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Title: Effectiveness and Performance of “Sexcel” - ABS Sexed Semen, in Dairy Heifers, Cows and Buffaloes in Field conditions in different Agro-Climatic Zones of India
Abstract :

To analyse the effect of sexed semen on different breeds used in artificial insemination following study was conducted using sexed semen from seven different breeds for artificial insemination in females. All bulls used for sexing by ABS India were genomically tested for Holstein and Jersey breeds. A total of 3034 inseminations with Sexcel were performed with 2589 inseminations in dairy cows and 445 in buffaloes. The conception rate of sexed semen using confirmative pregnancy diagnosis (using peri rectal examination) at 90 days post insemination both in cows and buffaloes was recorded. Sex of the calf was recorded after the birth in each case. The results of conception rate (CR) and pregnancy rate evaluation in different breeds were recorded. The results revealed the average conception rate of Sexcel semen is 49.1% (ranging from 45.1 to 55.3%) in cows and 42.7 % in buffaloes. These figures show a cumulative picture wherein sexed semen was used in animals of different parities (Both primiparous and pluriparous). The current study provides ample insights into the conception rate using sexed semen under various agro climatic conditions in different breeds. The study showed that sexed semen gives good conception in animals of one to three parities provided they are reproductively clean and possess good fertility.

Title: Pathology of Mycotic Tracheitis in Poultry
Abstract :

A case of mycotic tracheitis in an adult Rhode Island Red bird of about 20 weeks of age is described here. The bird had a history of dyspnoea, gasping and was dull prior to death. On postmortem examination lungs showed multiple circumscribed granulomatous nodules in the lungs and the trachea was occluded with caseous plugs. Microscopically there were fungal hyphae penetrating the tracheal mucosa together with a caseative plug having central necrotic mass adhering to the tracheal wall, foci of severe congestion and hemorrhage, fungal granuloma surrounded by mononuclear cell infiltration, giant cell, fungal hyphae and fibrous tissues were recorded. The fungal hyphae were also demonstrated by Grocott’s methanamine silver stain.

Title: Endocannabinoid Signaling in Spermatozoa: A Mini-Review
Abstract :

Spermatozoa undergoes array of signaling and intracellular pathways and ultimately become competent enough to accomplish fertilization. Hormones, ion channels and signaling molecules in both male and female reproductive tract show bidirectional cross play. The recent discovery of endocannabinoids and their receptors in male and female reproductive system opened new vistas for their research in regulating sperm function. Interestingly, endocannabinoids regulate sperm motility, capacitation, hyperactivity and eventually acrosome reaction. However, their complex intracellular pathways are still to be understood in regulating spermatozoa function. The present review highlights the major breakthrough research in the area of endocannabinoids in male reproduction and in more specific in sperm cells, and their association with regulation of sperm fertilizing competence.

Title: Growth Response of New Zealand White Rabbits to Dietary Probiotic and Vitamin C under Tropical Humid Climate
Abstract :

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing Lactobacillus casei and vitamin C on growth performance of New Zealand White rabbits affected by heat stress during summer seasons between March and May in Kerala state, India. Twenty four two month old rabbits (average body weight 0.91kg) were distributed to four groups of six rabbits each. The treatments were control group (C) fed basal diet alone, L group fed basal diet along with Lactobacillus casei (106 colony forming units per g of feed), V group fed basal diet along with ascorbic acid (200 mg per kg feed), and LV group fed basal diet along with L. casei and ascorbic acid at the same rate as in V and L. The Temperature humidity index (THI) values in the rabbitry and rabbit fecal cortisol values (n=6 per group) were estimated to assess the heat stress level in rabbits. As per THI values, animals were exposed to stress (THI > 27.8) in the afternoon hours during the entire experimental period. The V, L and VL rabbits had lower mean cortisol level than control during the period of very severe and severe heat stress (1-9th experimental week- March and April). The groups did not differ for body weights during the period of very severe and severe heat stress (March and April). The V, L and VL rabbits had similar 21 week final weights but those of the L and VL rabbits were 25.52% and 32.29% higher than the control. The rabbits in the V, L and VL group showed 38.51%, 49.19% and 61.13% (P<0.05) higher overall mean daily body weight gain and 23.89%, 31.48%, 40.33% higher overall mean feed efficiency than the control. Dietary supplementation of the probiotic or ascorbic acid did not affect (P>0.05) the overall feed intake. Cost of production (Rupees) per kilogram live weight on feed basis was lowest for VL animals followed by L and V animals respectively.

Title: Evaluation of Meat Consumption Pattern and Meat Quality in North Indian Cities
Abstract :

A survey was conducted in north Indian cities (Ghaziabad, Noida, Gurugram, Delhi, Lucknow and Bareilly) with an aim to evaluate meat consumption pattern and meat products quality. Retailers from 15 randomly chosen shops, viz., Shop-A, B, C...O and 403 consumers visiting those shops were interviewed. Sample meat products from 10 shops were collected and quality evaluated. Among retailers, 73.33% told meat Kabab (chicken and chevon), is the most sold out product. As per 50.37% & 34.24% consumers chicken and goat meat was 1st and 2nd preference of meat species respectively, 53.46% of consumers preferred “taste” as their first criteria of meat products purchase, 62.85% consumers preferred convenience meat products as compared to traditional counterparts, highest percentage of (43.42%) consumers chosen seekh kabab (chicken and chevon) as their first preference of product. Evaluation of market products quality revealed that, maximum and minimum protein percentage in Shop-A, Chicken Kabab (16.73%) and Shop-C, Chicken Kabab (5.32%) respectively. Cholesterol content found maximum and minimum amount in Mutton Kabab from Shop-J (60.72 mg/100g) and Chicken Sausages from Shop-N (33.54 mg/100g) respectively. Calcium content found highest in Chicken Kabab from Shop-C (1.63%). Highest Total Plate Count (TPC) detected in chicken Kabab from Shop-D (5.41 log 10 cfu/g).

Title: Impact of Climate Change on Livestock Production: A Review
Abstract :

Climate change is seen as a major threat to the survival of many species, ecosystems and the sustainability of livestock production systems in many parts of the world. Green house gases (GHG) are released in the atmosphere both by natural sources and anthropogenic (human related) activities. An attempt has been made in this article to understand the contribution of ruminant livestock to climate change and to identify the mitigation strategies to reduce enteric methane emission in livestock. In Indian subcontinent, heat stress is the most important climatic stress. Heat stress adversely affecting productive and reproductive performance of livestock, and hence reducing the total area where high yielding dairy cattle may be economically reared. The livestock sector which will be a sufferer of climate change is itself a large source of methane emissions contributing about 18% of total enteric methane budget. Ruminant livestock such as cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats contributes the major proportion of total agricultural emission of methane .In India, although the emission rate per animal is much lower than the developed countries, due to vast livestock population the total annual methane emissions from Indian livestock ranged from 7.26 to 10.4 MT/year. In India more than 90% of the total methane emission from enteric fermentation is being contributed by the large ruminants (cattle and buffalo) and rest from small ruminants and others. Generally CH4 reduction strategies can be grouped under two broad categories such as management and nutritional strategies. Although the reduction in GHG emissions from livestock industries are seen as high priorities, strategies for reducing emissions should not reduce the economic viability of enterprises if they are to find industry acceptability.

Title: Personal, Socio-Economic Characteristics of Dairy Animal Owners and their Relationship with Knowledge of Dairy Husbandry Practices in Surat District of Gujarat
Abstract :

To study the knowledge of dairy animal owners in improved dairy husbandry practices a field survey in Surat district was conducted during March, 2013 to January, 2014. Data were collected through personal interview from randomly selected 300 dairy animal owners from randomly selected five talukas out of nine talukas of Surat district with the help of pre-tested structured schedule. The present study revealed that majority of the dairy farmers were belonged middle to old age group, literate, nuclear type of family having more number of children making big size family. Majority of the respondents were from scheduled tribe and other backward category having medium level of extension contacts and mass media exposure with membership in one organization. Majority of the respondents were falling under marginal to small categories farmers with small herd size and they possessed agriculture and livestock as their livelihood. The education, caste, land holding, animal holding size, extension contact and mass media exposure of the respondents were positively and significantly related, whereas vocational diversification was negatively related with knowledge of dairy farmers regarding improved dairy husbandry practices in the study area.

Title: The Transverse Septum Morphology of the Farmed Adult African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus B.) from Eastern Nigeria
Abstract :

The morphology of the adult African catfish transverse septum was studied to establish its functional anatomy as there is dearth of information on it from available literature. The fish sourced from commercial aquaculture was immobilized and the specimen- transverse septum dissected out, and investigated using haematoxyline and eosin stain. Grossly, the septum transversum was a milkish white membranous sheath separating the pericardial cavity from the thoraco-abdominal cavity. Histologically, the septum transversum was lined by simple squamous cells. The subepithelial region was composed mainly of loose irregular collagen fibres. Reticular fibres were also observed. Muscle tissue of mainly skeletal fibres and scant smooth muscle cells were seen embedded irregularly in the loose areolar tissue. Nerve fibres and blood vessels were also contained in this loose areolar tissue that formed the matrix of the septum transversum.

Title: Effect of Mincing on the Quality  Characteristics of Chevon Cutlets
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of mincing and added water on the quality characteristics of chevon cutlets. The lean meat was minced once, twice and thrice, respectively through 4 mm plate to evaluate the effect of mincing on physic-chemical and sensory parameters. A significant effect of mincing was observed with the highest scores for juiciness and texture for the products developed from twice minced lean meat. Thus, good quality chevon cutlets could be prepared by mincing the lean meat twice and with incorporation of 5% shredded potato and 3% added water from tough and less palatable chevon.

Title: Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Canola Meal on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and its Economic Efficiency in Finishing Pigs
Abstract :

Present study investigated the effects of dietary increasing levels of solvent-extracted canola meal (CM) as a substitute for soybean meal as an energy and amino acid source in finishing pigs. A total of 192 finishing pigs (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc; initial body weight of 48.62 ± 3 kg) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments on the basis of BW. There were 4 replicate pens in each treatment with 12 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0, 4, 8 and 12% canola meal. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 35 days. Dietary inclusion of increasing levels of canola meals had no effects (P>0.05) on growth performance and ATTD of nutrients and energy. Total feed cost per pigs was linearly reduced (P<0.05) with increase in dietary canola meal level. However, dietary inclusion of canola meal has no effects (P>0.05) on total weight gain (TWG), total feed intake (TFI) and feed cost per kg weight gain (FCG). These results indicates that up to 12% canola meal can be included in finishing pig’s diet without any adverse effect on growth performance and ATTD of nutrient. In addition, finisher pigs feed cost can be reduced with dietary inclusion of canola meal.

Title: Application of Total Quality Management to Ensure Food Quality in Food Industry
Abstract :

Total Quality Management (TQM) is a managerial and managemental approach of an organization focused on quality, based on participation of all of its members and while aiming at long term benefits to the organization and consumers health. It is focused on continuous improvement of all processes approached with combined fundamental management techniques and specialized tools under quality systems. TQM is a process of managing the whole organization so that it progress in all the dimensions of products and services that are important to the consumers. It roots from the belief that mistake can be avoided or mininimised and defects can be prevented, with sole objective being the continuous process improvement. The introduction of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) has signaled a shift in emphasis from resource intensive end product inspection and testing to preventive control of hazards at all the stages of food supply chain. It also identifies and controls hazards that are fundamentals for food safety. The integrated approach to implementation of ISO standards and HACCP concept is vital for management of quality and safety of dairy products hence safeguarding the customer’s requirements, ensuring that certified products conform to minimum standards set internationally. These standards ensure and enhance transparency in the development of food quality and safety procedures, thus helping to upgrade and update food safety systems. ISO laid down guidelines, codes, specifications and requirements to evolve effective TQM system.

Title: Histological and Immunohistochemical Studies of Furstenberg’s Rosette in Sheep and Goat
Abstract :

A total of twelve healthy adult Madras Red ewe and Boer local she-goat teats were histologically and immunohistochemically examined. In between the teat canal and teat cistern Furstenberg’s rosette was appeared as modified zone of mucosa thrown into primary and secondary folds. The mucosal folds were lined by a bilayered cuboidal epithelium. Subepithelial area of rosette was composed of numerous lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages and plasma cells. Mucosa below the Furstenberg’s rosette was lined by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining of rosette by CD3 antibody revealed the localization of intraepithelial ‘T’ lymphocytes in the mucosal folds. ‘T’ lymphocytes were also localized in the lamina propria region

Title: Effect of Phytase Enzyme Supplementation in Low Energy-Protein Layer Diet on Tibial Mineral Contents
Abstract :

An experiment was carried out using 200 hundred Athulya birds divided into 10 treatments (T1-T10) to find out the effect of phytase enzyme on tibial mineral contents. Phytase was supplemented at 0, 500 and 1000 units/kg in low energy, low protein and low energy- protein layer chicken diets containing available phosphorus of 0.30% from 21 to 40 weeks of age. A standard layer ration was offered to birds in T1. Experimental diets from T2 to T10 were formulated with two levels of crude protein (18 and 16 percent) and two levels of metabolisable energy (2600 and 2400 ME kcal/kg diet). After the laying period, four birds from each treatment were randomly selected, slaughtered and data on tibial mineral contents viz. tibial ash. calcium and phosphorus were measured. The tibial mineral contents viz. tibial ash. calcium and phosphorus showed significant (P<0.01) increase among phytase supplemented treatments.

Title: Effect of Minosel Tablet on Blood Parameters of Goat Kids Raised under Poor Maintenance and Nutrition
Abstract :

As vitamins and minerals had significant effects on growth, reproduction, yield and the immune systems of animals, present study is conducted to research the impact of Minosel oral tablets, a combination of vitamins and minerals, on certain blood parameters of goat kids raised under poor nutrition and maintenance conditions. The experiment was conducted in 20 kids of both sexs of 3-10 days of age having 2-5 kg of body weight and they were raised under poor nutritional and management conditions in Van. After the systematic clinical examinations of ill grown animals, blood samples from each animal Were collected before and after the administration of oral tablets for analysis of certain blood biochemical parameters viz. glucose, total protein, urea, ALP, ALT, AST, LDH, calcium, and vitamins A, D and E. Minosel oral tablets (Teknovet, Turkey) were orally administered to ill-grown animals. Vitamin D and vitamin E levels were found to be statistically significant (P<0.05) while other blood parameters were statistically insignificant (P>0.05). As a result, applying Minosel oral tablets prophylactically to newborn kids may cause some vitamin and mineral deficiencies; in order to repair the destruction of some tissues and organs, supplemental treatments may be needed in addition to these vitamins and minerals.

Title: In vitro Efficacy of Emblica officinalis Against MRSA Isolated from Buffaloes Suffering from Subclinical Mastitis
Abstract :

The present study describes in- vitro efficacy of Emblica officinalis against Methicillin Resistant S. aureus mastitis. Diffusion technique was used to assess in-vitro efficacy of Emblica officinalis. Zone of inhibition was measured and used to compare the in-vitro efficacy. The zone ranged between 10-13 mm with maximum zone of 13 mm observed in 200 and 225 mg/ml DMSO disc, followed by 12 mm in 175 and 150 mg/ml DMSO disc, 11 mm in 125 mg/ml DMSO disc and 10 mm in 100 mg/ml DMSO disc. The results indicate that the sensitivity pattern for Emblica officinalis at 200 & 175 mg/ml DMSO concentration and was comparable with the standard antibiotics in Methicillin sensitive S. aureus. In Methicillin resistant S. aureus isolates, the zone of inhibition was in the order Oxytetracycline (15mm) followed by Emblica officinalis -200 (13 mm) and Methicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, ofloxacin were resistance.

Title: Age-Specific Peripheral Anti-Müllerian Hormone Concentration in Buffaloes
Abstract :

Anti- Mullerian hormone (AMH) is one of the important endocrine markers for the assessment of the age-related decline of fertility potential in animals. No baseline data is available on peripheral AMH concentrations at different ages in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). The present study thus aimed (i) to examine the responsiveness of the ovary to gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge to release plasma AMH into circulation to address the question whether ovarian secretion of AMH would be affected by gonadotrophic status and (ii) to determine plasma AMH concentrations at different ages in buffaloes (n= 154) using an enzyme immune-assay. Data on hormonal concentrations in GnRH-treated buffaloes and in different ages of buffaloes were analyzed by non-parametric one-way repeated measure ANOVA and one-way ANOVA, respectively. No change (p>0.05) of plasma AMH concentrations after GnRH challenge in experimental buffaloes was recorded. Plasma AMH concentration was significantly lower (p<0.05) at 3 months of age (0.56 ± 0.29 ng/ ml) and thereafter it started increasing and reached at a level of 3.07 ± 0.44 ng/ ml at 3 years of age and then remained same (≥2 ng/ ml) up to 11 years of age and again declined progressively and reached at the level of 0.52 ± 0.12 ng/ ml at 15 years of age. A cubic model was the best fitted model to elucidate the change of plasma AMH level with age. Hence, the present study suggested that peripheral AMH concentration could be a candidate endocrine marker for the assessment of reproductive status in buffaloes.

Title: Biotechnological Approach to Improve the Nutritional Availability in Livestock and Consequence for Reduction the Environment Pollution by Implement of Transgenic Phytase in Animal Feed
Abstract :

Phytases are hydrolytic enzymes that initiate the release of phosphate from phytate In recent years the application of the phytase enzyme have been studied intensively. Phytase enzymes have a wide distribution in plants, microorganisms, and in some animal tissues. Many strategies have been developed for improving phosphate and mineral availability in feed. However in recent years, expression of transgenic microbial phytase in plants can be successfully applied as animal feed supplementation for innovative means of delivering phytases to non-ruminants to inflation of bioavailability of mineral such as calcium, magnesium, zinc copper, enhance the utilization of phytate bounded phosphorus and reduce P pollution of animal excreta. Moreover, improved biotechnological processes in the production of transgeneic plant contain microbial phytase can eliminate the costs associated with phytase production, purification, and supplementation for commercial use. In current study we discussed about the comprehensive descriptions on source of phytase, expression profiling and their potential application in animal feed. Hence it is concluded that molecular farming in the production from microbial sources of stable phytase in feed could open a new venture for commercial purposes.

Title: Influence of Season on Biochemical Attributes of Bhadawari Buffalo Bull Semen: Effect of Temperature and Humidity
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to establish the seasonal variations in semen biochemical indices in Bhadawari bull. Four fertile, healthy adult Bhadawari bulls aged between 2 to 4 years were used as semen donors. The study was conducted over a period of six months and divided into three seasons as winter season (February- March), dry summer season (April-May) and wet summer season (June-July). Sixteen semen samples were collected in each season (four ejaculates from each bull) by using Artificial Vagina and seminal plasma were harvested by centrifugation. The results of the study showed gradual and significant rise in values of ALT, AST, ALP, cholesterol and triglycerides and decline in values of amylase with increase in ambient temperature and THI. Amylase showed negative correlation and other indices showed positive correlation with ambient temperature and THI. The ambient temperature and THI showed positive correlation with biochemical attributes except amylase while humidity showed negative correlation. It could be concluded from the study that temperature and THI of season significantly affects the semen biochemical attributes of Bhadawari bulls.

