age group I (6-24 wk age), II (25-42 Wk age), III (43-60 Wks) and IV(61-77 wk) were showing 30%, 20.83%, 20.83% and 12.50% seroconversion respectively. Study revealed that age group 6-24wks showing maximum antibody titer and age group 61-77 wks showing minimum antibody titer. Age subgroup 6-12 wks showing maximum 40% antibody titer. In overall study, Out of 98 samples tested 21.40% samples were positive by ELISA test. ELISA is used as a highly specific test for the detection of anti MG antibodies in chicken serum.

Title: Carcass Traits and Leather Quality Characteristics of Blackhead Ogaden Sheep Fed Different Proportions of Roughage and Concentrate Ratios
Abstract :

An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of varying level of roughage to concentrate ratios on carcass traits and leather quality characteristics of Blackhead Ogaden sheep aged 2 years (20.8±1.8 initial body weight). Twenty four lambs were blocked into 6 groups of four lambs based on initial body weight and randomly assigned within group to 4 diets. Roughage composed of natural grass hay and haricot bean hauls (50:50 ratio) and concentrate mixture composed of wheat bran (69%) and 31% of oil seed meal (noug seed cake and cottonseed meal in the ratio of 1.1:1) were offered at roughage (R) to concentrate (C) ratios of 60R:40C, 50R:50C, 40R:60C, and 30R:70C. Roughage and supplement were offered separately and percentages of the two feeds were determined based on ad libitum consumption of individual animal on dry matter (DM) basis. After the completion of stall feeding, animals were slaughtered for carcass parameters and leather quality evaluation. Slaughter body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage as a proportion of slaughter body weight, empty body weight, and total usable products are greater in group consumed 30R:70C than 60R:40C ration (P<0.05). Fat content and elongation percentage of leather produced from sheep consumed 60R:40C was higher (p<0.05) than 30R:70C. However, the other chemical and physico-mechanical quality of leather were not affect by the treatment diet (P>0.05). Thus, we conclude that feeding of roughage and concentrate at the ratio of 30R:70C could be recommended as better feeding strategy for better performances of finishing sheep.

Title: Effect of Antioxidants Mixture on the Quality Characteristics of Pork Sandwich Spread Stored under Refrigeration (4±1oC)
Abstract :
Effect of antioxidant level butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 1:1) on the quality characteristic of pork sandwich spread during storage was studied. Three levels of antioxidant mix viz:100 ppm, 200 ppm and 400 ppm were tried and product was evaluated weekly for physiochemical, microbiological and sensory properties along with the control during refrigerated storage (4±1oC) period of 28 days. The pH and water activity of the developed product were stable for a week during initial storage period followed by progressive decline, however, pH was again stable during latter part of storage period. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value as well as Total plate count (TPC) increased significantly at weekly intervals. Treated samples had lower TBARS value and TPC as compared to control. No Psychrotroph was detected till 14th day but after that it increased significantly. Psychrotrophic count of treatments and control did not vary significantly. No coliform or yeast and molds were detected throughout study period. There was no effect of antioxidant treatment on the scores of color, texture, juiciness, adhesion ability and spreadability of pork sandwich spread. However, flavour and overall acceptability scores increased with the increase in antioxidant levels. The scores of color, texture, juiciness, adhesion ability, spreadability did not vary signifi cantly with progressive storage period. But the flavour and overall acceptability scores decreased significantly (P<0.05) at every week. Study concluded that antioxidant (BHA + BHT, 1:1) treatments significantly improved the sensory and microbiological properties of pork sandwich spread at refrigerated storage (4±1°C).
Title: Trace Minerals and Biochemical Profile in Buffalo Calves Manifesting Coat Colour Depigmentation in the Fluoride Endemic South-West Punjab
Abstract :
The present work aimed to study trace minerals and haemato-biochemical profi le of buffalo calves manifesting depigmentation of coat colour (depigmented calves: DC) in comparison to calves having normal coat colour (normal calves: NC) in the fl uoride endemic zone of the South-West Punjab. Plasma fl uoride concentrations in NC and DC were higher than the normal but it did
not vary between the groups. Plasma copper concentration in DC was lower than the critical limit of 0.70 µgml-1 and it was signifi cantly (p<0.05) lower as compared to NC. Hair copper and plasma ceruloplasmin activity did not vary between the groups. Plasma molybdenum, and plasma and hair zinc and manganese concentrations were normal and did not vary between the groups. Plasma iron concentrations in both the groups were higher than the physiological limit of 2.50 µgml-1. The hair iron concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) higher in DC. The Hb, PCV, TEC, serum total proteins, albumin, globulin, plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, ALP, AST, CK and GGT were normal in both the groups. It is concluded that depigmentation of coat colour in buffalo calves from the fl uoride endemic South-west Punjab is due to deficiency of copper.
Title: Entrepreneurial Behaviour of Dairy Farmers
Abstract :
The present study was conducted in Jammu district of Jammu and Kashmir state during 2014-15 to know socio-economic and psychological characteristics of the dairy farmers and their relationship with entrepreneurial behaviour. The present investigation included 120 benefi ciaries from Bishnah, R.S. Pura, Arnia and Suchetgarh blocks of Jammu district. Results revealed that majority (68.40%) of dairy farmers had medium level entrepreneurial behaviour followed by 18.30 per cent having high level of entrepreneurial behaviour. Out of twelve, eight variables namely viz., education, land holding, innovativeness extension contact, annual income, experience of dairying, economic motivation and information seeking had positive and signifi cant relationship but only age was negatively signifi cant correlated with their entrepreneurial behaviour.
Title: Physiological Responses of Indigenous Sheep under Water Restriction
Abstract :
Eighteen farm born indigenous hoggets were selected on the basis of body weight (25-30kg) and randomly divided in to three treatment groups viz. T1 (Control), T2 (WR1:20%WR) and T3 (WR2:40%WR) and each treatment comprised of six animals to evaluate physiological responses. The pulse rate (per min) recorded at 7.30 am significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in 40% WR group as compared to 20 and 0% WR groups whereas respiration rate (per min) and rectal temperature (0F) recorded at 2.30 pm significantly (P < 0.05) elevated when animals were subjected to 40% WR as compared to 20 and 0% WR indicated that the 40% water restriction was more stressful to the animals.
Title: Gross and Microscopic Study of Different Organs in Zinc Intoxicated Male White Leg Horn
Abstract :
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of excess zinc on the gross and microscopic changes of different organs along with performance parameters in male white leg horn (WLH) chicks. A total of 80 WLH male birds of 4 weeks age were randomly and equally divided into four groups (C, G1, G2 and G3). Zinc sulphate was incorporated in drinking water @ 15000 ppm, 25000 ppm and 35000 ppm to group G1, G2 and G3, respectively, for a period of 8 weeks. The birds from each group were sacrificed at the end of the experimental trial for pathomorphological changes and estimation of organ body weight ratio. Significant histopathological changes were noticed in liver, spleen, gizzard, bursa kidneys and pancreas. Atrophy of liver, testes, spleen, bursa, pancreas and gizzard were also noticed. This study confirms that, the high levels of zinc have an adverse effect on health and performance of the birds.
Title: Amelioration of Acrylamide Induced Neurotoxicity in Wistar Rats
Abstract :

Present study was undertaken to study the neurotoxicity of oral acrylamide (ACR) and its amelioration using α-tocopherol, reduced glutathione (GSH) and hot aqueous extract (HAE) of Ocimum sanctum. Forty five male Wistar rats were divided into 12 groups. The study showed a significant reduction in the body weight of the rats fed with ACR in comparison to the other groups while body weight was restored in the rats fed with α-tocopherol and HAE. Neurotoxicity in rats fed with ACR was evident with the results of histopathology and oxidative stress (high MDA and decreased activities of GSH, SOD, GST and CAT in brain). Co-administration of α-tocopherol and HAE lowered these changes however, there was no marked improvement seen in neural damage but improvement was evident in behavioral as well as physiological changes at a marked point. Histopathology of brain in ACR alone fed group showed extensive neural degeneration and massive deposition of fibrin which was substantially decreased and ameliorated with the co-administration of α-tocopherol and HAE. These results support the oxidative stress results as well. Our results suggests that α-tocopherol and HAE can be useful for protecting brain tissue against ACR induced neurotoxicity through minimizing the free radical mediated oxidative stress.

Title: Economics of Small Broiler Units in Jammu District of Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract :

The economic analysis of small broiler units was carried out in Jammu district of Jammu and Kashmir state of India. The majority of broiler farms were existed in and around Jammu city of Jammu district. The cost and returns were calculated by categorizing broiler farms into three sizes; less than 500 birds, 501-1000 birds and more than 1000 birds. The data were collected from 60 broiler producers, 20 from each category during the year 2013-2014. The cost of production, mortality rates and returns from broiler production were estimated in different categories of broiler farms under study. The cost of chicks constituted the highest item of variable cost in all categories of farms i.e. 40.47% which was followed by cost of feed (37.19%), cost of medicine, vaccination and veterinary fee (11.78%), cost of labour (5.49%), miscellaneous cost (2.71%), cost of flooring material (1.35%), cost of electricity (0.74%) and cost of fumigation (0.27%). The overall gross income in all the broiler farms was ` 12705.08, whereas net income was Rs. 4139.72. The overall benefit-cost ratio was 1.48. The analysis of benefit-cost ratio for 100 chicks signifies that large broiler farms were more profitable than the small farms due to the optimum utilization of both fixed and variable inputs involved in the broiler production. The ratios of Marginal Value Product (MVP) to Marginal Factor Cost (MFC) were positive and more than unity for chicks, human labour and vaccine, drugs and veterinary fee i.e. 1.4768, 1.3934 and 5.3531 respectively, indicating the under-utilization of these resources, whereas for feeds, the ratio although came positive but it was less than unity i.e. 0.5779, indicating that the resource was over-utilized.

Title: Studies on the Types and Prognostic Approaches for Uterine Torsion among Ca
Abstract :

In the present study 20 cases of uterine torsion in cows presented to the TVCC of the department were evaluated for type, direction and degree of torsion as well as for liver and kidney function tests to determine prognosis. Of the total, 65% cases were of pre-cervical type and 35% post-cervical. In 75% cases direction of torsion was to the right side than to the left (25%). Forty per cent cases were of 180-360° than 90-180° (25%) and few were of ≤90° (20%) and >360° (15%). Ninety five per cent cases were reported at full term pregnancy. Out of all 65% cases could be delivered per-vaginum while 35% needed laparohysterotomy. The values of plasma GOT/AST at the time of presentation of case, 1-hr and 24-hr following delivery and in control group on delivery were 150.68 ± 3.03, 119.46 ± 1.27, 89.33 ± 1.23 and 69.96 ± 1.00 U/L, respectively. The corresponding values of plasma GPT/ALT were 112.90 ± 3.95, 85.18 ± 0.96, 62.44 ± 1.72 and 39.35 ± 1.20 U/L. The values of plasma bilirubin for the corresponding stages/groups were 1.68 ± 0.07, 1.13 ± 0.03, 0.75 ± 0.03 and 0.34 ± 0.02 mg/dl, respectively. The value of plasma creatinine at the time of presentation, and 1-hr and 24-hr following delivery and in control group were 2.03 ± 0.06, 1.51 ± 0.04, 0.80 ± 0.02 and 0.40 ± 0.02 mg/dl, while the values of BUN were 56.61 ± 1.44, 35.71 ± 0.37, 29.04 ± 0.27 and 17.56 ± 0.70 mg/dl, respectively.

Title: Comparative Efficacy of Coccidiostats on Growth and Feed Conversion Efficiency in Broiler Birds Experimentally Infected with E. tenella
Abstract :
The current study was undertaken at University Poultry Farm, Anand to know the comparative efficacy of commonly used coccidiostats on oocyst index, growth and feed parameters in Cobb-400 strain of broilers. Fifty chicks T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups were given Diclazuril (0.1%), Salinomycin (12%), Diclazuril (0.1%) + Salinomycin (12%) in shuttle programme and Maduramicin (1 %) at a dose rate of 100 g, 50 g, 100 + 50 g and 50 g per 100 Kg broiler feed as coccidiostat, respectively. One group of 50 chicks will be kept as infected control (T5) and another group of 50 chicks will be kept as uninfected control (T6) without coccidiostat in feed. Oocyst Index value indicates better efficacy of T4 and T2 as compared to T1 and T3 group and T4 group showed highest body weight gain followed by T2, T1 and T3 group after experimental infection of E. tenella on 22nd of age. At the end of six weeks, significantly highest feed consumption was observed in T2 group followed by T4, T3 and T1 group.
Over all FCR value were found lowest in T4 group followed by T1, T2, and T3. Signifi cantly highest FCR (2.42 ± 0.01) was
observed in T5 group and lowest (1.97 ± 0.51) in T6 group among all groups signifying better effi cacy of Maduramicin followed
by Diclazuril. This is the fi rst time study undertaken in middle Gujarat to access the effi cacy of commonly used coccidiostats
in E. tenella infection in broiler chickens.
Title: Sero-prevalence of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Bovine in Punjab,North India
Abstract :

The present study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Bovine respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) in cattle and buffaloes from different agroclimatic zones (viz. Submountain undulating, Undulating Plain, Central Plain, Western Plain and Western) in Punjab, north India by using commercially available competitive ELISA technique. A total of 187 serum sample(s) of 40 dairy herds of different age groups were collected and screened for the presence of BRSV antibodies. The overall seroprevalence recorded for BRSV in bovines was 47.05%. Seroprevalences of BRSV in cows and buffaloes was found to be 45.12% (37/82) and 48.57% (51/105), respectively. Animal in large herds and older animals (above 4 years) had the highest seropositivity and the findings were statistically significant on chi-square analysis (p<0.05) which indicated that older animals and large herds are important risk factors for increased seropositivity to BRSV. No significant variation was observed in the haematological values of BRSV sero-positive and sero-negative animals. The present study puts on records of high seroprevalence of BRSV infection in bovines of Punjab, north India and the results indicate that exposure to this agent is common within study areas

Title: Comparative Assessment of Carcass Traits in Indigenous Chicken
Abstract :

A study was conducted to find out the differences in carcass traits among the Cobb-400, Vanraja, Aseel and Kadaknath Breeds of chicken. Cobb-400 showed significantly (P<0.05) higher live weight and dressing percentage than indigenous breeds (Vanrja, Aseel and Kadaknath) at the age of six week. Hot carcass weight as well as cold carcass weight were significantly (P<0.05) higher in comparison to studied indigenous breeds. The same pattern was reported for meat bone ratio and meat yield. Among all indigenous breeds Aseel showed highest live weight, dressing percentage, hot and cold carcass weight as well as meat bone ratio and meat yield. However, these values were comparable between Vanraja and Kadaknath breeds. The carcass traits values overall had lower values than most of the studied reports which might be due to lower slaughter age of indigenous breed used in present study. So the need is to upgrade the growth status of indigenous chicken breeds to meet out the daunting demand of meat of these breeds.

Title: Factors Affecting Weight Gain in Magra Sheep under Arid Condition of Rajasthan
Abstract :
The data for the Present investigation were analyzed from records (1999-2008) of Magra Sheep research fl ock maintained with CSWRI, ARC, Bikaner. Records of 1638 Magra lambs for growth performance was analyzed to assess the impact genetic group, period of birth, sex and parity. The overall least-squares means were observed for average daily gain in body weight during 0-3, 3-6, 6-12 and 0-12 months of age were estimated as 124.20 ± 1.135, 78.88 ± 1.792, 32.99 ± 0.895 and 68.52 ± 0.745 gm/day, respectively. Effect of sire, period and sex were found highly signifi cant on weight gain. The parity had signifi cant effect on
average daily gain in body weight during 0-3 and 3-6 but non-signifi cant during 6-12 and 0-12. Regression of dam’s weight at lambing had highly signifi cant effect except average daily gain 3-6 months of age.
Title: Evaluation of Biochemical Profile Alterations and Oxidative Stress in Mice Model on Oral Exposure to Deltamethrin
Abstract :
Present study was conducted to observe the biochemical alterations as well as oxidative stress in swiss albino male mice on exposure to low dose of deltamethrin through oral route for 15, 30 and 60 days. Three doses of deltamethrin viz., 0.5 mg/kg wt/ day, 1 mg/kg bwt/day and 1.5 mg/kg bwt/day dissolved in groundnut oil were administered orally. Control group was administered groundnut oil alone. Results indicate that the serum concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine increased significantly (P < 0.05) on exposure to all the doses of deltamethrin as compared to control groups whereas TP and albumin decreased significantly indicating hepatic and kidney dysfunction. It was observed that deltamethrin causes severe oxidative stress to mice as observed by measuring the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker for analyzing peroxidation of the lipid in the cells. The levels of MDA as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) were found to be significantly high in the treatment group at all doses and exposure periods as
compared to the control group indicating the oxidative stress. Therefore, the present study indicates significant alterations in
biochemical profile as well as oxidative stress in mice exposed to the pesticide.
Title: Variation in Test Day Milk Yield and Composition at Day 15 and 60 Postpartum in Surti and Jafarabadi Buffaloes
Abstract :

The study was carried out to study individual test day variability in yield and composition of Surti and Jafarabadi buffaloes milk at day 15 and 60 postpartum (pp). 10 healthy Surti and Jafarabadi buffaloes of each breed were selected at random from Livestock Research Station, Navsari and Cattle Breeding Farm, Junagadh, Gujarat, respectively. Buffaloes were further divided into four different groups for data analysis and comparisons. Overall mean Test day milk yield (TDMY) was found to be steady without any notable significant differences among the four groups of buffaloes. There was increase of 0.88 kg and 0.33 kg in mean Fat and protein corrected test day milk yield (FPCTDMY) with advancement of lactation between day 15 and 60 pp in Surti and Jafarabadi buffaloes, respectively. The mean FPCTDMY of S15 and J15 groups were found to be significantly different (p≤0.05), showing 45.07% higher yield in Jafarabadi buffaloes. The mean fat percent of Jafarabadi buffaloes was significantly (p≤0.05) higher with magnitude of 28.79% over fat% of Surti buffaloes at day 60 pp. The mean SNF% in milk of Jafarabadi buffaloes was 12.27%, significantly (p≤0.05) higher than Surti buffaloes milk at day 15 pp. The mean protein% in milk of Jafarabadi buffaloes was 17.71 and 10.51% significantly (p≤0.05) higher than Surti buffaloes milk at day 15 and 60 pp, respectively. The mean lactose% in milk of Jafarabadi buffaloes was 13.39 % higher than Surti buffaloes milk at day 15 pp, the difference being statistically significant (p≤0.05). As major finding, Jafarabadi buffaloes produced significantly higher milk in terms of FPCTDMY (at day 15 pp) and Fat percent (at day 60 pp) as compared to Surti buffaloes, respectively.

Title: Effect of Acidified Sodium Chlorite Treatment of Feedstuffs on Nitrogen and Amino Acid Digestibility in Poultry
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to study the effect of Acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) treatment on nitrogen utilization and amino acid digestibility in caecectomised white leghorn cockerels. Feed ingredients viz. soybean meal, meat cum bone meal and sunflower meal were treated with 80 ppm of ASC either in dry or wet form and
30 g of these ingredients were forced fed to caecectomised white leghorn cockerels, maintained in individual cages. Fecal material was collected (up to 24 h) and analyzed for dry matter, nitrogen, uric acid and amino acid content. Results revealed that ASC treatment of feedstuffs numerically improved their dry matter metabolizability
without any appreciable variation in nitrogen and amino acids bioavailability. Thus it may be concluded that ASC treatment (80 ppm) of feedstuffs has no apparent effect on nitrogen and amino acid digestibility in poultry.
Title: Isolation, Morphological Identification and In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Endophytic Bacteria Isolated From Morus nigra (Mulberry) L
Abstract :

Plant-associated bacteria that live inside plant tissues without causing any harm to plants are defined as endophytic bacteria. Different parts of mulberry plant (root, stem and leaves) are reported to possess different pharmacological activity.The present study was done to isolate endophytic bacteria from Morus nigra (mulberry) leaves, their identification and investigate their antibacterial activity against three gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogens and Bacillus cereus and gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumoniae. A total 25 leaves samples were taken, they were sterilized with 0.1 per cent sodium hypochlorite, 0.01 per cent bavistin, 0.05 per cent and 70 per cent ethanol. Sterilized leaves of the plants were embedded in kings B petri plates. for the isolation of endophytic bacteria. Maximum isolated sample on kings b media were irregular in shape, flat elevation, undulated margin, glistening growth surface, opaque and white in colour, the microscopic examination revealed that isolated endophytic bacteria were gram positive and rod shaped. The antibacterial effect was studied by the disc diffusion method with known antibiotic ciprofloxacin (Ci) as standard. The antibacterial activity of endophytic bacteria isolated from Morus nigra (mulberry) showed good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogens.

Title: Adaptation Trial of Oat (Avena sativa) Varieties in Dehana District,Northern Ethiopia
Abstract :

The experiment was conducted in Dehana District to identify the adaptable and high yielding oat accession (s). Data on dry matter yield (kg × m-2), dry matter (percentage), grain yield (kg × m-2), plant height (centimeter) and fresh weight (kg × m-2) were taken for the accessions of oat used (579-D-27, CI-8237, CI-8235, DZF- 00551 and 6710). A significance difference (p<0.05) was observed in the parameters of dry matter yield, grain yield and fresh weight but the other parameters did not show significant differences. The mean dry matter yield of CI-8237 (0.735 kg × m-2) was significantly higher than 579-D-27 (0.562 kg × m-2), 6710 (0.533 kg × m-2) and CI-8235 (0.506 kg × m-2) varieties. The mean fresh weight yield of CI-8237 (2.446 kg × m-2) was significantly higher than 6710 (1.819 kg × m-2) and CI-8235 (1.774 kg × m-2). The mean grain yield of DZ-00551 (0.283 kg × m-2) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than all the other varieties. At the end of the experiment a field day was prepared and all the participants of field day (100%) prefer the variety CI-8237 for its biomass yield. Hence, it can be concluded that the oat variety CI-8237 should be recommended to farmers of Dehana District and of similar climatic conditions in order to enhance livestock feed production.

Title: Sero-prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Brucellosis in Camel at Akaki Abattoir, Central Ethiopia
Abstract :

The present study was delineated to investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in camels brought for slaughtering at Akaki abattoir, Ethiopia during the period between December 2015 and April, 2016. Serum samples from 201 apparently health camels were initially screened for the presence of Brucella antibodies by the Rose bengal Plate Test (RbPT) and positive reacting sera were further confirmed by the Complement Fixation Test (CFT). Out of total 201 samples tested for RBPT, 13 (6.5%) were positive for brucellosis, of these, 9(4.5%) were confirmed to be seropositive for brucellosis upon further testing by CFT. There was significant difference in seroprevalence (based on CFT) of camel brucellosis in different age groups (χ2=34, p< 0.05), sexes (χ2= 6.3, p<0.05), and animals with difference body score condition (χ2= 11.85, p< 0.05). The seroprevalence was significantly higher in animals of 5-9 years age group, females, poor body condition when compared to animals with other age groups, male animals and animal with medium or good body score condition respectively. The results of the present investigation indicate that Brucella spp. exists within the camels in Borena, Oromia region. Coordinated nationwide epidemiological surveillance in camel and other ruminants is required together with typing of infecting strains, thus enabling the transmission dynamics to be elucidated and initiating immunization campaigns, public health education and eradication strategies.