Title: Evaluation of the Heatsynch protocol in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) during hot summer season
Abstract :

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Heatynch protocol on plasma estrogen concentration in Murrah buffaloes and to evaluate if the Heatsynch protocol induces estrus in Murrah buffaloes. All treated animals responded to the treatment by displaying obvious signs of estrus. The mean plasma estrogen concentration among the individual buffalo was 191.9 ± 68.3 pg / ml after Estradiol benzoate (EB) injection. The plasma progesterone profile of these animals indicated that out of 16 animals 8 animals were acyclic before Heatsynch treatment (8/16) as plasma progesterone concentrations in these animals were basal (<0.24±0.01 ng/ml) for most of the sampling period during the course of treatment. Following Heatsynch treatment only two buffalo out of sixteen were acyclic (2/16) on the basis of their plasma progesterone profile. These results indicated that Heatsynch protocol is useful in inducing cyclicity in acyclic buffaloes. The seven buffalo out of sixteen (7/16) were conceived after treatment with Heatsynch protocol in summer. So, the treatment might have potential field application value to overcome poor estrus symptoms in summer.

Title: Standardization of Shredded Potato and Added Water Levels in the Development of Chevon Cutlets
Abstract :

The objective of the present study was undertaken to standardize the levels of shredded potato and added water in the development of chevon cutlets. The lean meat was minced twice through 4 mm plate. The cutlets were prepared with the incorporation of shredded potato at 0, 5, 10 and 15% level and added water at 0, 3, 6 and 9%, respectively replacing the lean meat. A significant effect of mincing was observed with the highest scores for juiciness and texture for the products developed from twice minced lean meat. Cutlets prepared with the incorporation of 5% shredded potato were found to have better scores for almost all the sensory parameters. Incorporation of 3% added water significantly (p<0.05) increased the appearance and colour, texture, juiciness and rusk pick-up. Thus, good quality chevon cutlets could be prepared by incorporating 5% shredded potato and 3% added water.

Title: Omphalitis in ducklings with Staphylococcus aureus infection
Abstract :

Outbreak of Omphalitis was reported in the week old ducklings at a research duck farm of Regional centre. The clinical signs were swollen abdomen contains cheesy caseous content into yalk sac, oedema, redness, few cases of inflammation at abdomen, septicaemia, showed little interest in food and water resulting gradual severely dehydrated. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from Omphalitis of 20 ducklings. Of the 20 Omphalitis cases 13 were khakis and 7 were of white pekins. The isolation and identification of the isolates were accomplished by cultural, microscopic and biochemical characterization. The antibogram showed that the isolates were highly sensitive to Agithromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Cloxacillin, Enrofloxacin, Gentamicin and Floxidin. They were moderately sensitive to Chloramphenicol, Ofloxacin, Furazolidon and Doxicillin but were resistant to Neomycin, Kanamycin and Sulphamethizole, Cefixime/clavulinic acid.

Title: Retrospective Inspection and Dissemination Pattern of Common Metabolic Ailments among Hilly and Tarai Region Goats of Uttarakhand
Abstract :

Goats are considered as an important animal not in present scenario but also from ancient time. Due to increasing frugal interest of goat farming globally, profound animal husbandry practices are attaining importance under the target of obtaining quality products along with good animal health and welfare. During the transition phase of life, noticeable alterations in the endocrine and metabolic status of the dairy ruminants were registered. Among small ruminants i.e. goat’s hypocalcaemia, hypoglycemia/Pregnancy toxemia and hypomagnesaemia are the common metabolic disorders which normally precipitated during metabolic anxiety phase. The present study was conducted during the period of 1st January 2019 to 31st December 2019. During this period we had registered total 957 goats at Kalsi, Chakrata areas of district Dehradun, Chorgalia, Kotabagh, Kaladhungi areas of district Nainital and Shetlai, Pantnagar, Bazpur areas of district Uddham Singh Nagar beside this we had also included the concerned cases from Government Veterinary Hospital Outpatient departments (OPDs) of the above said areas in Uttarakhand. In the present study, we had performed a prevalence study over common occurring metabolic diseases of goats like hypocalcaemia, hypoglycemia/pregnancy toxemia and hypomagnesaemia. Besides this, we had also studied the dissemination pattern of common occurring metabolic diseases on the basis of their age groups and parity.

Title: Guided Tissue Regeneration with β-Tricalcium Phosphate and Platelet-rich Plasma for Fracture Repair in Dogs using Internal Fixation
Abstract :

The study was conducted on 19 adult dogs referred for treatment of fracture in diaphyseal region of three long bones, viz, radius-ulna, femur and tibia-fibula. These dogs were divided randomly into three groups viz T1, T2 and T3. In group T1, the diaphyseal fractures of the long bones were immobilized by an internal fixation technique using reconstruction plate or locking compression plate. In group T2, β- tri calcium phosphate granules were incorporated at fracture site after fixation. In group T3, one milliliter of PRP was administered locally at fracture site just before the closing the first suture line. Clinical and radiographic examination were also conducted during the study. There was a significant reduction in mean inflammation score at 7th day in groups T2 and T3 and at 30th day than 0 day in all the groups. At 90th day, the mean radiographic score was highest for group T3 and it was followed by the score in group T2. At day 90th, a radiograph in both the views was not able to delineate the granules from osseous tissue. The mean weight bearing score was also higher in group T3 than in group T2 at 30th, 60th and 90th post operative day showing that restoration of the function was better and earlier in groups T2 and T3 than in group T1

Title: NEWS- DR. NEELESH SHARMA, BESTOWED WITH APPRECIATION AWARD
Abstract :

Dr. Neelesh Sharma, Founder Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Animal Research, bestowed for the “Appreciation Award” during International Conference on Animal and Dairy Science, 15-17 September, 2014, held at Hyderabad. He was a Co-Chairman of the Animal Biotechnology session. Dr. Sharma also delivered an invited lecture on Stem Cell Research in the Animal Biotechnology session. Delegates were attended the conference from different countries and shared their knowledge through presenting oral/poster presentations.

Title: Metabolic Profiling of Normal and Lame Karan Fries Cows and its Association with Lameness during Transition Period
Abstract :

In high yielding dairy cows, one of the major cause of lameness during transition period is the altered nutritional status of pregnant animal. Concentrations of essential nutrients get varied and often decrease around calving due to physiological factors and thus extra-supplementation is recommended in these animals. Blood measures are frequently used in assessment of the vital nutrients for predicting the risk of lameness during this period. The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of healthy and lame Karan Fries (KF) cows and their association with lameness score during transition period. For this fifteen high-yielding crossbreed (KF) healthy cows and fifteen high yielding crossbreed (KF) lame cows were randomly selected from the Livestock Research Centre (LRC) of National Diary Research Institute, Karnal for pooled blood sample collection. Samples were collected 60d, 15d pre-partum, on the day of calving, and 60d, 15d post-partum. The results revealed that the mean plasma biotin, zinc (below critical level) and calcium (within range) levels were significantly lower (P<0.05) in lame KF cows while β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations was significantly higher, however no significant difference in plasma copper, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations was found in lame cows as compared to normal KF cows during this period. There was also significant (P<0.05) variation of blood biochemical profiles (glucose, NEFA and BHBA) and plasma biotin concentration among different lameness scores (1-5) whereas no relation of mineral profiles (calcium, zinc and copper) was seen with lameness score.

Title: Clinical Study on Comparative Evaluation of Diagnostic Modalities in the Diagnosis of Hepatic Affections in Dogs
Abstract :

A clinical study was conducted on 13 dogs including six apparently healthy dogs (Gp I) and seven dogs with symptoms of hepatobilliary involvement (Gp II) to evaluate different diagnostic modalities in making diagnosis. After recording signalment and history various hemato-biochemical parameters were estimated. Radiography and ultrasonography of liver was performed in all dogs. Thereafter, fine needle biopsy and histopathology were performed in Gp II dogs. The Hb and PCV were significantly low in Gp II as compared to Gp I whereas the TLC of Gp II was significantly higher than that of Gp I. The clotting time and bleeding time were significantly higher in Gp II as compared to Gp I. The ALT, AST and ALP values of Gp II were significantly higher than that of Gp I. The A:G ratio was significantly lower in Gp II as compared to that of Gp I. Sensitivity of radiography and ultrasonography were 57.14% and 100% and respectively. Accuracy of ultrasound guided biopsy was 100 % and different diseases diagnosed on histopathology were cholangiocellular carcinoma, liver cirrhosis, papillary adenocarcinoma, cystic adenocarcinoma, hemangiosarcoma and fibroadenoma. From the present study it was concluded that all the diagnostic modalities viz. laboratory tests, radiography and ultrasonography complimented each other in making diagnosis and predicting prognosis but the final diagnosis was obtained only with histopathology.

Title: Organ Weights and Intestinal Morphology of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Supplements
Abstract :

The present study was evaluated the effect of dietary inclusion of various feed supplements and their combination on the performance index, glucose and serum cholesterol for 6 weeks. Day-old broiler chicks (n=252) were randomly assigned to seven treatment groups, each with 3 replicates. The first treatment was designated as control (T0) in which no supplement was added to the feed, while in treatments T1; organic mineral mixture (Organomin forte), T2; organic mineral mixture (Vannamin), T3; probiotics (Microguard), T4; enzyme (Brozyme -XPR) and probiotics, T5; emulsifier (Lipigon) were provided through feed. In the T6 group, 3 percent less energy was given through feed. The weight of vital organs viz. heart, liver, gizzard, and spleen were significantly (P<0.05) increased by the feed supplements of which were in the normal range. The gut morphology was also favorably altered due to feed supplementations. This indicates that the organic mineral mixtures, probiotics, enzymes and emulsifiers, and their combinations can be used as a growth promoter in broiler diets and can improve gut health. These products show promising effects as alternatives for antibiotics as pressure to eliminate growth-promoting antibiotic use increases.

Title: Phenotypic Time Trend in Performance Evaluation of Dahlem Red Chicken under Intensive Management in Himachal Pradesh
Abstract :

A study was conducted to evaluate the production performance of Dahlem Red chicken over three consecutive generations maintained in intensive system. Dahlem Red birds were initially procured from CPDO Chandigarh and further produced through selective breeding. Performance traits evaluated were growth (day old chick weight, 4th week body weight (BW), 8th week BW, 12th week BW, 20th week BW and 40th week BW), age at sexual maturity, hen housed egg production (HHEP), hen day egg production (HDEP) and survivor egg production (SEP) at 40, 52 and 72 weeks of age and egg weight at 28, 40 and 52 weeks of age. Analysis revealed positive phenotypic trend in 4 week (17.58 g), 8 week (56.35 g), 12 week body weight (133.5 g), age at first egg (5.5 days) and age at 25% HHEP (2.0 days). The hen housed and hen day egg production at 40, 52 and 72 weeks revealed positive phenotypic trend of 4.79 and 1.93, 15.83 and 8.31, 31.6 and 13.98 eggs respectively. Further, survivor egg production also showed positive trend estimates at 40 and 52 weeks. Declining trends were observed in SEP at 72 week, day old chick weight (-0.89 g), 20 week BW (-37.99 g), 40 week BW (-141.2 g) and egg weight at 28 week (-1.7 g), 40 week (-3.3 g) and 52 week (-2.3 g). The results indicated the effectiveness of the selection along with improved management for bringing improvement in production traits in successive generations.

Title: Socio-economic Status, Sheep Husbandry Practices and Morphological Patterns of Macherla Sheep, a Lesser-known Sheep Breed of Andhra Pradesh
Abstract :

A study on socio-economic status of Macherla sheep rearing farmers, sheep husbandry practices, and morphological patterns of Macherla sheep was carried out on 92 shepherds and 1279 sheep in Guntur, Prakasam, and Krishna districts of Andhra Pradesh and Nagar Kurnool district of Telangana state. The study revealed that 79.34% and 20.65% of the farmers had primary and secondary school education respectively with an average of 5.44 members per family. Most of the sheep houses were of open type (61%) with kutcha type of floors (80.43%). The average land holding capacity was 3.41 acres and the mean annual income of the shepherds was ` 1,01,043 with a range of ` 75,000 to 2,00,000 and the mean flock size was 134.31 ± 4.60. The most common practice of feeding was grazing (70.58%). Major breeding season was July to September, while the minor breeding season was March to May. All the farmers in the study area immunized their sheep to protect them from infectious diseases and 79.41% of them followed a periodical deworming schedule. In most of the flocks, mortality of adult sheep was below 5% and in lambs 11-20%. The predominant color pattern was bi-colour of white and black (44.41%) followed by brown and white (35.65%), exclusive brown (18.64%), and exclusive black (1.88%). The most common head profile was convex (84.91%), majority of animals had pendulous ear pattern (96.79%) and 75.45% animals had wattles. Both sexes are horned and oriented backward, downward and forward. Further, 84.55% animals had slender type tail.

Title: Production Practices, Constraints and Opportunities of Abergelle Goat Breed, Northern Ethiopia
Abstract :

The study was conducted to assess the production practices, constraints and opportunities of Abergelle goat breed. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through focus group discussion and key informant interview by using tools of participatory rural appraisal. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software and the qualitative data ware narrated. The mainstay of livelihoods of the people of Abergelle district was found highly dependent on production of goats. Two types of goat housing were practiced during dry and wet seasons in the study area. Females were not supposed to herd goats and women were culturally prohibited to consume whole goat milk in the study area. The major supporting institutions in the study area to enhance the productivity of the goat breed were Save the Children (UK), Office of Agriculture and Sekota Dryland Agricultural Research Center. The major constraints faced for the production of Abergelle goat breed were lack of supplementary feed during dry seasons, low level of production, inflexible credit services, shortage of animal health extension workers, lack of transportation facilities, the prevalence of diseases and parasites, shortage of veterinary drugs and equipment. On the other hand, the major opportunities for the production of Abergelle goat breed in the area were availability of adaptable improved forage species, presence of water bodies and the existence of vast communal grazing areas. To improve the production and productivity of Abergelle goat breed in the study area, concerned stakeholders should give an emphasis on the aforementioned major constraints and opportunities.

Title: Prevalence of Acute Pancreatitis in Dogs
Abstract :

The study was aimed to study the prevalence of acute pancreatitis in dogs. Forty dogs with history of acute onset of vomiting, abdominal pain and anorexia were screened for acute pancreatitis by radiography, abdominal ultrasound and confirmed by SNAP cPL (Canine pancreatic lipase) kit test. Fourteen (0.375 per cent of gastrointestinal cases) dogs found to be positive for acute pancreatitis by abdominal ultrasound, out of which SNAP cPL was positive in nine dogs (64 per cent). Among this 64.3 per cent was secondary acute pancreatitis and 35.7 per cent being primary acute pancreatitis. Highest prevalence was observed in male, Non-descriptive dogs, irrespective of age group. The common history and clinical findings recorded were anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, dehydration, tachycardia, tachypnea, praying posture and pyrexia.

Title: Estimation of In-vitro Plasma Protein Binding of Ampicillin in Horses Based on Spectrophotometric Method
Abstract :

Estimation of plasma protein binding (PPB) is of paramount importance in the pharmacokinetics characterization of drugs, as it can cause significant change in volume of distribution, clearance and half-life of the drug. Ampicillin (α-amino benzyl penicillin) is most commonly used drug in equine practice. This study was conducted to determine the extent of PPB of ampicillin in apparently healthy horses (n=6). A simple spectrophotometric method was applied for the determination of ampicillin at 320 nm wavelength, based on acid degradation product of penicillin at 75°C in presence of citrate buffer (pH 5.2) and traces of copper salt. In the study, it was observed that this method permits the detection of ampicillin to a level not beyond 1.0 μg/ml. Various concentrations of ampicillin (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 μg/ml) were prepared in triplicate in pooled plasma collected from healthy animals. In vitro binding of ampicillin to plasma proteins was determined by employing the equilibrium dialysis technique. The study revealed that the plasma protein binding of ampicillin was to the extent of 12.8 ± 0.07 %. Binding capacity of ampicillin to plasma protein (βi) and dissociation rate constant of protein-drug complex (Kβ) in the present study were 0.34 × 10-6 ± 0.02 × 10-6 mol.gm-1 and 0.003 × 10-9 ± 0.0003 × 10-9 mol, respectively in horses. Hence, the study concluded that usage of spectrophotometric method helps in quick, cost effective and efficient results in estimation of PPB for ampicillin.

Title: Financial Analysis of Broiler Production Units
Abstract :

The present paper entitled “A Study of Income and Investment Pattern of Broiler Production Units” was carried out on the basis of primary data collected through pre-tested schedule-cum-questionnaire with personal interview method. For purpose of the study, three groups of broilers units were selected purposely and classified as per bird size. Group I included birds below 2000 in numbers, group II included birds 2001-5000 in numbers and group III included birds 5001 & above in numbers. 15 broiler units were selected from each group, thus a total of 45 broiler units were studied. Kathua district of Jammu Kashmir Union Territory was selected purposively as the district has highest numbers of broiler production units. The cost of production includes variable cost and fixed cost, on first group broiler farms per lot cost of broiler production comes to ` 147112.45 for 1486.66 birds, on second group ` 367243.52 for 3666.66 birds and ` 959446.94 for 9466.66 birds respectively. The benefit-cost ratio per farm/lot observed highest on third group farms i.e. 1:52 followed by 1:35 on second group, 1:17 on third group, while it is 1:44 on overall on sampled farms.

Title: Transcriptional Abundance of Myosin Light Chain 2 Gene in Cardiac Differentiated Canine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Abstract :

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are promising cell source for cardiac tissue engineering and cell based therapies for heart repair as they can be expanded in vitro and differentiated into most cardiovascular cell types, including cardiomyocytes. During embryonic heart development, this differentiation occurs under the influence of internal and external stimuli that guide cells to go down the cardiac lineage. The aim of this study was to characterize the cardiac differentiation potential of a canine iPS cell. With the use of a standard embryoid body–based differentiation protocol for iPS cells were differentiated for 24 days. In vitro differentiations of canine iPSCs via embryoid bodies (EBs) were produced by ‘Hanging Drop’ method. EB’s were differentiated using 5-azacytidine (5-Aza). During differentiation, EBs were collected on day 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 to evaluate the expression of cardiomyocyte specific marker. Analyses on molecular, structural, and functional levels demonstrated that iPS cell– derived cardiomyocytes show typical features of ES cell– derived cardiomyocytes. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated expression of marker genes. The differentiated cells expressed cardiac-specific gene myosin light chain 2 (MYL2) which started from day 8 of differentiation and highest expression was observed on day 16. Immunocytochemistry and relative expression of cardiac specific genes revealed that iPS cells differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes and allow to derivation of autologous functional cardiomyocytes for cellular cardiomyoplasty and myocardial tissue engineering.

Title: Influence of Eugenia jambolana and Psidium guajava Leaf Meal Mixture Supplementation on Carcass Characteristics and Economics of Broiler Chickens
Abstract :

Present study was conducted in 120 day-old unsexed broiler chicks. They were randomly distributed into 4 dietary treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4) supplemented with leaf meal mixture (LMM) of Eugenia jambolana and Psidium guajava@ 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 % of diet, respectively of 30 birds per treatment, each having 3 replicates (10 chicks per replicate) in a complete randomized block design (CRD). Significantly (P<0.05) higher mean body weight was observed in T1 as compared to T2, T3 and T4 groups. Carcass yields viz. live weight, de-feathered weight, slaughtered weight and eviscerated weights (in gram and % LWt.) were statistically non significant (P>0.05) with and without LMM supplemented diets. However, weights of spleen and liver were significantly (P<0.000, P<0.026) higher in LMM supplemented groups as compared to un-supplemented control (T1). Dietary supplementation significantly reduced abdominal fat content in T4 compared to T1, whereas, T2 and T3 have an intermediate values between T1 and T4 and increased the net profit, it ranged from ` 30.41 to 34.24 per bird.

Title: Isolation, Identification and Antibacterial Activity of Endophytic Bacteria from Leaves of Acacia catechu
Abstract :

Drug resistance in bacteria is becoming an alarming problem in recent years. Post-antibiotic era is not so far. The need for novel antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents and agrochemicals are utmost. Endophytes are microorganisms that reside in the tissues of living plants which are relatively unstudied and are potential sources of novel natural products for exploitation in medicine, agriculture and industry. The endophytes of medicinal plants participate in biochemical pathways and produce novel bioactive compounds. The aim of the study was to isolate, identify and to assess antibacterial activity of endophytic bacteria from leaves of Acacia catechu. 18 endophytic bacteria had been isolated and identified by sequencing 16S rRNA gene. The isolated endophytic bacteria were identified as Bacillus humi. Considerable in vitro antibacterial activities against a panel of human pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli) were recorded. Among 18 isolates, 15 isolates had shown inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium and 10 isolates had shown inhibitory activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Title: Treatment of Idiopathic Immune Mediated Hemolytic Anaemia in Dogs
Abstract :

Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) is the most common autoimmune disease in dogs. This study was conducted to evaluate prednisolone and azathioprine therapeutic protocols for the management of idiopathic IMHA in dogs. The anaemic dogs brought with clinical signs such as pale or icteric mucous membranes were screened for IMHA by saline agglutination and spherocyte count and confirmed by flow cytometry. The positive cases were further subjected to haematology, biochemistry, coagulation profile, MAT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of underlying secondary causes like Babesia spp, Ehrlichia canis and Leptospira spp (secondary IMHA). Thirty two cases were positive for IMHA, out of which thirteen cases were primary (Idiopathic) IMHA (17.3 %) and remaining nineteen cases were secondary IMHA (82.7 %) due to underlying causes such as Babesia gibsoni (13), Ehrlichia canis (3) and Leptospira spp. (3) respectively. Immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and prednisolone in combination with azathioprine and specific therapy of etiological agent with supportive therapy was used. Significant increase in Hb, PCV, RBC and thrombocyte count, significant decrease in leucocyte, neutrophil, monocyte and total protein and significant increase in ALT activity was recorded after therapy. Prednisolone was found to be effective in the management of canine IMHA than prednisolone combined with azathioprine.

Title: Dose Sparing Effects of Butorphanol and Diazepam or Midazolam Premedication on Propofol Total Intravenous Anaesthesia in Dogs
Abstract :

The objective of the study was to evaluate & compare the dose sparing effect of atropine-butorphanol-diazepam (A-B-D) and atropine-butorphanol-midazolam (A-B-M) combination as basal anaesthesia on induction and maintenance dose of propofol used as Total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) in dogs. Thirteen dogs were randomly divided into group I (n=7) & group II (n=6), wherein atropine, butorphanol, diazepam/midazolam were given as preanaesthetic drugs, while, induction and maintenance of anaesthesia was done with propofol. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded after induction of anaesthesia, at regular 15 minute intervals, up to 45 minutes. The physiological parameters were recorded before giving any drug and thereafter at regular 15 minute interval post induction. In midazolam-butorphanol group, the induction and maintenance dose of propofol was non-significantly higher than in diazepam-butorphanol group. Both diazepam-butophanol and midazolam-butorphanol have dose sparing effect on induction and maintenance dose of propofol, however, diazepam-butorphanol combination is slightly better than midazolam-butorphanol combination.

Title: Role of Bacterial and Parasitic Pathogens in Occurrence of Neonatal Diarrhoea in Goat-Kids
Abstract :

Infectious diarrhoea in neonates of animals is one of the most common and economically important conditions encountered in the livestock industry. Faecal samples (n=210) from diarrhoeic neonatal goat-kids of different livestock sheds of ICAR-CIRG, Makhdoom, Mathura (U.P.), were aseptically collected, and immediately processed for isolation of bacterial pathogens and parasitic evaluation. A total of 178 isolates of E. coli from 210 samples were identified on the basis of cultural, morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics. Out of 178 E. coli isolates, 3.93 % (7/178) isolates were identified as STEC by PCR amplification of stx-1 and stx-2 gene. A total of 64 isolates of E. coli were sent to National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli for the serotyping. The common serogroups of E. coli responsible for neonatal diarrhoea in goat-kids were identified as O36, O26, O59, O29, O43, O91, O82, O9 and O171, out of which, 46.15% were O36, O26 and O59. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was detected in 46 samples out of 148 faecal samples by ZN staining and nested PCR.Based on cultural, morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics,16 isolates of Salmonella spp. and 5 of Klebsiella spp. were identified from 210 fecal samples. The present study concluded that E. coli followed by Cryptosporidium spp. and Salmonella spp. were the prevalent infectious agents associated with neonatal diarrhoea in goat-kids.

Title: Effect of Shatavari Root Powder (Asparagus racemosus) Supplementation on Milk Composition of Sahiwal Crossbred Cows
Abstract :

The present investigation was conducted to assess the effect of Shatavari root powder (Asparagus racemosus) supplementation on milk composition of Sahiwal crossbred cows during summer season on twenty lactating Sahiwal crossbred (H.F. × Sahiwal) cows in early stage of lactation were selected for the experiment. All the cows were randomly divided into two groups T1 (control) and T2 (Treatment) of 10 in each group. The treatment group was provided Shatavari root powder @ 50 g/head/day for 90 days post partum. Data related to milk composition takes fortnightly interval. The overall average milk fat, Protein and Lactose percent during the experimental period in T1 and T2 groups were 3.77 ± 0.01, 3.84 ± 0.03, 3.43 ± 0.01 and 3.46 ± 0.01, 4.54 ± 0.06 and 4.69 ± 0.06 percent respectively, there was no significant (P<0.05) differences between T1 and T2 groups. The overall average solid not fat (values) and total solid (values) differed significantly (P<0.05) between T1 and T2 groups 8.84 ± 0.04, 9.11 ± 0.11, 12.66 ± 0.03 and 13.02 ± 0.14% in T1 and T2 groups was significantly (P<0.05).

Title: Assessment of Ichthyofaunal Diversity of River Sutlej in District Ludhiana, Punjab (India)
Abstract :

The aim of the present paper was to describe the first complete and comprehensive picture on ichthyofaunal diversity of river Sutlej. The findings of the investigation will be an imperative part of the ecological database from river Sutlej. The field data were collected fortnightly from the fish market. The different diversity indices viz., univariate and multivariate analyses were analyzed by PRIMER-E statistical package. A total of 60 species belonging to 43 genera, 17 families and 7 orders were recorded during the investigation. The Margalef richness index (12.14), Shannon-Wiener index (3.871) and Simpson index (0.979) was observed to be highest during Nov. 2019 and seasonally during post-monsoon season. The present study provides a baseline database with respect to fish species diversity for planning effective conservation measures to obtain sustainable fish production.

Title: Nutrient Composition, Metabolites and Microbial Counts in Litter Material of Broiler Chicken Fed Condensed Tannins Containing Guava Leaf Meal Supplemented Diets: Reduce Environmental Pollution and Alternate Feedstuffs for Ruminants
Abstract :

Present study was conducted in 240 day-old broiler chicks to assess the effect of condensed tannins (CT) containing guava leaf meal (GLM) supplemented diet on nutrient composition, litter metabolites viz. pH, moisture and ammonia concentration) and microbial counts after completion of feeding trial of 42 days. Chicks were randomly allocated into 4 dietary treatments, with 4 replicates of 15 chicks in each pen in a completely randomized block design (CRD). Chicks were fed basal diets supplemented with GLM @ 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 percent, in T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively, while, T0 group fed only basal diet. Litter materials of chicks showed good nutrient profiles and properly sterilized litter material act as alternative feed ingredient for ruminants feed. Supplementation of GLM in the diets of chicks significantly (P<0.05) reduced moisture, pH, NH3 concentration, harmful Eschericia coli and Clostridia spp. counts in the litter materials and reduced environmental pollution. The litter material of GLM supplemented (T1, T2 and T3) chicken showed significantly higher (P<0.05) CP contents as compared to un-supplemented control. It can be concluded that properly sterilized litter material of GLM supplemented chicks act as cheaper alternative feedstuffs for ruminant’s ration and reduce environmental pollution by lowering NH3 concentration, harmful E. coli and Clostridia counts in broiler litter material.

Title: Cadmium (Cd) and Chlorpyrifos (CPF) Induced Pulmonary Toxicity in Wistar Rats
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to know the pulmonary toxicity by individual toxicities of cadmium, chlorpyrifos and their combination in albino wistar rats. The experiment was carried out for 28 days. Group 1 - Control. Group 2 - Cadmium chloride (Cd) @ 22.5 mg/ kg b.wt /per oral / day. Group 3 - Chlorpyrifos (CPF) @ 25 mg/ kg b.wt /per oral / day. Group 4 - Cadmium chloride (Cd) @22.5 mg + Chlorpyrifos (CPF) @ 25 mg/ kg b.wt /per oral / day. Lungs showed mild to moderate congestion in groups 2 and 3 and moderate to severe in group 4 on 15th and 29th day of the experiment. Lung sections of control rats showed normal architecture. Lung sections of group 2 rats on 15th day showed hemorrhages in the interstitium spaces with infiltration of lymphocytes, On 29th day, mild hyperplasia and desquamated bronchial epithelial cells, peri bronchial and peri vascular lymphoid aggregates were noticed. The sections of lung on 15th day of group 3 rats showed exudate and desquamated epithelial cells in the lumen of secondary bronchiole , on 29th day, emphysematous alveoli with loss of architecture of alveolar epithelium, interstitial edema with infiltration of lymphocytes, mild hyperplasia of bronchial epithelial cells were also noticed. In group 4 rats, similar lesions as described in groups 2 and 3 were observed with severe intensity on 15th and on 29th day of the experiment. In combined toxicity group, the severity of lesions were more thus suggesting synergistic effects of these components.

Title: Effect of Seminal Zinc, Calcium, Oxidative Stress and Protein Profile on Semen Quality of Crossbred Bulls
Abstract :

The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of endogenous minerals (Zn and Ca), seminal proteins and oxidative stress on semen quality of crossbred bulls. Two crossbred bulls with history of good initial quality, high sperm motility percentage, and freezable ejaculates and poor initial quality, low sperm motility percentage, and donating mostly non-freezable ejaculates (Bull B), respectively were utilized. Six ejaculates from each bull were used and categorized into high progressive motile as good quality and low progressive motile as poor quality ejaculates groups. Total 24 ejaculates were taken during entire period of study. The level of Zn, Ca in seminal plasma and Ca in sperm pellets was found significantly (P<0.05) higher in good quality ejaculates of Bull A compared to poor quality ejaculates of Bull B; however, the level of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde was significantly higher (P<0.05) in poor quality ejaculates of Bull B compare to good quality ejaculate of Bull A. The 25 kDa protein band was prominent only in good quality ejaculate of Bull A. It was concluded that several proteinaceous antioxidant enzymes which may be present in 25 kDa band and minerals like Zn and Ca as a cofactors of these enzymes could be responsible for good quality semen ejaculates of Bull A.

Title: Comparative Efficacy of PercollTM Discontinuous Density Gradient Centrifugation and Glass Wool Filtration Techniques for Spermatozoa Selection in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
Abstract :

Dead and damaged spermatozoa cells present universally in the ejaculates of all eutherian mammals exert toxic effect on contemporary healthy cells mostly through generation of excessive free radicals. This is much more evident during extended period of processing, resulting in poor ejaculate quality. The solution lies in depletion of dead/damaged spermatozoa from the neat ejaculates itself. Thus the objective of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of the protocols such as discontinuous PercollTM density gradient centrifugation (PDGC) and glass wool filtration (GWF) for depletion of dead/damaged spermatozoa from fresh semen in buffalo. Random ejaculates (n=6) of Murrah buffalo bulls were divided into two aliquots after quality assessment: PDGC and GWF protocols (Group I and II, respectively). At the end of the purification protocol, efficiency of the protocols in depleting dead/damaged spermatozoa as reflected by certain quality parameters were evaluated. The mean efficiency (%) of purification protocols based on recovery of spermatozoa was 44.68 and 40.02% for PDGC and GWF, respectively. Moreover significantly (p<0.05) greater values for quality parameters was observed in the Group II (26.4+6.8 vs 68.8+4.4 for acrosome integrity (%); 12.68+6.6 vs 57.7+7.5 for functional plasma membrane integrity (%); 20.3+5.8 vs 80.75+6.7 for viability (%) in Group I and II, respectively). It was concluded that GWF is a better technique than PGDC to filter out dead/damaged spermatozoa from fresh semen with improvement in semen quality and can be a valuable tool in assisted reproductive technology.

Title: Transmission Electron Microscopic Studies on the Skin of Goat (Capra hircus)
Abstract :

The present study was conducted on skin of goats of either sex to study the age wise changes in the ultrastructure of different components of skin. It was observed that the epidermis consisted of keratinocytes and non-keratinocytes. The stratum corneum was a multicellular structure in lateral neck region. The cell membrane was serrated and arranged in an over lapping manner giving compactness to the skin. The cells of stratum granulosum had oval to oblong nuclei. The cytoplasm showed ample amount of keratohyaline granules mostly located in the peripheral zone. The cells of stratum spinosum had oval nuclei with numerous secretory granules in the cytoplasm. The skin at ventral thoracic region showed presence of melanocytes in the cells of stratum basale. The plasma membrane of stratum basale cells showed gap junction, tight junction and intermediate junction. Electron microscopically, the cells of stratum spinosum in ventral neck region showed indented nuclei with one broad pole and another narrow pole. The special cells such as Merkel cells and melanocytes were located in the deep epidermal or epidermo-dermal junction. The papillary layer of dermis of dorsal neck region during the present study showed circular axons. The acini of the sebaceous gland were composed of large central cells and peripheral small cells, surrounded by connective tissue. The sweat glands were composed of columnar cells with elongated nuclei and euchromatin. The present study would form a baseline data on the transmission electron microscopic study of skin of goat which would be helpful in future research prospective.

Title: Effect of Rendering Temperature on Collagen Content from the Poultry Skin
Abstract :

While looking for an alternate source of commercial collagen the deserted poultry sleeves from wet poultry market appears promising. The present study was envisaged with objective of evaluating effect of the rendering regime on quantity of collagen in rendered poultry skin. The deserted poultry sleeves were custom processed for separation of feathers from skin. The skin was subjected to different rendering temperatures viz: 40, 50 and 60°C for 2 hr. The yield of rendered fat, fat recovery rate, amount of defatted skin, hydroxyproline and collagen content in differently rendered skin were quantified to know the effect of rendering regime. Results revealed a gradual increase in yield of rendered fat and fat recovery rate with increase in temperature, while the amount of defatted skin, hydroxyproline and collagen content in rendered skin decreased with increase in rendering temperature. The yield of rendered fat at 40, 50 and 60°C rendering temperature were 25.50%, 30.97% and 35.08% with corresponding fat recovery rates of 61.59%, 74.80% and 84.74%, respectively. The hydroxyproline content was highest in skin processed at 40°C and least in skin rendered at 60°C. The percentage recovery of collagen from skin rendered at 40°C, 50°C and 60°C were 96.37%, 77.22% and 62.01%,respectively. The study indicated that dry rendering at 40°C temperature is optimal for rendering of fat while processing the poultry skin for extraction of valuable collagen.

Title: Age Wise Histological Studies on the Major Lymphoid Organs in Various Chicken Genotypes
Abstract :
A total number of eighteen day old Hansli chicks and eighteen day old Vencobb broiler chicks were divided into three age groups viz. group I (up to 1 month), group II (1-3 months) and group III (3-6 months) with six birds in each age group. It was revealed that the thymus was surrounded by a capsule and comprised of peripheral darker cortex and central lighter medulla. There was presence of lymphocytes, reticular cells, plasma cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, dendritic cells and erythrocytes in both the cortex and medulla of thymus in both the birds in all the age groups. The spleen was surrounded by a dense irregular connective tissue capsule. The splenic white pulp had lymphocytes of various sizes, dendritic cells, macrophages and blood vessels. The splenic red pulp consisted of splenic cords and venous sinuses. The splenic cords had erythrocytes, reticular cells, lymphocytes of various sizes, heterophils and plasma cells. The wall of the bursa consisted of innermost tunica mucosa, middle tunica muscularis and outermost tunica serosa. The follicle-associated epithelium of the plicae was pseudostratified ciliated columnar type with areas of simple cuboidal cells. There was presence of lymphocytes of various sizes, reticular cells, plasma cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and fibroblasts in both the cortex and medulla of bursal follicles. The collagen, reticular and elastic fibres were reported in different regions of thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius in both the birds.
Title: Molecular Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Multidrug Resistant E. coli from Rabbit
Abstract :

In the present study a lung sample was collected from autopsied rabbit, which was suspected to have died due to E. coli infection and cultured on MacConkey agar. Itrevealed typical cultural and biochemical characteristics of E. coli. Molecular confirmation of E. coli was carried out using 16s RNA (ECO1) universal eubacterial primers with positive 585 bp amplicon. A total 26 Antibiotic disc used for antibiotic sensitivity test. Out of 26 Antibiotic disc, only two antibiotics (Imipenem and Cefoxitin) sensitive against isolated E. coli. Phenotypic characterization of ESBL by combine disk diffusion method. The difference between zone of inhibition is 20 mm around the combined disk containing clavulanic acid then the corresponding disk with Ceftazidime and cefotaxime is indicate positive for ESBL producing E. coli. Upon genotypic conformation of ESBL, the isolate was found positive for CTX-M1, CTX-M2, and TEM and negative for CTX-M9, SHV and OXA genes.

Title: Incidence of Colibacillosis in Poultry in Gonda District in North Eastern Plain Zone of Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken with the objective to study the incidence of E. coli infection in broiler chicken in Gonda district of Uttar Pradesh. For this study a total number of 483 naturally dead broiler chickens from 8 different private farms of Gonda district were collected during June 2018 – May 2019. The overall incidence of colibacillosis was 38.09% (184 samples were positive out of 483 samples). The gross change of liver was found as enlarged, congested and covered with thick yellow/white serofibrinous covering. Heart was also covered with thick yellow/white serofibrinous covering. Among tested 483 samples from 8 private farms from Gonda district, 184 (38.09%) were found to be suggestive of E. coli giving typical large (2-3 mm) lactose fermenting pink coloured colonies on Mac Conkey’s agar plate. They again produced characteristic ‘metallic sheen’ on EMB agar. On Gram staining during morphological study, they produced pink coloured, rod shaped ones (that is gram negative) with characteristic arrangement. All these isolates (from district Gonda) showed typical biochemical reaction which were positive to Indole test, M.R. test, T.S.I. agar test, nitrate reduction test and negative to VP test and H2S production test. Among 184 E. coli isolates 98.36% were negative to citrate utilization test and 97.82% to urease activity test. Out of 184 isolates of E. coli 179 were motile. They all fermented D-glucose, lactose, manitol. Among 184 isolates of E. coli, 154 (83.69%) isolates, 158(85.86%) isolates and 144 (78.26%) isolates had shown fermentation of sucrose, dulcitol and salicin respectively.