Title: Postnatal Gross Morphological and Histoenzymic Studies on the Thyroid Gland of Assam Goat
Abstract :

The thyroid gland was composed of right and left lateral lobes connected by a narrow isthmus. The location of the isthmus over the trachea varied in male goats which ranged from 4th to 9th tracheal rings. Various biometrical parameters viz. length, width, thickness and weight of the thyroid gland showed a highly significant (P<0.01) increase between various age groups as well as between the thyroids of right and left sides of the body in Assam goats. Accessory thyroid tissue was not observed in any of the male goats. Different biometrical parameters of the isthmus showed an increasing trend with the advancement of age and the variations were found to be highly significant (P<0.01) between various age groups, except in respect of their weight. The activity of LDH in the follicular epithelium of the thyroid gland varied from weak to intense from 4 to 10 months of age (groups-III to VI). However, MDH showed a strong activity in these cells at birth (group-I), which was reduced to moderate in 4 month old kids (group-III) and again elevated in older goats. The enzymic activity of G-6-PDH was variable from mild to moderate in the male goats. The intertubular stroma of the thyroid gland showed no activity for MDH and G-6-PDH in all the age groups. But a mild activity of LDH enzyme was seen in goats from 6 month of age (group-IV) onwards.

Title: Spermiogram Characteristics in Epididymal Washings of Bucks During Winter and Summer Season
Abstract :
The present investigation was designed to study certain morphological characteristics of epididymal washings/plasma during winter and summer season in the bucks. The study was undertaken with the view to fi nd out the effect of different season on
the epididymal physiology of bucks. The epididymis was collected from sixteen apparently healthy bucks, immediately after their slaughter. In the laboratory, separation and washings of caput, corpus and cauda epididymis were carried out separately. The spermatozoa of the cauda epididymis showed higher (P < 0.05) mass motility as compared to corpus epididymis in winter as compared to summer season and caput epididymis in which they were non-motile in both the seasons. The result of present study showed high (P < 0.01) concentration of spermatozoa in different part of epididymis during winter as compared to summer season. During winter season, spermatozoa concentration in the cauda was signifi cantly higher (P < 0.01) as compared to corpus and caput. During summer, live per cent values of spermatozoa were signifi cantly lower (P < 0.01) in caput, corpus and cauda epididymis as compared to winter value of caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. Most of the spermatozoa from the caput epididymis showed the higher cytoplasmic droplet at their neck portion. However, the spermatozoa of the corpus and cauda epididymis revealed a non-signifi cant reduction in the cytoplasmic droplet at the neck portion. All the above parameters indicate that summer stress severely affect epididymal physiology and semen quality of buck.
Title: Effect of Different Feeding Systems on Growth Performance of Rohilkhandi Goat Kids
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to see the effect of different feeding systems on the performance of kids. A total 21 local goat
kids of Rohilkhand region weighing around 7-11 kg and ageing 4-5 months were selected and randomly made in to 3 groups. Group-I (Gr- I) was fed un-chopped green fodder in circular feeder (newly designed). Group-II (Gr- II) was fed un-chopped green fodder in linear feeder, similar to the existing farm practice. Group-III (Gr-III) was fed chopped green fodder in linear feeder (modifi ed version). Amount of concentrate and dry fodder fed was kept constant. Adlibitum green fodder was fed and at the end left over was recorded. The ADG of kids in Gr I, Gr II and Gr III were 33g, 33g and 40 g respectively. Gr III had consumed signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher than Gr-I and Gr-II at every fortnight both on fresh and dry matter basis. The green fodder wastage was signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher for Gr I and lowest in Gr-III. The overall FCR was 1:9.46, 1:8.93 and 1:9.37 in Gr-I, Gr-II & Gr-III respectively. The total time required for feeding and cleaning of the pens was signifi cantly higher in Gr I than Gr II and Gr III. It can be concluded that provision of un-chopped fodder in circular feeder did not give any advantage over linear feeding trough. Further chopped fodder did not help in body weight gain but helped in reducing the feed wastage.
Title: Storage Stability of Functional Spent Hen Meat Cutlets under Modified Atmospheric Packaging at Refrigeration (4±1°C) Temperature
Abstract :
In the current study, storage stability of spent hen meat cutlets enriched with natural antioxidants viz. C (control), T1 (with 4% carrot powder) and T2 (3% broccoli powder) during refrigerated storage (4±1oC) stored under modifi ed atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions containing a mixture of 50% carbon dioxide (CO2) and 50% nitrogen (N2) gases. The samples were drawn at a regular interval of 7 days till the occurrence of incipient spoilage and analyzed for various quality attributes, lipid oxidation parameters instrumental colour and texture profi le, sensory and microbial quality parameters. The pH recorded signifi cantly (P<0.05) lower value on day 7 for control and day 14 for treatments and, thereafter recorded increasingly value with the elapse of storage time, in all samples. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) value of treated products (T1 and T2) were noted signifi cantly (P<0.05) lower than control on 7th day of storage. Highest value of β-carotene content was recorded for T1. Standard Plate Count (SPC) increased signifi cantly throughout storage with the elapse of storage days; but the value remained well below the spoilage level. There was a declining trend for instrumental colour values during storage. As the days of storage increased, overall acceptability of all samples showed decreasing (P<0.05) trends, however the sensory panelists rated the treated product good to very good even on last day (35th) day of storage. Thus spent hen meat cutlets could be successfully kept for 35 days in MAP conditions with acceptable sensory attributes and permissible microbiological quality.
Title: Gross Morphometric and Radiographic Studies on the Metacarpals of Indian Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra)
Abstract :

The metacarpus of Indian Blackbuck comprised of two metacarpal bones. The large metacarpal bone consisted of fused III and IV metacarpals. The shaft of the metacarpus presented two surfaces and two borders. The dorsal surface was smooth and semi-cylindrical in outline. The palmar surface was flat in outline and it presented a deep longitudinal groove which possessed similar foramina. These foramina communicated with the similar foramina on the palmar surface through transverse canals. The proximal extremity presented two slightly concave facets, separated by a median ridge in front and a shallow groove behind. The distal extremity was divided by a dorso-palmar cleft into two condyles. The small metacarpals (splint bones) were cord like bones inblackbuck. The metacarpal II was present on palmo-medial aspect and metacarpal V was present on palmo-lateral aspect of the large metacarpal.

Title: Structure and Quality of Low Value Carabeef Sausages at Frozen Storage
Abstract :
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different binders like wheat flour, soy flour), whole egg and liquid whey under packaging methods like Aerobic and Vacuum packaging on the structure, physico-chemical, microbial and sensory qualities of low value meat incorporated buffalo meat sausages under frozen storage (–18oC). Sausages incorporated with LW had better organoleptic qualities and good shelf life However, those incorporated with WF had the best structural properties and acceptability even under ordinary packaging method. With respect to packaging methods, aerobically packed sausages revealed lowest shear force values, total viable count and anaerobic count. Sausages packed under vacuum recorded the highest pH, odour,
appearance, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores, lowest Thiobarbituric Acid Number and yeast and mould count.
Title: Effect of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis) Supplementation on Production Indices, Mortality and Cost of Production of Broiler Chicken
Abstract :

The present study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of three physical forms of aloe vera viz. powder, gel and juice on the energy efficiency (EE), protein efficiency (PE), performance index (PI), production number (PN), mortality pattern and cost of production of broiler chicken. Two hundred and forty day old unsexed broiler chicks (Cobb 400) were distributed in four groups with four replicates, each consisting of fifteen chicks on a completely randomized design. The treatments included the control (T1- basal diet as per BIS 2007) and three groups with basal diet mixed with aloe vera powder @ 0.5% in feed (T2), gel @ 2% in feed (T3) and fresh aloe vera juice @ 2% in drinking water (T4), respectively. The results revealed that PE and EE were significantly (p<0.05) different during last week among T2 and T3 groups as compared to control group. Values of PI and PN showed non-significant results among treatment groups. Mortality recorded was within standard limits which showed that there was no detrimental effect of aloe vera supplementation on health and performance of broilers. The cost of production calculated at the end of experiment revealed that net profit on drawn weight (`/kg) was 3.96 (powder form), 7.39 (gel form) and 8.77 (juice form) as compared to control group (basal diet only). Thus, aloe vera can act as an efficient, effective and economical herbal feed additive in broiler industry.

Title: Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Campylobacter species among poultry and poultry handlers of Jammu
Abstract :
Campylobacter is one of the emerging zoonotic pathogens with poultry and their products serving as an important source of human infections. The present study was aimed to assess the prevalence of Campylobacter species among poultry and poultry handlers of R.S. Pura, Jammu and their antibiogram pattern. A total of 177 samples from poultry (n = 167) and poultry handlers (n = 10) were examined and 39 samples were found positive for Campylobacter species (32 C. jejuni, 6 C. coli and 1 C. lari). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 40.3, 13.2, 7.7 and 30.0% in poultry faeces, poultry meat, poultry carcass swabs and poultry handlers, respectively. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates was studied against nine antibiotics. Multidrug resistance among the isolates was found against ampicillin, metronidazole and cepholathin while high sensitivity was observed towards gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, furazolidone and tetracycline. The results of the present study indicate high prevalence of Campylobacter both in poultry and poultry handlers with varying in vitro sensitivity to different antibiotics. The outcome enunciates that appropriate control measures ensuring safety of poultry products and human health need to be devised. 
Title: In vitro evaluation of Niacin Supplementation on Total Mixed Rations with Different NPN Sources
Abstract :
The present was aimed to study the effect of varying levels of niacin supplementation (0, 200, 400 and 600ppm, respectively) on medium urea based total mixed ration (TMR) replacing 20% of total crude protein (CP) of ration with different non-protein nitrogen (NPN) sources by in vitro gas production technique. All the rations were iso-nitrogeneous in nature. On the basis of higher partition factor, TD%, OMD%, microbial mass production and efficiency of microbial mass production. Supplementation of niacin in low urea based TMR did not have any significant effect on microbial mass production and its efficiency. The in vitro pH and NH3 concentration was signifi cantly reduced (p<0.05) at 600 ppm level of niacin supplementation. The TVFA concentration was signifi cantly comparable in control and urea based TMR and lowest in uromol based TMR. Niacin supplementation produced significantly higher (p<0.05) TVFA at 400 ppm level and lowest at 600 ppm in TMR. It can be concluded that slow release urea seems to be better option than urea and uromol as NPN supplement in the diets of ruminants
when medium (20% of total CP) urea based TMR is to be prepared.
Title: Resource Use Efficiency in Milk Production in Mizoram State of North-East India
Abstract :
The present study was undertaken in Mizoram state to study resource use effi ciency in milk production on sample households.
Out of the eight districts in Mizoram, three districts were selected purposively based on milk production and cattle population. From each of the three districts, two blocks were selected randomly and from each of the selected block cluster of two to three villages were selected. A sample of 180 milk producing households were selected randomly from the selected villages during the year 2014-15. Linear, Cobb-Douglas and Semi-logs milk production functions were tried to study resource use effi ciency. The Cobb-Douglas was found best fi t keeping in view sign, signifi cance of regression co-effi cient and value of R2 for both crossbred and local cows. The regression coeffi cients of dry fodder and miscellaneous expenses were found signifi cant for both the animal groups. It was observed that dry fodder and miscellaneous expenses were underutilised for crossbred cows and green fodder was underutilised in case of local cows indicating that use of more quantities of these inputs will further increase the productivity of milch cattle in the study area.
Title: Efficacy of Carboxymethyl Cellulose as Fat Replacer on the Processing and Storage Quality of Buffalo Mozzarella Cheese
Abstract :
Processing and storage (4 ± 1°C) quality of Low-fat buffalo mozzarella cheese (BMC) was evaluated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as fat replacer. Five treatments of BMC viz. Control full-fat cheese (6.0% milk fat; CFFC), Control low-fat cheese (<0.5% MF) without CMC (CLFC), Low-fat cheese with 0.2% CMC (LFC-1), 0.4% CMC (LFC-2) and 0.6% CMC (LFC-3) were comparatively evaluated. Melting time increased, whereas hardness and chewiness decreased with CMC in BMC. Sensory panellists awarded LFC-2 highest and lowest to LFC-3, however treated products at all selected levels were superior than CLFC. Oxidative and microbial stability was improved in LFC-2 than CFFC during storage. Results concluded that 0.4% CMC is optimum for the development of extended shelf life functional BMC.
Title: Effect of Incorporation of Corn Bran, Dried Carrot Pomace and Dried Tomato Pomace on Quality Attributes of Chicken Nuggets
Abstract :

A study was conducted to improve dietary fibre content of chicken nuggets by incorporating corn bran (CB), dried carrot pomace (DCP) and dried tomato pomace (DTP) as dietary fibre sources. Lean meat was replaced with each dietary fibre source at 3%, 6% and 9% level. One product from each fibre source was selected on the basis of sensory evaluation. Sensory acceptability of 3% fibre treated nuggets was comparable with control and further increase in fibre level resulted in a decline in sensory acceptability. All CB and DCP treated nuggets were harder and firmer than control while 3% DTP treated nuggets were harder than control. Fibre addition resulted in less springier and less cohesive nuggets. Yellowness increased in DCP added nuggets while both redness and yellowness increased in DTP added nuggets. Fibre treated nuggets had less moisture and cholesterol content and higher protein, ash, crude fibre, emulsion stability and cooking yield. pH of DCP and DTP treated nuggets was lower than control. Drastic increase in total dietary fibre and insoluble dietary fibre content was observed in treated nuggets. Sensory scores of nuggets declined significantly while thiobarbituric acid reacting substance value (TBARS) and microbial counts increased significantly during refrigerated storage. It is concluded that incorporation of dietary fibre at 6% level resulted in healthier and fibre enriched nuggets with higher cooking yield and acceptability upto 15th day of refrigerated storage.

Title: Effect of Cage or Deep Litter Housing on Production Performance of White Leghorn Chickens
Abstract :

The effect of cage or deep litter housing on production performance of White Leghorn was investigated in this experiment. A total 144 pullets of White Leghorn were randomly assigned to two treatments as; Cage housing and Deep litter housing. Results revealed that body weight at sexual maturity was significantly (P<0.05) lower in birds reared in cage than the deep litter housing. Moreover, lower feed intake was observed in birds kept in cages than that of deep litter housing. Feed conversion ratio in terms of feed intake/dozen eggs or feed intake/kg egg mass was better in birds reared in cages than the deep litter housing. The average hen day and hen house egg production were not affected due to different housing systems. Egg quality traits like albumen index, yolk index and Haugh unit score were significantly (P<0.05) higher for eggs produced by birds reared in cage housing than the deep litter housing. The profit of about 20% was observed in cage housing over deep litter housing. It was concluded that the lower feed consumption and body weight at sexual maturity, better feed conversion, egg quality and economic returns were achieved in cages compared to deep litter housing. However, cage or deep litter housing had no effect on egg production.

Title: Intramammary Propolis Formulation for Prevention and Treatment of Mastitis in Dairy Ruminants (RC.2.2.08-0003)
Abstract :
Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, is the most widespread health problem of dairy cows, goats and sheep (Bačić et al. 2015., Mačešić et al. 2012). Its prevention and treatment contribute to significant financial loss to the milk producers. New research shows
that the total loss due to clinical mastitis in dairy cows is estimated between 110 and 550 litres of milk per lactation, depending on the individual cow. The costs of clinical mastitis include unusable milk, medications and veterinary care costs, extra labour and premature culling (Sharma et al. 2012). Depending on the form of mastitis the treatments cost between 50 and 150 $US per animal
Title: Physicochemical Analysis and Sensory Evaluation of Kheer Fortified with Carrot Shreds
Abstract :
The study was aimed at evaluating the characteristics of kheer fortified with carrot shreds. Four samples of milk and carrot shreds blends viz. T1 (90:10), T2 (85:15), T3 (80:20), T4( 75:25) was prepared with sugar at the rate of 8% and cardamom at the rate of 0.2%. The physiochemical composition of carrot kheer was affected by levels of carrot shreds in the kheer, moisture, fat and protein content decreased with increase in the amount of carrot shreds while that of total solids and ash content increased. The present investigation shows that the carrot kheer prepared with 15% carrot shreds in treatment T2 showed maximum sensory score. The cost of production of highly acceptable carrot kheer was ` 108.5 per kg.
Title: Assessment of Impediments for Dairy Farming in Punjab
Abstract :
A fi eld level study was conducted in all the six agro-climatic zones of Punjab state of India to know about the various impediments for dairy farming. A total of 180 dairy farmers (30 from each zone) rearing more than fi ve dairy animals were randomly selected. Respondents were personally interviewed with the help of a pre-tested interview schedule. Most of the dairy farmers (70.6%) were facing green fodder scarcity problem for some period of year. All the farmers revealed high cost of concentrate as a serious constraint in dairy farming when compared to the price, they receive for milk. Majority of the farmers (64.4%) were not dependent on labour. Training facilities regarding dairy farming were either not available (40.5%) or available far away from home (41.7%) to most of the farmers. Milk marketing facilities were available at optimal price (53.3%) and government schemes were easily available to only 2.8% farmers. Majority of the respondents (36.7%) were of the opinion that young generation does not take interest in dairy farming activities.
Title: Guided Tissue Regeneration with β-Tricalcium Phosphate and Platelet-rich Plasma for Fracture Repair in Dogs using Internal Fixation
Abstract :

The study was conducted on 19 adult dogs referred for treatment of fracture in diaphyseal region of three long bones, viz, radius-ulna, femur and tibia-fibula. These dogs were divided randomly into three groups viz T1, T2 and T3. In group T1, the diaphyseal fractures of the long bones were immobilized by an internal fixation technique using reconstruction plate or locking compression plate. In group T2, β- tri calcium phosphate granules were incorporated at fracture site after fixation. In group T3, one milliliter of PRP was administered locally at fracture site just before the closing the first suture line. Clinical and radiographic examination were also conducted during the study. There was a significant reduction in mean inflammation score at 7th day in groups T2 and T3 and at 30th day than 0 day in all the groups. At 90th day, the mean radiographic score was highest for group T3 and it was followed by the score in group T2. At day 90th, a radiograph in both the views was not able to delineate the granules from osseous tissue. The mean weight bearing score was also higher in group T3 than in group T2 at 30th, 60th and 90th post operative day showing that restoration of the function was better and earlier in groups T2 and T3 than in group T1

Title: Augmentation of Meat Quality Attributes of Spent Hen Breast Muscle (Pectoralis Major) by Marination with Lemon Juice vis-a-vis Ginger Extract
Abstract :

A study was conducted with the aim of augmentation of post harvest quality attributes of spent hen breast meat with lemon juice (LM) vis-a-vis ginger extract (GM) marination. Moisture content and water holding capacity (WHC) significantly (P<0.05) increased whereas, protein, fat, ash, cholesterol, muscle fibre diameter, firmness and toughness values significantly (P<0.05) decreased. Percent marinade absorption and pH values were significantly (P<0.05) higher in GM and significantly (P<0.05) lower in LM compared to Con. LM showed significant (P<0.05) reduction in Na and increase in S, Si and Cl whereas GM showed increase in S, Ca, K, Zn, Cu and Fe along with reduction in Na and Cl content when compared to Con. Marination improved firmness and toughness and was corroborated by endomysium degradation seen in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies. Hence, in light of improving the quality attributes of spent hen breast meat; LM and GM could be effectively used.