Title: Evaluation of Wound Healing Properties of Herbal Medicaments on the Basis of Clinical and Haemato-biochemical Changes
Abstract :

The present study was conducted on 24 dogs irrespective of sex, breed and aged between 1year to 8 years with different types of wounds. The animals were randomly divided into four groups. Each group consisted of 6 dogs. The animals of group I were treated with povidone iodine (5.0%) and in group II, III, IV animals were treated with the herbal ointment which were prepared from hydroalcoholic extract of Marigold leaves, Guava leaves and 1:1 mixture of both extract for 7 consecutive days. Clinical and haematological parameters were recorded at different time intervals in all four groups. The study revealed better wound healing properties of the Ointment of 1:1 mixture of Marigold and Guava (10% w/w) leaves extract without any side effect as compared to povidone iodine 5%, ointment of Marigold leaves extract (10% w/w) and ointment of Guava leaves extract (10% w/w) on the basis of clinical and haematological parameters

Title: Effect of Area Specific Mineral Mixture Feeding on Reproductive Performance and Milk Yield in Crossbred Cattle Reared under Intensive Farm Condition
Abstract :

The present study to find out the effects of supplementation of the area-specific mineral mixture on productive and reproductive performances of crossbred cows during pregnancy to lactational transition phases including the birth weight of calf, first postpartum estrus, conception rates, milk yield, and milk composition. For these purposes, 18 pregnant crossbred cows were selected and divided into two groups viz., Control-T0 (N=9) and Treatment-T1 (N=9) supplemented with 0 and 30 g ASMM/animal/day starting from 3 months prior to the expected date of parturition to till first post-partum oestrus, respectively. Milk samples were taken fortnightly. Overall mean birth weight of calf born in T0 and T1 group was 20.14 ± 1.70 and 19.56 ± 1.09, respectively and there was non-significant (P>0.05) difference between the two groups. The onset of first post-partum heat was 108.13 ± 16.23 days and 92.29 ± 9.95 days respectively. Conception rate post-partum heat was 22.22% and 77.78% respectively. The overall mean of total fat % in T0 and T1, was 4.01 ± 0.20 and 5.40 ± 0.22, total solid % was 13.03 ± 0.31 and 14.72 ± 0.37 %, solid not fat 9.02 ± 0.14% and 9.22 ± 0.31% and total ash was 0.62 ± 0.03% and 0.65 ± 0.02%, crude protein was 3.35 ± 0.10% and 3.63 ± 0.14%, respectively and was statistically non-significant (P>0.05) among the groups. Overall Milk yield was 9.42 ± 0.54 and 10.76 ± 0.37 kg/days, respectively, and was statistically significant (P < 0.001). This study indicated that dietary supplementation of the area-specific mineral mixture in the crossbred cattle, improved the productive and reproductive performances during last trimester to first post-partum oestrus.

Title: Conservation Priorities for Indian Goat Breeds Based on Microsatellite and Analytical Data
Abstract :

The demographic and microsatellite data on 25 markers along with non genetic information such as distribution, adaptation and utility pertaining to 24 Indian goat breeds were used to assess their conservation priorities. The effective population size (Ne) of Gohilwadi, Jharkhand Black and Sangamneri was greater than 200 and that of Black Bengal, Kutchi, Mehsana, Sirohi, Malabari and Zalawadi ranged from 100 to 200 but it was below 100 for rest (60%) of the breeds with Ganjam having the least value of 17.5 based on microsatellite data. All goat breeds whose effective population size is greater than 100 based on markers did have population size between 0.1 and 0.2 million except in few cases. The Ne based on microsatellite and demographic data revealed almost same order of ranking of goat populations. It was also revealed that Attappady and Kutchi were at highest risk of extinction probability (0.63) and more than half of the Indian goat breeds were having less than 50% extinction probability. Therefore, Attappady and Kutchi should be given top priority for conservation.

Title: Tracheobronchoscopic Evaluation of Bacterial Pneumonia in Cattle
Abstract :

Seventy two cattle with bacterial pneumonia and twelve healthy cattle were studied in detail for haemato-biochemical examination, radiography and tracheobronchoscopy. Haematobiochemical examination revealed leukocytosis with neutrophilia. Radiographic examination showed increased pulmonary infiltration. Tracheobronchoscopic examination of affected animals revealed inflammation, haemorrhage, mucus to mucopurulent exudates in nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) collected through endoscope was subjected to cytology and cultural examination. Cytology of the affected animals showed increased total cell counts and predominant neutrophils. Pasteurella multocida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were isolated from BAL and confirmed with PCR studies.

Title: Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Herbal Regimen for the Treatment of Post-partum Anestrus in Water Buffaloes
Abstract :

A study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of combinations of different brands of herbal uterine cleansers, estrus inducers and mineral supplements in the treatment of anestrus in water buffaloes. Thirty she-buffaloes with a history of anestrus were randomly assigned to either of five equal groups. Group T0 served as untreated control, Group T1 was treated with a combination of Exapar bolus (M/s Ayurvet Limited, India), Janova capsule (M/s Ayurvet Limited, India) and Mintrus caplet (M/s Ayurvet Limited, India). Group T2 was treated with AV/UTB/26 bolus (M/s Ayurvet Limited, India), AV/OIP/22 powder (M/s Ayurvet Limited, India) and Mintrus caplet. Group T3 was treated with a combination of Brands A, B and C. Group T4 was treated with a combination of Brands X, Y and Z. The best estrus response was recorded in the Group T2 and the highest conception rates in Groups T2 and T4. The time interval between treatment and onset of estrus was significantly lowest (P<0.05) in Group T1 as compared to the other groups.

Title: Novel Granulocytic Colony Stimulating Factor-based Therapy for Morbidity Reduction in Pancytopenic Dogs with Babesia gibsoni
Abstract :

Vector borne pancytopenia is emerging as a life threatening entity in animals. In India babesiosis is one among the most prevalent tick-borne parasitic diseases of dogs caused by either Babesia gibsoni or Babesia canis. Bleeding due to thrombocytopenia and the concurrent anaemia and leukopenia were difficult to manage. This study assessed the efficacy of Filgrastim in pancytopenia associated with Babesia gibsoni in dogs presented to the Small Animal Medicine Referral Clinic, Madras Veterinary College. The therapeutic practices included Injection Filgrastim @ 10 µg/kg, SC, SID in combination with the standard triple therapy to manage the pancytopenia and the infection. Twenty numbers of PCR positive Babesia gibsoni dogs were used for this study. The animals were divided in to two groups based on therapeutic practices. First group consisted of dogs treated with triple therapy and the second group consisted of dogs treated and evaluated with Filgrastim along with triple therapy. The study showed that there was a significant increase in leukocyte count in Filgrastim treated group when compared to the other group. Integration of G-CSF along with standard triple therapy helped in better survival in pancytopenic dogs with Babesia gibsoni.

Title: Hematological Alterations Induced by Imidacloprid and Ameliorative Effect of Withania somnifera in Female Albino Wistar Rats
Abstract :

Present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of oral administration of imidacloprid on weekly body weights and hematological parameters in female rats and also to determine the protective role of Withania somnifera against imidacloprid induced toxicity. Forty eight (48) female albino Wistar rats were divided into four (4) groups of twelve (12) animals each. Group 1 served as control, groups 2 was given with imidacloprid at the rate of 30 mg/kg b.wt/day, group 3 was maintained as Withania somnifera (WS) control (1g/ kg feed) and group 4 was treated with both imidacloprid + Withania somnifera (dose as above). The experiment was carried out for a period of 30 days and the test compound was administered daily by oral gavage. Blood samples were collected on 15th and 30th day for hematological analysis. A significant (P < 0.05) reduction in weekly body weights were observed in group 2. Hematology revealed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in TEC, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH and MCHC and increase (P < 0.05) in TLC in group 2. The DLC revealed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in neutrophil count and significant (P < 0.05) decrease in lymphocyte count in group 2. Administration of Withania somnifera along with imidacloprid brought moderate protection in all the above parameters.

Title: Comparative Economical Analysis of the Treatment Adopted for Canine Parvo Virus Infected Dog
Abstract :

In the present study, 50 dogs screened using Scan Vet Parvo rapid diagnostic kit for canine parvovirus (CPV) Infection and 34 (68%) found positive among them. Out of 34 CPV-positive dogs, 28 dogs were randomly divided in four different treatment groups for determining the efficacy of treatments along with its economies. The groups I, II, III and IV dogs were treated with antimicrobial agent Inj. Cefotaxim, Metronidazole, acyclovir and Inj. Cefotaxim + Acyclovir, respectively with similar supportive drugs in all the groups for five days. The case fatality rate was recorded 0% in group I and IV whereas it was 57.14% and 42.85% in groups III and II. Based on statistics, it was found that the treatment with cefotaxim alone was found more economical and equally efficient besides the combined use of cefotaxim + Acyclovir but combine treatment could also be hasten the recovery from the CPV infection.

Title: Effect of Thuja occidentalis and Levamisole on Sperm Motion Characteristics and Morphology in FMD Vaccinated Holstein × Sahiwal Bulls
Abstract :

To assess the effect of Thuja (Thuja occidentalis) and Levamisole on the spermiogram of FMD vaccinated crossbred bulls, 24 adult Frieswal (Holstein × Sahiwal) bulls were divided into four groups viz. GC (control; no vaccination), GV (vaccinated), GL (vaccinated + Levamisole) and GH (vaccinated + Thuja). The bulls of GV, GL and GH groups were vaccinated with FMD vaccine. Four injections of levamisole were administered to the bulls of GL group at weekly interval starting from one week prior to the FMD vaccination. Homoeopathy medicine (Thuja) was given orally to the bulls of GH group consecutively on four days (on 4, 3, 2 & 1 day, respectively) before FMD vaccination. Average rectal temperature in vaccinated bulls increased significantly than in non-vaccinated bulls after 24 hrs of FMD vaccination. In GH, it was similar to GC in 36 h, however, became normal in all groups in 48 h of vaccination. Average VAP and VSL values were higher (p<0.05) in GC than in the other groups. Bulls of GH had higher (p<0.05) initial sperm subjective and CASA progressive motility and linearity than in GV. After six weeks VSL values continued to be significantly higher in GC than in GL but it was similar in GV and GH. Total sperm abnormalities were within the prescribed limit of semen preservation up to first week after vaccination in all the groups. The results of the present study indicated that Thuja was able to prevent deterioration in sperm kinetic parameters subsequent to FMD vaccination in crossbred bulls.

Title: Carcass Traits and Leather Quality Characteristics of Blackhead Ogaden Sheep Fed Different Proportions of Roughage and Concentrate Ratios
Abstract :

An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of varying level of roughage to concentrate ratios on carcass traits and leather quality characteristics of Blackhead Ogaden sheep aged 2 years (20.8±1.8 initial body weight). Twenty four lambs were blocked into 6 groups of four lambs based on initial body weight and randomly assigned within group to 4 diets. Roughage composed of natural grass hay and haricot bean hauls (50:50 ratio) and concentrate mixture composed of wheat bran (69%) and 31% of oil seed meal (noug seed cake and cottonseed meal in the ratio of 1.1:1) were offered at roughage (R) to concentrate (C) ratios of 60R:40C, 50R:50C, 40R:60C, and 30R:70C. Roughage and supplement were offered separately and percentages of the two feeds were determined based on ad libitum consumption of individual animal on dry matter (DM) basis. After the completion of stall feeding, animals were slaughtered for carcass parameters and leather quality evaluation. Slaughter body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage as a proportion of slaughter body weight, empty body weight, and total usable products are greater in group consumed 30R:70C than 60R:40C ration (P<0.05). Fat content and elongation percentage of leather produced from sheep consumed 60R:40C was higher (p<0.05) than 30R:70C. However, the other chemical and physico-mechanical quality of leather were not affect by the treatment diet (P>0.05). Thus, we conclude that feeding of roughage and concentrate at the ratio of 30R:70C could be recommended as better feeding strategy for better performances of finishing sheep.

Title: Effect of Non-Genetic Factors on Test-Day Milk Yields and First Lactation Milk Yields in Holstein Friesian × Sahiwal Cattle
Abstract :

The present study was carried out using first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records of 466 crossbred (HF × Sahiwal) cattle calved from 2000 to 2018 sired by 89 bulls maintained at Directorate of Livestock Farms, GADVASU, Ludhiana. Mixed model analysis was carried out by least-squares maximum likelihood programme to study the effects of non-genetic factors on first full lactation milk yield (FFLMY), first lactation 305-day milk yield (FL305MY) and monthly test-day (TD) milk yield records of crossbred cattle. The least squares means of different monthly TD milk yields (1st to 11th) were 12.05 ± 0.42, 15.65 ± 0.42, 15.38 ± 0.44, 14.44 ± 0.43, 13.79 ± 0.41, 12.88 ± 0.40, 12.27 ± 0.42, 11.83 ± 0.37, 10.85 ± 0.42, 10.64 ± 0.45 and 10.28 ± 0.50 kg, respectively. For FFLMY and FL305MY the means were 4979.60±184.45 and 3818.17±103.26 kg. The effects of different AFC groups were non-significant on TDs and FL305MYs, whereas it was significant (p≤0.01) for FFLMY. The season was significant (p≤0.01) for all the monthly TDs whereas it was non-significant for FFLMY and FL305MY. The sire was significant (p≤0.01) for most of the TDs and FL305MYs except the later TDs (9th, 10th and 11th TD) and FFLMYs. The present investigation revealed the importance of non-genetic factors in performance evaluation of crossbred cattle based on monthly test-day milk yield, FL305MY and FFLMY records.

Title: Evaluation of Selected Essential Oils as Biocontrol Agents Against Listeria monocytogenes
Abstract :

The increased concern towards food safety led to application of natural extracts as antimicrobial agents to control food borne pathogens. The aim of the present study was to determine antimicrobial activity of the four essential oils viz., cinnamon bark, cinnamon leaf, clove bud and garlic oils against Listeria monocytogenes by agar well diffusion method. All these essential oils were characterized by Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) to know the chemical constituents present in them. Out of these four oils, L. monocytogenes was found to be sensitive to cinnamon bark oil, followed by cinnamon leaf oil, clove bud oil and garlic oil. Further, all these oils were evaluated to know minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the cinnamon bark oil alone was found to be effective with a MIC of 1% against L. monocytogenes. The present study findings suggest that plant based natural extracts might be used as antimicrobial, flavouring and food biopreservative agent.

Title: An Online Survey of Consumers of Maharashtra Concerning the Expected Change in the Meat and Meat Product Business
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to understand non-vegetarian consumer behavior, preferences, hygienic considerations and their expected changes in meat selling business. A questionnaire in Marathi language was designed with Google form for this online survey. Under these 194 (172 Male and 21 Female) respondents from all regions of Maharashtra state were surveyed. The study revealed that majority of consumers (90.21%) preferred hot, freshly slaughtered chicken meat (77.32%) which include all body parts of the carcass (56.19%) and them (70.62%) usually preferred to eat non-vegetarian food once or twice in a week. About 68.59% consumers preferred skinless chicken carcass slaughtered by any ritual method (53.76%). The study indicates that most of the consumers (70.62%) usually buy meat from the meat shop near to their residence and nearly 42.78% consumers showed concern about cleanliness and hygienic condition of the meat selling shop where from they buy non-veg products. Most of the consumers (82.38%) showed their willingness to purchase home delivery of minimal handled hygienic meat and for this they (86.17%) are ready to pay a slightly higher price. It indicates consumer concern about safety of food, but surprisingly, they are unaware of the food laws, quality guidelines, food safety standard. Almost all consumers (96.89%) agreed that there is a need to raise awareness and to educate consumers regarding this issue.

Title: Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Desi Chickens in Andhra Pradesh
Abstract :

A total of 150 cloacal swabs were collected from desi chickens, 217 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were identified. The phenotypic antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae was studied for 14 selected antibiotics by disc diffusion method. The selection of antibiotics was based on usage of antibiotics in commercial poultry farms and also based on priority of critically important antibiotics in humans. All Enterobacteriaceae isolates were subjected to multiplex PCR - I and II for detection of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaOXA genes and blaCTX-M, group 1 and 2 genes. Predominant β- Lactamase genes in gut microbiota of desi chicken include blaTEM (90.55%) followed by blaCTX-M group I (25.86%) and blaSHV (9.44%) genes. All the samples were found to be negative for blaOXA and blaCTX-M group 2 genes.

Title: Contents Volume 10 Issue 2
Abstract :
Title: Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Critical Amino Acids and Multi-Enzyme with Low Protein and Energy Diet on Carcass and Blood Biochemical Performance of Broiler Chicken
Abstract :

The experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary supplementation of critical amino acids and multi-enzyme with reduced levels of energy and protein diet on carcass and blood biochemical performance in broiler chicken. Three hundred broiler chicks were allotted to five dietary treatments of three replications and 20 birds in each replication. The control (T0) were fed with standard diet, T1 (5% low CP and energy than standard with balancing of lysine and methionine), T2 (T1 + Multi-enzyme), T3 (10% low CP and energy than standard with balancing of lysine and methionine), T4 (T3 + Multi-enzyme).The dressing percentage and edible meat percentage were significantly more in T2 group. The breast meat percentage of the control group was comparable with T2 group. The result showed that the significantly higher (P<0.05) gizzard weights in groups receiving enzyme combination supplementation as compared to control group (T0) irrespective of the energy-protein levels. The mean value of total protein, albumin, globulin and blood urea nitrogen of all the experimental birds were found to be statistically similar with that of the control group. The treatment group T2 found to be effective and economical.