Title: Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in donkeys (Aquus asinus) from Grenada, West Indies
Abstract :
The objective of the present study was to estimate seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in donkey from Grenada, West Indies. Using a modifi ed agglutination test (MAT), sera of 37 donkeys were examined for evidence of exposure to T. gondii. Two (5.4%; 95 percent confi dence interval: -1.88% to 12.68%) of the 37 donkeys were seropositive with titers of 50 in one donkey and 100 in the other. The lower Seroprevalence coupled with non consumption of meat and milk from donkey in Grenada suggests that donkeys are not important in the epidemiology of T.gondii in this country.
Title: Haemato- biochemical Changes Following Administration of Propofol in Combination with Buprenorphine in Atropinized Dogs
Abstract :
The aim of study to fi nd out the effect on haematological and biochemical parameters following administration of propofol alone
and in-combinaiton with buprenorphine. Propofol was given to effect in group I (control), whereas buprenorphine @ 0.015 mg/kg b.wt. was given as preanaesthetic before propofol “to effect” in dogs of group II .Atropine sulphate was injected I/M @ 0.04 mg/kg b.wt. 20 minutes prior to each treatment in both the groups.Hb, PCV and TEC showed a signifi cant fall (P<0.05) at initial intervals of observation as compared to base line whereas, other haematological parameters were non-signifi cantly variables at different intervals of observation in both the groups.A non signifi cant alteration in the level of total serum protein, alkaline phosphatase activity, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen could be recorded at different observation periods either within the group or among the groups. There was signifi cant increase in serum glucose level at 1hr in both treatment groups followed by a progressive decrease in its value which reached to pretreatment value within 24hrs. There was signifi cant increase (P<0.05) in AST value at 1hr in group Iwhereas in group II, it could be recorded at hr 1 and 2 of observation.A signifi cant elevation (P<0.05) in ALT value could be recorded in both groups of animals at hr1 and 2 of observation as compared to their respective baseline value.It is concluded that propofol alone and in combination with buprenorphine produced no deleterious effect on the vital organs, hence can be used safely in dogs.
Title: Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Bovine Herpes Virus Type-1 (BoHV-1) in Ruminants of Grenada, West Indies
Abstract :
This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1) in Cattle, and small ruminant from Grenada, West Indies. The prevalence was determined by an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test. A total of 920 sera samples, consisting of 132 cattle, 476 sheep and 312 goats were tested. An overall seroprevalence was 7/ 920 (0.76 %; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2% to 1.32%). The bovine 5/132 (3.8%) showed highest Seroprevalance followed ovine 2/476 (0.42%). None of goat samples were seropositive. There was statistically no significant difference in prevalence (p > 0.05) of antibodies to BoHV-1 in cattle, sheep and goats. This is the first report on seroprevalence of BoHV-1 in ruminants in Grenada, West Indies.
Title: Prevalence, Cyst Characterization and Economic Importance of Bovine Hydatidosis in Addis Ababa Abattoirs Enterprise, Ethiopia
Abstract :
A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, cyst fertility and economic importance of bovine hydatidosis in cattle slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoirs Enterprise, Ethiopia. The study revealed 20.16% (98/486) occurrence of hydatidosis based on the postmortem examination of 486 cattle slaughtered and examined. Prevalence of hydatidosis is signifi cantly associated with body condition score (P< 0.05) and higher prevalence was recorded in animals with poor body condition. However, there was no signifi cant association between hydatidosis infection and age of the animals (P>0.05). Of the 98 viscera harboring hydatid cysts, the highest 57(58.17%) were found in lung followed by liver 24(24.49%), kidney 2(2.04%) and 1(1.02%) heart. In addition, out of the total 361 cysts collected 63(17.45%) were fertile, 210 (58.17%) sterile and 88 (24.38%) calcifi ed. During viability test of fertile cysts, 33.33% hydatid cyst viability rate was observed. The rate of cyst calcifi cation was higher in liver (43.24%) than in the lung (11.43%). Based on the study, the direct annual economic loss due to organs condemned at Addis Ababa Abattoirs Enterprise was estimated to be 345334.84 Ethiopian Birr. The present study showed higher prevalence of hydatidosis in Addis Ababa abattoir. Therefore to break the life cycle of hydatidosis, public education should be undertaken in addition to regular treatment of dogs and fencing the surrounding of the abattoir should be encouraged to reduce the spread of the disease.
Title: Effect of Different Housing Systems on Haematological Parameters of Buffaloes
Abstract :
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of two housing systems on haematological parameters in buffaloes. Twelve buffaloes were selected and randomly divided into two equal groups. Animals of group A were housed in shed with net and animals of group B in shed without net. The experiment was conducted for a period of three months. Blood samples were aseptically collected fortnightly and were analysed for haematological studies. The mean values for Hb, TEC, TLC, PCV,
MCHC and Neutrophil were 8.49 + 0.52 g/dl, 5.54 ± 1.05 (106/cmm), 27.45 ± 0.44, 31.15 ± 0.66 (%) and 40.99 ± 1.34 (%),
respectively, which was nonsignifi cantly higher than the values of 8.20 ± 0.80 g/dl, 5.22 ± 0.66 (106/cmm), 27.00 ± 0.58 (%), 30.35 ± 0.32 (%) and 39.96 ± 0.66 (%), respectively. Whereas, the values of MCH, lymphocyte, eosinophil and monocyte were 15.26 ± 1.06 (µµg), 55.33 ± 0.44 (%), 2.32 ± 0.45 (%), and 1.69 ± 0.69 (%); respectively, which were non signifi cantly lower than the values of 15.72 ± 0.85 (µµg), 55.56 ± 0.61 (%),3.19 ± 0.05 (%), and 2.03 ± 0.84 (%), respectively in group A as compared to group B. However, WBC count (13.75 ± 0.56 (103/cmm) were signifi cantly (P<0.01) higher than the value of 10.58 ± 0.42 (103/cmm) and MCV (49.45 ± 0.21, µ3) were signifi cantly (p<0.05) lower than the value of 51.85 ± 0.45 (µ3) in group A and group B, respectively. For statistical analysis, student‘t’ test was applied.
Title: Clinical and Haematological Studies in Buffaloes Suffering from Diarrhoea
Abstract :
Diarrhoea in buffaloes was most commonly encountered in age group ranged between calf hood to thirteen years and majority of affected animals were more than four years old in their third to fourth lactation with drastic reduction in milk production therefore, causing great economic loss to animal owners. Duration of illness was found to be one day to one year and 57.5% cases were chronic patients. Associated clinical findings revealed slight variations in rectal temperature but an appreciable increase in pulse rate and respiration rate, congested mucus membrane (67.5%) and decreased or absent rumen motility in most of the cases as compared to healthy controls during the course of investigation. Hematological findings in diseased animals revealed signifi cant (p <0.05) anemia, lower hemoglobin, higher DLC showed neutrophilia along with lymphopenia and absence of any haemoprotozoan parasite.
Title: Contents Vol. 9, No. 6, December 2019
Abstract :
Title: Effect of Cysteine Protease in Diet to Reduce Soybean Meal Without Affecting Performance of Kadaknath Birds in India
Abstract :
Soybean meal is highly acceptable vegetable protein source in poultry industry, due to this demand of soybean meal is always high. But the increased use of soybean in human being is major challenge  of availability for poultry industry. Indegenous breed “Kadaknath” is well known for delicious black fl esh with special capabilities such as aphrodisiac properties, adaptability to local environment, resistance to certain diseases and meat quality. It has been neglected commercially because of its poor production
potential. In an experiment of twelve weeks, one hundred Kadaknath chicks were randomly divided into two equal groups with fi ve replicates, each replicate consisted of ten chicks. One of the two diets was supplemented with cysteine protease @ 250 gm per ton with 4% reduction of crude protein, lysine and methionine. The metabolizable energy was reduced at the level of 50 Kcal per Kg of diet to meet the requirement of the birds as per BIS (2007). Approximately min. 20 kg of soybean meal (45 % CP) was reduced in cysteine protease supplemented diet per ton. The body weight gain and FCR were statistically similar in both groups. The crude protein and crude fat digestibility were signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher in cysteine protease supplemented
group. Profi tability was numerically higher in cysteine protease group due to reduction of soybean meal in diet. In the above
study, it was concluded that cysteine protease is very economic enzyme to improve performance of birds and fulfi l scarcity of
high protein ingredients like soybean meal.
Title: Effect of Body Condition Score during Transition Period on Early Lactation, Postpartum Interval to Estrus and Calf Birth Weight in Sahiwal Cows
Abstract :
A total of 26 purebred Sahiwal cows, 13 cows each from two farms i.e. the BMEF and CBF, Anjora, Durg, Chhattisgarh were studied during extended transition period (56 days prepartum to 84 days postpartum) to investigate variation in body condition score along with birth weight of calf, early lactational yield, postpartum interval to estrus (PPIE) and their interrelationships. In BMEF herd concentrate was not fed to the animals during prepartum stage. In BMEF, the mean BCS at periodical intervals was signifi cantly less than that of CBF herd throughout the transition period. The postpartum mean unit loss in BCS of the cows of BMEF herd (0.54±0.09) was signifi cantly higher than that of CBF cows (0.52±0.09). Significant differences were observed between overall pre- and post-partum means of BCS of each farm. Significantly higher early lactation yield was observed in the Sahiwal cows of CBF (667.23±37.13 kg) than the cows of BMEF herd (476.92±51.59 kg). The average PPIE was nonsignificantly shorter in CBF cows (228.69±37.36 days) than those of the cows of BMEF herd (241.69±43.51 days). The average
birth weight of calf of CBF herd (22.38±0.75 kg) was significantly higher than that of BMEF cows (19.58±0.52 kg). Highly significant (P<0.01) positive correlations were observed between the mean pre- and post-partum BCS with all periodical BCS at different intervals including mean pre- and post-partum BCS in both farms. Early lactation yield has shown negative and non signifi cant correlation with 84 days postpartum BCS in both farms. PPIE was negatively correlated with BCS at 56 and 84 days postpartum in both the farms. PPIE had shown positive correlation with early lactation yield in BMEF (r=0.377) and negative correlation in CBF herd (r=-0.182). It can be concluded that the energy status can be assessed by scoring of body condition periodically in transition Sahiwal cows which were indicative of their early lactation yield, interval to first detected heat and birth weight of calf.
Title: Studies on Coccidia in Experimental Infection with Eimeria spp in Rose-Cobb Broiler Chicken
Abstract :

The experimental completely randomized design was conducted on poultry coccidiosis of Rose-Cobb breed of one hundred broiler chicken from November 2015 to April 2016 in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar. The experimental animals (n=100) were randomly allocated into four equal groups, group one (G-I), group two (G-II), group three (G-III) and group four (G-IV) with 25 chickens in each group. The G-I, G-II, and G-III were treatments groups challenged by different Eimeria sporulated oocysts, while G-IV served as the control group. In this study, the infective dose of E. tenella (G-I), E. acervulina (G-II) and mixed Eimeria spp (G-III) was 2x104 sporulated Eimeria oocyst inoculated orally at three weeks of age in broiler chicken and subsequent alterations in different haematological constituents were evaluated at interval of 5, 7 and 9 day of post inoculation. The Eimeria species identified from the natural infected chickens were E.tenella, E. acervulina, E. maxima and E. necatrix. E.tenella was more pathogenic than E.acervulina and mixed Eimeria spp. Oocyst counts per gram of faeces in pure (E. tenella and E. acervulina) and mixed Eimeria spp. infection showed marked increase from the 5 to 8DPI. Pure single infection of E. acervulina and E. tenella showed highest oocyst excretion on 6 DPI (62,395 oocyst/g of faeces) and 7 DPI (86,535 oocyst/g of faeces) respectively. Whereas mixed Eimeria spp. infection reached a maximum oocyst count of 51, 270 oocyst/gm of faeces on 7 DPI.

Title: Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis in Lactating Cattle and Buffaloes by Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test and Bovine Gamma-Interferon Immunoassay
Abstract :
Two hundred lactating animals (158 cattle and 42 buffaloes) of organized and unorganized farms were investigated for the bovine TB using comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT) and IFN-γ assay. CITT was performed using avian and bovine PPD and IFN-γ assay by Mycobacterium bovis gamma interferon test kit. Overall, 14.5% and 11.5% animals were found positive by CITT and IFN-γ assay, respectively. However, 22.5% animals were detected TB positive through combination of both the tests. So, both CITT and IFN-γ assay, when used together lead to more accurate screening for bovine TB in dairy herd.
Title: Sero-prevalence and Molecular Detection of Brucella species in Slaughter Pigs (Sus scrofa) of Punjab, India
Abstract :

Huge losses have been reported due to brucellosis in livestock populations of the country. However, limited studies have been carried out on porcine brucellosis in India. As far as we are aware, this is the first epidemiologic study carried out to determine Brucella species circulating in naturally infected pigs (Sus scrofa) in Punjab, India. The blood samples were collected from 330 pigs slaughtered in small slaughter shops located in 5 districts of Punjab state of India. The samples were screened using Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT), Standard tube agglutination test (STAT) and ELISA. For molecular identification, conventional PCR was employed on all the seropositive and 30 negative samples. Nine (2.72%), eight (2.42%) and ten (3.03%) samples were found positive using RBPT, STAT and ELISA, respectively. Out of 10 seropositive samples, 4 were found positive using conventional PCR. The results indicate that pigs are infected with Brucella species and policies must be developed for prevention and control of brucellosis in the country.

Title: Marketed Surplus and Factors Affecting Milk Market Outlet Choices in Raipur District of Chhattisgarh
Abstract :
The present study was undertaken in Raipur district of Chhattisgarh. A total of 100 milk producing sample households comprising of 52 small, 38 medium and 10 large herd size categories were randomly selected from the four village viz. Sarkhi and Kolar from Abhanpur block and Farfoud and Shivani from Aarang block. Marketed surplus and disposal pattern of dairy farmers were worked out through tabular analysis while Multinomial Logit Model was employed to analyze factors affecting milk market outlet choice. Among the herd size categories, of the total milk produced marketed surplus ranges from 45% for small category to 76% for large category. Largest share of milk was disposed to Dairy Co-operative Society (DCS) constituting 58.71% followed by consumer (23.57%) and the least (17.71%) to market. Small category disposes maximum quantity of milk to consumer while medium and large category dispose maximum quantity to DCS. Among the different milk outlet choice
maximum of the dairy farmers prefer to sell to local consumer directly, followed by DCS and market. Analysis on the factor affecting milk market outlet choices revealed that education, milch animal holding and DCS positively affect the selection of local consumer as a milk outlet choice while land holding and non-farm income negatively affect the selection of consumer as a milk outlet choice. For sale of milk to DCS and market, age of head of household and milch animal holding had a positive effect. 
Title: Effect of Prill Fat and Rumen Protected Choline Supplementation on Feed Intake, Body Weight Changes and Economics of Lactating Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :

The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of prill fat and rumen protected choline supplementation on daily dry matter intake, body weight changes and economics in lactating Murrah buffaloes (n=18) divided into three equal groups (Control, T1 and T2). Buffaloes in all the three groups were fed similar basal diet as total mixed ration comprising of berseem green fodder, wheat straw and concentrate mixture. Buffaloes in T1 group were daily supplemented with prill fat @ 2.5% of total DMI whereas; buffaloes in T2 group were daily supplemented with 54 g rumen protected choline along with same quantity of prill fat as supplemented in T1 group. Fortnightly and overall dry matter intake and body weight of experimental buffaloes was comparable in all the three groups. Net profit/animal/day (`) was increased by 3.12 and 8.25% in T1 and T2 groups over the control. Thus it was concluded that supplementing prill fat in the ration of lactating Murrah buffaloes increased the net profit without any significant effect on dry matter intake and body weight changes, which was furthermore enhanced by supplementing the ration with rumen protected choline.

Title: Blood Biochemical Profile and Cortisol Level in Toggenberg Goat during Lactation
Abstract :
The investigation was undertaken to study some blood biochemical parameters and cortisol levels during different stages in different lactations in Toggenberg goats. These included control group, consisting of dry goats and group I, II, III and IV containing goats in 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th lactation period. The total protein concentration showed an increasing trend from early to late lactation stages. There was an increasing levels of albumin in group I, II and IV and globulin in group II and III. Lowest total protein concentration was observed in third lactation (group III). Albumin and globulin ratio was higher in early lactation in group III (third lactation); whereas, in group II and IV, highest ratio was observed during mid lactation. Glucose concentration showed a defi nite increasing trend from early to late lactation stages in different lactations. Signifi cantly lower (P<0.05) glucose levels were found in early as well as mid lactations as compared to late stage in all the four groups. Increasing trend of urea concentration was observed from early to late stage of lactation in all the lactating groups. The Total protein, globulin, glucose and urea levels were found higher in lactating goats as compared to dry animals. The cortisol level showed a decreasing trend from early to late stage of lactation, Again, the cortisol levels of lactating goats were signifi cantly higher (P<0.05) than that of dry goats. Among different stages of lactation, early and mid stages are more stressful when compared to late stage.
Title: Assessment of Incidence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) in Penaeus vannamei in Maharashtra and Gujarat
Abstract :

The occurrence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in Penaeus vannamei samples were collected from Maharashtra and Gujarat farms. In the present study, shrimp samples from various shrimp ponds from two districts of Maharashtra and two districts of Gujarat were collected over a period of one year (February 2016 to April 2017). A total of 4513 shrimp samples were assessed for the presence of EHP by molecular characterization. Out of shrimp samples analysed, 31.2% samples were positive for EHP. The screening of EHP was done by single step and nested PCR targeting spore wall protein gene (SWP) of EHP resulting in product size of 514 bp and 148 bp for EHP respectively.

Title: Serologic Profiles of Classical Swine Fever Vaccinated Backyard Pig Farms in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand
Abstract :
Small and marginal farmers with low livestock holdings do not strictly follow recommended vaccination schedules and procedures. The aim of this study was to follow antibody titers against Classical Swine Fever (CSF) virus before and after vaccination of cross-bred pigs from three farms in Khon Kaen. One dose of vaccine was given to the pigs at 41, 49, and 52 days age. It is a modifi ed lived vaccine containing 102 PD50 (50% protective dose) of the CSF virus (government produced Lapinized Chinese-strain, Department of Livestock Disease, Thailand). Blood samples were collected at 0, 14, and 22 days postvaccination (dpv). Neutralization test was performed in cell cultures using a constant-virus/varying-serum method. In Pigs born o sows that had been vaccinated once a year, geometric mean titers at 0 dpv of 41, 49, and 52 days old pigs were 2.05, 1.24, nd 0.72, respectively. The lowest/highest maternal antibody titers were 1:32/1:512, 1:8/1:64, 1:2/1:16, the median titers were 1:32, 1:16, and 1:8, in farms 1, 2, and 3, respectively. At 14 dpv, SN antibody titres of pigs in farm 1 decreased but that of farm 3
increased. Consequently, SN antibody titers of pigs in farms 2 and 3 increased after vaccination and had GMT of 1.82 and 1.09 (p<0.05) at 22 dpv, respectively. General vaccination guideline is not applicable to all farms. Higher SN titers at the day of fi rst vaccination impeded antibody response (14 days old). However, the lowest titer (1:8) and the oldest pigs (52 days old) did not have the best SN titer after CSF vaccination. There should be laboratory confi rmations of CSF antibody titers before and after vaccination in order to assure successful outcome of vaccination practice.
Title: Effect of Supplementation of Aegle marmelos and Murraya koenigii on the Follicular Development in Delayed Pubertal Sahiwal Heifer
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to study the effect of Aegle marmelos and Murraya koenigii on the follicular development in delayed pubertal Sahiwal heifers. A total of 14 anoestrus Sahiwal heifers with a mean age of 32.85 ± 0.86 months and were divided in to two groups viz. Group-1 (G-1) (n=8) and Group-2 (G-2) (n=6). Heifers in G-1 were treated with shade dried
grinded leaves in combination in concentrate mixture for 9 days after dose extrapolation from the effective 50% ethanolic extract dose in rats (i.e. 1000 mg/ Kg b. wt.) showing optimum ovarian function. Heifers in G-2 were not given any treatment. All the heifers were monitored by a trans-rectal USG scanner in alternate day for 10 occasions. At pretreatment, the difference
in the mean number of total follicles and diameter of Largest follicles (LFs) between the groups remained (P>0.05) similar. However, on herb supplementation, the mean size of LFs (12.8 mm) increased (P<0.001) signifi cantly as compared to control (8.70 mm). The growth rate of LF was faster (P< 0.05) in herbs treated (0.55 mm/day) than control (0.25 mm/day) heifers. The
mean number of total follicles prior to treatment and each day of scanning remained similar between the groups (P> 0.05). Results revealed that in the delayed pubertal heifers, the follicular development continues and the number of total follicles at any day remained constant. It was concluded that supplementation of Aegle marmelos and Murraya Koenigii can infl uence the
growth processes of LF by the attainment of dominance, accelerated growth rate, preovulatory size and the process of ovulation.
Title: Effect of Exogenous Thyroxine Supplementation to Reduce the Incidence of Hypothermia in Dairy Calves
Abstract :
Higher serum lipids concentration in blood is the major cause of hypothermia due to lesser utilization of lipids by the buffalo calves for generation of body heat (thermogenesis). A study of effect of exogenous thyroxine supplementation on hormonal status in murrah buffalo and crossbreed cow calves has been evaluated. The
study was conducted on 12 healthy buffalo calves and 12 cow calves at Livestock Farm (calf unit), Adhartal, N.D.V.S.U., Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. Oral supplementation of thyroxine (0.167 mg/kg body weight), in powder form mixed along with 5 gram jaggery on 15 day interval starting from age of 16-days, 31-days and 46- days. The findings lead to these conclusions that thyroxine supplementation was found mobilisation of lipids nd high density lipoprotein cholesterol for heat production to maintain homeostasis. The increased thyroxine level in buffalo calves helped to maintain their body temperature and increased basal metabolic rate, thus
helped in their survival and reduced mortality.
Title: Dynamics of Livestock Population and Output in Rajasthan: A Temporal A
Abstract :

The total livestock population in the last five and half decades in Rajasthan was noticeably increased from 32426.98 thousand number in 1956 to 57732.20 thousand number in 2012. The increase in buffalo population during this period was more than four times. As far as population of small ruminants are concerned, sheep and goat dominated the livestock population and constituted over 50 per cent of livestock population in the state. The goat population has been growing at faster rate than sheep population. Annual milk, egg and meat production in state have grown about four times, seven times and ten times, respectively, since 1985-86 to 2014-15. The annual production of wool has declined. The per capita availability of milk, egg and meat in state has significantly increased during 1985-86 to 2012-13. The per capita availability of milk in state was higher than ICMR recommendation while that of egg and meat was lower than its recommendations. The gap between demand and supply for milk has changed from negative to positive since 1994-95 onwards while it was negative in case of meat and egg products.

Title: Sensory and Microbiological Quality of Pork Sandwich Spread Enriched with Honey, Vitamin-C and Nisin
Abstract :
Pork sandwich spread incorporated with functional ingredients like honey, vitamin – C and nisin was stored at refrigeration temperature and studied for its shelf life, acceptable in terms of the sensory and microbiological parameters. A highly significant (P≤0.01) difference for the appearance, texture, spreadability and adhesionability scores were found signifi cant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) for Juiciness and overall acceptability scores was recorded while there was an increased level for the flavor score were even on the 30th day of storage of pork sandwich spread. The remarkable acceptability for the pork sandwich spread was given by the panelists even on 30th day of storage. Total Plate Count (TPC) and Psychrophilic count on 30th day of storage were found to be 2.92 l log cfu/g and 2.21 log cfu/g respectively. The Coliform, Yeast and Mould were not detected throughout the experimental period in the treated sample and it was found safe for consumption.
Title: Effect of Supplementation of Mineral Mixture and Bypass Fat on Performance of Crossbred Cattle
Abstract :
A total of sixty reproductive disordered animals having 38 cows and 22 heifers were selected for this experiment which were divided among three groups in equal numbers of 20 animals in each, having anoestrus and repeat breeding problems. Animals in control group (C) were maintained as per the traditional practices of the farmer where as treatment groups were fed with mineral mixture @ 50 g per day per animal in T1 group and bypass fat @ 100 g per day per animal along with mineral mixture @ 50 g per day per animal in T2 group. The growth performances were measured in tunes of body weight and average daily gain (ADG). Heamoto-biochemical and mineral profi le (Ca, P, Zn, Cu and Mn) were assessed for the analysis of the reproductive status of the animals. The average daily gain (g) of all the treatment group differed signifi cantly (P<0.05) from the control group. Higher percentage of conception was achieved in group II (55%) followed by group III (40%). The least percentage was in group I (15%). It may be concluded that mineral mixture and bypass fat supplementation increased growth and reproductive performances of crossbred cattle. 
Title: Pre and Post-operative Haemato-Biochemical Changes in Pyometric Bitches
Abstract :
The study on canine pyometra was conducted to assess the alteration in clinico-haemato-biochemical status before and after
ovariohysterectomy. Signalment and history recording of six bitches was followed by clinical examination, ultrasonography and blood sampling. Most common clinical signs were vulvar discharge, inappetance, polydipsia, polyuria, vomition and paresis. At presentation, uterine diameters ranged from 1.3 to 5.0 cm along with leukocytosis, neutrophilia and lymphopenia. Levels of BUN, creatinine, and ALP were elevated. Five out of six bitches had plasma P4 concentration above basal (> 1.0 ng/ml) level. The mean haemato-biochemical parameters returned to normal by day ten post-surgery. The progesterone concentration decreased to basal by 10th day. The changes in haemato-biochemical profi le were related to the degree of improvement of the clinical conditions of the bitches. Out of the six bitches, one bitch died on 21st post-operative day while another recovered gradually after initial episodes of severe vomition for a week post-operation.
Title: IGF-1 Gene Polymorphism in Migratory Gaddi Goats of Western Himalayan Region, India
Abstract :

Goat production is a predominant livestock activity in harsh climatic regions of the country particularly hilly regions. ‘Gaddi’ is a prominent goat breed of Himachal Pradesh constituting 60-65% of total goat population of 11.20 lakh (19th Livestock Census, 2012). The somatotropic axis has a key role in postnatal growth and metabolism. IGF-1 gene encodes the protein that is structurally and functionally similar to insulin and regulates cellular synthesis of DNA as well as cellular growth and development, especially in neurons and also mediates the effect of GH gene. The present study was carried onÊ»Gaddiʼ, a distinct goat breed of high altitude areas of Western Himalayan region, for molecular characterization of IGF-1 gene and further analyse its association with growth traits. Blood samples from 63 genetically unrelated animals of Gaddi goat breed were taken from the migratory flocks under AICRP and Gaddi goat unit of CSKHPKV, Palampur and subjected to DNA isolation. 363 bp amplicon was generated and PCR-RFLP analysis using HaeIII restriction enzyme (RE) revealed two variants (AB and BB) however, no significant association could be established. Allele frequencies for A and B alleles were 0.25 and 0.75. The estimates obtained for Ne, Hobs, Hexp and PIC were 1.61, 0.51, 0.38 and 0.31, respectively. PIC value of 0.31 implies the effectiveness of the marker in population studies and also revealed median level of polymorphism. Sequencing confirmed one nucleotide mutation (C264G), however, no significant association were found at IGF-1 genotype with biometric traits in screened Gaddi goats

Title: Identification of Immunoreactive Polypeptides in Haemonchus contortus by Immunoprecipitation during Prepatent Infection in Sh
Abstract :
In the current study immunoreactive polypeptides in Adult Somatic Extract (ASE), Excretory Secretory Product (ESP) and Larval Somatic Extract (LSE) of L3 stage were identified by employing immunoprecipitation, a lesser utilized technique on helminth parasites. Prepatent polyclonal sera were used to capture polypeptides in immunoprecipitation. Polypeptides eluted from the immune complex in ASE in SDS-PAGE were 26, 60, 120 & 170 kDa whereas in ESP these were 26, 32, 60 and 120 kDa showing absence of 170 kDa and presence of 32 kDa in ESP. In LSE the polypeptides captured were 26, 32, 60 & 120 kDa. Possible functional significance of the peptides in different antigens has been discussed and development of an immunoprophylactic agent has been speculated.
Title: Ameliorative Effect of Aloe vera Supplementation in Poultry Feed
Abstract :

Restricted use of chemical antioxidants and antibiotics as growth enhancers in poultry diet has led to open channels for herbs as natural feed additive in current times. Scientists try to find novel herbal feed additives which are free from toxic effects and exhibit increase in performance of poultry birds. Aloe vera is a well-known herb characterized by antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and growth promoting properties. The therapeutic potential of Alo vera is attributed to its rich phytochemistry. The current study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative potential of alcoholic extract of Aloe vera (family Liliaceae) in poultry birds. The birds were divided in four groups of six birds in each group. Group I: Contol (C), Group II: treatment I (T1), Group III: treatment II (T2) and Group IV: treatment III (T3). Alo vera supplementation was given in three treatment groups at the dose of different concentrations ( T1: 2gms, T2:5gms and T3: 7gms). Blood samples were collected on different time points 0, 14, 28, 42 and 56thdays and analyzed for different parameters. The altered biochemical parameters due to oxidative stress like Lipid peroxidation (LPO), super oxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glucose -6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT),blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and Creatinine were significantly ameliorated to a great extent by Aloe vera supplementation. The alcoholic extract of Aloe vera showed potent anti-oxidant and hepato-protective activity in poultry birds.

Title: Kinematic Response of Barbari and Sirohi Buck Spermatozoa to High Egg Yolk Concentration in Semen Extender
Abstract :
The experiment was designed to evaluate kinematic characteristic exhibited by spermatozoa in diluted Barbari and Sirohi buck semen using computer assisted semen analysis. Four normal healthy adult bucks (2 Barbari and 2 Sirohi) reared at the experimental goat sheds of department were selected for semen collection. Semen was collected twice a week using artifi cial vagina. A total of 8ejaculates (sixteen ejaculates from each breed) were collected from each buck. After initial semen evaluation, ejaculates from similar breed were pooled. The pooled semen sample of two breeds were dilutedwith TRIS based extender containing 20 per cent egg yolkto fi nal concentration of 100×106 spermatozoa per ml. Motility patterns and path velocities of spermatozoa were evaluated using computer assisted semen analyser (CASA). It was observed that proportion of spermatozoa exhibiting rapid progression were highest in both the breeds, following by slow progression and non-progression.A signifi cantly (p<0.01) higher values of non-progressive spermatozoa were observed in Barbari buck semen. Different path velocities viz. VCL (µm/sec), VAP (µm/sec), VSL (µm/sec), Lin (%), Str(%), WOB(%), BCF(hz), ALH(µm) and DNC(µm2/sec) exhibited by spermatozoa were recorded during the experiment. The VCL (µm/sec), ALH(µm) and DNC(µm2/sec) were signifi cantly(p<0.01, p<0.05) in Barbari buck semen while a signifi cantly(p<0.01, p<0.05) higher values of VSL,Lin (%),Str (%), WOB(%)and BCF (hz) were observed for Sirohibuck.The result indicated that Barbari buck spermatozoa covered more distance per unit time in the vertical direction (Y-axis) and short X axial movements (horizontal movement), while the spermatozoa of Sirohi Buck moved at slower velocity with more distance covered in horizontal direction (X axis) and lesser vertical displacement resulting in lower values of VCL and higher values of VAP and VSL as compared to Barbari buck. So, it can be concluded that a variable response is exhibited by Barbari and Sirohi buck spermatozoato egg yolk concentration, indicating a breed specifi c variation in motion characteristic and path velocities of spermatozoa
Title: Modeling Vaccination Programs in Outbreaks of Hemorrhagic Septicemia in India
Abstract :

Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) is an acute septicemic endemic disease of buffalo and cattle in India with a case fatality rate of up to 80%. This disease causes an estimated economic loss of USD 792 million per year in India. Vaccination and control programs of HS can be understood by mathematical models. The main objective of our study was to design a mathematical model to analyze the effect of vaccination in controlling outbreaks of HS in India. We used posteriori model building approach to create and run the model for HS with the help of an outbreak data from Murshidabad district, West Bengal, India. The best possible transmission coefficient (β) to imitate the outbreak was found to be 0.335 and the best possible basic reproduction number (R0) was found to be 1.011. Introduction of the vaccination campaign from 5th to the 20th day of the HS outbreak reduced the proportion of the susceptible animals from 0.99 to 0.40 on the last day of the campaign. We concluded that animal vaccination modelling for eradication of HS by mass regional or nationwide vaccination campaigns can be understood by simple mathematical models.

Title: Comparative Evaluation of Hematological Parameters in Hardhenu, Hariana and Sahiwal Cattle at Different Age Groups
Abstract :

Study comprising seventy two cattle of three breeds/strain viz. Hardhenu crossbred strain, Hariana and Sahiwal breeds were carried out to evaluate the differences in hematological parameters. Each group consisted of 24 animals of different age groups i.e. 0-1 year, 1-2 year, 2-3 year and >3 year. The various hematological parameters i.e. hemoglobin (Hb), total leucocyte count (TLC), differential leucocyte count (DLC), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in all the three breeds/strain at different ages were studied. Significantly higher Hb % especially at the age of 2-3 year was observed in Sahiwal animals over other 2 breed groups. Well known feature of higher disease resistance of Hariana breed was supported by significantly higher TLC as compared to other two breeds. The age wise significant difference was observed for group 1-2 years and, >3 years while Hariana showing high count. The lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophils, Hct, TEC, MCH and MCHC were comparable in all the three breeds/strain.

Title: Study of ABCG2 Gene polymorphism in Sahiwal and Hariana Cattle by PstI/PCR-RFLP Assay
Abstract :
ATP-binding cassette superfamily G member 2 transporter (ABCG2) is located in membrane of mammary glands alveolar epithelial cells in cows that actively extrudes xenotoxins and drugs into milk from blood. Polymorphism of the ABCG2 gene have been found to be associated with milk yield and composition in cattle. In the present investigation, Sahiwal and Hariana cattle were studied for polymorphism of ABCG2 gene by PstI/PCR-RFLP assay. The RE digestion of the 292 bp PCR product showed the presence of AA genotype with a genotypic frequency of 1.0. AC and CC genotype were not observed in screened
samples. The allelic frequency of ABCG2-A allele was calculated as 1.0 and that of ABCG2–C allele was zero. The present study revealed monomorphic nature of ABCG2 gene in the screened samples of Sahiwal and Hariana cattle breed.
Title: Kinetics of Fasciola gigantica Antibody Response in Naturally Infected Bovine Ensuing Levamisole and Oxyclozanide Combination Therapy
Abstract :
A study was conducted to determine the kinetics of Fasciola gigantica infection induced antibody response against oxyclozanidelevamisole in naturally infected bovine of South Gujarat, India. Faecal analysis on before, 1st, 4th, 8th, 11th and 37th days post treatment (DPT) recorded 67.14, 34.29, 5.71, 0 and 0% parasites infected bovines. Either parasite(s) positive indigenous cattle or buffalo become parasite(s) free by 8th DPT but a lag period of 4 days had been recorded in the exotic cattle. The trematode parasites infected animals take more time to clear the infection with the used drugs, it’s become 100% negative on 11th DPT while the nematodes parasites infected animals successfully clear the infection by 4th DPT and maintain it until the end of experiment. The 5 animals which showed reactivity in dipstick ELISA test following natural infection with F. gigantica using parasites specifi c diagnostic antigen, cathepsin L cysteine proteinase (CP), was subjected to indirect plate ELISA assay, the mean anti-CP antibody titer was recorded at its maximum at pretreatment in treated group positive animal when probed with CP antigen. Thereafter, a declining trend of antibody response was recorded in these naturally infected bovines which reached to undetectable level on 90th DPT in response to anthelmintic therapy while untreated animals (negative and positive animals) showed almost similar pattern of antibody response during the experiment. A signifi cant decrease in % eosinophilia count was also observed at 37th DPT in response to treatment.
Title: Effect of Dietary Addition of Amla (Emblica officinalis) on Performance and HSP70 Gene Expression in Coloured Broiler Chicken during Extreme Summer
Abstract :

This study was designed to access performance of coloured broiler chickens (n= 112) fed diets with or without addition of Amla fruit powder during extreme summer (May-June, 38°C to 43°C). There were four dietary treatments with 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% Amla fruit dried powder respectively in broiler starting (0-3 wk) and finishing (3-6 wk) diets. Feed intake was lower (P<0.001) in broilers fed diets containing Amla fruit powder at any level in comparison to control. FCR during all phases improved (P<0.001) in treatment group compared to control and other dietary treatments. The feather loss, giblet, liver, gizzard, eviscerated yield and dressed yield differed significantly among various treatments. The yields of breast (P<0.01) and drum stick (P<0.001) increased at 0.1% or 0.2% level with reduction of cut of part-back yield (P<0.001). Cell-mediated immune response (CMI) improved (P<0.01) on addition of Emblica fruit powder. Lower levels of reduced glutathione (P<0.01) was estimated in treatment group and the values were lowest at 0.1% level. The m-RNA expression of HSP-70 in liver and bursa remain comparable while in spleen it was significantly down-regulated (P<0.001) on dietary addition of amla at 0.3% level (in comparison to control group) by a mean factor of 0.506. Use of Amla fruit powder 0.2% in diets was beneficial to improve FCR, CMI response while 0.3% was beneficial to improve HSP-70 expression during extreme summer.

Title: Ameliorating Effect of Seabuckthorn Leaf Extract Supplementation on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Wistar Rats
Abstract :
Study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Seabuckthorn leaf extract (SLE) supplementation on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats. Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups namely CON (negative control), SCO (Seabuckthorn control), DCO (Diabetic control), and DSL (Diabetic seabuckthorn treatment group). Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intra peritoneal injection of STZ @ 50 mg/kg body weight in DCO and DSL group of rats. SLE was administered orally @ 100mg/kg body weight for 40 days to SCO and DSL groups. CON served as the negative control. Blood samples were collected from experimental animals on zero, 20th, and 40th days of trial to study various biochemical parameters. Significantly (P<0.01) lower levels of total serum protein, and hepatic glycogen and significantly (P<0.01) higher serum glucose, total cholesterol, urea and creatinine levels were observed in DCO group in comparison to CON group. However, in SLE treated diabetic rats (DSL group) significant (P<0.01) improvement was observed in all the above parameters. It may be concluded that SLE exerts ameliorative effect over Diabetes mellitus induced biochemical alterations in Wistar rats.
Title: Impact analysis of Feeding Fermented Karonda (Carissa carandas) Whey Beverage on Growth Performance and Haematological Parameters of Albino Rats
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of feeding karonda whey beverage (FKWB) on growth performance and haematological parameters of albino rats. A total of 24 albino rats (male) of age 28±3 days and weighing 80 to 95 gm were randomly selected and divided into four groups (n=6) and assigned to experimental dietary treatment. Experimental groups consisted of control group (G1), while treatment groups fed with basal ration along with 10, 20 and 30% FKWB in groups G2, G3 and G4, respectively. Results showed that the FKWB fed groups had significantly (P<0.05) higher feed intake as compared to control, However, the body weight gain was comparable and did not differ significantly in all the experimental groups. Feed efficiency ratio was lower (P<0.05) in FKWB fed groups compared to control. In treatment groups there were significantly increased in haemoglobin level (P<0.05), whereas, RBC and WBC were comparable in all the groups. The supplemented groups had significantly (P<0.05) higher HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC values, However, the platelet count was statistically similar in all the groups.

Title: Serological and Clinicopathological Studies on Leptospirosis Among Sheep
Abstract :
The present study was carried out to investigate occurrence, serovar distribution and clinicopathological attributes of leptospirosis among sheep from South Gujarat. A total of 41 blood and serum samples were randomly collected from apparently healthy and clinically ailing sheep of different breeds and age of either sex, reared in different fl ocks. Seropositivity was found to be 12.20% among sheep using the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Among clinically ailing and apparently healthy sheep, seropositivity was found to be 4.35% (1/23) and 22.22% (4/18), respectively with involvement of serovars Pomona, Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae. The hemato-biochemical and urinalyses results showed variation among seropositive and seronegative animals however, these differences were non-signifi cant. The study indicated seropositivity with serovar Pomona as main leptospiral serovar among sheep in South Gujarat, however, the specifi c conclusion on clinicopathological aspect could not be made. Though for prevention and control of the disease where an obvious alteration in the serovars causing the disease is common further epidemiological study is necessary.
Title: Effect of Micronutrients Supplement on Nutrient Utilization and Growth Performance in Pre-ruminant Calves
Abstract :
The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of micronutrients supplement (MS) on the nutrient utilization and growth performance in pre-ruminant calves. The sixteen day old crossbred calves (body weight 24.50 ± 0.56 kg) were randomly allocated into two dietary treatments; control (C) and treatment (T) groups. Diets were same for both groups and in addition to diet micronutrients supplement was given to individual calf of treatment group. The supplementation of MS in the diet of crossbred calves did not affect the intake and digestibility coefficients of CP, EE, NDF and ADF. Over all body weight changes and feed conversion efficiency did not differ significantly between groups but average daily gain (g) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T group as compare to control (C) group. Thus it was concluded that supplementation of micro-nutrients in preruminant calves showed significant improvement in average daily gain while the intake, feed efficiency and digestibility of nutrients were comparable between the groups.
Title: Supplementation of Fenugreek Seeds to Lactating Ewes and Effect on Growth Performance of Preweaned Twin Lambs
Abstract :
A study was conducted in lambs to fi nd out the effi ciency of fenugreek seed (FS) supplementation in twin bearing ewes. The dams were grouped as follows with seven dams in each group. The groups were dam’s that lambed twins supplemented with FS (T1), Dams that gave birth to single lambs supplemented with FS (T2) and dams gave birth to single lambs without FS (T3). The FS supplemented dam groups were given 10 g of fenugreek seed per day. The study suggest supplementation of FS @ 10 g each day to lactating ewes carrying twins support lamb weight gain better than single birth lamb and reduced the degree of mother weight loss. The signifi cance difference at 0.05 %. Among single birth lambs, FS supplemented group was better both in terms of growth rate of lambs and reduction in the ewes weight.
Title: Contents Vol. 10, No. 3, June 2020
Abstract :
Title: Effect of Polyherbal Additives on Intake, Growth and Nutrient Digestibility in Yorkshire Male Pigs
Abstract :

Growth trial of thirteen weeks’ duration was carried out on 24 pigs (2 months age; 12.5 kg b. wt.) which were divided into four groups of 6 pigs each and were fed with control diet concentrated feed mixture (CFM) (T0), CFM plus polyherbal superliv (500 g/ton) (T1), CFM plus polyherbal Ruchamax (500g/ton) (T2) and CFM plus AV/AGP/10 polyherbal (500g/ton) (T3). The dry mater intake (DMI) (g/d) in T0, T1, T2 and T3 groups were 1152.80, 1277.59, 1204.73 and 1186.13 respectively where significantly (P<0.01) higher dry mater intake (DMI) was observed in T1 group. Significant (P<0.01) difference was observed among treatment groups in organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fibre (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), cellulose and hemicellulose intake. Similarly, significantly higher (P<0.05) weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) was noticed in T1 group when compared to other groups. The digestibility of DM, OM, NFE, NDF, Cellulose and Hemicellulose were significantly (P<0.01) different. It was concluded that superliv polyherbal supplemented group significantly improved weight gain, FCR and net profit than the other polyherbal supplemented and control group without any deleterious effect on pigs.

Title: Comparison of Two Methods of Calculating Breeding Efficiency of Crossbred Cattle and Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :
A total of 1474 and 1935 production and reproduction records of crossbred cattle and Murrah buffaloes from the year 1992 to 2012 were utilized in the present study to investigate breeding effi ciency (BE) at Gadvasu Dairy farm. Breeding effi ciency was calculated using Wilcox (1957) and Tomar (1965) methods and then Least squares of Harvey (1990) model was used to study the effects of various non-genetic factors (period, season) on breeding effi ciency. Average breeding efficiency of Crossbred Cattle was 82.31 ± 0.97% ranging from 75% to 85% by Wilcox method and 98.14 ± 1.09% ranging from 95% to 99% by Tomar method. Breeding efficiency of Buffaloes was 78.03 ± 1.01% ranging from 69% to 84% by Wilcox method (1957) and 78.39 ± 0.39% ranging from 74% to 80% by Tomar method under the present management and production conditions. The little differences in two methods may be attributed to different methods of calculation as well as large variation in the no. of calvings, calving interval and age at fi rst calving across 20 years. Hence it may further be concluded that the two methods were equally useful in the calculation of reproductive effi ciency in dairy animals.
Title: Content
Abstract :

Contents February Issue 2020

Title: Estrus Induction Response and Fertility Performance in Delayed Pubertal Heifers Treated with Aegle marmelos and Murraya koenigii
Abstract :

The present study was designed to examine the estrus induction response and fertility performance in delayed pubertal heifers treated with two medicinal plants Aegle marmelos in combination with Murraya koenigii. A total of 11 heifers were treated with the plants leaf powder for 9 days per orally after determining the dose by the extrapolation from effective dose of 50% ethanolic extract in rats (1000 mg/ kg b. wt.) with optimum ovarian response. Extrapolated extract dose was subsequently converted to powder dose based on per cent yield. Six heifers were kept as untreated control. Six out of 11 (54.1%) heifers in treatment group and 1 out of 6 (16.7%) in control group exhibited standing estrus. All these estrus heifers were inseminated and confirmed as pregnant and calved in due course. Though the proportion of heifers that showed estrus, became pregnant and calved in the end, did not achieve statistical significance (P>0.05) between the groups, nevertheless, the number and proportion of such heifers was higher in the treatment group than that of control. In conclusion, the present study indicates that Aegle marmelos in combination with Murraya koenigii have the potential to induce estrus in delayed pubertal heifers with appreciable fertility performance.

Title: Effect of Feeding of Tinospora cordifolia on Immune Response in Cattle
Abstract :
Thirty two apparently healthy local non descript cows were experimentally divided into two groups viz. treatment and control group having 16 animals each. The animals under treatment group were fed dried stem powder of Tinospora cordifolia (100 mg/ kg BW) by mixing it in concentrate mixture for a period of 5 days. The control group animals were fed equal amount of the basal concentrate mixture without T. cordifolia supplementation. Blood and serum samples collected on day 0, 15, 30 and 45 day after feeding of T. cordifolia were subjected for concentration and purifi cation of IgG, phagocytic activity by neutrophils, T cell count and haemolytic complement activity to assess the level of immune response in animals. Signifi cant increase (P<0.05) of total serum immunoglobulin and mean phagocytic index was recorded in treatment group as compared to control group; however complement activity and T cell count did not vary signifi cantly (P>0.05) between treatment and control group. In conclusion, it
can be stated that T. cordifolia feeding had signifi cant immunomodulatory effect in cows.
Title: Factors Affecting Age at First Calving in Kankrej Cattle
Abstract :
The data of 35 years from 1980 to 2014 were analyzed to study the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors viz. period of calving, season of calving as fixed effect and sire as random effect on the reproduction trait (age at first calving) of Kankrej cattle maintained at Livestock Research Station, S.D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat. The least square mean of age at first calving in Kankrej cows was found to be 1376.0 9 ± 14.55 days. Heritability estimates was 0.44 ± 0.18 for the age at First calving. Genetic correlation of age at first calving (AFC) with first lactation 300 milk yield (F300Y), total milk yield (FLY and lactation length (FLL) were 0.358 ± 0.218, 0.341± 0.216 and 0.661 ± 0.361, respectively while the phenotypic correlation were 0.055, 0.048 and 0.044, respectively. The effect of period of calving and sire was significant (P<0.01) on age at first calving. Season of calving did not affect significantly to this trait under study. Effect of season of calving was not significant on age at first calving indicated breed characteristic for adoption in particular environment. Age at first calving showed a significant variation over the period that indicated some selection measures for age at first calving.
Title: Histoarchitecture and Histochemical Studies on the Lacrimal Gland of Pig (Sus scrofa)
Abstract :

The fresh tissues were collected from five pigs of either sex and processed for histomorphological studies. The gland was located on dorso-lateral aspect of the eye in the orbital cavity. The gland was multilobar tubulo-acinar with predominance of acini. It was covered by a thick connective tissue capsule and connective tissue septa, which penetrate into the glandular parenchyma and divided the gland into lobes and lobules. The acini were of mixed type but predominantly sero-mucous in nature. The secretory units were followed by a duct system. The excretory duct system was made up of intercalated, intralobular, interlobular and large excretory ducts. The strong presence of glycogen in the acini was demonstrated with the help PAS (McManus’) stain. The ducts showed very weak reaction for the presence of glycogen but goblet cells in the stratified ducts showed strong positive reaction for PAS. The acini showed strong reaction for acidic mucosubstances with PAS-AB. The goblet cells in the stratified ducts also showed strong positive activity towards the PAS-AB. The intense activity towards the Alcian blue showed presence of sialomucins and hyaluronic acids in glandular parenchyma of the lacrimal gland

Title: Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) Seed Powder on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Economics of Feeding in Broilers
Abstract :

An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of dietary supplementation of garlic (Allium sativum) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seed powder as herbal feed additives on growth performance, carcass characteristics and economics of feeding in broilers. A total of 320 day old broiler chicks of Cobb-400 strain were divided into four treatment groups with 4 replicates of 20 chicks in each treatment using completely randomized design. Dietary treatments were basal diet without any supplementation (CON), basal diet supplemented with 0.5% garlic bulb powder (GAR), 0.5% fenugreek seed powder (FEN) and 0.5% of each garlic bulb powder and fenugreek seed powder (GAR-FEN). Average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the garlic supplemented group (GAR and GAR-FEN) as compared to CON and FEN group. Carcass characteristics showed non-significant (P>0.05) effect of garlic, fenugreek and either combination on dressing percent, weights of liver, gizzard, heart, spleen and length of intestine, caecum and carcass. Return over feed cost and profit per bird was highest in garlic supplemented group followed by combination of garlic and fenugreek, fenugreek and lowest in control group. Whereas, benefit: cost ratio was observed maximum in garlic group followed by control, fenugreek and lowest in combination of garlic and fenugreek. The present study reveals that supplementation of garlic bulb alone or in combination with fenugreek seed improves the growth performance and feed utilization efficiency and return over feed cost and profit per bird.