Title: Histological Changes in Archived Piglet Tissues from a Herd Sub Clinically Infected with Porcine Circo Virus Type 2 (PCV2) Preceding a Fulminant Episode of Stillbirths and Neonatal Mortality
Abstract :

This study reports the histological lesions in archived formalin fixed piglet tissues from a herd subclinically infected with PCV2 that progressed to showing PCV2 associated systemic disease and later experienced a major fulminating episode of PCV2 induced reproductive failure characterized with abortions, mummified fetuses, still births and neonatal mortality. Lymphoid cell depletion in one or two lymph nodes were observed in subclinical infection. In PCV2 associated systemic disease multiple lymph nodes revealed variable degree of lymphoid cell depletion and necrosis with multinucleate giant cells, syncytia formation and intracytoplasmic inclusions. Histopathological changes in other organs included multifocal, severe lymphoid depletion and extensive necrosis in spleen; multifocal coagulative necrosis in Peyer’s patches; diffuse lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia in lungs; multifocal necrotizing hepatitis in liver. A progressive shift in lesion type was noticed when the infection progressed from subclinical infection to PCV2 associated systemic disease. PCR assay performed with DNA extracted from formalin fixed tissues showed specific amplification product of 620 base pairs, confirming the presence of PCV2 ORF2 genome in the tissues

Title: Immunohistochemistry of Canine Hair Follicle Stem Cells (cHFSCs) by using CK15 and CK19
Abstract :

Adult body harbors powerful reservoir of stem cells that maintains homeostasis by tissue regeneration and in response to disease and injury. Hair follicle is a dynamic mini organ supporting important biological functions of the body in maintaining homeostasis and skin tissue self-renewal. This study was carried out with the objective of finding the adult stem cells in canine hair follicular tissue. To conduct this study, adult canine skin samples (n=12) irrespective of breed and sex were collected. To characterize the hair follicle stem cells, paraffin sections of canine hair follicles were immunostained with positive hair follicle stem cell markers like Anti- cytokeratin 15 (CK15) and Anti-cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and FITC conjugated and HRP conjugated secondary antibodies were used. Immunoreactivities for CK15 and CK19 were observed in the bulge/isthmus region of hair follicles in between the infundibulum and suprabulbar regions and occupied most part of the peripheral layer of outer root sheath cell. Immunophenotyping of canine Hair Follicle Stem Cells (cHFSCs) in the bulge region of hair follicle helps in confirmation of in vitro culture of cHFSCs from the bulge region which will be further used for translational research.

Title: Azolla Cultivation to Produce Sustainable Feed Ingredient: Chemical Composition and its Impact on Performance of Broiler Chickens
Abstract :

Present study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1, fresh azolla was cultivated, harvested and analysed for nutrient composition, condensed tannins (CT) and obtained dried azolla meal (DAM) for incorporation in broiler ration. In phase 2, feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of DAM supplementation as alternative feed ingredient in broiler ration. Day-old broiler chicks (180) were purchased, weighed individually and allocated into six treatments(T0, T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) groups supplemented with DAM @ 0.0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 percent, respectively. Each group has 3 replicates and 10 chicks per deep litter pen. Experimental birds were fed their respective diets for 35 days. The DAM contains 86.94, 22.98, 3.13, 13.64, 13.06, 40.37, 1.23, 0.79 and 0.09 percent of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fibre (CF), total ash, nitrogen free extract (NFE), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and condensed tannins (CT), respectively. The weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) at weekly intervals did not differ significantly (P>0.05) irrespective of groups except feed intake. It was concluded that DAM incorporation up to 5.5% of diet is a good source of nutrients and as an alternative sustainable feed ingredient for broilers without affecting performance.

Title: Storage Quality and Shelf-life of Native Desi Chicken Meat Pickle at Room Temperature (32 ± 5 ºC)
Abstract :

Pickle from native desi chicken meat was prepared and stored at room temperature (32±5ºC) in polyethylene teraphthalate (PET) bottles. The samples were evaluated for physico-chemical parameters, microbial quality and sensory attributes at regular intervals of 0, 5, 15, 30, 45,60, 75 and 90 days of storage. Non significantly increase in pH values were observed with increasing storage period and value remained below 5.0 up to 60 days of storage period. Non significantly increase in titrable acidity (% acetic acid) and free fatty acids (as % oleic acid) values were observed with increasing storage period. However, significantly decreased in moisture (%) values were observed with increasing storage period. A significant (P<0.05) and progressive increase in Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA) values (mg malonaldehyde / kg) were observed with increasing storage period and increase in TBA values between 0 and 60 days of storage did not turn out to be statistically significant. Microbiological counts were nonsignificantly increased between day 0 to 60, thereafter significantly (P<0.05) increased with the advancement of storage period and throughout the storage period, all microbial counts were within the acceptable limits. Sensory evaluation scores indicate that native desi chicken meat was very acceptable up to 60 days of storage and thereafter native desi chicken meat pickle was moderately acceptable between 60 to 90 days of storage at room temperature (32±5°C).

Title: Comparison of Decellularized Bubaline Diaphragmatic Scaffold with Synthetic Polygalactin and Polypropylene Composite Mesh for Perineal Hernioplasty in Dogs
Abstract :

Present study was planned to compare xenogenic decellularized bubaline diaphragmatic scaffold with synthetic polygalactin and polypropylene composite mesh for repair of perineal hernia in dogs. Twelve dogs suffering with perineal hernia were randomly divided in to two equal groups. In group I perineal hernioplasty was done with Synthetic polygalactin and polypropylene composite mesh while in group II, with decellularized bubaline diaphragmatic scaffold (dBDS). Mean surgical time was 59.17 ± 14.04 and 57.50 ± 6.15 minute in group I and II respectively. Swelling, redness and warmth increased significantly (p<0.05) on day 3 in both the groups. In group II initially significantly (p<0.05) increased exudation was observed on day 3 which reduced gradually. Degree of pain after surgery was significantly (P<0.05) decrease on day 3 in both the groups. Neutrophil count was significantly (p<0.05) increased and correspondingly lymphocyte count significantly (p<0.05) decreased on day 7 in group I while in group II no significant difference within the group was observed. Colour Doppler ultrasonographic examination revealed no vascularization on 0 day in both the groups. Neovascularization was observed on day 30 in group I and day 14 in group II on Colour Doppler ultrasonographic examination. It was increased on day 90 in both the groups. The complication encountered in the present study includes local seroma, suture dehiscence due to self mutilation, constipation and fistula formation. Decellularized bubaline diaphragmatic scaffold was well accepted by all the animals and showed less complication than synthetic mesh.

Title: Effect of Gooseberry Pulp and Seed Coat Powder as Natural Preservatives on the Storage Quality of Chicken Nuggets
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Gooseberry pulp powder (GPP) and Gooseberry seed coat powder (GSCP) treatment on the quality attributes of vacuum packaged spent hen meat nuggets stored at 4±1°C for 25 days. On the basis of preliminary trials and relevant literature, three different levels of incorporation i.e. 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% were incorporated in chicken nuggets formulation replacing lean meat and samples were evaluated for physico-chemical, microbial, proximate and sensory qualities at periodic interval of 5 days. Vacuum packaging in combination with GPP and GSCP treatment had significantly (P<0.05) inhibited lipid oxidation in spent hen meat nuggets. The treated samples exhibited significantly (P<0.05) low total plate count, pyschrophilic, yeast and mould, coliform count as compared to control. Based on sensory evaluation, at the end of storage study on 25th day 0.5% GPP added nuggets exhibited higher overall acceptability than other samples. It can be concluded that GPP, GSCP and vacuum packaging have a potential for development of functional spent hen meat nuggets.

Title: Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli from Milk
Abstract :

Milk plays a major role as a source of nutrition in the diet but contaminated milk can be a source of harmful bacteria. Escherichia coli is opportunistic pathogen and is responsible for a wide range of infections. The prevalence of pathogenic multi-drug resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli is increasing and becoming a global concern. A study was carried out to isolate ESBL producing E. coli from 150 milk samples from Anand and around villages. Total 94(62.66%) samples were found positive as E. coli by isolation on MacConkey and Eosin Methylene Blue agar which were confirmed by primary & biochemical tests including Gram’s staining. Antibiotic sensitivity test (ABST) was performed against 6 antibiotics and isolates found resistant to Aztrionem: 58(61%), Cefoxitin: 20(21%), Ceftriaxone: 56(59%), Ceftazidime: 62(65%), Cefpodoxime: 34(44.73%) & Ceftazidime + Clavulanic acid: 8(8.5%). A total 34(36.17%) ESBL producing E. coli were phenotypically confirmed by ABST and Epsilometer test. Genotypic confirmation of 34 isolates was done by PCR and isolates found positive for bla CTX M-3 gene: 18(52.94%), bla CTX M-9 gene 6(17.64%), bla SHV gene: 5(14.70%) and bla TEM gene: 5(14.70%). In summary, analyzed milk samples were found to have a health risk for consumers due to contamination by ESBL producing E. coli, their pathogenicity and treatment failure as a result of antibiotic resistance.

Title: Phytosomes - A Novel Approach for Herbal Drug Delivery
Abstract :

The potential uses of large number of herbal drugs are limited due to their poor absorption and poor bioavailability after oral administration. The bioavailability can be improved by formulating an appropriate drug delivery system, which can enhance the rate and the extent of drug absorption across the lipid biomembrane. Novel drug delivery system aims to provide some control in temporal or spatial nature of the drug release in the body. The phospholipid molecular structure includes a water-soluble head and two fat-soluble tails, because of this dual solubility, the phospholipid acts as an effective emulsifier, which is also one of the chief components of the membranes in our cells. Phytosomes are advanced forms of herbal products that are absorbed and utilized in improved manner to produce better results than conventional herbal extracts. “Phytosome” is formed by complexing the polyphenolic phytoconstituents in molar ratio with Phosphatidylcholine. As far as the potential of phytosome technology is concerned, it has a great future for use in formulation technology and applications of hydrophilic plant compounds. Many areas of phytosome are to be revealed in future in the prospect of pharmaceutical application.

Title: Effect of Eugenia jambolana and Psidium guajava Leaf Meal Mixture Supplementation on Performance, Biochemical Profile and Histopathological Changes of Broiler Chicks
Abstract :

Present study was undertaken in 120 day-old broiler chicks, randomly distributed into 4 dietary treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4 supplemented with leaf meal mixture (LMM) of Eugenia jambolana and Psidium guajava @ 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 % of diet, respectively) each having 3 replicates (10 chicks/ replicate) in a complete randomized block design (CRD). Experimental chicks were fed basal diets (starter and finisher) supplemented with graded levels of LMM. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded at weekly intervals. Two birds from each replicate were slaughtered at the end of feeding trial (42 days). Blood samples were collected and serum separated for biochemical profiles. For histopathological examination, representative tissue samples were collected in 10% neutral buffer formalin and then processed for paraffin embedding employing alcohol as dehydrating agent and xylene as clearing agent. Sections were cut at 4-5µm thickness and stained by routine haematoxylin and eosin method. On histopathological examination of liver, kidney, heart and intestine of T1 and T2 groups showed normal integrity, mild to moderate histopathological changes in T3 group, while, T4 showed drastic histopathological changes. It was concluded that E. jambolana and P. guajava LMM supplementation (2.5% or even 5%) maintained birds performance, minor histopathological changes and producing healthy low cholesterol broiler meat. The LMM incorporation (2.5%) in the diet of broiler chicks may be recommended as socioeconomic, alternative functional feed resource.

Title: Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection in African Grey Parrot and its Antibiogram Study
Abstract :

Case study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a seven years old, male African grey parrot reared in aviary in Meerut, died 48 hours after exhibiting clinical signs is reported. The gross examination of carcass revealed heavy ectoparasitic infestation and necropsy examination revealed inflammed respiratory tract, airsaculitis and congestion of liver, spleen and intestine. Microbiological examination of the tissue samples revealed Pseudomona aeruginosa infection, which was found susceptible to quinolones i.e. ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin, intermediately susceptible to aminoglycosides i.e. gentamicin and streptomycin, but resistant to cephalosporins i.e. ceftriaxone and cefotaxime/clavulanic acid, β-lactam/ β-lactamase inhibitor combinations i.e. amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin/cloxacillin, tetracyclines i.e. oxytetracycline, macrolides i.e. erythromycin and chloramphenicol in culture sensitivity test. These antibiotic resistant bacteria can pose threat to in contact immunocompromised aviary workers. Thus necessary biosecurity measures should be implemented in the aviaries to avoid environment associated infectious diseases.

Title: Effect of Pre and Postpartum Alpha-tocopherol Supplementation on Body Condition and Some Udder Health Parameters of Jersey Crossbred Cows at Tropical Lower Gangetic Region
Abstract :

Alpha-tocopherol supplementation to dairy cows has beneficial effect on udder health and maintenance of body condition which needs to be studied for Jersey crossbred cows under tropical lower Gangetic region. Survey was conducted on a total of 191 respondents and out of which 19 healthy animals were selected for this experiment. This experiment was done to see the effect of pre and post Alpha-tocopherol supplementation for Jersey crossbred cows @ 1g/day/cow. Three comparable groups viz. T1 (30 days pre and post partum period; 7 dairy cows), T2 (30 days pre and 60 days post partum period; 6 dairy cows), however, no supplementation was done in control group (6 dairy cows) animals. Statistically analyzed data revealed significantly (p<0.01) lower body condition in control group than T1 and T2 group animals during post partum period, but T1 and T2 were statistically similar (p>0.05). However, animals of group T2 recovered body condition of cows numerically earlier followed by T1 and control group. There was no significant difference between body condition of dairy animals of all group during dry period (p>0.05). Statistically analyzed data revealed significantly (p<0.01) higher pH and electrical conductivity (EC) in control than T1 and T2 groups during post partum period but T1 and T2 were statistically similar (p>0.05). In addition to this correlation coefficient also suggested that better udder health (p<0.01) and reduced body condition loss post partum (p<0.01) can be achieved by Alpha-tocopherol supplementation @ 1g/day/cow for 30 days pre and 60 days post partum period for Jersey crossbred cows at tropical lower Gangetic region.

Title: Toxinotyping of Clostridium perfringens in Poultry from Necrotic Enteritis Cases
Abstract :

Clostridium perfringens is well known causative agent of necrotic enteritis in poultry and is mainly caused by Type A toxin. NetB toxin is found to be one of the newly emerging virulent toxin gene which is also responsible for necrotic enteritis. The present study was carried out to characterize and to type the different toxins associated with C. perfringens in NE cases of poultry. For the present study total 125 samples were collected from poultry birds, out of which 50 samples were of intestinal content from diseased birds, 50 cloacal swabs and 25 intestinal content from healthy birds. These samples were further processed for isolation, identification, and toxinotyping of Clostridium perfringens isolates. Onisolation of C. perfringens on blood agar total 43 isolates were found positive showing a pattern of double hemolysis on blood agar. The positive isolates of C. perfringens were further confirmed by using 16S rRNA species specific PCR. After confirmation isolates were processed for toxinotyping mainly targeting cpa, cpb and cpb2 toxins by using multiplex PCR. On toxinotyping it was found that NE in poultry birds were mainly caused by C. perfringens type A. On virulent gene detection of netB toxin, total 4 isolates were found positive for netB toxin. This study pointed out that C. perfringens type A is responsible for development of NE in poultry along with net B toxin which is a new key virulent factor. Further studies of netB toxoid and C. perfringens type A for vaccine production could minimize the clostridial problems in broiler farms.

Title: Effect of Levels of N-fertilizer and Cutting Height on Nutrient Content and Nitrogen Recovery Rate of Elephant Grass (Pennisetum purpureum L.) in Mersa, Ethiopia
Abstract :

This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of nitrogen fertilizer rates (NFR) and cutting height (CH) on the nutrient contents and nitrogen recovery of elephant grass when grown in Eastern Amara Region of Ethiopia. The experiment consisted of two factors: Factor A: Nitrogen (4 levels) and Factor B: Cutting height (3 levels). Experiments were laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications. The results indicated that nitrogen and plant height significantly affected dry matter yield (DMY) of Pennisetum purpureum L. in which N application of 161 kg ha-1 and cutting height of 15 cm showed the highest leaf while leaf to stem ratio did not affected due to these two factors. Similarly, application of N and cutting height significantly influenced on nutrient contents in which N application at the rate of 69 kg ha-1 and cutting at the height of 15 cm brought the highest crude protein content whereas NDF and ADF contents were higher at cutting height of 22.5 cm with the lowest application of N (69 kg ha-1). Nitrogen recovery rate did not positively correlated with increased levels of N fertilizer applications as the maximum value (473.79 %) was recorded for those treated at the rate of 69 kg ha-1. Therefore, from this study it can be conclude that N application at the rate of 69 kg ha-1 and harvesting at a cutting height of 15 cm might be optimum for better nutrients content, greater DM yield and efficient N recovery rate of Pennisetum purpureum L.

Title: Effect of Cage or Deep Litter Housing on Production Performance of White Leghorn Chickens
Abstract :

The effect of cage or deep litter housing on production performance of White Leghorn was investigated in this experiment. A total 144 pullets of White Leghorn were randomly assigned to two treatments as; Cage housing and Deep litter housing. Results revealed that body weight at sexual maturity was significantly (P<0.05) lower in birds reared in cage than the deep litter housing. Moreover, lower feed intake was observed in birds kept in cages than that of deep litter housing. Feed conversion ratio in terms of feed intake/dozen eggs or feed intake/kg egg mass was better in birds reared in cages than the deep litter housing. The average hen day and hen house egg production were not affected due to different housing systems. Egg quality traits like albumen index, yolk index and Haugh unit score were significantly (P<0.05) higher for eggs produced by birds reared in cage housing than the deep litter housing. The profit of about 20% was observed in cage housing over deep litter housing. It was concluded that the lower feed consumption and body weight at sexual maturity, better feed conversion, egg quality and economic returns were achieved in cages compared to deep litter housing. However, cage or deep litter housing had no effect on egg production.

Title: Influence of Alteration of Dry Period Feeding Management on Body Weight and Body Measurements of Jersey Crossbred Cows at Lower Gangetic Region
Abstract :

Alteration during far off dry period feeding management was done to see its effect on body weight and body measurements of Jersey cross bred cows. This study was conducted on 14 healthy dairy animals which were separated into two comparable groups on the basis of almost similar age groups, parity, body weight, and body condition score. Statistically analyzed data revealed that there was significantly higher (p<0.01) tail head thickness in overall dry period and at calving in control group animals than treatment group animals. Significantly higher (p<0.01) overall abdominal girth after 4 months of lactation was found in control group animals as compared to treatment group animals. Significantly higher (p<0.01) body length during overall dry period and at calving was noticed in control group animals. Non significant (p>0.05) difference was reported in body weight and heart girth among control and treatment group animals. The coefficients of correlation indicated high and significant (P<0.01) correlation among body condition score, tail head thickness, body length, heart girth, abdominal girth in this study. It can be concluded that alteration of feeding management practices during far-off dry period does not significantly change body weight during dry period and post partum period but can lead to significant difference in some body measurements of Jersey crossbred cows at tropical lower Gangetic region. Correlation of parameters suggested that the larger body sized animal of same breed may produce more milk.

Title: Occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Dogs and their Handlers in Jammu
Abstract :

The study explored the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in dogs and their handlers. Samples comprised of dogs wound (n = 50), dogs nasal (n = 22), dogs skin behind ears (n = 50) and hand swabs of dogs owners (n = 40). Out of these 162 samples, 2 (1.23%) were positive for S. aureus, of which 1 (0.61%) was MRSA. S. aureus isolates were of wound and skin samples each and isolate from wound was MRSA. None of the dogs nasal and owners’ hand swabs were positive for S. aureus and MRSA. Study revealed resistance of S. aureus to ampicillin (100%) while sensitivity to clindamycin (100%), doxycycline (100%), vancomycin (100%), linezolid (100%), teicoplanin (100%) and amoxyclav (100.0%). MRSA observed high resistance to cefoxitin (100%) and vancomycin (100%) while isolates were sensitive to clindamycin (100%), amoxyclav (100.0%), ceftriaxone (100%), gentamicin (100%), ampicillin (100%) and linezolid (100%).