Title: Histology and Histochemistry of Interstitial Tissue of Testes in Mountain (Gaddi) Goats- A Postnatal Developmental Study
Abstract :
Testicular tissues obtained from 30 mountain (Gaddi) goats ranging from newborn to > 60 months age divided into 3 age groups viz; prepubertal (neonatal to < 18 month), pubertal (>18 months to <60 months) and postpubertal (>60 months) with at least 10 animals in each group were studied for histological and histochemical changes in their interstitium at various stage of development. The loose connective tissue comprised of various mesenchymal cells, fibroblasts, undifferentiated and differentiated Leydig cells-in various stages of development with capillaries and lymphatics filled up the interstices between the sex cords/ seminiferous tubules being more juvenile in neonates (with mesenchymal and young fibroblast cells) and mature (fibroblasts, fibrocytes and Leydig cells) in older animals. The latter also showed mononuclear cell infiltration as an autoimmune reaction of the ageing testicles. It contributed 65% of testicular tissues in neonates but 13-15% in pubertal and slightly less in postpubertal animals. Among the various cell types, Leydig cells were mostly PAS reactive. The Alcian Blue reaction was inconclusive, colloidal iron stained them mildly to moderately in neonates and prepubertal, moderately to strongly in pubertal and postpubertal groups. BPB reaction for protein and Feulgen for DNA was also strongly represented. Sudan black-B and oil red-O revealed an increasing trend with age. AKPase and ACPase activity was moderate in the Leydig cells.
Title: Effect of Bread Waste Feeding on Growth Performance and Carcass Traits of Crossbred Pigs
Abstract :
The study was conducted at Pig farm of AICRP on Pigs, Livestock farm, Adhartal, College of Veterinary Science & A.H., Jabalpur (M.P.) for a period of three months. A total of 36 Large White Yorkshire crosses (LWY X Desi) were randomly assigned to six different groups and diets were formulated as per ICAR (1998) standard. All the diets were isoproteinous except group-6, which was formulated as per farmers practice. Composition of the diets (Table-1) are as follows; G-1(Control); concentrate mixture-1, G-2; concentrate mixture-2 (75%)+ bread waste (25%), G-3; concentrate mixture-3 (50%) + bread waste (50%), G-4; concentrate mixture-4 (25%) + bread waste (75%), G-5; wheat bran (19.5%) + bread waste (66%) + GNC (10%) + fish meal (3%) + mineral mixture (1%) + common salt (0.5%), G -6; rice bran (50%) + bread waste (50%). At the end of the experiment, the two animals from each group were slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Daily feed intake was significantly (P<0.05) varied among the groups. Highest daily feed intake (kg/pig/day) was observed in G3 group (1.647) and lowest value observed in G6
group (1.219). Average daily gain (ADG) were significantly (P<0.01) different and highest ADG (kg/pig/day) was observed in group G2 (0.377) and lowest ADG (kg/pig/day) observed in G6 group (0.171). Carcass characteristics were not significantly varied among the experimental groups. Finally, the study concluded that bread waste could be fed to the growing crossbred pigs without affecting performance.
Title: Detection of Antibodies against Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Ruminants of Grenada, West Indies
Abstract :

Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus (BRSV) is associated with respiratory disease complex in ruminants. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies for BRSV in non vaccinated cattle, sheep and goats in Grenada, West Indies. Sera were collected randomly from 60 cattle, 60 sheep and 60 goats from all six parishes of Grenada. Sera were tested for antibodies using an indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) Kit. An overall seroprevalence of BRSV antibodies was 7.8% (95% CI: 0.043 to 0.127). Seroprevalence was highest in sheep 15.0% (95% CI 0.0787 to 0.2634) followed by cattle 5% (95% CI 0.0117 to 0.1425) and goat 3.3% (95% CI 0.0025 to 0.1203). There was no significant difference in prevalence (p>.05) of antibodies to BRSV in cattle, sheep and goats. This is the first report of Seroprevalence of BRSV antibodies in ruminants in Grenada, West Indies.

Title: Effect of Dried Apple Pomace and Corn Bran Incorporation on Quality Characteristics of Chevon Rolls During Refrigerated Storage
Abstract :
An investigation was conducted to assess the effect of incorporation of dried apple pomace (DAP) and corn bran (CB) as dietary fi bre sources on organoleptic, thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) value and microbial quality characteristics of chevon rolls during refrigerated storage. DAP, CB and their combination (DAP+CB) were used at 6%, 3% and 2%+ 3% level respectively by replacing lean meat. Both control and treated chevon rolls were packaged in polythene bags and stored at a temperature of 4±10C. Parameters were analysed at a regular interval of 4 days. There was a decrease in sensory quality of control and treated rolls during refrigerated storage. But organoleptic scores of control as well as fi bre enriched rolls for different sensory attributes were around 7.0 on 12th day of refrigerated storage meaning moderate acceptability. TBARS value increased signifi cantly during storage in all the treatments but DAP was most effective in checking increase in TBARS value. Total plate count, psychrotrophic count and yeast and mould counts increased signifi cantly during storage but all the microbial counts were within the acceptable limit up to 12th day of refrigerated storage. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella were not detected during storage period in any of the treatments. It is concluded that fi bre enriched chevon rolls with organoleptic acceptability and microbiological safety up to 12 days of refrigerated storage can be prepared by incorporating dried apple pomace, corn bran and their combination each at 6%, 3% and 2%+3% level respectively.
Title: Study on Prevalence of Cardiovascular Diseases in Canines of Jammu
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to screen various cardiovascular diseases in the Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology Jammu, between July 2012 and June 2013. The prevalence of Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) was found to be 1.61 percent with maximum occurrence in month March (16 percent). Males (56 percent) were more affected than female with highest prevalence in Labrador breed (44 percent). Dogs in the age group of old age (>5 year) were found most susceptible (64 percent) to CVDs. Category wise division of Cardiovascular disorders revealed prevalence of Left atrial enlargement (40 percent), DCM (24 percent), CHF (16 percent), Bi atrial enlargement (12 percent) and 2º AV block (8 percent). Grading of CVD based on clinical signs as per New York Heart Association Insufficiency Score revealed prevalence of Class I (8 percent), Class II (16 percent), Class III (20 percent) and Class IV (56 percent).

Title: Antioxidants and Anticoccidial Potential of Aqueous Extract from Various Tree Leaves containing Condensed
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to determine the antioxidant and anticoccidial properties of aqueous extract from condensed tannins (CT) containing tree leaves (Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Ficus religiosa, Leucaenea leucocephala and Psidium guajava). The CT content was estimated by using butanol-Hcl method. The CT extracted from various tree leaves in water as solvents and then lyophilized. The antioxidant potential of aqueous extract from various CT sources was evaluated by using multiple in-vitro colorimetric methods which include 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total reducing power and hydrogen peroxide assays. Ascorbic acid was used as standard antioxidant in our study. However, anticoccidial effi cacy of aqueous extract at different concentration (CT: 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg/ml) from various CT sources was performed using coccidial oocysts sporulation inhibition assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity was signifi cantly higher in P. guajava as compared to other sources whereas hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and reducing power activities were signifi cantly (P<0.05) lower in L. leucocephala compared to other CT sources. Sporulation inhibition (%) of Eimeria spp. was signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher in E. jambolana followed by P. guajava, A. nilotica, L. leucocephla while least in F. religiosa. E. jambolana and P. guajava
showed maximum sporulation inhibition activity @ 4 mg/ml. It was concluded that CT extracts of A. nilotica, E. jambolana, F. religiosa, L. leucocephala and P. guajava leaves possess the antioxidant and anti-coccidian property and may be eco-friendly sustainable alternative, natural antioxidant, anti-coccidian agent and/ or natural feed additive for organic meat production.
Title: Optimization of Economic Traits of Sahiwal Cattle
Abstract :

A study was conducted for estimation of optimum range of age at first calving (AFC), service period (SP) and preceding dry period (DP) on Sahiwal cattle (n=462) data, spread over a period of 15 years (1997-2011), maintained at Livestock Research Center, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. In order to determine the optimum range of these economic traits class interval method was used. A class was considered as optimum, if it accommodated maximum number of observations along with better productive performance on the basis of four production parameters i.e., 305 days or less days milk yield (305DMY), total milk yield (TMY), milk yield per day of lactation length (MY/LL) and milk yield per day of calving interval (MY/CI). In thi study, optimum level of AFC, SP and preceding DP were found to be 32-37 months, 55-88 days and 49-88 days, respectively. Because of high rearing costs of heifers, managing heifers to first calving at 32 to 37 months of age could be very advantageous. The present obtained ranges of optimum SP and preceding DP can help in obtaining one calf per year in indigenous cattle that in turn, will help in improving overall productivity of indigenous cattle.

Title: Assessment of Socio-economic Status of Pig Rearers and Management Practices of Pigs in Assam
Abstract :

The study was conducted to appraise the in-depth scenario of socio-economic status of pig rearers, management practices in pigs and to identify constraints in rural areas of Kamrup and Darrang districts of Assam. A base line survey was conducted and a total of 300 pig owning households were interviewed randomly. In the study, it was found that majority of rearers were women (84.7%) for the purpose of business (76%) in backyard (92.8%). Neck/girth tethering (72.3%) was the preferable rearing system by the farmers. Pigs were mostly fed twice a day with kitchen waste, colocasia, rice polish and juguli. It was concluded that due to lack of awareness, majority of farmers do not follow scientific feeding, breeding and health care practices.

Title: Physico-chemical and Instrumental Colour Properties of Emu Meat
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to analyze the physico-chemical and colour properties of emu meat. The leg, back and breast portion along with a uniform mix of these three cuts were taken for evaluation of emu meat quality in respect to various physico-chemical parameters. The pH of breast meat was found significantly (P<0.05) lower than meat from leg and back portion. Water holding capacity of leg meat was significantly (P<0.05) higher than back and breast meat. The breast meat had significantly (P<0.05) higher shear press value (98.99 N) than other portions meat. Myoglobin and metmyoglobin were found from 7.02 to 8.95 mg/g and 28.39 to 45.70 % respectively. The lightness value of breast meat was higher than leg and back meat. Thus, results showed the good acceptability of emu meat in category of red meat and can be an alternative to other meat.

Title: Physiological Responses of Bullocks in Rotary Transmission System for Briquette Production
Abstract :

Draught animals such as bullocks and he buffaloes are the important source of energy for agricultural operations on small and marginal farms of Chhattisgarh, which constitute three fourth (75.77 %) portion of total land holding. Draught animals used in this region are small sized. In this paper physiological response of non-descriptive breed of bullocks of Chhattisgarh region in rotary power transmission system for briquette production are described. The physiological responses of Bullock in terms of pulse rate, respiration rate and body temperature were recorded during the briquette production after every one hour workout. The average speed of bullock during briquette production and power output was recorded 0.84 m/s and 0.43 kW respectively. The power output reduced with passage of time. The operating speed of bullock varied with the working hour and the bullocks were not fatigue after 6 hours of work as they scored 16 points against the fatigue level score of 20 points.

Title: Development and Process Optimization of Biodegradable Films Based on Banana (Musa sp.) Flour
Abstract :

A study was conducted to develop banana flour based edible film using Response Surface Methodology. A Central Composite Design was adopted in the optimization of banana flour and sodium alginate level for the development of edible film with 13 different runs and 5 trials of two similar centre points. Effects of banana flour (2-4% w/v) and sodium alginate (0.5-1.0% w/v) level on the thickness, moisture, solubility, Hue angle and Chroma value of banana flour based edible film were investigated. For each response, a second-order polynomial model was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. The coefficients of determination, R2 of all the response variables were higher than 0.95 and the lack-of-fit tests were not significant. Applying desirability function method, optimum conditions were found to be 2.81% w/v banana flour and 0.80% w/v sodium alginate level for banana flour based edible film. At this optimum point, thickness, moisture, solubility, Hue angle and Chroma value were found to be 170.18μm, 17.80%, 27.23%, 83.73 and 9.27 respectively. The composite film has a good potential as secondary packaging material to enhance the functionality of meat, dairy, poultry and seafood.

Title: Adaptation of Capripox Virus Isolate from Goats in Heterologous Cells
Abstract :
An outbreak of goatpox was attended in district Durg and surrounding regions of Chhattisgarh state. Dried skin scabs were collected from 250 goats of different age groups showing clinical signs suggestive of pox. The prevalence rate was studied based on severity of clinical signs followed by confirmation with agar gel immuno diffusion (AGID) test. Positive scabs were further processed for virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs via dropped chorio allantoic membrane (CAM) route followed by inoculation of CAM material in chinese hamster ovary and chicken embryo fibroblast cell cultures and propagated up to fifth passage level. Goatpox was reported with a prevalence rate of 74% using AGID. Distribution of disease in young animals, particularly in the kids (below 6 month) was more (45.4%) as compared to those between 6 to 24 months (31.35%) and 24 months and above (23.24%). Capripox virus showed cytopathic effect in chinese hamster ovary cells only after
third passage and no cytopathic effect in chicken embryo fibroblast cells even up to fifth passage. Cytopathic effects appeared after 72 hrs in chinese hamster ovary cell and were characterized initially by rounding and clumping of cells, cytoplasmic vacuolation followed by cell detachment. Identity of capripox virus was confirmed positive in both the cultures from third to fifth passage by both AGID and countercurrent immuno electrophoresis (CIE) test. In conclusion, field isolate of capripox virus was successfully adapted and propagated on chinese hamster ovary cell following third passage.
Title: Novel Polymorphism at Exon 2 of Caprine MHC Class II DRB3 Gene in Marwari Goats
Abstract :

The highly polymorphic genes of the MHC play a major role in the immune recognition of pathogens and parasites. The purpose of this study was to study the polymorphism of CLA-DRB3 (Caprine Leukocyte Antigen- antigen D Related β3-chain) gene in Marwari goat using PCR-RFLP technique. A region of exon 2 encompassing 285 bp fragment of DRB 3.2 gene in Marwari goats was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The restriction digestion by Hin1I revealed two alleles, A and G with frequencies 0.452 and 0.548, respectively and three genotypes, AA (285 bp), AG (285/174/111 bp) and GG (174/111 bp) with frequencies 0.242, 0.420 and 0.338, respectively. The polymorphic information content (PIC) value and expected heterozygosity were 0.373 and 0.495, respectively which were high in both cases. The present study shows polymorphic nature of MHC Class II DRB3 gene at this locus in Marwari goats.

Title: Sensitivity of Multiplex PCR Assay for Selected Animal Species
Abstract :

Multiplex PCR assay was quick, simple and sensitive method for identification multiple meat species in single PCR reaction. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was used as an indicator gene for identification of selected animal species (Buffalo, Sheep, Goat and Chicken) by using multiplex PCR. Sensitivity of the multiplex PCR assay was determined by using 100 ng/μl DNA of meat of Buffalo, Sheep, Goat and Chicken. For the estimation of sensitivity of multiplex PCR assay (34 cycles) made subsequently 10 fold dilution of 100 ng/μl DNA i.e. 100, 10, 1, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001 ng/μl and used in multiplex PCR reaction. In present study the lowest sensitivity of the multiplex PCR assay for all the four selected animal species DNA concentration was fined up to 0.01 ng/μl.

Title: Electrocardiographic Evaluation in Anemic Dogs with Blood Parasitosis
Abstract :

The present study was conducted on dogs presented to Medicine OPD of Small Animal Clinics of the Department of Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana. In the present study ECG was done in 23 dogs suffering from haemolytic anaemia (12 dogs with Ehrlichia canis and 11 with Babesia spp.) Among the cardiac rhythms assessed by electrocardiography, sinus arrhythmia occurred most frequently (82.61%). Sinus tachycardia was seen in 20 (86.96%) dogs in the present study. Abnormalities in the ST-segment (ST depression and elevation) were found in 5 (21.74%) anemic dogs and slurring of ST segment in 3 dogs.

Title: Expression of Immunogenic S1 Gene of Infectious Bronchitis Virus from Field Outbreak in Eukaryotic Cells
Abstract :

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and contagious disease of poultry. The spike glycoprotein (S) of IB virus is a dimmer and is cleaved into two glycopolypeptides, S1 and S2 post-translationally. S1 gene defines the serotype and plays a major role in induction of protective immunity. Eukaryotic expression systems are frequently employed for the production of recombinant S1 proteins as it is highly glycosylated protein. In present study the S1 gene amplified from isolated field strain of IBV was cloned into eukaryotic expression vector and express in vero cell line. The pQE-TriSystem vector was used as eukaryotic expression vector to express the corresponding protein. The successful expression was confirmed at 24 and 48 hrs post transfection by Reverse Transcriptase-PCR. These promising observations emphasize the need of expression of S1 gene recombinant protein for the development of effective recombinant DNA vaccine against IB in near future.

Title: Impact of Dairy Self-Help Groups on Income and Employment of Milk Producers in Belagavi District of Karnataka
Abstract :

The study was conducted in Belagavi district of Karnataka and identified the income and employment generation through Women Dairy Self Help Groups (WDSHGs). For the study, 90 members and non-members were selected randomly making a total of 180 respondents. Then, the sample was post stratified into small (1-3 milch animals), medium (4 & 5 milch animals) and large (6 & above milch animals) categories. Results of regression analysis showed that members have more monthly income from dairying than non-members. The season has found to be positive impact and it is significant, indicates that the more income in rainy season than in summer season. Also, found that average annual employment was found to be more for members as compared to non-members. In terms of time, more time spent on bringing fodder from the field. The study has concluded that WDSHGs has positive impact on income and employment of members in the study area.

Title: Protective Effect of Moringa oleifera on Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of Cattle from Industrial Fluoride Polluted Area
Abstract :

In the present study forty cattle were divided into four groups of ten cattle in each. Group I and II served as healthy and diseased control, respectively. Group III was treated with Moringa oleifera fruit powder and group IV was treated with standard chemical antidote i.e. calcium and boron. Blood, urine and faeces were collected from the animals of all the groups on day 0, 30 and 60 of the experiment for estimation of fluoride and haemato-biochemical parameters to evaluate the efficacy of Moringa oleifera fruit powder. Fluoride affected cattle revealed significantly higher level of fluoride in serum as compared to normal cattle at different observation periods of the experiment. Significant reduction in fluoride concentration in serum was recorded in group III and group IV animals from day 30 onwards. Altered haemato-biochemical parameters were restored after the supplementation of Moringa oleifera fruit powder in fluorotic cows. It is concluded that, dried fruit powder of Moringa oleifera had ameliorative potential against industrial fluorosis in cattle and can be used as a fluoride alleviator for control of fluorosis

Title: Efficacy of Calcium Borogluconate and Lime Water Therapy in Anagallis arvensis Intoxicated Cattle
Abstract :

Anagallis arvensis is a common weed seen in agricultural fields in Marathwada region of Maharashtra state. This weed contains different poisonous principles like glycosides, volatile oil, saponin (anagallin), tannin, and oxalates. In scarcity of fodder, cattle in some regions had exposure to Anagallis arvensis weed causing oxalic acid toxicity and nephrotic syndrome. Twenty Anagallis arvensis affected cattle were randomly distributed in two groups (Group-I; n=10 and Group-II; n=10). Anagallis arvensis intoxicated cattle of Group-I were subjected to primary therapy of calcium borogluconate @ 450 ml per cattle slow I/V, whereas, Group II cattle were treated with combination of calcium borogluconate @ 450 ml per cattle and lime water (1 kg of lime mixed to make 10 litres of water and one litre of this solution was administered twice a day) therapy. Based on improvement in clinical, haematological, biochemical parameters and recovery; parentral calcium borogluconate and oral lime water therapy along with standard supportive regimen was found highly efficacious in the treatment of Anagallis arvensis toxicity.

Title: Study on Genetic Variation of Microsatellite and Their Association with Mastitis Occurrence in Crossbred Cattle
Abstract :

In present study, the polymorphism at five microsatellite loci BM302, BM4505, BMS2684, CYP21 and DIK20 were investigated for finding their association with the somatic cell counts (SCC) in crossbred cattle. Total 130 animals were tested using california mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC) to screen animals for mastitis. Total 83 alleles were found in all five microsatellites where 23 alleles (9 in BM302, 3 in BM4505, 2 in BMS2684, 8 in CYP21 and 1 in DIK20) were differing significantly in case-control animals. Total number of genotypes for BM302, BM4505, BMS2684, CYP21 and DIK20 were 148, out of which 11 were differing significantly in case-control animals. The allele size ranges for BM302, BM4505, BMS2684, CYP21 and DIK20 were 146 bp to 166 bp, 212 bp to 252 bp, 82 bp to 108 bp, 180 bp to 228 bp and 164 bp to 196 bp, respectively. The polymorphism information content/heterozygosity/allelic diversity for BM302, BM4505, BMS2684, CYP21 and DIK20 were 0.88/0.92/0.89, 0.91/0.53/0.91, 0.81/0.56/0.82, 0.91/0.65/0.92 and 0.82/0.60/0.84. The genotypes ‘146/158’, ‘148/156’, ‘148/158’, ‘150/164’, ‘152/164’, and ‘152/166’ at BM302, ‘238/238’ at BM4505, ‘186/186’ and ‘196/196’ at CYP21 and ‘174/186’ and ‘180/192’ were differing significantly in case-control animals. It revealed that the information observed in the present study was valuable and it may be helpful for improving mastitis resistance in crossbred cattle.

Title: Occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Bovine Raw Milk in Chennai
Abstract :

Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) presence in milk is of significant importance as they are often involved in food borne intoxications. Effective surveillance and detection are the most important tools in outbreak investigation and control. Our study was designed to ascertain the occurrence Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from raw milk collected from apparently healthy cattle in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 89 (89/258; 34.49%) positive isolates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from 258 raw milk samples screened. Of which 24 (24/258; 9.3%) isolates positive for MRSA. Studying the antimicrobial resistance and its patterns in foods of animal origin will be of immense help to various regulatory agencies and authorities to devise and implement control measures and to note the compliance of our foods with the prescribed standards.