Title: A Study on Growth Performance of Weaned Kids of Sirohi Goat Fed with Different Levels of Concentrates
Abstract :

The present investigation was conducted a study on growth performance of weaned kids of Sirohi goat fed with different levels of concentrates for the effect of concentrate feeding on body weight gain. Twenty four kids of Sirohi breed between 3-4 months age were randomly selected on the basis of uniform body weight, age and divided into 3 groups of 8 kids each at the goat farm of S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner. Group T1 served as control supplemented with 50 g concentrate per kid per day for 3 months. Group T2 (treatment) supplemented with 50, 100 and 150 g concentrate and T3 (treatment) with 100, 150 and 200 g concentrate per head per day for 1st, 2nd and 3rd month, respectively. Other management practices were similar for each group. Fodder of khejri loom was offered ad-libitum to all groups. Body weight of kids was recorded weekly. Group T3 fed with more quantity of concentrate achieved the highest (85.77 g/day) average weekly weight gain followed by T2 (69.22 g/day) and control group T1 (61.33 g/day). Maximum average total weight gain per kid was observed in group T3 (7.72 kg) followed by T2 (6.23 kg) and least was found in T1 (5.52 kg). Thus, from above findings it can be concluded that T2 and T3 treatments showed significantly improved growth performance in Sirohi kids and higher level (T3) was relatively the best level in terms of both biological and economical returns.

Title: Surveillance of Major Canine Pathogens in Feral Dogs and Big Cats at the Domestic-Wildlife Interface in Panna Tiger Reserve, India
Abstract :

The present study was conducted at Panna Tiger Reserve of Madhya Pradesh for sero-surveillance for canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus (CAV) infections in feral dogs. Biological samples were also collected from the wild carnivore species which were immobilized or died during the study period. Serum samples were subjected for detection of IgG antibodies against CPV, CDV and CAV infections. Additionally biological samples of wild carnivores were subjected to molecular diagnosis of CPV and CDV genes. Seroprevalence for CPV, CDV and CAV infections was observed as 3.5%, 4.4% and 0.89%, respectively, whereas for mixed infections of CPV+CDV, CPV+CAV, CDV+CAV and CPV+CDV+CAV, it was observed as 48.2%, 1.7%, 4.4% and 36.6%, respectively. Sex wise, age wise and distance wise seroprevalence was non-significant in the present study. Seroprevalence for CPV, CDV and CAV infections in cats was observed as 50%, 100 % and 0%, whereas in wild carnivores, it was observed as 100%, 90% and 0% respectively. PCR based diagnosis in the wild carnivore also revealed CDV positive cases. Serological and genomic evidence of pathogens in dogs-cats of buffer villages and wild carnivores of Panna tiger reserve indicated that the viruses may pose a high risk of spillover to wild carnivores. Study also indicated that dog population is immuned to major infectious diseases but can be a threat to the compromised wild carnivore species including tigers.

Title: Adult Body Weights and Morphometric Traits of Ganjam Goats of Odisha and Prediction of Body Weights from Body Measurements
Abstract :

Present study was carried out in Chhatrapur, Rambha, Khallikote and Jirabadi clusters of All India Coordinated Research Project on goat improvement in Ganjam district of Odisha from 2015 to 2017 to study the body weight and measurements of Ganjam goats, their correlations, and predictability of the body weight from body measurements. Data on body weight (kg), body length(cm), wither height(cm) and chest girth(cm) were recorded in adult Ganjam goats having one to four pairs of permanent incisor (PPI) teeth. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used. The mean body weight ranged from 22.5 kg to 30.6 kg, mean body length ranged from 63.0 to 69.6 cm, mean wither height ranged from 67.3 to 71.8 cm and mean chest girth ranged from 68.6 to 78.0 cm. All the correlations were found to be positive, moderate to high in magnitude and statistically significant (P<0.01). All the predictive models developed with each of the three body measurements were found to be statistically highly significant (P<0.01). The best-fitted regression equations were -23.68+0.29*BL+0.16*WH+ 0.25*CG for 1 PPI age group, the equation: -34.82 + 0.48 *BL + 0.42*CG for age group 2 PPI, the equation: -28.13+0.47*BL+0.33*CG for age group 3 PPI and the equation: -33.33+ 0.14*BL+0.18*WH+0.54*CG for 4 PPI age group. Chest girth was the dominant predictor variables among the three linear body measurements for all age groups except 1 PPI age group which had body length as the principal predictor.

Title: Karyomorphological Studies of Kangayam, Pulikulam, Crossbred Jersey and Crossbred Holstein Friesian Bulls
Abstract :

The present study was carried out in four genetic groups of cattle, viz. Kangayam, Pulikulam, crossbred Jersey and crossbred Holstein Friesian, to compare the karyomorphological pattern between Bos indicus and Bos taurus x indicus bull calves. Metaphase chromosomal spreads obtained by short term lymphocyte culture technique revealed chromosomal complement (2n) of 60, with 29 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes in four groups. All the autosomes were acrocentric, X-chromosome was sub-metacentric and Y-chromosome was acrocentric in Bos indicus and metacentric in crossbred bulls. There was no significant difference in relative length, arm ratio, centromeric index and morphological index of autosomes and X-chromosome between indicine and taurine groups; but Y-chromosome differed significantly (P˂0.01) in relative length between Bos indicus and Bos taurus x indicus crosses. Y-chromosome polymorphism could help in the determination of breed origin and male lines used in the breeding programmes in order to prevent the possible interferences in the process of reproduction.

Title: Absence of Polymorphism in Booroola (FecB) Gene in Indian Muzzafarnagari Sheep Breed
Abstract :

Booroola (FecB) gene is also known as Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1B (BMPR1B) gene, expressed in oocytes and granulosa cells. BMPR1B gene has been characterized by a point mutation at 746th position (A to G) leading to a non-synonymous substitution of Glutamine with an Arginine at 249th position (Q249R) produced ‘hyperprolific’ Booroola sheep. This mutation was associated with prolificacy in sheep with increase ovulation rate. In the present study, DNA was isolated from blood samples collected from the Muzzafarnagari sheep breeds (n = 200) maintained at LFC (Livestock farm complex) of DUVASU, Mathura, U.P. The AvaII/PCR-RFLP assay of 190 bp amplified product of FecB gene revealed only ++ genotype (190 bp uncut, 100%) with + allele (1.0) in screened sheep population. The studied region of the FecB gene showed monomorphic pattern revealed that FecB A (wild type; +) allele seems to be fixed in screened sheep population. Consequently, we could not perform association analysis with reproduction trait. Therefore, it would be suggested to further screening the status of this SNP along with other fecundity genes in large diversified population to exploit it under marker assisted selection.

Title: Occurrence of Carbaryl, DDT and Deltamethrin Residues in Bovine Milk in Chhattisgarh, India and Risk Assessment to Human Health
Abstract :

The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of pesticide residues in bovine milk and associated health risks in human. To assess the pesticide residues, a total of 200 milk samples were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Photo Diode Array Detector (PDA).The residues of carbaryl, 4’4’ DDT and deltamethrin pesticides were found in the 27.5%, 11% and 5% milk samples, respectively. The spatial distribution of pesticide residues in milk samples indicated that carbaryl was wide spread over the entire study area. The non-significance differences in mean residual concentrations of all three pesticides in cow and buffalo milk samples were recorded. The human health risk assessment in terms of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health hazard was calculated based on both lower bound [LB (mean residue levels)] and upper bound [UB (95th percentile level)] limits at current levels of pesticides in bovine milk samples. The estimated average daily dietary intake (EADDI) of studied pesticides was found below the acceptable dietary intake (ADI) for both adult and children, at mean as well as 95th percentile upper bound (UB) levels. The values suggesting lower carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk to adult however children are at greater health risk.Keywords: Bovine milk, carbaryl, deltamethrin,

Title: Effect of Incorporation of Corn Bran, Dried Carrot Pomace and Dried Tomato Pomace on Quality Attributes of Chicken Nuggets
Abstract :

A study was conducted to improve dietary fibre content of chicken nuggets by incorporating corn bran (CB), dried carrot pomace (DCP) and dried tomato pomace (DTP) as dietary fibre sources. Lean meat was replaced with each dietary fibre source at 3%, 6% and 9% level. One product from each fibre source was selected on the basis of sensory evaluation. Sensory acceptability of 3% fibre treated nuggets was comparable with control and further increase in fibre level resulted in a decline in sensory acceptability. All CB and DCP treated nuggets were harder and firmer than control while 3% DTP treated nuggets were harder than control. Fibre addition resulted in less springier and less cohesive nuggets. Yellowness increased in DCP added nuggets while both redness and yellowness increased in DTP added nuggets. Fibre treated nuggets had less moisture and cholesterol content and higher protein, ash, crude fibre, emulsion stability and cooking yield. pH of DCP and DTP treated nuggets was lower than control. Drastic increase in total dietary fibre and insoluble dietary fibre content was observed in treated nuggets. Sensory scores of nuggets declined significantly while thiobarbituric acid reacting substance value (TBARS) and microbial counts increased significantly during refrigerated storage. It is concluded that incorporation of dietary fibre at 6% level resulted in healthier and fibre enriched nuggets with higher cooking yield and acceptability upto 15th day of refrigerated storage.

Title: IGF-1 Gene Polymorphism in Migratory Gaddi Goats of Western Himalayan Region, India
Abstract :

Goat production is a predominant livestock activity in harsh climatic regions of the country particularly hilly regions. ‘Gaddi’ is a prominent goat breed of Himachal Pradesh constituting 60-65% of total goat population of 11.20 lakh (19th Livestock Census, 2012). The somatotropic axis has a key role in postnatal growth and metabolism. IGF-1 gene encodes the protein that is structurally and functionally similar to insulin and regulates cellular synthesis of DNA as well as cellular growth and development, especially in neurons and also mediates the effect of GH gene. The present study was carried onÊ»Gaddiʼ, a distinct goat breed of high altitude areas of Western Himalayan region, for molecular characterization of IGF-1 gene and further analyse its association with growth traits. Blood samples from 63 genetically unrelated animals of Gaddi goat breed were taken from the migratory flocks under AICRP and Gaddi goat unit of CSKHPKV, Palampur and subjected to DNA isolation. 363 bp amplicon was generated and PCR-RFLP analysis using HaeIII restriction enzyme (RE) revealed two variants (AB and BB) however, no significant association could be established. Allele frequencies for A and B alleles were 0.25 and 0.75. The estimates obtained for Ne, Hobs, Hexp and PIC were 1.61, 0.51, 0.38 and 0.31, respectively. PIC value of 0.31 implies the effectiveness of the marker in population studies and also revealed median level of polymorphism. Sequencing confirmed one nucleotide mutation (C264G), however, no significant association were found at IGF-1 genotype with biometric traits in screened Gaddi goats

Title: Gross Morphological and Morphometrical Developmental Studies on Harderian Gland in Chicken
Abstract :

The present gross morphological and morphometrical study was conducted on the Harderian gland of chicken. A total of 32 numbers of healthy birds were procured from the Poultry Farm of Nagpur Veterinary College, MAFSU, Nagpur. The chicks were divided into 4 groups viz. 3, 10, 17, and 24 days of age with 8 chicks in each group. It was seen that the Harderian gland was found directed towards ventro-medial aspect of the eyeball in chicks and loosely attached by periorbital fascia to the underlying muscle. The average biometrical observations of left and right Harderian gland in respect of weight, length, width and area of gland were found increased with the advancement of age. Area of the gland increased on its length from 17th day to 24th day of age which resulted into more elongated glands.

Title: Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Bovine Mastitic Milk Sample Along with Antibiogram Study
Abstract :

A total of 4378 cattle and buffalo were screened during period of study (July 2018-June 19). Out of which 27 Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. The isolates were confirmed phenotypically based on pigment production on nutrient agar. These were then confirmed by PCR amplification of species specific oligonucleotide sequences. All the 27 isolates amplified 956bp amplicon 16srRNA Pseudomonas aeruginosa species specific nucleotide sequence. The isolates were also checked for exo and aglD virulence associated genes. All of them amplified 540bp and 313bp amplicon of exo gene and aglD gene. All the isolates were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing. Most of the isolates showed highest sensitivity for levofloxacin, streptomycin and enrofloxacin followed by gentamicin, moxifloxacin and amikacin. Neomycin, cefoperazone and ceftriaxone were intermediate in action.

Title: Treatment of Secondary Immune Mediated Hemolytic Anaemia of Dogs in Chennai, Tamil Nadu
Abstract :

Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) is the most common autoimmune disease in dogs. This study was conducted to evaluate prednisolone and azathioprine therapeutic protocols for the management of secondary IMHA in dogs. The anaemic dogs brought with clinical signs such as pale or icteric mucous membranes were screened for IMHA by saline agglutination and spherocyte count and confirmed by flow cytometry. The positive cases were further subjected to haematology, biochemistry, coagulation profile, MAT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of underlying secondary causes like Babesia spp, Ehrlichia canis and Leptospira spp (secondary IMHA). Thirty two cases were positive for IMHA, out of which thirteen cases were primary (Idiopathic) IMHA (17.3 %) and remaining nineteen cases were secondary IMHA (82.7 %) due to underlying causes such as Babesia gibsoni (13), Ehrlichia canis (3) and Leptospira spp. (3) respectively. Immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and prednisolone in combination with azathioprine and specific therapy of etiological agent with supportive therapy was used. Significant increase in Hb, PCV, RBC and thrombocyte count, significant decrease in leucocyte, neutrophil, monocyte and total protein and significant increase in ALT activity was recorded after therapy. There was an apparent clinical improvement in all the dogs which survived till day 28 days, with significant improvement in hemato-biochemical profiles. Prednisolone was found to be effective in the management of canine secondary IMHA than prednisolone combined with azathioprine.

Title: Egg Production and Egg Quality Characteristics in Direct and Reciprocal Crosses using CARI Nirbheek and CARI Shyama
Abstract :

The present study was carried to study the direct and reciprocal crosses of native breed chickens namely Kadaknath (KN), Aseelpeela (AP), and CARI Red (CR) by comparing the efficiency of egg production, egg weight, and external and internal egg quality traits at 40th week of age. The reciprocal crosses CR×KN and CR×AP showed significantly (P<0.01) lower egg weights compared to their counterpart cross KN×CR (CARI- Shyama) and AP×CR (CARI- Nirbheek). Egg quality traits such as albumen index, Haugh unit, albumen weight, and yolk index were significantly (P<0.01) higher in the reciprocal cross at 40th week of age, whereas, others such as shape index, shell thickness, and yolk weight were comparable (P>0.05) among the crosses. Reciprocal crosses CR × KN and CR × AP had almost similar total egg production to their direct crosses KN × CR and AP × CR at almost all ages except 36th to 40th week of egg production which was significant (P<0.05). It was concluded that, reciprocal crosses have similar egg production with almost equal or better egg quality parameters to their direct crosses. The present study aims at the elucidating effect of reciprocal crossbreeding by using CARI Red as the male line in producing elite crosses for improvement in the production capacity of rural poultry in India.

Title: Doppler Echocardiographic Reference Parameters in Healthy Labrador Retriever Dogs
Abstract :

Thirty-one clinically healthy Labrador retriever dogs of both sexes (18 males and 13 females) were selected for determining Doppler echocardiographic reference values. 2 D and Pulse wave Doppler echocardiography was carried out by using GE Logiq P5 Color Doppler machine. The effect of body weight, age and sex on various doppler echocardiographic parameters were recorded. Twenty four dogs were in body weight range of 20-40 kg and 7 dogs in 40-60 kg range. To study the effect of age on various Doppler echocardiographic measurements, dogs were divided into 4 age groups (1-2, 2-3, 3-5 and >5 years of age). The mitral A wave peak velocity (MA) and ME:MA ratio were significantly (p<0.05) affected by body weight. The pulmonic valve velocity and pulmonic valve pressure were significantly (p<0.05) affected and there was significant negative correlation of pulmonic valve peak velocity (Pulmonary V max) and pulmonary pressure with body weight with r2 values of 0.160 and 0.120 respectively. Mitral valve (MV) deceleration time was significantly (p<0.05) affected by age. The tricuspid valve deceleration time (TVDecT) was significantly (p≤0.01) higher in dogs > 5 years of age. Tricuspid A velocity was significantly (p≤0.01) higher in 2-3 year age group dogs as compared to dogs belonging to age group 3-5 years and > 5 years of age group. The pulmonic valve velocity and pressure were significantly affected by age. The tricuspid valve TE: TA ratio was significantly (p≤0.05) affected by gender and the ratio was significantly (p≤0.05) higher in males as compared to females.

Title: Effects of Loose Housing Designs on Expressions of Milking Parlour Behaviours and Milk Yield of Crossbred Jersey Cows
Abstract :

Milking behaviour of dairy cows has serious impacts on their production efficiency. A number of genetic and environmental factors controls and influences milking behaviour of dairy cow. The aim of present study was to investigate the influence of housing comfort on expressivity of milking behaviours of cows in parlour, milk yield and compositions. Forty Jersey crossbred cows of similar production levels were selected and divided into 2 groups based on age, production and parity. Subsequently, cows were kept in two different types of loose house; each containing 20 animals. Two types of housing patterns were compared - (i) Traditional shed (T0) and (ii) Thermo-comfortable shed (T1). Impact of housing comfort significantly transformed the expressions of dairy cows behaviour even in milking parlour. Milking temperament scores and stepping during milking were significantly lower in cows kept in T1 compared to that of T0. Cows of thermo-comfortable shed showed more docile, calm and less nervous behaviour than those kept in traditional shed. Housing patterns significantly influenced daily milk yield (kg) being 2.86% more in T1 as compared to T0. Similarly milk compositions were better and significantly higher in T1 group of cows than that of T0. It was concluded that staying comfort of living by resignificantly modulated the expression of dairy cows behaviours even in milking parlour, demonstrated favourable milking temperament, reduced nervousness, enhanced milk yield and showed better milk compositions in Jersey crossbred cows.

Title: Influence of Urea Molasses Mineral Blocks having Bentonite as Binder on Haemato-Biochemical and Serum Mineral Profile of Crossbred Calves
Abstract :

The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of supplement of UMMB containing variable levels of urea and bentonite on haemato-biochemical and serum mineral profile of crossbred calves. Twenty four male crossbred calves were divided into four equal groups following complete randomized design and fed individually for 120 days. In group T1, 70% of CP requirement was met through feeding of concentrate mixture and remaining CP was fed through urea molasses mineral block (UMMB) and ad libitum wheat straw (control). In group T2, T3 and T4, the feeding regimen followed was same as that of control except that UMMB was replaced with UMMB-A, UMMB-B, UMMB-C which vary in physical. Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120 day of experimental feeding to determine haemato-biochemical and serum mineral concentration. The mean values for Hb (mg/dl), PCV (%), glucose (mg/dl), total protein (g/dl), albumin, globulin (g/dl), A:G ratio, urea (mg/dl), creatinine, SGOT (IU/L), SGPT (IU/L) level was comparable (P>0.05) among the different dietary treatments. the serum minerals (Ca, P, Cu, Fe, Zn) concentration was also statically similar among the different groups. However, periodical significantly (P<0.05) higher values were observed for Hb (mg/dl), PCV (%), glucose (mg/dl), total protein (g/dl), albumin, globulin(g/dl), A:G ratio, urea (mg/dl), creatinine, Ca and P at 60 and 120 days of post feeding but it was comparable and lies in the normal physiological range. It was concluded that haemato-biochemical parameters of cross bred calves were not influenced by supplementation of urea molasses mineral blocks.