Title: Computational Analysis of Promoters of Immediate Early, Early and Late Genes of Bovine Herpesvirus
Abstract :

Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) is associated with a various respiratory and genital clinical manifestations in cattle. It belongs to alphaherpesvirinae family with double stranded DNA genome of 140 kb size. As other herpesviruses, BHV-1 also transcribes viral proteins into three kinetic classes namely immediate early (IE), early (E) and late (L). Transcription of these genes is dependent on several important regulatory motifs like OCT-1 (Ocatmer Binding Proteins), C/EBPα (CAATT enhancer binding protein alpha), TATA box and DPE (Downstream promoter elements). Most of these motifs have been studied in IE genes and very little literature is available for Early and Late genes in BHV-1. Hence the present study is undertaken to computationally identify similar motifs in early and late promoters of BHV-1. Computational analysis of promoters has shown that majority of its promoters uses Downstream Processing Elements (DPE) for the transcription of its genes. The genes which are known to express their proteins in high amount has TATA box along with DPE at the optimum position from the transcription start site (TSS). This study provides an overview of the regulatory motifs important for gene regulation and transcription studies

Title: Economic Analysis of Soymilk as Partial Milk Replacer for Buffalo Calf Rearing
Abstract :
The study was conducted to assess the economics of soymilk as partial milk replacer on Murrah buffalo calf rearing. The study was conducted at Livestock farm, Adhartal, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, N.D.V.S.U., Jabalpur (M.P.) for three months period. Eighteen Murrah buffalo calves with similar body weight of either sex at the age of 5 days were selected and randomly distributed in three different groups (M, SM20 and SM40) with six calves in each group. Calves of the M group were reared on buffalo whole milk, SM20 group was offered buffalo whole milk and soymilk in the proportion of 80:20, and SM40 group was offered buffalo whole milk and soymilk in the proportion of 80:20. Calves were maintained under uniform managemental condition except milk feeding. Economic analysis indicated that the recurring cost of rearing of the buffalo calves was significantly decreased in SM20 and SM40 groups in comparison to the M group. Percent decrease of total recurring expenditure in comparison to M group was 11.57 and 19.47, respectively for the SM20 and SM40. Decrease of recurring expenditure (percent/kg body weight gain) in comparison to M group was 9.04 and 12.02, respectively for the SM20 and SM40. It can be concluded that soymilk can replace up to 40 percent whole buffalo milk to reduce the cost of buffalo calf rearing.
Title: Structural Variation in Fstn Exon 3 Gene and Its Association With Growth Traits In Chicken
Abstract :
Follistatin gene is a member of transforming growth factor –β super family involved in muscle growth. The present study was carried out to characterize the nucleotide variability in the exonic (coding) region of FSTN gene in boiler (PD-1) line and control layer chicken lines. A PCR product of 219 bp of exon-3 was amplifi ed and nucleotide variability was studied using PCR-SSCP technique. The PCR products were sequenced to confi rm the variability in coding sequence. The present study revealed that the exon3 sequence of FSTN gene was monomorphic having similar sequence pattern in all individuals. Growth data was also analyzed, the growth performance of male and female differed signifi cantly at six week of age. It is concluded that exon3 of FSTN gene was monomorphic without showing any variation in the nucleotide composition both in broiler and layer chicken lines. The codon did not show any effect on variation in growth traits in chicken
Title: Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Shigatoxigenic and Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from diverse sources
Abstract :

Total 45 E. coli isolates were recovered from faecal samples of 77 diarrhoeic and 85 healthy animals and birds, 51 milk samples and 48 diarrhoeic human stool samples. Multiplex PCR based molecular characterization targeting the virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae and bfpA) could reveal presence of 24 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and 21 as enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Among the STEC 19 isolates belonged to 13 different serogroups while four were untypable and one rough. Majority of STEC isolates carried stx2 gene. Out of 21 EPEC isolates, 15 were serogrouped into 9 different serogroups and 6 were either untypable or rough. All the four EPEC isolates of milk origin belonged to serogroup O2. Only two isolates from dierrhoeic buffaloes were found to be typical

Title: Incidence of Intestinal Coccidiosis in Desi Chickens
Abstract :
A field investigation was carried out to find out etiology for high morbidity and moderate mortality (7.50 %) in a desi chicken farm with strength of 3000 birds at the age of 12 weeks, which were reared in the deep litter system at Perambalur district, Tamil Nadu, India. The clinical signs noticed were ruffled feathers, weakness, anorexia and blood stained whitish to brownish diarrhoea and sudden mortality of healthy birds at the age of 12 weeks. Autopsy revealed that distended small intestine with red and white focal lesion on the serosal surface, fi lled with blood, mucus and tissue debris. The microscopic examination confirmed the presence of Eimeria necatrix. The fl ock was treated with amprolium hydrochloride with vitamin K and the mortality reduced and the fl ock recovered completely on 5th day of treatment. Though, the desi chicken is deemed to be resistant to coccidiosis, the breed upgradation, wet deep litter condition and poor ventilation might play the important role in the coccidiosis outbreak among desi chickens.
Title: Biochemical Changes of Ketosis in Cows at Post Parturient Period
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to determine biochemical changes in apparently healthy control and ketotic cows. Fresh urine samples were collected from 350 post-parturient cows to screened urinary ketone bodies by using Modified Rothera’s test and urine Diastix test. Total forty cows showing clinical signs of ketosis were included for biochemical studies (before and after treatment). It was observed that serum glucose was significantly (P<0.01) lower as compared to helthy animals. While, serum ketones and urine ketones levels were significantly (P<0.01) elevated. Similarly, total serum protein, globulin and albumin levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in ketotic cows. It can be concluded that group treated with Decadurabolin (Nandrolone Decanoate) in association with parenteral dextrose give excellent recovery rate in Ketosis.

Title: Histochemical and Ultrastructural Studies on the thyroid gland of Pati Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) of Assam
Abstract :
A total of 36 ducks were utilised in this study ranging in age from 2 weeks upto 40 weeks of age. For histochemical parameters, the thyroid glands were separated out of the thoracic cavity and the required representative tissue samples were preserved in deep freeze maintained at -80oC. For scanning electron microscopy the tissue samples were processed by SAIF, NEHU, Shillong. The colloid showed a strong PAS positive reaction in all the age groups. The activities of both acid and alkaline phosphatases were present in all the age groups.The scanning electron microscopy revealed the normal structure of the thyroid gland in all the age groups. Parenchyma of thyroid gland was composed of follicles which were separated from each other by interfollicular connective tissue made up of collagen and reticular fibers. The follicles were closely packed together and their shape varied from oval to polyhedral. Microvilli of the follicular cells were observed on the apical surface. The SEM also showed the thyroid artery penetrating the gland.
Title: Studies on Malassezia Infection in Otitis External of Do
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of Malassezia in common ear affections of dogs. A total of 115 dogs with ear affections were evaluated between March 2014 and May 2015. Otoscopic examination and microbiological isolation was done for diagnosis. Case prevalence of Malassezia infection in otitis externa was 19.1%. Relatively higher proportion of Malassezia was found in males 68.2% (n=15) as compared to females 31.8% (n =7). The yeast was more prevalent in adult dogs (1-3 years old). Labrador, Beagle and Cocker Spanial were breeds more commonly predisposed to otitis externa. The prevalence was relatively higher in rainy season (July-August) 63.6% (n=14) followed by summer (April-June) 18.2% (n=4), winter (December-March) 13.6% (n=3) and autumn (September-November) 4.6% (n=1). Head shaking, frequent itching and malodour were the common presenting signs. It can be concluded that Malassezia infection is quite common in otitis externa, and can be diagnosed using otoscopy and microbiological isolation.

Title: Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Bovine Mastitic Milk Sample Along with Antibiogram Study
Abstract :

A total of 4378 cattle and buffalo were screened during period of study (July 2018-June 19). Out of which 27 Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. The isolates were confirmed phenotypically based on pigment production on nutrient agar. These were then confirmed by PCR amplification of species specific oligonucleotide sequences. All the 27 isolates amplified 956bp amplicon 16srRNA Pseudomonas aeruginosa species specific nucleotide sequence. The isolates were also checked for exo and aglD virulence associated genes. All of them amplified 540bp and 313bp amplicon of exo gene and aglD gene. All the isolates were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing. Most of the isolates showed highest sensitivity for levofloxacin, streptomycin and enrofloxacin followed by gentamicin, moxifloxacin and amikacin. Neomycin, cefoperazone and ceftriaxone were intermediate in action.

Title: Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Affects the Onset of Prostaglandin F2α Induced Oestrus in the Goat (Capra hircus)
Abstract :
The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on oestrus response in the goat following synchronization with prostaglandin analogue. Parous cycling goats (n=17/group) were fed a concentrate diet supplemented with either fi sh oil (FO) or palm oil (PO). The FO provided n-3 EPA and DHA @ 156 mg kg-1 body weight while
PO was given @ 0.6 ml kg-1 body weight to make the diet isocaloric. Oestrus was synchronized using two dose of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) at 11 days apart, with fi rst PG on day 25 of oil supplementation. Goats were observed for oestrus twice a day using a vasectomized teaser buck following second injection of PGF2α. The number and diameter of preovulatory follicle (POF) on
the day of oestrus was studied using transrectal ultrasonography. The mean interval from PGF2α administration to the onset of oestrus was significantly (χ2 df1=7.003, P=0.008) longer in FO than PO supplemented goats (48.71±3.78 vs 37.41±1.75 h). The proportion of goats showed oestrus within 48 h was 94.11% in the PO group (16/17), while it was 58.82% in the FO group (10/17). However, the oestrus duration was not affected by the FO supplementation. The number of POF was higher in the FO group than the PO (2.23±0.14 vs. 1.82±0.15; P=0.054); however the diameter of POF did not differ among the group (6.90±0.10 vs. 6.77±0.14; P>0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of goats with n-3 PUFA rich FO delayed the onset of PGF2α induced oestrus and increased the POF number on the day of oestrus.
Title: Effect of Area Specific Mineral Supplementation on Growth and Reproductive Performance of Female Black Bengal Goats
Abstract :
To find out the effect of area specific mineral supplementation (ASMS), 24 female Black Bengal goatling were divided into four groups (Gr.I, II, III & IV) which were supplemented with 0, 1, 2% deficient minerals and 2% commercial mineral mixture, respectively. Body weight (BW) was recorded in specific time span. Study revealed that final body weight as well as average daily gain (ADG) in three months significantly (P<0.05) differed from control and treatment group. Among treatment groups, better body weight gain was observed in higher mineral supplemented group but was not significant. But, interestingly, the overall body condition score (BCS) differed significantly (P<0.05) between control and treatment as well as within treatment group. Age at maturity of control and treatment groups were 222.50 ± 5.74,207.50 ±8.92, 187.50 ± 5.12 and 192.50 ± 6.29 days, respectively and the difference was significantly varied. Mean oestrogen and progesterone level was marginally high in mineral supplemented group than control group.
Title: Effect of Different Glycerol Levels on Quality of Frozen Semen of Mizo Local Boar
Abstract :
A total of 24 ejaculates were obtained from 3 Mizo local boars (Zovawk), were used by split sample technique for evaluating the effect of four glycerol levels on quality of semen extended with Lactose egg yolk glycerol (LEYG) extender at equilibration and after freezing. The sperm motility at equilibration and after freezing was significantly higher (P<0.01) for 3 percent glycerol levels, than for 2 and 4 percent glycerol levels. The live sperm at equilibration and after freezing was significantly higher (P<0.01) for 3 percent glycerol levels than for 2 and 4 percent glycerol levels, and for 2 percent than for 3 percent glycerol level. The Hypo-Osmotic Sperm Swelling Test (HOSST) reacted spermatozoa at equilibration and after freezing was significantly (P<0.01) higher for 3 percent glycerol levels, than for 2 and 4 percent glycerol levels, and for 2 percent than for 3 percent glycerol level. The acrosomal integrity at equilibration and after freezing was significantly (P<0.01) higher for 3 percent glycerol levels, than for 2 and 4 percent glycerol levels, and for 2 percent than for 3 percent glycerol level. In conclusion, preservation of boar semen in LEYG extender using 3 percent glycerol found to be superior
Title: Development of Fibre Enriched Chicken Nuggets Using Combination of Wheat Bran with Dried Apple Pomace or Dried Carrot Pomace
Abstract :

This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of incorporation of wheat bran (WB) with dried apple pomace (DAP) or dried carrot pomace (DCP) on quality attributes of chicken nuggets. Raw emulsion was stuffed in rectangular moulds, cooked in electric oven at 165°C for 40 minutes and nuggets were prepared by slicing cooked emulsion to 2-3 cm3 size. Colour scores increased with increase in DAP level in WB + DAP treated nuggets. A steady decrease in scores for all other sensory attributes was noticed in both WB + DAP and WB + DCP treated nuggets with increase in fibre level. Hardness and shear press value increased whereas springiness and cohesiveness decreased with increase in fibre level. Gumminess and chewiness of WB + DAP treated nuggets increased with increase in fibre level while gumminess and chewiness of WB + DAP treated nuggets showed a variable trend. Cooking yield and emulsion stability of fibre enriched nuggets were significantly higher whereas moisture, protein, cholesterol content and pH were significantly lower than control. Insoluble, soluble and total dietary fibre content increased drastically in treated nuggets. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) value and microbial counts increased significantly during refrigerated storage in all the products. It is concluded that healthier and dietary fibre enriched chicken nuggets with refrigerated storage stability up to 15 days can be prepared using combination of wheat bran (2%) with dried apple pomace (6%) or dried carrot pomace (4%) each

Title: Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Performance, Nutrient Balance, Plasma Enzyme and Hormone Profiles of Growing Sahiwal Calves
Abstract :
The present study was carried out to observe the effect on performance, nutrient utilization, plasma enzymes and hormones in growing Sahiwal calves fed with three levels of proteins in the form of total mixed rations (TMRs). Fifteen male Sahiwal calves (12-18 month age) were distributed into three equal groups (147.35 ± 5.46 kg) and were fed on isocaloric diets containing different protein levels of 15% (T1), 13.5% (T2) and 16.5% (T3) for 90 days. Nutrient intake and their digestibility except CP digestibility did not differ significantly irrespective of treatment groups. CP digestibility was higher in T3 as compared to T2, though T3 did not differ from T1. DCP (g/100 kg BW/day) intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T3 than T2 but comparable to T1. TDN (kg/100 kg BW/day) intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T2 than T1 and T3, but was comparable between T1 and T3. The intake and retention of nitrogen were similar between the treatments. The average daily gain was highest in T2 followed by T3 and T1. The plasma enzymes alanine amiontransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) along with hormones (insulin and growth hormone) were comparable among all groups and were within normal physiological range. From the results, it was concluded that the performances of Sahiwal calves in terms of growth rate and feed conversion ratio was satisfactory even with low dietary protein level of 13.5%. Variation in dietary protein levels also
did not affect the blood enzyme and hormone profiles of Sahiwal calves.
Title: Heavy Metal Contamination in Excreta of Blue Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) and Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) in Rural Areas of Punjab
Abstract :

Bird excreta are considered as bioindicator of heavy metal contamination in agricultural areas. The aim of the study was to evaluate the heavy metal concentrations in the excreta of Blue Rock Pigeon and Indian Peafowl to monitor the environment contamination in rural areas of Punjab. This study was carried out in two villages i.e Rampur Chhana (District Sangrur, location I) and Dargapur (District Patiala, location II). The excreta of Blue Rock Pigeon and Indian Peafowl were collected. After collection they were digested for metal analysis which was done through ICAP-AES. The study showed toxic level of Pb, high level above normal range of As and Ni more in the excreta of Indian Peafowl than in excreta of Blue Rock Pigeon. The concentration of B was in toxic range in excreta of Blue Rock Pigeon. It was inferred that they relied in similar environmental conditions while having exposure to different feeding habitats might have resulted in species specific heavy metal accumulation. Our studies showed that location I had more concentration of heavy metals like Pb, B and As which seems to be due to the presence of industrial units near this location. It has been concluded that more level of heavy metals in the excreta of Indian Peafowl was due to its high trophic level in the food chain. Statistical analysis showed significant difference among both the bird species which signifies the bioaccumulation of metals in the excreta of Indian Peafowl.

Title: Evaluation of Milk Production Performance of Lactating Fogera Cows Fed With Urea and Effective Micro-Organisms Treated Rice Straw as Basal diet
Abstract :

The study was conducted for Nine Fogera cows with average age, parity, initial body weight and stage of lactation was 9.3 year, 4.4, 262.7kg and 53.1 days, respectively used for the feeding trial were randomly assigned to three treatments. The treatments were 67% wheat bran and 33% NSC from 2kg concentrate + untreated rice straw (T1), 67% wheat bran and 33% NSC from 2kg concentrate +urea treated rice straw (T2) and 67% wheat bran and 33% NSC from 2kg concentrate + rice straw treated by effective micro-organism (T3). Animals were blocked based on their initial body weight in randomized complete block design. Feeding of Fogera cows with EMO treated rice straw resulted in significantly (p<0.05) higher daily dry matter intake (8.52 kg/cow, higher daily weight gain (27.7 g/day), higher daily milk yield (2.82l/day) and highest net income and marginal return rate (MRR) (82.6 and 194%, respectively) when compared with those cows fed on untreated rice straw. Hence, according to the results of this study feeding of lactating Fogera cows with EMO treated rice straw is efficient for both biologically and economically compared to urea treated rice straw.

Title: Molecular Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Targeting esxB (CFP-10) in Blood Samples and Lymph Node Aspirates by Conventional PCR and qRT-PCR TaqMan Assay
Abstract :

Bovine tuberculosis, a chronic infectious disease is caused by an intracellular acid-fast bacilli Mycobacterium bovis that affects broad range of mammalian hosts. CFP-10 is a 10 kDa secreted antigen coded by esxB gene located on RD1 region of genome and is responsible for virulence of Mycobacterium bovis. DNA extraction of blood (n=48) and lymph node aspirates (n=48) was done and extracted DNA was subjected to PCR by targeting esxB gene with band size of 302 bp. None of the blood sample and lymph node aspirates was positive for M. bovis with esxB gene by PCR. The sensitivity of esxB was 8 pg/μl by conventional PCR. Among 48 blood samples targeted for esxB (CFP-10) gene using In house developed primer probe mix, one sample (2.1%) whose CT was 34 was considered positive by real-time PCR. Out of 48 animals (lymph node aspirates), four samples (8.3%) whose CT was between 29-34 were considered positive by real-time PCR. Remaining samples whose CT values were equal to or greater than 35 were considered negative. The sensitivity of esxB was 800 fg/μl by real time PCR. This study indicates the diagnostic potential of esxB by using real time PCR TaqMan Assay

Title: Heavy Metal and Trace Mineral Profile in Blood and Hair of Cattle Reared Around Industrial Effluent Contaminated Area
Abstract :

Blood and hair samples were collected from seventy adult cattle reared in villages located near the industrial effluent contaminated River adjoining Meerut. Based on the distance of the villages from the river, they were divided into three areas viz. area 1 (villages located on the river bank), area 2 (villages within 1km distance from the river) and area 3 (villages more than 2 km from the river). Samples collected from cattle reared in rural locality away from the river were used as control. The mean lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels of blood and hair in the animals of area 1 and area 2 were significantly higher (P<0.05) as compared to control animals. The mean Pb and Cd levels of animals of area 3 were not significantly different from control values. Significantly low (P<0.05) copper and iron concentration in blood and hair were recorded in the animals from area1 and area 2 as compared to area 3 and control animals. Blood and hair zinc levels were not significantly different among animals of different areas. The blood cadmium level had significant negative correlation with blood copper(r=-0.379, p<0.01) and iron(r= -0.395, p<0.01). The blood lead levels had significant negative correlation with blood iron (r= -0.138, p< 0.05) and hair copper (r= -0.178, p< 0.05) and iron (r= -0.302, p< 0.05). The blood cadmium level had significant negative correlation with hair copper (r=-0.377, p< 0.01) and iron (r= -0.482, p<0.01). The study concludes that blood lead and cadmium influenced the concentration of trace minerals in the blood and hair.

Title: Animal Nutritional Proficiency of Field Veterinarians of Punjab (India): A Concern
Abstract :

A purposive study on field veterinarians of Punjab was conducted to have the idea of their knowledge on applied animal nutrition aspects of dairy farming. A total of 116 veterinarians across the state were randomly selected for the said study. Veterinarians were asked to answer the 53 questions comprising of fill in the blanks, open ended question, interrogative and negative question on basic of distinct aspects of applied animal nutrition as knowledge of feed, green fodder, anti-nutritional factor, mineral mixture, urea feeding etc. The descriptive analysis of the survey revealed the major gap in knowledge about these aspects. Veterinarian knowledge score varies from 44.52 for concentrate to 57.64 % for forages. Overall score (50.52%) indicated the dire need to strengthen the knowledge of veterinary officers in applied animal nutrition subject so that they can match with the need of dairy farmers.

Title: Effect of Chromium Supplementation on Performance, Mineral Retention and Tissue Mineral Accumulation in Layer Chickens
Abstract :
Twenty-two weeks old Babcock layer chickens (324) were randomly allocated to 9 treatment groups with 3 replicates of 12 birds in each to study and compare the effect of Cr from three sources (inorganic, organic or nano) at two different dosage level on performance, mineral retention and tissue mineral accumulation in layer chickens. The trial lasted for 12 weeks. The control group (T1) was given with the standard layer diet while the other groups were supplemented with Cr at 200 µg/kg (inorganic Cr chloride-T2, organic CrProp-T4, CrPic-T6 and nanoCr-T8) and 400 µg/kg (inorganic Cr chloride-T3, organic CrProp-T5, CrPic-T7 and nanoCr-T9) diets. Neither the source nor the level of Cr supplement had significant effect on body weight, feed consumption, egg production and egg weight during the study period. The organic and nanoCr supplementation significantly (P<0.05) increased the retention of Cr, Zn, Fe, Ca and P without influencing Cu retention. NanoCr and organic CrPic/CrProp (400 µg/kg) increased the concentration of Cr and Zn in plasma, liver and egg shell, Ca in liver and egg shell and Zn in egg
yolk. It may be concluded that organic or nanoCr supplementation (400µg/kg) in the diet improved the retention and tissue accumulation of minerals in layer chickens.
Title: Estimation and Analysis of Genetic Association Between Important External and Internal Egg Quality Traits in White Leghorns
Abstract :
Under this study, it has been aimed to determine the genetic correlations for different external and internal egg quality traits .The
eggs were collected form 548 progenies (1 egg from each progeny) of 282 dams mated to 47 sires of a White Leghorn flock at Central Poultry Development Organization (CPDO), Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar, Government of India. Full-sib method of analysis was adopted to estimate the existing genetic correlations among different egg quality traits. Egg weight was found to have statistically significant (p<0.01), positive genetic correlations with shell weight (0.73), albumen weight (0.73), yolk weight (0.68), yolk height (0.51), yolk diameter (0.46) and yolk index (0.42). It was also determined that most of the internal quality traits of the egg changed at statistically significant levels (p<0.01) according to the changes in egg weight and egg breadth. Our studies show that if selection for albumen height will be operated, it will positively affect to internal and external traits whereas shape index will be affected negatively (-0.52±0.14). It is feasible to formulate an index selection depending upon the magnitude of correlations between different quality traits for improvement of more than one traits at a time.
Title: Assessment of Lactate Dehydrogenase Enzyme Activity in Milk as a Marker for Detection of Subclinical Mastitis
Abstract :
Sub clinical mastitis is responsible for heavy economic losses throughout the world in dairy sector. The objective of present study was to investigate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activity in milk for detection of subclinical mastitis in buffaloes Milk samples from 60 buffaloes, including 40 subclinical infected and 20 healthy were subjected to the estimation of LDH using a LDH activity assay kit. LDH concentration in milk of buffaloes having subclinical mastitis was reported to be high (1.88±0.91 µmole/ml/min) as compared to healthy animals (0.26±0.10 µmole/ml/min). The receiver operating characteristics analysis at cut off value of 0.44 µmole/ml/min for LDH activity exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 95% each and area under curve was 0.959. Results of the correlation matrix revealed significantly strong positive interdependence of somatic cell count with enzyme LDH (r = 0.722**; P <0.01). Measuring LDH activity in milk was found both easy and cost effective with high sensitivity and specificity indicating that LDH activity has great potential as a diagnostic tool for detection of sub clinical mastitis in buffaloes.
Title: Development of Egg Cutlets from Whole Egg Liquid Incorporated with Mashed Potato as Binder and its Economics of Production
Abstract :
The present study was envisaged to develop egg cutlets from whole egg liquid as a novel food concept. To enhance the binding and quality characteristics of egg cutlets, mashed potato was incorporated at three different levels viz. 10% (T1), 15% (T2) and 20% (T3). The optimized formulations was mixed uniformly so that no clumps were formed, followed by preparation of egg cutlets of uniform size. The products were cooked in pre-heated oven at 155˚C for 15 min followed by deep frying. The developed cutlets were evaluated for various parameters such as physico-chemical, proximate, instrumental texture and colour profi le, and sensory attributes. The moisture, fat and cooking yield increased signifi cantly (P<0.05) with the increasing levels of mashed potato in batter. Textural attributes improved signifi cantly (P<0.05) upon incorporation of mashed potato. The overall acceptability scores of the egg cutlet with 20% mashed potato was signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher than control and other treatment products. On cost analysis, the cost of production of Egg Cutlets varied as ` 152, ` 137, ` 130 and ` 123 for control, T1, T2 and T3 respectively. Break Even Point (`), Cost benefi t ratio and Return on investment (%) were found to be ` 131,017.84, 0.56 and 46.00, respectively
Title: Effect of Feed Restriction on Energy Metabolism and Methane Emission in Goats
Abstract :

This study examined the effect of feed restriction on methane emission and energy metabolism in goats. Fifteen female goats of about ~ 1 year old, avg. body weight (BW) 12.59±0.60 kg were randomly divided into three groups of 5 each in a completely randomized design and randomly allocated to Control, RF-I and RF-II treatments. The goats of control group were fed total mixed ration ad libitum as per the predicted requirement, while in group RF-I and RF-II goats were fed 12.5 and 25 percent restricted diets, respectively of predicted requirements for 90 days. The methane emission in experimental goats was measured using open circuit respiration calorimetry. Methane emission (Ld-1, Lkg-1 W 0.75) by goats was significantly (P<0.01) higher in control group followed by RF-I and RF-II, respectively. The methane emission (Lkg-1 DMI) did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among various treatment groups, however, methane emission (as percent (DOMI) was significantly (P<0.01) lower in RF-II as compared to control group. Losses of energy methane, faecal and urine energy (kcald-1) were significantly (P<0.01) higher in control group followed by RF-I and RF-II, respectively. Metabolizability was significantly (P<0.01) higher in RF-II group as compared to RF-I and control. The heat production (kcal d-1) was significantly (P<0.01) lower in goats fed 12.5 and 25 percent restricted diets as compared to ad libitum. It may be concluded that feed restriction considerably reduced methane emission and improved the energy utilization efficiency in goats.

Title: News
Abstract :


Founder Editor-in-Chief Invited as Speaker for the 44th DIC, NDRI, Karnal

Title: Effects of Loose Housing Designs on Expressions of Milking Parlour Behaviours and Milk Yield of Crossbred Jersey Cows
Abstract :

Milking behaviour of dairy cows has serious impacts on their production efficiency. A number of genetic and environmental factors controls and influences milking behaviour of dairy cow. The aim of present study was to investigate the influence of housing comfort on expressivity of milking behaviours of cows in parlour, milk yield and compositions. Forty Jersey crossbred cows of similar production levels were selected and divided into 2 groups based on age, production and parity. Subsequently, cows were kept in two different types of loose house; each containing 20 animals. Two types of housing patterns were compared - (i) Traditional shed (T0) and (ii) Thermo-comfortable shed (T1). Impact of housing comfort significantly transformed the expressions of dairy cows behaviour even in milking parlour. Milking temperament scores and stepping during milking were significantly lower in cows kept in T1 compared to that of T0. Cows of thermo-comfortable shed showed more docile, calm and less nervous behaviour than those kept in traditional shed. Housing patterns significantly influenced daily milk yield (kg) being 2.86% more in T1 as compared to T0. Similarly milk compositions were better and significantly higher in T1 group of cows than that of T0. It was concluded that staying comfort of living by resignificantly modulated the expression of dairy cows behaviours even in milking parlour, demonstrated favourable milking temperament, reduced nervousness, enhanced milk yield and showed better milk compositions in Jersey crossbred cows.

Title: Booroola Gene (Fec B) Polymorphism and its Liaison with Litter Size in Indigenous Sheep Breeds of Telangana, India
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to find out the presence of Fec B gene in Deccani and Nellore with its association to litter size. From forty ewes of each Nellore and Deccani breed, having variation in litter size, blood was collected and genomic DNA extraction was done. Animals were screened by PCR-RFLP method for the presence of Fec B gene. Digestion of the Fec B gene 190 base pair with Ava II restriction enzyme resulted in separation of non-carrier (++) 190 bp band (wild type) and heterozygous carrier (B+) 160+190bp indigenous sheep. Frequency of Fec B gene polymorphism distributions was different among these breeds. Among the forty Nellore sheep blood samples, there was only one ewe with (BB) homozygous (160bp) genotype, five ewes with (B/+) heterozygous (160+190bp) genotype and thirty four ewes with (+/+) homozygous (190bp) genotype in Fec B loci. There was only five ewes with (B/+) heterozygous (160+190bp) genotype and thirty five ewes with (+/+) homozygous (190bp) genotype in Fec B loci and none of the individuals carried homozygous genotype for the Fec B gene in Deccani sheep. The average litter size of ewes with the homozygous Fec B (BB) gene was 2.0, heterozygous Fec B (Bb) gene was 1.4 and 1.2, respectively in Nellore and Deccani breeds and others were 1.0 in respective genotypes of both breeds. The study revealed the presence of Fec B gene in indigenous sheep breeds of Telangana, India having good association with litter size in both the breeds.

Title: Molecular Characterization of New Zealand White and APAU Black Rabbits using Microsatellite Markers
Abstract :
Genetic diversity among two genetic groups (New Zealand White and APAU Black) was investigated with a set of 20 microsatellite markers in the present study. The results showed that out of 20 microsatellites, 12 rabbit specifi c markers were successfully amplifi ed by PCR which were highly polymorphic. A total of 257 alleles were observed across the 12 loci amplifi ed. Number of alleles ranged from 5 to 14 and 5 to 16 in New Zealand White and APAU Black populations, respectively. The overall mean values of observed heterozygosity (0.554 in New Zealand White and 0.556 in APAU Black), expected heterozygosity (0.870 in New Zealand White and 0.875 in APAU Black), Polymorphic Information Content (0.856 in New Zealand White and 0.862 in APAU Black) and the mean effective number of alleles (8.629 in New Zealand White and 8.876 in APAU Black) of these two genetic groups were high. Out of the 12 amplifi ed loci 7 loci deviated signifi cantly from Hardy - Weinberg equilibrium in New Zealand White and 5 loci deviated in case of APAU Black which may be due to selection followed. The mean FIS, FIT and FST values over all the population were found to be 0.377, 0.402 and 0.040, respectively. The results suggested that the 12 amplified rabbit specific microsatellite loci were effective markers for analysis of genetic relationships among rabbit populations.
Title: Predicting the Impact of Degree and Duration of Uterine Torsion on Uterine Blood Supply in Cattle using Doppler Ultrasonography
Abstract :
The aim of study was doppler ultrasonography-aided assessment of uterine blood fl ow in relation to duration and degree of uterine torsion in cattle. Fourteen dairy cattle with uterine torsion were detorted and fetal delivery was completed after detorsion. Six live and eight dead calves were delivered by cattle having torsion from lesser and prolonged duration, respectively. Whereas the dams of majority of live (n = 4/6) or dead (n = 5/8) fetus had uterine torsion ≤180° or >180°, respectively. Doppler ultrasonography of middle uterine artery ipsilateral (IpsiUA) and contralateral (ContUA) to the side of torsion was carried out before uterine detorsion for doppler indices viz. blood fl ow volume (BFV), time-average peak velocity (TAP), resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI). With increase in degree and duration of torsion, BFV in both IpsiUA and ContUA reduced signifi cantly (p<0.05) but TAP decreases only with increase in duration of torsion. In ipsilateral uterine artery PI (PI- IpsiUA) increased with an increase in duration of torsion (p<0.05). The presence of Pre-diastolic notch in IpsiUA and ContraUA validates the hindrance in blood fl ow through the vessel and absence of diastole in higher degree and/or duration of uterine torsion defined the severity of torsion which further relates to fetal viability. In conclusion, assessing the blood fl ow parameters of middle uterine artery in relation to degree and duration of uterine torsion can serve as useful prognostic indicator. The cattle having
lesser degree of uterine torsion could have more chances of fetal survival due to lesser alterations in blood fl ow.
Title: Comparative Efficacy of Moxidectin Ivermectin Doramectin and Fenbandazole Against Natural Infection of Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Sheep at Hisar
Abstract :

This study aim to evaluate the effectiveness of moxidectin (cydectin), ivermectin (Neomec), doramectin (dectomax) and fenbendazole (Panacur) against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected sheep at central sheep breeding farm, Hisar, Haryana. The study includes 50 crossbred sheep divided randomly into five groups (group A, B, C, D and E) of 10 animal in each. Group A, B and C were treated with moxidectin, ivermectin, doramectin (@10 mg/ kg BW) and group D with fenbendazole (@5 mg/ kg BW) and group E served as the untreated control. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated through determination of epg, body weight gain/loss and Hb concentration. Fecal, body weight and blood were collected before treatment on day 0, and on 7, 14 and 21 day post-treatment. The results showed that the fecal egg count reduction percentage in group A, B, C, D compared to control were 100, 90, 100 and 80 respectively on 21 day post treatment. The body weight of the treated group A, B, C sheep were slightly increased on 21 day post treatment but the differences was non-significantly (P<0.05) when compared with group D and E. The Hb values was significantly higher (p<0.01) between group A, B, C when compared with group D and E on day 21 post treatment. On the basis of these results it was concluded that moxidectin and doramectin proved the most effective against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in the present farm, while ivermectin being comparatively less and fenbendazole the least effective.

Title: Effect of Non-genetic Factors on Test Day Milk Yield and First Lactation 305 Day Milk Yield in Jaffarabadi Buffaloes
Abstract :

The study was conducted on data of first lactation traits of 213 Jaffarabadi buffaloes spread over a period of 24 years (1991-2014) collected from the history -cum-pedigree registers maintained at Cattle Breeding Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. Least squares maximum likelihood program was used to estimate non-genetic parameters affecting monthly test day yields and First lactation 305 day milk yield. The overall least squares mean for First lactation 305 day milk yield was 1477.33 ± 64.91 litre and was not found to be influenced by season of calving, period of calving and age at first calving. The overall least squares means for all 11 individual monthly test day yields varied from 2.76 ± 0.21 litre (1st test day) to 5.98 ± 0.29 litre (5th test day). The season of calving had significant effect (p<0.05) on milk yield on 3rd and 9th test day. Effect of period of calving was highly significant (p<0.01) on 2nd test day and significant (p<0.05) on 3rd test day. It was revealed that 8th & 9th test day showed highly significant (p<0.01) and significant (p<0.05) difference in test day milk yield due to age at first calving, respectively. All these non-genetic factors markedly affected the rising phase and declining phase of the first lactation over a period of time in the population due to change in climatic conditions and population structure. Hence, non-genetic factors were important to adjust some of the test day yields.

Title: Evaluation of Efficacy of Propylene Glycol in the Treatment of Subclinical Ketosis and its effect on Plasma Concentration of Various Metabolic Parameters
Abstract :

Sub clinical ketosis is the excessive production of ketone bodies in blood leading to reduced reproductive performances and decreased milk yield without showing any clinical sign of ketosis. Since a lot of metabolic parameters are affected during the subclinical ketosis, which are having their roles in normal functioning of the body. Therefore the study was conducted to check the efficacy of Propylene glycol (PG) which was given @ 200 ml per day orally for 5 days in the treatment of subclinical ketosis and to study its effect on various metabolic parameters. A significant decrease was noted in the mean plasma Beta Hydroxyl Butyric Acid (BHBA) and Non Esterified Fatty Acid (NEFA) values, along with a significant increase in the mean plasma glucose, calcium and total plasma proteins levels after treatment. The mean plasma inorganic phosphorus levels were within the normal range. A non significant decrease was observed in the mean plasma copper and zinc levels, where as a increase was noted in iron levels from the late pregnancy upto the early lactation period. However, a increase was noted in the mean values of copper and zinc after treatment with PG. Marked improvement was recorded in the oxidative stress parameters after feeding of PG It was concluded from the present study that Propylene glycol (PG) was given @ 200 ml per day orally for 5 days results in decrease in plasma NEFA and BHBA levels, indicating its effectiveness for treatment of sub clinical ketosis.

Title: Knowledge Level of Women Dairy Farmers about Various Farming Practices in Border Area of Punjab
Abstract :

Livestock farming is the most proficient occupation in India and women play a very significant role in livestock farming practices in the country. A study was conducted on 160 women dairy farmers of 4 border districts namely Gurdaspur, Amritsar, Taran-Taran and Ferozepur of Punjab to ascertain their knowledge level about various practices related to dairy farming. A pretested structured questionnaire comprising questions on management, nutrition, breeding, health etc. was developed and same was filled during the personal interview with women farmers. Data so collected was analyzed descriptively to draw inference. The data revealed that majority (68.75%) of women has medium knowledge level on various recommended dairy farming practices, 13.75 has low and only 17.5% has high (17.50%) knowledge level. Further this knowledge was significantly (P<0.01) correlated with the number of labor employed, milk production, herd size, and education level. Study concluded that there is an emerged need to educate women on scientific dairy farming practices.

Title: The Surface Electrocardiogram in Unanesthetized Adult Domestic Cats (Felis catus)
Abstract :
The purpose of this study was to describe and suggest normal surface electrocardiographic values of the unanaesthetized indigenous domestic cat (Felis catus), reared commonly as a household pet throughout India. Twenty cats, aged between 1-4
years, averaging 2.2 kg body weight (ranging from 1.1 – 3.1 kg) were chosen randomly for the study. Recordings were made using standard limb leads (I, II and III) and augmented limb leads (aVR, aVL and aVF) in right lateral recumbency with a single-channel electrocardiograph. The heart rate, normal ECG waves, complexes and intervals were recorded during the study. A sinus rhythm was observed in all animals selected and studied. No ectopic complexes or arrhythmias, nor any abnormalities in electrocardiographic patterns were recorded. Estimated mean heart rate in the cat was 233.4 ± 2.34 beats per minute. The P-R interval and Q-T interval observed in the cat occupied approximately 31 and 69% respectively, of the total electrical cycle.
The results of the present study give a fair approximation of the normal ECG values described earlier for the cat. The observed
results would be helpful as a guideline to the clinician for perceiving the abnormal electrographic parameters in the domestic cat when diagnosing specifi c cardiac abnormalities during their clinical presentations.
Title: Linear Regression Equations for Estimation of Body Weights in Sahiwal Calves
Abstract :
The study was conducted on 194 purebred Sahiwal calves of both the sexes and different age groups (0-6, 6-12, 12-18, 18- 24 and 24-36 months) to find out the correlation coefficients between body weights and different body measurements and to develop linear regression equations for prediction of body weights of the various age groups. Among the body measurements, heart girth shown highly significant and highest correlation coefficients with body weights. It was concluded that the linear regression equations incorporating heart girth alone could be used to predict body weights of growing Sahiwal cattle.
Title: Effect of Plum Puree on Quality Characteristics and Sensory Attributes of Functional Chevon Patties
Abstract :

Three different levels (1%, 3% and 5%) of plum puree were attempted in the formulation of low sodium reduced fat meat emulsion to evaluate the possibility of its utilization as antioxidants in chevon patties. The product was evaluated for various quality characteristics and sensory attributes. The pH, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values were significantly (P<0.05) higher in control as compared to treatments and gradually decreased with the increasing levels of plum puree. Mineral contents and texture profile of plum puree added functional chevon patties did not differ significantly (P>0.05) in either of the treatment. Yellowness (b*) and redness (a*) values increased and lightness (L) value decreased significantly (P<0.05) with the increasing level of plum puree. All the sensory attributes were either comparable or higher score for PP2 compared to control. Therefore, plum puree at 3% may suitably be used in the development of functional chevon patties without affecting quality and sensory attributes.

Title: Haemato-Biochemical Comparision of Meloxicam/Ketoprofen in Combination with Atropine-Dexmedetomidine-Butorphanol-Midazolam as Preanasthetic to Ketamine Anaesthesia in Female Dogs
Abstract :

The study was conducted in 12 female dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy divided into two groups of six animals each to evaluate and compare hemato-biochemical findings in meloxicam/ ketoprofen along with atropine - dexmedetomidine - butorphanol - midazolam - ketamine anesthetic combination. Adequate muscle relaxation, sedation and analgesia necessary for surgical intervention were achieved along with smooth and uneventful recovery in all patients. Blood samples were collected at 0min (baseline), 15min, 30min, 45min, 60min and 90min for assessment of Hb, TLC, DLC, plasma urea nitrogen and plasma creatinine. Results were non-significant decrease in Hb, increase in plasma urea nitrogen and increase in plasma creatinine in both the groups. TLC showed non-significant decrease up to 30min followed by gradual increase to baseline. Variation in DLC was clinically insignificant. Both meloxicam and Ketoprofen produced a comparable degree of clinico-physiological and haemodynamic stability in atropine- dexmedetomidine-butorphanol-midazolam - ketamine anaesthetic combination in dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy.

Title: Effect of Extreme Seasons on Some Blood Biochemical Parameters in Beetal and Toggenberg Goats of Jammu Region
Abstract :

The influence of extreme environmental conditions on biochemical parameters were studied in 36 healthy adult female (2-4 years of age) Beetal (n=18) and Toggenberg (n=18) goats in Jammu (J&K, India). Blood glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, albumin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were studied during moderate (autumn), extreme hot (summer) and extreme cold (winter) ambiences. Ambient temperature (0C) and relative humidity (%) were recorded and temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated. For the season and breed interaction, significantly higher (P<0.01) total protein and cholesterol levels were found in Toggenberg goats in all the seasons. Significantly higher (P<0.01) levels of total protein, albumin and BUN levels were found during summer as compared to autumn and winter seasons. The concentrations of glucose and cholesterol were significantly higher (P<0.01) in winter season. Among the two breeds, all the values were significantly higher (P<0.01) in Toggenberg. Biochemical parameters change in different seasons and THI values were found higher during summer season and is considered as danger status.

Title: A 28 days oral toxicity of Dronedarone in Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus
Abstract :

The aim of the present experiment was to study clinical signs, haemato-biochemical alterations and pathomorphological changes induced by Dronedarone administration in rats. In present study, 48 Wistar rats (5-8 weeks old) were divided in to four different groups with equal numbers of male and female. Group I rats (Corn oil) severed as vehicle control. Group II, III and IV rats were administered Dronedarone @ 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg b.wt. respectively, orally daily for 28 days. The blood samples were collected on day 29 of the study from all the animals from retro-orbital plexus under carbon dioxide anaesthesia. All animals were euthanized on day 29 of the study using carbon dioxide asphyxiation. The haematological parameter viz. Hb, erythrocyte count, PCV, MCV, MCHC, eosinophils and basophiles percent and biochemical parameters such as total bilirubin and urea revealed significant (P < 0.05) alteration as compared to control group animals. Gross morphological changes include congestion in lung and dilatation of uterus while microscopic changes were characterized by individual cortical cell necrosis in thymus, focal to multifocal thickened alveolar septa in lung and dilatation of uterine lumen. Changes of gross and microscopic were spontaneous or incidental finding. Based on above finding it can be concluded that sub-acute exposure to Dronedarone administered at the dose rate up to 200 mg/kg/day by oral route over a period of 28 days did not produce any appreciable changes.

Title: Effect of Aloe vera Gel and Arjun Tree Bark Extract Incorporation on Quality of Buffalo Male Calf Meat Rolls During Refrigeration (4±1 °C) Storage
Abstract :

The study was conducted with an objective to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera gel and Arjun (Terminalia arjuna) bark extract on shelf life of buffalo male calf meat rolls at refrigeration (4±1°C) storage. The meat rolls were prepared with incorporation of 4% Aloe vera gel (T1) and 2% Arjun tree bark extract (T2) and compared with control (C) meat rolls. The products were assessed for their physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological quality at 0, 4, 8, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days. However, the sensory scores and moisture content decreased and microbial load, TBA value and free fatty acids (FFA) increased as the days of storage increased for control as well as treated products. The rate of decline in sensory score and moisture content and rate of increase in microbial load, TBA vale and FFA during storage were higher in control samples as compared to treated (T1 and T2) meat rolls. It was concluded that Aloe vera gel (4%) and Arjun tree bark extract (2%) incorporation showed their antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, by keeping the treated products organoleptically acceptable and microbiologically safe up to 21 days of refrigeration storage.

Title: Comparison of Serum Biochemical and Mineral Profiles of Cattle Reared Under Island and Coastal Ecosystem
Abstract :

The present study was conducted in the Department of Animal Reproduction Gynaecology and Obstetrics, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, OUAT, BBSR in collaboration with ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research Institute, Portblair (Andaman and Nicobar Island). Crossbred cattle with the history of anoestrus and repeat breeding were considered for the present investigation. The basic difference in serum biochemical and mineral profiles of cattle reared under two quite different ecosystems namely Island and coastal ecosystem was estimated which might be due to the variability in rainfall, ambient temperature, day light length and humidity. The incidence of different infertility conditions in both the ecosystems also might vary as per the environment. Serum samples were collected for estimations of biochemical parameters like total protein, glucose, cholesterol, Ca, P and Ca:P ratio. The overall incidence of infertility was recorded to be 47.62 % in island and 45.90 % in coastal ecosystem. No significant difference in serum levels of total protein, glucose, cholesterol, zinc, copper and manganese could be observed in between cattle reared in both ecosystems. It was concluded that the variations in humidity, ambient temperature, rain fall and day light length between Portblair, Andaman and coastal climate of Odisha, did not have much effect on reproduction of cattle.

Title: Contents for Volume 7 Issue 2
Abstract :

Contents for Volume 7 Issue 2

Title: Evaluation of Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay for Detection of Antibodies to Bovine Herpes Virus -1
Abstract :
The present study was carried out to make a comparative evaluation of a commercial competitive ELISA kit with respect to gold standard micro-serum neutralization test (mSNT) for detection of antibodies to Bovine herpes virus -1. The relative sensitivity and specificity of cELISA were found to be 96.67% and 95.29%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were observed to be 78.38 and 95.29%, respectively. The exhibited kappa value was 0.95. From this study, it is evident that cELISA is very simple, rapid with high specifi city and sensitivity in detecting BHV-1 antibodies and can prove to be a quick and effective tool in diagnosis of the disease in fi eld conditions where mSNT cannot be carried out due to its inherent requirement of highly specialized laboratories with cell culture facilities and expert personnel.
Title: Efficacy of Microtiter Method of Direct Antiglobulin Test in diagnosis of Immune Mediated Haemolytic Anaemia in Dogs
Abstract :

The present study was carried out to assess the efficacy of microtiter method of direct antiglobulin test in diagnosis of Immune Mediated Haemolytic Anaemia in Dogs. Two hundred and fifty eight anaemic dogs with pale/icteric mucous membrane were used for the present study. Initial screening of these dogs was done with saline agglutination test. Forty seven dogs were found positive for saline agglutination test. Whole blood samples of these dogs were used for direct antiglobulin test (DAT). The test was performed using polyvalent antiserum in a 96-well microtiter plate allowing multiple dilutions of antisera. Twenty five dogs were found to be positive for DAT at various titers. The use of microtiter method helped in detecting 8 additional Coombs’ positive dogs which would be negative in standard tube method dilution. The use of this method increases the sensitivity of DAT by overcoming prozone effect.