Title: Evaluation of Various Enzymes Supplementation on Nutrient Utilization and Efficiency Parameters on Rice Gluten Meal Based Diets in Broilers
Abstract :

A biological experiment of 42 days duration was undertaken in day old chicks (n= 384) divided into 12 dietary treatments as per 3x4 factorial design having 4 replicates per treatment with 8 birds in each. Twelve experimental diets were prepared by incorporating control, two different levels of rice gluten meal (RGM) consisted of (15 and 17.5%), without and with three different types of enzymes xylanase, protease and multienzymes. The nutrient utilization in terms of nitrogen retention, apparent metabolizable energy of the diets, dry matter and gross energy metabolizability were significantly (P<0.01) lower at 17.5% level as compared to 0 and 15% RGM levels. The dry matter metabolizability and nitrogen retention of the birds were significantly (P<0.01) better in protease enzyme supplemented groups compared to control and other enzyme supplemented groups. The interaction of RGM and enzymes showed no significant (P>0.05) difference in nutrient utilization between different dietary treatments and control in gross energy metabolizability, calcium and phosphorous retention. The protein and energy efficiency ratios of birds were not influenced by RGM feeding, whereas significant (P<0.05) improvement were observed in protease supplemented birds. Thus, it may be concluded that protease enzyme supplementation was found best in RGM diet to improve their feeding value and it may be used to increase the effective and safe inclusion level from 15 to 17.5% in broiler diets.

Title: Quality Characteristics of Chicken Meat Cutlets Incorporated with Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) Flour
Abstract :

In view of continuously growing demand of snacks foods worldwide due to rapid changing lifestyle, industrialization and urbanization, the present study was conducted to standardize the incorporation level of finger millet flour for preparation of chicken meat cutlets. Chicken meat cutlets were prepared with different levels of finger millet flour viz. 5, 10, and 15%, and different levels by replacing the lean meat in chicken cutlets formulation. The optimum (mention) level of finger millet was standardized as 5% for incorporation in chicken meat cutlets. Crude fiber and calcium content of chicken cutlets prepared with finger millet flour was significantly higher as compared to control thereby depicting marked improvement in the desirable food trait with health benefits. The product yield of chicken meat cutlets with optimized level of finger millet flour was significantly higher as compared to control. It did not show significant effect on any of the sensory parameters. Storage stability of aerobically packaged chicken meat cutlets with optimum level (mention level) of finger millet flour along with control was further evaluated during refrigerated storage (4±1oC) at regular intervals of 0, 3, 6 and 9 days with respect to physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics. Chicken meat cutlets could be stored safely in aerobic packaging for 6 days at refrigeration condition (4±1oC).

Title: Prevalence of Egg Shell Apex Abnormalities in Commercial Layer Chicken of Namakkal Region of Tamil Nadu
Abstract :

Egg shell plays a major role in determining the quality of commercial layer chicken table eggs. Many factors are involved in causing abnormalities of egg shells, particularly in the apex part of eggs. The present investigation was aimed to study the prevalence of Mycoplasma associated eggshell apex abnormalities (EAA) in commercial layer chicken of Namakkal poultry zone of Tamil Nadu. Flock history and clinical samples from live and dead birds were collected from 24 flocks belongs to 14 different farms with the history of showing egg shell abnormalities. Collected clinical samples were subjected for detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) and Mycoplasma synoviae (Ms) by culture and polymerase chain reaction. Among the 24 flocks Ms and Ms + Mg infection were observed in 16.6 and 12.5 per cent of flocks respectively. In EAA affected flocks 0.65 to 1.35 per cent of eggs showed shell defects at the apex (pointed end). The incidence of the condition was increased in large flocks (ie., above 10,000) under peak production of laying from 25 to 40 wk of age and winter seasons.Egg production drop and mortality were ranged from 2.0 to 7.7 and 0.05 to 0.35 per cent respectively. Four out of 14 farms experienced EAA like defects in their previous flocks. Antimycoplasmal drugs were given periodically however periodic mycoplasmalmonitoring was not carried out. The study indicates the prevalence of mycoplasma associated EAA in commercial layer flocks is increasing and should be controlled by proper monitoring and enhancing biosecurity measures.

Title: Cyto-Differentiation of Pyloric Part of Glandular Stomach in Prenatal Goat
Abstract :

The study was conducted on 36 developing abomasum of healthy and normal embryos/ foeti of goat. Embryos/foeti were assigned into three group viz. group I (0-50 days of gestation), group II (51-100 days of gestation) and group III (101-150 days of gestation). The wall of glandular stomach, the pyloric part, was composed of epithelium, pleuripotent blastemic tissue and serosa upto 44 days of gestation. Tunica muscularis became separable at 46 days of gestation. The epithelium was stratified type up to 50 days and gradually changed to pseudostratified columnar to simple columnar type from 76 days of gestation. However, stratification of the epithelium was noticed at few places till term. Thin strands of muscularis mucosae were observed at 82 days of gestation. Gastric pit, the fore runner of gastric gland was reported first at 70 days. The body of the gastric glands were very short. Process of proliferation, coiling and lumen formation were faster in pyloric gland. The cells of pyloric gland contained undifferentiating, mucous secreting and sporadic parietal cells. Well differentiated mucous secreting cells were noticed at 121 days of gestation. Reticular, collagen and elastic fibers came into sight at 38, 100 and 100 days of gestation, respectively. Combined thickness of lamina propria, muscularis mucosae and submucosa and tunica muscularis was more in pyloric gland region than other region of the abomasum.

Title: Traditional Health Management vis-à-vis Rearing Practices Followed By the ‘Black Bengal Goat’ Farmers in Nadia District of West Bengal, India
Abstract :

For securing the livelihood of the farmers, the role of small ruminant especially the goat are well established fact. The farmers of Nadia district of West Bengal, which is also the native tract of the Black Bengal goat, reared goats by following traditional practices. A study was conducted to find out the practices followed by the farmers for rearing goats in Nadia district. Data had been collected from 150 respondents belonged to three blocks of Nadia district in West Bengal state of India. Semi-structured interview schedule and PRA techniques were used to collect primary data. ‘Effectiveness Index Scores’ were calculated to identify the effectiveness of several traditional practices followed by the farmers for controlling ailments of Black Bengal goats. Majority of the activities pertaining to goat farming was performed by women farmers but in terms of ownership, the male dominance was observed. Farmers were following different traditional knowledge for curing and/or suppressing ailments of goats. Documentation of locally available plant’s leaves, herbs or material for treating ailments like goat diarrhea, PPR, bloat, FMD etc., was done through the study and their effectiveness as perceived by the farmers were also analyzed. Farmers used to rear their animals in the close confinement of their own household. From the study it can be concluded that, the farmers of Nadia district were maintaining goats as a safeguard of financial insecurity and utilizing locally available ingredients effectively to cure common ailments of the goat.

Title: Survey of Calf Rearing Practices Followed at Rural Dairy Farms in Surat District
Abstract :

A field survey was conducted purposively in Surat district of Gujrat to ascertain the calf rearing management practices followed by rural dairy animal owners during March, 2013 to January, 2014. Data were collected from randomly selected 300 dairy animal owners through personal interview with the help of pre-tested structured schedule from five talukas selected at random. The present study revealed that majority (95.33%) of the respondents attended calving and cleaned the calves soon after parturition. Majority (96.33%) of respondents did not practice ligation, cutting and disinfection of the naval cord and it was left to fall off itself naturally. Only 35.05% of the respondents fed colostrum to new born calf within one hour of birth. Majority (58.67%) of the respondents followed weaning practices at the age of three months and 23.33% of the respondents allowed calves to suckle their dams till lactation ceased. Majority (82.33%) of the respondents provided green fodders from two months of age and only 2.67% of the respondents provided calf starter to the calves. Only 37% of the respondents followed dehorning during 3-4 week of age of their calves, 17% of respondents practiced castration of male calves, 48.67% of the respondents gave anthelmetics to the calves regularly and 12.33% of the respondents provided jacketing as well as bedding in order to protect their calves from cold during winter season.

Title: Occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Bovine Raw Milk in Chennai
Abstract :

Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) presence in milk is of significant importance as they are often involved in food borne intoxications. Effective surveillance and detection are the most important tools in outbreak investigation and control. Our study was designed to ascertain the occurrence Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from raw milk collected from apparently healthy cattle in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 89 (89/258; 34.49%) positive isolates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from 258 raw milk samples screened. Of which 24 (24/258; 9.3%) isolates positive for MRSA. Studying the antimicrobial resistance and its patterns in foods of animal origin will be of immense help to various regulatory agencies and authorities to devise and implement control measures and to note the compliance of our foods with the prescribed standards.

Title: Amelioration of Acrylamide Induced Neurotoxicity in Wistar Rats
Abstract :

Present study was undertaken to study the neurotoxicity of oral acrylamide (ACR) and its amelioration using α-tocopherol, reduced glutathione (GSH) and hot aqueous extract (HAE) of Ocimum sanctum. Forty five male Wistar rats were divided into 12 groups. The study showed a significant reduction in the body weight of the rats fed with ACR in comparison to the other groups while body weight was restored in the rats fed with α-tocopherol and HAE. Neurotoxicity in rats fed with ACR was evident with the results of histopathology and oxidative stress (high MDA and decreased activities of GSH, SOD, GST and CAT in brain). Co-administration of α-tocopherol and HAE lowered these changes however, there was no marked improvement seen in neural damage but improvement was evident in behavioral as well as physiological changes at a marked point. Histopathology of brain in ACR alone fed group showed extensive neural degeneration and massive deposition of fibrin which was substantially decreased and ameliorated with the co-administration of α-tocopherol and HAE. These results support the oxidative stress results as well. Our results suggests that α-tocopherol and HAE can be useful for protecting brain tissue against ACR induced neurotoxicity through minimizing the free radical mediated oxidative stress.

Title: Effect of Season on Biochemical Profile of Osmanabadi Goat under Agro-Climatic Conditions of Chhattisgarh Plains
Abstract :

The current study was undertaken at Goat Unit of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Durg located within the campus of College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anjora, Durg. Blood samples were collected from 20 adult female goats every month during summer (n=80), rainy (n=80) and winter (n=80) season to investigate the blood biochemical parameters in Osmanabadi goat. The results obtained during the investigation revealed the significant seasonal variation (P< 0.01) in all the biochemical parameters studied, i.e. serum glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, Albumin: Globulin ratio and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). The mean total serum protein for summer was significantly higher (P< 0.01) than rainy and winter season. A similar trend was recorded in case of serum globulin and BUN values, but the reversed trend was observed in the mean values of serum albumin, A:G ratio and serum glucose. Thus, the observations of the study could able to establish the seasonal variation in biochemical parameters and could serve as reference values for Osmanabadi goat reared under the agro-climatic conditions of Chhattisgarh plains lies in the central zone of India.

Title: Nesting Preferences of Birds in Relation to Exotic Trees in Ludhiana, Punjab
Abstract :

Birds have very close association with trees. Trees offer a platform to birds for nesting, roosting, foraging, breeding and feeding purposes. The introduction of exotic (non-native) flora can effect or modify inherent species richness, communal alignment and species abundance, as well as species relationships and communal structure. Birds are exclusively sensitive to alterations both in terms of environmental and ecological. Introduction of exotic trees and human disturbance have also affected the bird diversity. The main objective of the present study was to find out the nesting preference of avian species in relation to exotic trees at two selected locations i.e. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Location I) and Gurpal Nagar, Ludhiana (Location II) from June 2018 to July 2019. Five different exotic trees species selected were Safeda (Eucalyptus tereticornis), Poplar (Populus deltoides), Bottle brush (Callistemon viminalis), Monkey Puzzle (Araucaria araucana), Silver Oak (Grivillea robusta). A total 31 nests (6 on Bottle brush tree, 2 on Silver oak tree, 7 on Poplar tree, 16 on Eucalyptus tree) were recorded. Out of these, 5 nests were of Baya weaver Ploceus philippinus, 4 nests were of Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri, 20 nests were of House Crow Corvus splendens and 2 nests were of Common Myna Acridotheres tristis. Four bird species were observed nesting at location I while only one was observed at location II. Less bird diversity recorded was at location II (8) as compared to location I (23) because of the anthropogenic activities which disturbed the natural habitat at that location.

Title: Comparison of Serum Biochemical and Mineral Profiles of Cattle Reared Under Island and Coastal Ecosystem
Abstract :

The present study was conducted in the Department of Animal Reproduction Gynaecology and Obstetrics, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, OUAT, BBSR in collaboration with ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research Institute, Portblair (Andaman and Nicobar Island). Crossbred cattle with the history of anoestrus and repeat breeding were considered for the present investigation. The basic difference in serum biochemical and mineral profiles of cattle reared under two quite different ecosystems namely Island and coastal ecosystem was estimated which might be due to the variability in rainfall, ambient temperature, day light length and humidity. The incidence of different infertility conditions in both the ecosystems also might vary as per the environment. Serum samples were collected for estimations of biochemical parameters like total protein, glucose, cholesterol, Ca, P and Ca:P ratio. The overall incidence of infertility was recorded to be 47.62 % in island and 45.90 % in coastal ecosystem. No significant difference in serum levels of total protein, glucose, cholesterol, zinc, copper and manganese could be observed in between cattle reared in both ecosystems. It was concluded that the variations in humidity, ambient temperature, rain fall and day light length between Portblair, Andaman and coastal climate of Odisha, did not have much effect on reproduction of cattle.

Title: Histomorphochemical Characterization of Harderian Gland of Goat (Capra hircus)
Abstract :

The present study was conducted on six young goats of local mixed breed of either sex to study the histology and histochemistry of the Harderian gland. The Harderian gland was tubulo-acinar gland, consisting of both serous and mucous secretory end pieces. The secretory units were surrounded by myoepithelial cells. Aggregates of lymphoid tissue and a patch of hyaline cartilage were noticed in the interstitial tissue. The duct system was comprised of intralobular and interlobular ducts. The histochemical studies showed a positive reaction for presence of glycogen, both acidic and neutral mucopolysaccharides and presence of weakly acidic sulfated mucosubstances, hyaluronic acid and sialomucins in the secretory units and goblet cells in the interlobular ducts.

Title: A Study on Different Dairy Farming Systems and Their Productivity in Kerala
Abstract :

The study conducted was among farmers who were members of dairy co-operatives in different agro- climatic zones of Kerala with the objective to identify dairy farming systems and to document productivity. It was observed that small holders operated 83.80 per cent of the farms. Eight farming systems based on cropping patterns were identified. Mixed farming was the largest system with 50.0 per cent of the sampled units while systems based on mono cultures of paddy, coconut or rubber constituted 27.20 per cent and homestead farms accounted to 20.6 per cent of the studied farms. The average peak yield ranged from 14.63±0.37 (litres) in small farms to 18.64±0.54 (litres) in large farms. Test day yields were 9.61±0.30 in small farms and 12.58±0.68 in large farms. Peak yields, test day yields and predicted lactation yields differed significantly between types of farms (P<0.01). Service period (128.53±7.96 days) and inter calving period (408.53±7.96) were significantly shorter (P<0.01) in large farms than in small or medium farms.

Title: Influence of Alteration in Far-Off Period Feeding Management on Water Intake, Water and Dry Matter Efficiency, Relative Immunoglobulin Level in Dairy Cows at Tropical Climate
Abstract :
Proper changes in feeding management during dry period in periparturient dairy cows have shown better performances in terms of health, production, and dry matter intake. A study was performed on 14 healthy Jersey crossbred dairy cows which were separated into two groups viz. treatment and control group. Alteration in feeding management was done during far off period in treatment group than control group cows however, the cows of both the groups received similar feeding regimes in close up period as per the standard farm management practices. The statistically analyzed data revealed significantly higher (P<0.001) water intake, ratio of water to dry matter intake in treatment group animals as compared to that of control group cows. Data revealed numerically higher blood plasma Brix% in treatment group animals however, there was significantly no difference (P>0.05) among treatment and the control group animals. Correlation coefficients suggested positive and high correlation (P<0.01) among water intake, dry mater intake, and milk yield and udder health status of dairy cows. In conclusion, based on this study it can be stated that the alteration in far-off period may be suitable for increased water intake, thereby increasing dry matter intake, reducing negative energy balance of dairy cows. In conclusion, it can be stated that proper reduction of concentrate supply during far-off dry period may be done to achieve improved performance of dairy cows in tropical region.
Title: Quality Evaluation of Preferred Meat Product in Bareilly City
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the existing quality of the most preferred meat product in Bareilly city in Uttar Pradesh. According to survey of 15 road side shops and restaurants in city, chicken and mutton Seekh Kabab was found most preferred RTE meat product, agreed by 66.66% of the retailer. The Kabab samples were collected aseptically and their quality was evaluated, and found that the protein and fat percentage varied significantly (P<0.05) among samples and ranged between 11.13-13.12% and 7.34-9.55% respectively. The oxidative stability of fat is reflected by TBARS value which was found significantly (P<0.05) variable among samples, raged between 1.64-2.28 mg malonaldehyde/kg. The total plate count (TPC) observed ranging between 5.62-6.53 log10 CFU/g, which were above acceptable standard limits for processed meat products for all the samples. Therefore it could be concluded that, there is need to improve the processing and handling practices involved in Kabab preparation and marketing in Bareilly City to secure public health.

Title: Effect of Ovsynch Estrus Synchronization Protocol on Fertility in Crossbred Ewes
Abstract :

The present study was designed to test the comparative efficacy of Ovsynch estrus synchronization protocols during two different phases’s i.e. breeding and out-of-breeding season in crossbred ewes. During both phases a total of 60 ewes were randomly divided into four groups (n=15 in each group) viz. Group I (Control out-of-breeding season), II (Treatment out-of-breeding season), III (Control breeding season) and IV (Treatment breeding season). The Ovsynch protocol (Group II and IV) consisted of buserelin acetate on day 0, cloprostenol sodium on day 5 and buserelin acetate on day 7 intramuscular (im). Blood sampling was carried out for estimation of plasma progesterone concentration in due course of study. Trans-rectal real-time B-mode ultrasonography (USG) was done for early pregnancy diagnosis at day 25 post-mating with reconfirmation on day 45. The results of the present study showed that the Ovsynch protocol was almost equally effective in induction of estrus resulting in better pregnancy rate and subsequent fertility during both seasons. The progesterone concentration did not vary significantly among all groups (P<0.05) on day 14, 25 and 45 post-mating. Thus, the Ovsynch protocol could be advised for improvement of reproductive efficiency during breeding as well as out-of-breeding season in crossbred ewes throughout the year.