Title: Post Natal Changes in the Concentration of certain Serum Biochemicals, Metabolic and Steroid Hormones in Male Assam Goats (Capra hircus) from Birth to Ten Months of Age
Abstract :

The mean concentration of blood glucose showed an increasing pattern with advancing age in the male Assam goats ranging from 39.32 ± 0.12 mg percent at birth to 51.92 ± 0.05 mg percent in 10 months old bucks. Serum cholesterol concentration showed a declining trend that varied from 108.93 ± 1.35 mg percent at birth to 62.23 ± 0.66 mg percent in 10 months old goats. Similarly, the levels of serum total protein increased from 3.96 ± 1.35 to 8.16 ± 0.02 g percent at birth and at 10 month of age, respectively. The serum thyroid hormones showed a declining trend in the male Assam goats with increasing age. The mean concentrations of Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) were recorded as 1.65 ± 0.03 and 114.38 ± 0.62 ng/ml at birth and 0.81 ± 0.01 and 24.47 ± 0.31 ng/ml at 10 months of age respectively. On the other hand, serum concentrations of testosterone hormone raised from 0.11 ± 0.01 ng/ml in 2 months old kids to 1.13 ± 0.01 ng/ml in the goats at 10 month of age. Testosterone could not be estimated in the serum of day-old kids because the level was too low to measure. Serum concentrations of all the hormones showed a highly significant (P<0.01) variation between different age groups under study.

Title: Biochemical Studies in Experimentally Escherichia Coli Infected Roiler Chicken Supplemented with Amla (Emblica officinalis) Extract
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken in broiler chickens to study the effect of dry fruit extract of amla supplementation on biochemical changes in relation to the severity of colibacillosis. Experimental colibacillosis could be produced in broiler chicks by intraperitoneal inoculation of E. coli O120 after 12 hours of the infection as evidenced by clinical signs. One hundred and sixty-eight day old healthy broiler chicks were procured from a local hatchery. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B) containing eighty-four birds each. Diet of all the chicks of group A was supplemented with grinded dry fruit extract of Amla at the rate of 10g/kg of feed whereas; chicks of group B were given normal feed and water. At the age of 7 days chicks of group A1 and B1 were injected intraperitoneally with standard infective dose of pathogenic E. coli. (i.e. at the rate of 107 CFU of E. coli/0.5 ml). During the experiment blood was collected from six chicks from each group at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 post-infection for biochemical studies. Serum samples collected for biochemical studies revealed significant increase in serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase activities and decrease in creatine phosphokinase activity. Decrease in total protein, albumin concentrations in both the infected groups was also noticed but this was non-significant. On the basis of results of the present study it is concluded that 10g/kg dry fruit extract of amla supplementation significantly reduced the severity and recovery period of colibacillosis in chicks as evidenced by biochemical parameters.

Title: Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Herbal Regimen for the Treatment of Post-partum Anestrus in Water Buffaloes
Abstract :

A study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of combinations of different brands of herbal uterine cleansers, estrus inducers and mineral supplements in the treatment of anestrus in water buffaloes. Thirty she-buffaloes with a history of anestrus were randomly assigned to either of five equal groups. Group T0 served as untreated control, Group T1 was treated with a combination of Exapar bolus (M/s Ayurvet Limited, India), Janova capsule (M/s Ayurvet Limited, India) and Mintrus caplet (M/s Ayurvet Limited, India). Group T2 was treated with AV/UTB/26 bolus (M/s Ayurvet Limited, India), AV/OIP/22 powder (M/s Ayurvet Limited, India) and Mintrus caplet. Group T3 was treated with a combination of Brands A, B and C. Group T4 was treated with a combination of Brands X, Y and Z. The best estrus response was recorded in the Group T2 and the highest conception rates in Groups T2 and T4. The time interval between treatment and onset of estrus was significantly lowest (P<0.05) in Group T1 as compared to the other groups.

Title: Comparison of Conventional Semen Parameters and Hypo-osmotic Swelling Test between Karan Fries and Sahiwal Bulls under Heat Stress
Abstract :
The present study aimed to determine the differences in semen parameters between Karan Fries (KF) and Sahiwal bulls and the correlation of hypo-osmotic swelling test with conventional semen parameters. A total of 24 ejaculates were collected from each breed and subsequently classifi ed according to their mass activity. The semen samples were further examined for progressive motility, sperm viability, sperm concentration and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST). The percentage of hypo-osmotically swelled spermatozoa was higher (P<0.01) in ejaculates of Sahiwal bulls than in KF bulls. However, the mass activity, percent progressive motility, viability and concentration of sperms did not differ (P>0.05) between the breeds. With respect to association between HOST and conventional semen parameters, HOST showed signifi cant (P<0.01) positive correlation with progressive motility (%), sperm viability (%) and sperm concentration in both breeds. This study indicated the HOST as an effective metho to test the fertility potential of semen samples for artifi cial insemination and zebu breeds ejaculates have more fertility potential as compared to crossbred ejaculates under heat stress.
Title: Carcass Characteristics of Commercial Broiler Chicks as Affected by the Supplementation of Probiotics
Abstract :

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of probiotic on carcass characteristics of commercial broiler chicks. Two probiotic levels (without and with probiotic supplementation) were considered for the study. The experiment consisted of two replicates for probiotic groups. The carcass characteristics and Conformation traits of broiler was evaluated at 6th week of age. Data were analyzed on survivor and equal number of bird’s per subclass basis. Analysis of variance revealed that the difference between replicates were not significant for the different traits under study as such all subsequent analysis was performed on combined sex basis. Inclusion of probiotic showed the significant effect on males, females and on combined sex basis the results of present study on per cent shrinkage, per cent dressing, per cent giblet and on total per cent meat yield. Higher per cent yield was estimated for most of the carcass components in the control group than the diet supplemented with probiotic. The cut-up parts yield (leg, breast, back with neck & wings) more or less similar in control and probiotic supplemented dietary group and also the percentage was lower in probiotic supplemented diet than the control group. The proximate principles of the meat revealed that there was no effect of the treatments on moisture, fat and ash content. However, the protein content was reduced significantly in broilers diet containing Probiotics. The lactobacillus counts were recorded higher in probiotic fed groups than the control.

Title: Estimation of Probability of a Particular Milch Animal to Pick Up Mastitis
Abstract :

Mastitis is the most important and expensive disease of dairy industry. The aim of this study was to investigate management and animal level risk factors that favour occurrence of bovine mastitis. The identification of risk factors is important for the design of mastitis control programs in dairy herds. The present study was conducted at the Large Animal Clinic of Madras Veterinary College (MVC) Hospital, Chennai. Out of two hundred and eighty milch animals examined during the study period, sixty cows were affected by mastitis. Binary logistic regression analysis was employed to estimate the probability of a particular milch animal to pick up mastitis and to model the relationship of incidence of mastitis with other explanatory variables. Results obtained revealed that increase in unit change of milk yield (one litre) would increased the incidence of mastitis by 1.658 times. The chance of getting infected by mastitis would be reduced by 2.5 times when the mastitis affected cows were milked last. Incidence of mastitis in non-hygienic farms were 11.675 times more when compared to farms maintained in hygienic manner. Overall, binary logistic model was 84.6 percent accurate in predicting the occurrence and non-occurrence of mastitis. Incidence of mastitis, having been associated with a variety of factors inherent in animals and factors resulting from improper farming practices, appeared to decrease when the management practices are proper and scientific. Well knit extension program is the need of the hour to effectively communicate the farming group about the importance of mastitis control strategies in dairy farming.

Title: Bluetongue in Bovines: A serological Survey in Punjab, India
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to ascertain the seroprevalence of bluetongue in cattle and buffalo population in Punjab, India. Total 92 serum samples were collected from female bovines belonging to 3 different agroclimatic zones of Punjab and subjected to cELISA test for the detection of anti-bluetongue antibodies. The overall apparent seroprevalence of bluetongue was 8.7%, while true serological prevalence was calculated 7.8%. There is no clinical report on bluetongue in small and large ruminants in Punjab. Though, a very high seroprevalence (53.0%) was reported in sheep (58.6%) and goat (50.6%) population of the state in a previous study. The prevalent serotypes of BTV circulating in this region are needed to identify in further study.
Title: Blood Biochemical Profile and Nutritional Status of Dairy Cows under Field Conditions
Abstract :

Present investigation was conducted to assess the serum biochemical profiles along with nutritional status of cattle under field conditions. The animals were grouped in to four categories depending on the land holding capacity of the farmers viz. landless, marginal, small and large. The nutritional status of the animals was assessed by measurement of body weight (BW) and body condition scores (BCS) and supplemented with blood biochemical profiling. The BW and BCS in pooled population were 316.63 ± 1.339 and 3.86 ± 0.037 respectively. BCS of cattle differed significantly (P<0.05) among all groups. The BW of cattle in landless category differed significantly (P<0.05) to all other categories. The values for blood glucose, total protein, albumin, A/G ratio and cholesterol were within normal range, whereas, serum Ca and P were below normal. The values of blood glucose, total protein, albumin, A/G ratio and Calcium showed no significant difference among all groups. The serum cholesterol of large category differed significantly (P<0.05) with landless and small category. The serum calcium of large category differed significantly (P<0.05) with landless and marginal category. It is concluded that cattle of this area are deficit in calcium and phosphorus though the nutritional requirements are being met.

Title: Applied Anatomy of the Head Region of the Indian Wild Pig (Sus scrofa) and its Clinical Value during Regional Anesthesia
Abstract :

The present study involved some osteometric parameters of the upper jaws and mandibles of adult Indian wild pigs without any apparent skeletal disorders. The supraorbital foramina distance, infraorbital foramina distance, skull length, skull width, cranial length and nasal length of the Indian wild pig were 4.56±0.056 cm, 6.54±0.063 cm, 32.55±0.40 cm, 22.90±0.24 cm, 18.27±0.17 cm and 14.93±0.13cm, respectively. The skull of the Indian wild pig was dolichocephalic according to the skull index. The skull index was 70.56±0.22. In addition, the distances from process of alveolar socket of canine tooth to the infraorbital canal and from the latter to root of the fourth upper premolar tooth were 5.40±0.048 cm and 3.57±0.069 cm, respectively. The length and height of the mandible were 33.25±0.30 cm and 16.88±0.124 cm, respectively. Furthermore, the distances from the lateral alveolar root to mental foramen and from the mental foramen to caudal mandibular border were 3.00±0.028 cm and 29.33±0.374 cm, respectively. In the present study, the distances from mandibular foramen to the base of mandible as well as from caudal border of mandible to below of the mandibular foramen were 7.44±0.069 cm and 7.04±0.05 cm, respectively. Also, the distances from the base of mandible to condyloid fossa and from the latter to the maximum height of mandible were 15.96±0.14 cm and 0.98±0.017 cm, respectively. Finally, the distance from caudal border of mandible to mandibular foramen and from the latter to mandibular angle were 7.76±0.041 cm and 7.13±0.082 cm, respectively.

Title: Productive and Reproductive Perfomances of Local pigs of Bareilly District Under Scavenging System
Abstract :
Present study was conducted in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to assess the productive and reproductive performances of Local pigs. Various traits of Local pigs were recorded using a relevant proforma. The mean age at puberty in male and female Local pigs was found to be 6.36±0.11 months and 7.27±0.11 months, respectively while, age at sexual maturity was found to be 7.54±0.14 months and 8.55±0.11 in male and female Local pig, respectively. The average age at first farrowing, farrowing interval, gestation period, piglet weight at birth, litter size, litter weight at birth and piglet mortality were found to be 12.16±0.13 months, 7.10±0.30 months, 113.67±0.17 days, 0.85±0.03 kg, 6.85±0.16, 5.83±0.18 and 25.15±0.79 %, respectively. These recorded traits are useful to characterize Local pigs of Bareilly district an also in the selection of breeding stock for future
Title: Conservation Priorities for Indian Goat Breeds Based on Microsatellite and Analytical Data
Abstract :

The demographic and microsatellite data on 25 markers along with non genetic information such as distribution, adaptation and utility pertaining to 24 Indian goat breeds were used to assess their conservation priorities. The effective population size (Ne) of Gohilwadi, Jharkhand Black and Sangamneri was greater than 200 and that of Black Bengal, Kutchi, Mehsana, Sirohi, Malabari and Zalawadi ranged from 100 to 200 but it was below 100 for rest (60%) of the breeds with Ganjam having the least value of 17.5 based on microsatellite data. All goat breeds whose effective population size is greater than 100 based on markers did have population size between 0.1 and 0.2 million except in few cases. The Ne based on microsatellite and demographic data revealed almost same order of ranking of goat populations. It was also revealed that Attappady and Kutchi were at highest risk of extinction probability (0.63) and more than half of the Indian goat breeds were having less than 50% extinction probability. Therefore, Attappady and Kutchi should be given top priority for conservation.

Title: Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Probiotic (Problend) on Immune Status, Biochemical Profile and E. coli Counts in Commercial Broiler Chicken
Abstract :

An experiment was conducted to study the influence of dietary supplementation, of graded level of probiotics on the immune response, serum biochemical (total protein, cholesterol), and E.coli counts in commercial broiler chicken. A total of 240 unsexed broiler chicks were distributed randomly in to six dietary treatments and reared commercial broiler chicks under uniform management conditions from day old to six weeks of age to evaluate the immune response (Cell mediated immunity (CMI) to phyto heamagglutinin-P(PHA-P), Humoral immunity (HI) to new castle disease vaccine(NDV), serum biochemical (total protein, cholesterol), and E.coli counts. The humoral immune response to Sheep-Red blood cells (SRBC) as studied at 42 days old indicated insignificant (P>0.05) influence due to dietary treatments, while CMI response to PHA-P was significantly (P<0.05) affected, but no specific trend could be attributed. The relative weights of bursa were significantly (P<0.05) higher in probiotic group compared to control. The concentration of serum cholesterol and total protein were not affected due to treatments. At 42 days of age, significantly (P<0.05) reduced E. coli counts were observed in small intestine and excreta of broilers, supplemented with dietary probiotics. It was concluded that commercial broilers can be reared profitably to improve immunity and reducing harmful bacterial load in the intestine and excreta by supplementation of probiotics at graded levels.

Title: testing
Abstract :


Title: Influence of In-ovo Arginine Feeding on Post-hatch Growth Performance and Economics of Broilers
Abstract :
A total of 420 fertile broiler eggs (Cobb) with uniform egg weight were collected and divided into three groups: non-injected control, injected control (0.5 ml of 0.9% normal saline) and arginine (0.5 ml of 0.5% arginine); and injected on 18 day (d) of incubation into amnion. On the 21 d, 108 chicks were randomly selected from each treatment totaling to 324 chicks. The hatchability, hatch weight and body weight, body weight gain were studied. Arginine had shown a highly signifi cant (P<0.01) effect on hatch weight (45.18±0.24 g) and placement weight (42.24±0.23 g). Body weight (600.56±7.89 g) and body weight gain (334.15±5.03 g) were signifi cantly (P<0.05) improved in arginine fed in ovo groups up to 21 d of age. Broiler farm economy index (BFEI) and broiler feed price ratio (BFPR) were best in arginine in ovo fed groups. In ovo administration of limiting amino acid (arginine) infl uences the growth of embryo and ultimately improves the post-hatch production performance in broilers. It can also be concluded that the reduction in weight loss during transportation is due to the action of conditionally essential amino acid arginine against stress.
Title: VamDia Forte as Intestinal Function Modulator for Broilers
Abstract :
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of VamDia Forte as Intestinal function modulator for broilers. Two hundred and seventy day old Cob-400 broiler chicks having similar body weight (43g) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments viz C, T1 and T2 containing VamDia Forte at 0, 0.5 kg/ton and 1 kg/ton respectively in the basal ration. No histological changes were seen at the age of 7th day in all the groups. On 14th day, in T2 group, the villous length of the duodenum was increased in comparison to that of the control birds. Though the crypt number was increased their depth was decreased. In T3 group, the duodenal villi showed maximum length and breadth with wide laminae propria having more capillaries. The crypts depth was decreased with fully developed cryptal epithelial cells. No signifi cant difference was observed in respect of blood biochemical profi le (albumen, globulin, blood urea and blood urea nitrogen). From the results it can be summarized that the VamDia Forte is most effective as intestinal gut modulator for broilers @ 1kg/ton. 
Title: Development of Plant Extracts Based Indicator for Monitoring Quality of Fresh Chicken Meat During Storage at Room Temperature (25±1° C)
Abstract :

An experiment was conducted to develop a plant extracts based quality indicator for monitoring aerobically packed chicken meat quality during storage at room temperature (25±1ºC) until spoiled. Ripen black mulberry (Morus nigra) fruit extracts containing anthocyanins was used for developing quality indicator. Filter paper based indicator was exposed to the closed fresh meat environment. Changes in the indicator color and different quality parameters of chicken meat viz., total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), ammonia level, pH, sensory attributes and instrumental color values were evaluated and were correlated with color changed of indicator. During storage meat become visibly spoiled on 5th day of storage where as the color of the indicator changed gradually from red on 1st day to light green between 2nd-4th day and finally dark yellow on 5th. Both Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and ammonia level increased significantly (P<0.5) during storage. The pH value of meat increased significantly (P<0.5) from 5.4 to 6.1 during storage. Sensory attributes score for color, general appearance and acceptability decreased significantly (P<0.5) throughout the storage period. Lovibond Tinto meter color value for redness, yellowness, hue and chroma decreased during storage period. On the basis of results observed it might be concluded that the developed quality indicator is expected to provide a convenient aid to monitor the quality and shelf life of chicken meat during storage at room temperature.

Title: Biological Evaluation of Azolla in Ration of Commercial Chicken Broiler
Abstract :

The study was conducted to evaluate feeding of dried Azolla (Azolla piñnata) and Azolla in combination with exogenous enzymes in commercial broiler poultry birds under complete randomized design. Total 110 day old vancobb broiler chicks were divided into five groups T0,T1, T2, T3 and T4, further each group divided in 2 sub groups (n=11). Group T1 and T3 was given ration containing 2.5 and 5.0 percent dried Azolla without exogenous feed enzyme, where as group T2 and T4 was given ration containing 2.5 and 5.0 per cent dried Azolla with exogenous feed enzyme viz. Phytase and Hizyme. T0 served as standard control diet. Overall growth performance of the dried Azolla fed groups (T1, T2, T3, T4) was found to be similar to the control group (T0) during starter and finisher phase whereas, feed intake per unit gain in live weight was found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher for all the dried Azolla fed groups compared to control group. Further, group T2 offered 2.5 percent substituted dried Azolla supplemented with enzymes exhibited lower feed conversion ratio compared to group T3 offered 5 percent substituted dried Azolla. No effect was recorded in the plasma mineral viz. calcium and phosphorus levels of broilers. Based on the findings it can be concluded that dried Azolla can be safely administered in commercial poultry broiler ration up to 5 percent level without having any deleterious, however inclusion of 2.5 percent Azolla is more effective on the growth performance and biochemical parameters

Title: A Relationship of Socio-Personal Factors with Job Satisfaction of Veterinary Officers in Punjab
Abstract :

Job satisfaction has emerged as one of the most important aspects of human resource management in recent times. The purpose of the study was to find a relationship of socio-personal factors and job satisfaction of Veterinary Officers in Punjab. Job satisfaction was operationalised as the cumulative score obtained by the respondents in relation to selected facets of the job. It was found that the veterinarians were partially satisfied with their job with a mean score of 3.49 on a scale of 1-5. Job satisfaction had a positive and significant association with experience. It was found that job satisfaction had a negative significant association with distance of place of posting. There was no significant relationship between age, gender, qualification, background and marital status of the veterinarians and the level of job satisfaction.

Title: NEWS
Abstract :
Title: Influence of Season on Semen Quality in Karan Fries (Tharparkar × Holstein Friesian) Bulls
Abstract :
Availability of good quality semen is essential throughout the year to achieve the sustainable productive growth of dairy cattle. Therefore, the present study was designed from five (n=5) adult healthy Karan Fries bulls from Animal Breeding Research Centre (ABRC) of National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Karnal (India) with emphasis to observe the semen quality during different seasons (winter, spring, hot-dry and hot- humid). Weekly ejaculates were collected using artificial vagina (42-45 °C). Immediately after collection, the ejaculates were placed in a water bath (37 °C) for assessing semen evaluation parameters. Ejaculate volume (3.53 ± 0.08 VS 3.96 ± 0.12 mL), individual motility (48.00 ± 1.12 VS 55.16 ± 1.32 %), concentration (1487.10 ± 26.55 VS 1590.77 ± 25.90 in 106/mL), non-eosinophilic sperm count (62.42 ± 0.75 VS 68.05 ± 0.77 %), Hypoosmotic swelling test (59.75 ± 0.57 VS 64.97 ± 0.84 %) and acrosomal integrity (74.22 ± 0.62 VS 83.40 ± 0.48 %) decreased (p<0.05) during hot-humid season as compared to spring season. The major abnormalities (10.74 ± 0.18 %) increased (p<0.01) in hot-humid as compared to spring season. It can be concluded that the semen quality of Karan Fries bulls deteriorate during hot humid season as compared to other seasons of the year under tropical climatic conditions.
Title: Isolation and Identification of Avian Nephritis Virus from Commercial Broiler Chickens
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to investigate the incidences of nephropathy encountered in young chicks of certain commercial broiler flocks in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. The mortality and growth retardation associated with the condition was a major concern, necessitating a thorough study to establish the etiology. Detailed necropsy of the dead chicks revealed marked inflammation of the kidneys along with gout. Mortality percentage recorded was up to 20%. Samples were collected from the affected flocks for isolation and identification of the causative agent. The presence of ANV RNA was detected using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and 42 kidney samples (43.75%) were found to be ANV positive while all were IBV negative. The positive samples were successfully propagated in Specific Pathogen Free chicks and embryonated eggs as was evident from the changes observed and further confirmation using RT PCR. The nucleotide sequence of the representative ANV isolate was determined and showed high identity with ANV sequences in the NCBI database. In the constructed phlyogenetic tree, the ANV isolates were clustered together distinctly separate from the related Chicken Astro virus. This investigation confirms the involvement of ANV in cases of gout, nephritis and related mortality in commercial broiler flocks.

Title: Genetic Parameters and Sire Evaluation Based on Fat-Based Energy Corrected Milk Yield in Sahiwal Cattle
Abstract :

A total of 531 first lactation records of daughters of 28 sires, having 5 or more progeny were evaluated by 4 methods viz., least-squares (LS), best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP), best linear unbiased prediction-sire model (BLUP-SM) and Animal Model. Heritabilities, genetic and phenotypic correlations between the two traits were analysed using univariate and bivariate linear animal models. The h2 estimates for 305 days or less milk yield (305MY) and Fat based energy corrected milk yield (ECMY) were 0.24 and 0.37. The Animal Model was most stable, efficient and accurate method. There was a remarkable 97-100 percent level of similarity on comparison of ranks of the sires based on 305MY and ECMY by all methods. The genetic evaluation of Sahiwal bulls based on ECMY has the advantage of being a composite trait, and with high heritability and high genetic and phenotypic correlations (0.99) with 305MY can help in mitigating the nutritional insecurity of the country in the long run.

Title: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Gastrointestinal Nematodiasis in Small Ruminants in North