Title: Histoarchitecture and Histochemical Studies on the Lacrimal Gland of Pig (Sus scrofa)
Abstract :

The fresh tissues were collected from five pigs of either sex and processed for histomorphological studies. The gland was located on dorso-lateral aspect of the eye in the orbital cavity. The gland was multilobar tubulo-acinar with predominance of acini. It was covered by a thick connective tissue capsule and connective tissue septa, which penetrate into the glandular parenchyma and divided the gland into lobes and lobules. The acini were of mixed type but predominantly sero-mucous in nature. The secretory units were followed by a duct system. The excretory duct system was made up of intercalated, intralobular, interlobular and large excretory ducts. The strong presence of glycogen in the acini was demonstrated with the help PAS (McManus’) stain. The ducts showed very weak reaction for the presence of glycogen but goblet cells in the stratified ducts showed strong positive reaction for PAS. The acini showed strong reaction for acidic mucosubstances with PAS-AB. The goblet cells in the stratified ducts also showed strong positive activity towards the PAS-AB. The intense activity towards the Alcian blue showed presence of sialomucins and hyaluronic acids in glandular parenchyma of the lacrimal gland

Title: Diagnostic Evaluation of Immunoassay Kits for Early Pregnancy Detection in Cattle
Abstract :

Diagnosis of pregnancy at an early stage is important for profitable dairy enterprise. The objective of present study was to evaluate diagnostic performance of immunoassay kits used for early pregnancy detection in cattle. Two ELISA based kits were used for detection of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins-1 (PAG-1) and pregnancy-specific protein B (PSP-B). Another RIA based kit was used for the estimation of serum progesterone (P4 ). Ultrasound examination was done in all cows under controlled experimental conditions and used as a reference method. Based on availability of assay points, two pregnant groups of dairy cattle i.e. 30-35D (n=16) and 45-50D (n=10) were included for PAG-1/PSP-B estimation. However, all four Pregnant groups viz., 7-10D (n=11), 17-20D (n=8), 30-35D (n=16) and 45-50D (n=10) and three non-pregnant groups viz., Heifer (n=6), Cyclic Non-AI (n=13) and Post-partum (PP; n=13) were included for progesterone estimation. Ultrasound examination was done at 30- 35D and 45-50D of pregnancy to screen the experimental animals and early pregnancy samples were confirmed retrospectively. Sensitivity of all three immunoassay kits for PAG-1, PSP-B and P4 was reported 92.31%, 96.15% and 84.44%, respectively. Specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and Accuracy for P4 kit were observed 90.63%, 0.93, 0.81 and 87.01%, respectively. However, lack of values in non-pregnant animals in study for the estimation of PAG-1/ PSP-B limits full reflection of diagnostic performance of respective kits. Henceforth, it is recommended to include large number of pregnant as well as non-pregnant animals to conclude comprehensively on the diagnostic performance of these assays

Title: Appraisal of Feeding Practices Followed by Dog Owners in Ferozepur and Fazilka Districts
Abstract :

The present study, was conducted on 132 dog owners,sixty eight (38 from urban and 30 from rural), andsixty four (32 from urban and 32 from rural) from Ferozepur and Fazilkadistricts respectively and views regarding the feeding and management of their pets were recorded. Quantity of food items fed to dogs such as milk, veggie, and dal were higher (P<0.05) in urban areas of Fazilka whereas rice consumption was higher (P<0.05)in urban area ofFerozepurdistrict. In rural areas of Ferozepur, the quantity of rice, veggie and meat offered to the pet dogs was higher (P<0.05) than that offered in rural Fazilka.The amount of bone offered was higher (P<0.05) in the rural Fazilka.Consumption of milk is significantly (P≤0.05) higher in rural area and is 113% higher than urban area of FerozepurVeggies is the only food item which was fed significantly (P≤0.05) in higher amount to the dog of urban areas (45.94g) in contrast to rural areas (15.63g) of Fazilka district.Milk, milk product, curd, sweet and dal given by rural dog owners to their dog was highest in Ferozepur district than Fazilka district. The microbiological parameters such as SPC and Coliforms were also well below the prescribed limits of the cooked dog foods.Based on the data available, it is clearly indicated that feeding practices followed by the dog owners in both districts has variable trends. Moreover, significant variations were observed in rural and urban area of the same district.

Title: Application of Caslick’s Index in Predicting the Mare Fertility
Abstract :

Vulva acts as the first effective barrier to combat the external environmental infections and to protect the internal reproductive organs from ascending infections. Any abnormality in the shape and structure to the vulva may compromises the mare’s healthy reproductive status and may lead to the infertility. Vulvar conformation plays a major and crucial role not only during selection and purchase of mares but also in predicting the future fertility status. Caslick’s index gives estimation about the calculation of good vulval conformation. In the present study, we applied the same to our breedable mares present at the farm and correlated with fertility. The study confirms the positive correlation between the vulval confirmation and fertility status of the mares.

Title: Seasonal and Periodical Rhythmicity of Economic Traits and Various Genetic Parameter Analysis in Sahiwal Cows Under Sub-Tropical Environment
Abstract :

The immediate response of animals to fluctuations in any managemental practices or environmental temperature is an alteration in their physiological responses. For those who failed to deal with, their production performance is affected to a great extent. In the present investigation, seasonal and periodical rhythmicity of economic traits and genetic parameters analysis for growth and first lactation traits of Sahiwal cows were performed. Analysis of variance revealed significant effect of period on all growth traits (P≤0.01) and first lactation traits under investigation. Effect of season of birth was significant (P≤0.05) on W6, W12, W18 and W24 whereas BW, W30 and WFC were not significantly affected. Furthermore, season effect was found to be non significant on different first lactation traits except FCI (P≤0.05). The estimates of heritability for BW, W6, W12, W18, W24, W30, WFC, AFC, FL305DMY, FLL, FCI and FSP were 0.12 ± 0.28, 0.67 ± 0.34, 0.49 ± 0.33, 0.19 ± 0.29, 0.19 ± 0.30, 0.42 ± 0.32, 0.43 ± 0.22, 0.11 ± 0.09, 0.26 ± 0.11, 0.09 ± 0.02, 0.02 ± 0.05 and 0.03 ± 0.03 respectively. The genetic and phenotypic correlations amongst most of the growth and first lactation traits were higher in magnitude. Therefore these results indicated that genetic associations and effect of environmental variations could be effective for formulating selection criteria on the basis of early expressed economic traits in Sahiwal cattle.

Title: Age Specific Role of Myostatin Intron-2 Gene on Body Weight of Magra Sheep
Abstract :

The economic success of small ruminant based livestock production system depends on the factors affecting the muscular growth. Therefore, the present study was carried out in one of the potential ovine meat genotype, i.e., Magra sheep breed, to investigate the role of growth regulating myostatin (MSTN)gene on body weight of Magra lambs at different stages through single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP’s) based marker.Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood of randomly selected Magra sheep (N=74) maintained at Livestock Research Farm, CSWRI, Bikaner campus through spin column method. A 311bp fragment comprising intron 2 region of MSTN gene was amplified through designed homologous primers (GenBank accession number JN856480) at an annealing temperature of 54°C. Initial screening of collected specimen was carried out through single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) based marker on 8% non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels to detect the polymorphic individuals. Sequencing and clustal analysis was carried out in order to detect SNP’s responsible for genetic variation among individuals. The three conformational patterns detected were observed to be the result of substitution of five different nucleotides substitution in the amplified fragment. Association analysis revealed significant role of heterozygotic SNP’s conformation (CTAAA/TATGT) on body weight of Magra sheep at 3 and 6 months of age in comparison to homozygotic genotypic pattern, TATGT/TATGT. The present study concluded that genetic variability in intron- 2 region of MSTN gene in Magra lamb significantly affects body weight at specific stages of life.

Title: Morphological and Morphometrical Studies on the Skull of Binturong (Arctictis binturong)
Abstract :

The binturong or bearcat is the largest species of the family Viverridae. It is uncommon in much of its range and has been assessed as vulnerable on the IUCN red list. The size of the head was small, narrow and light in proportion to the body. The skull of the binturong was dolichocephalic as per the cephalic index (56.25). There was no prominent internasal suture and the orbits were incomplete with optic foramen present near the ventral surface. The mean skull length, skull width, skull base length, cranial length, cranial width, cranial height, were 14.95±0.10 cm, 8.47±0.10 cm, 15.07±0.02 cm, 11.16±0.09 cm, 6.56±0.11 cm, 3.16±0.08 cm, respectively. The mean facial length, facial width, maxilla length, maxilla height, distance between infraorbital foramen, diameter of infraorbital foramina, nasal length, nasal width were 4.95±0.08 cm, 6.14±0.12 cm, 4.46±0.01 cm, 3.83±0.02 cm, 4.68±0.10 cm, 0.49±0.07 cm, 2.94±0.03 cm, 1.97±0.11 cm, respectively. Scanty literature available on morphological and morphometrical studies of the skull of binturong. Therefore this present study was aimed to establish a morphometric database that will eventually guide the use of these measurements for diagnosis and treating different disorders.

Title: Urine and Milk of Dairy Animals as an Indicator of Hydrofluorosis
Abstract :

The South-Western region of Punjab is endemic for hydrofluorosis and the livestock consuming fluoride rich water exhibit dental mottling and skeletal fluorosis. The present study was conducted in fluoritic areas of Mansa district of Punjab with an aim to find out the concentration of fluoride in urine and milk of dairy animals in relation to varying levels of fluoride concentration in drinking water of fluorotic areas and non fluoritic areas. For this, eight urine samples and six milk samples were collected from livestock consuming water having fluoride concentration upto 8 ppm. Urinary and milk F level was significantly high in dairy animals from the fluorotic area, ranging from 10 to 30 mg/l and 0.4 to 0.8mg/l respectively as compared to animals from non fluorotic area that varied from 3-4 mg/l F in urine and 0.04 to 0.08mg/l F in milk.

Title: Meat consumption in North-East India: Pattern, Opportunities and Implications
Abstract :

Meat is an important and common source of animal protein in the NE (North-Eastern) states as seen from the expenditure estimates which shows that 15 per cent in rural areas and 18 per cent in urban areas is devoted to meat out of the total food expenditure. The study is based on NSSO data on household consumption expenditure in 2009-10 pertaining to the 66th round. The study showed that the proportion of meat out of total food expenditure is almost two to three times more than the national average. Manipur is an exception where the rural households’ proportionate expenditure is more than urban households. Chevon/mutton and chicken have lesser supply than demand in most NE states. Beef and pork are relatively cheaper in rural areas and therefore consumed more whereas urbanization may be the factor that influence liking for chevon/mutton consumption in urban areas. Export policy, Infrastructure development, feed sector, and establishment of modern slaughter houses are some of the issues which need attention of the government to sustain meat consumption in the region.

Title: Development of Fibre Enriched Chicken Nuggets Using Combination of Wheat Bran with Dried Apple Pomace or Dried Carrot Pomace
Abstract :

This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of incorporation of wheat bran (WB) with dried apple pomace (DAP) or dried carrot pomace (DCP) on quality attributes of chicken nuggets. Raw emulsion was stuffed in rectangular moulds, cooked in electric oven at 165°C for 40 minutes and nuggets were prepared by slicing cooked emulsion to 2-3 cm3 size. Colour scores increased with increase in DAP level in WB + DAP treated nuggets. A steady decrease in scores for all other sensory attributes was noticed in both WB + DAP and WB + DCP treated nuggets with increase in fibre level. Hardness and shear press value increased whereas springiness and cohesiveness decreased with increase in fibre level. Gumminess and chewiness of WB + DAP treated nuggets increased with increase in fibre level while gumminess and chewiness of WB + DAP treated nuggets showed a variable trend. Cooking yield and emulsion stability of fibre enriched nuggets were significantly higher whereas moisture, protein, cholesterol content and pH were significantly lower than control. Insoluble, soluble and total dietary fibre content increased drastically in treated nuggets. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) value and microbial counts increased significantly during refrigerated storage in all the products. It is concluded that healthier and dietary fibre enriched chicken nuggets with refrigerated storage stability up to 15 days can be prepared using combination of wheat bran (2%) with dried apple pomace (6%) or dried carrot pomace (4%) each

Title: Importance of Bovine Mastitis Associated Gene Expression Analysis – A Review
Abstract :

Bovine mastitis has for a long period severely restrained production performance in the dairy enterprise. Despite improved management approaches and veterinary services, mastitis is still responsible for a major loss of the economy to the extent of worldwide. Genetic control as in development of protective immune mechanism and disease tolerant animal is considered an economic and prophylactic technique for health improvement management. We, therefore, need to recognise thoroughly the factors regulating the association between both the etiological agents and the host’s mammary gland cells. Consequently, we need to determine differentially expressed genes during particular conditions in regard to mastitis. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing technique (RNA-Seq) has evolved as the main option for the analysis of differential gene expression setting the foundations for modern genetic research.

Title: Effect of Orientation, Ventilation, Floor Space Allowance and Cooling Arrangement on Milk Yield and Microclimate of Dairy Shed in Goa
Abstract :

Ten farmers consisting of large, medium, small and marginal from each of six talukas ie Pernem, Bicholim and Ponda taluka of North Goa district; Salcete, Canacona and Sanguem talukas of South Goa district in total sixty farmers were considered based on cattle population for this study. Farmers were interviewed for collecting information on housing and production aspect of dairy cattle. Subsequently farmers were grouped according to type of dairy house. Data on microenvironment of cattle shed and milk yield of cows were recorded on daily basis. Data analysis revealed that the orientation, ventilation, floor space provision and cooling arrangement had a significant effect on average daily milk yield and microenvironment of dairy shed. Significantly higher milk yield and lesser heat stress were observed in east – west orientation, good ventilation and standard floor space of minimum 5 m2 per cattle. Further cooling arrangement in cattle shed had a highly significant (P < 0.01) effect on average daily milk yield and microenvironmental parameters revealing that if false ceiling is made inside cattle shed besides manual and mechanical cooling animals would feel more comfort resulting in higher milk production.

Title: Phenotypic Characterization of Macherla Sheep- A Lesser-Known Sheep Breed of Andhra Pradesh
Abstract :

The status of lesser-known sheep cannot be ignored as they comprise 75 Per cent of the total Indian sheep population. The Macherla sheep is one of the lesser-known sheep breeds of Andhra Pradesh with medium to heavy sized body. Because of superior performance over Nellore and the characteristics such as good resistance and adaptability to local climatic conditions, the Macherla sheep attained considerable importance among sheep herders. A stratified random sample survey was conducted in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states populated with huge number of Macherla sheep. The data was measured on 1279 sheep from 27 villages of nine mandals in four districts of two states. The predominant colour pattern in Macherla sheep was bicolour with combinations of white and black or brown and white. Rams are horned and ewes are polled. A gradual increase in the body measurements was observed from milk tooth to full mouth stage. Males recorded significantly higher body measurements than females. District has significant influence on the body measurements with higher recordings in Guntur district. The influence of district on body weight of Macherla sheep are found to be significant at all ages studied except for two-toothed and six-toothed ages. Among sexes, males recorded heavier body weights compared to females. The reproductive performance of Macherla sheep was ideal and within the range of species. The lambing Percentage was quite good in Macherla sheep. The Phenotypic correlations of body weight with the linear body measurements were positive and high.

Title: Comparative Study of Ultrasonography Techniques in Predicting Histopathological Lesion of Canine Tumours
Abstract :

Present study was to evaluate and standardize different ultrasonography techniques to predict malignancy of canine tumours. The study was conducted on 28 canine patients (20 females and 8 males) with visible tumour masses with age ranging from 5 to 13 years of age and body weight from 11 to 37 Kg, for a period of 8 months. The ultrasonographic variables for different techniques (B-mode, Colour Doppler and stress elastography) were measured and recorded. The tumour masses after excision were submitted for routine histopathological examination. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and paired “t” test using IBM SPSS statistical packages. The B-mode and Colour Doppler ultrasonography had a low to moderate sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in predicting the malignancy of canine tumours. The stress elastography was a reliable and non-invasive technique to predict the malignancy in case of canine tumours with highest level of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy.

Title: Expression of L-Selectin in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of Crossbred Cows Affected with Subclinical Mastitis
Abstract :

L-Selectin (SELL) linked with innate immune mechanism involved in neutrophil migration through endothelium to the site of inflammation. Early recruitment of neutrophils at the site of infection is essential to counteract infection at the earliest in conditions like sub-clinical mastitis (SCM). The present study was framed to evaluate the expression pattern of SELL in naturally occurring SCM in crossbred animals using real time PCR technique. Analysis of data on total leukocyte count indicated leucocytosis condition in SCM affected crossbred cows. Relative expression of SELL on peripheral blood leukocytes revealed a significant 3.16 folds down regulation in SCM affected cows when compared with healthy crossbred cows (P<0.05). The possible reason for leukocytosis in SCM animals might be due to down regulation of SELL on leukocytes reducing their ability to transmigrate through blood vessel to infection site. The result of present study revealed a definite role of SELL in SCM which could be explored for therapeutic aspects in near future.

Title: Pharmacokinetics of Amikacin after Repetitive Intravenous Administration in Healthy Goats
Abstract :

Pharmacokinetic of amikacin was carried out in clinically healthy female goats of Sirohi breed following multiple once daily dose (@ 10 mg/kg bwt I/V) for five days. Concentrations of amikacin in blood plasma were estimated by microbiological assay technique and various kinetic parameters were calculated using two compartment open model. The minimum therapeutic concentration (≥ 1.0 μg/ml) was maintained up to 12 h in both 1st and 5th day of drug administration. The drug was detectable up to 24 h. Significantly higher plasma concentrations of the drug appeared at 0.042, 0.83, 0.50, 0.75, 2, 4, 8, 12 h except 0.166, 0.25, 1.0, 1.5, 6, 24 h on 5th day as compared to 1st day of drug administration. Following multiple once daily I/V administration, the values of the extrapolated zero time concentration of the drug during distribution phase (A), theoretical zero time concentration (Cpo), mean residential time (MRT) and elimination of drug from central compartment (Kel) remained non-significant, while significantly lower value of elimination rate constant (β), significantly increased value of elimination phases (B), area under curve (AUC), area under first moment curve (AUMC) and total body clearance (ClB)were observed in 5th day as compared to 1st day of amikacin administration. From these kinetic parameters, the loading (D*) and maintenance (D0) doses of 07.02 ± 0.36 and 05.91 ± 0.15 mg/kg bwt I/V, respectively were calculated for maintaining the therapeutic concentration (Cp∞ min = MIC) of 1.0 μg/ml at the dosage interval of 12 h.

Title: Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella Isolated from Flies Trapped at Animal and Poultry Farm Premises
Abstract :

The aim of this study was to explore antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella species from flies trapped at livestock and poultry farm premises. A total of 36 pools of flies and 72 rectal/cloacae swabs were collected. All the flies were Musca domestica except one fly was Calliphora erythrocephala. E. coli were recovered from all the flies (100%) and fecal (100%) samples. Whereas, Salmonellae were obtained from 21 (58.33%) flies and 15 (20.83%) fecal samples. E. coli and Salmonella isolates were multi-drug resistant strains. E. coli exhibited resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (100%), cefotaxime (93.57%), aztreonam (59.63%), cefpodoxime (58.71%) and imipenem (48.62%). Salmonellae were also 100% resistant to ampicillin-clavulanic acid followed by cefotaxime (91.66%), cefpodoxime (94.44%) and imipenem (91.66%). Colistin resistance was recorded more in Salmonella (61.11%) than E. coli (12.84%) by phenotypic assays, however, mcr1 to mcr5 genes could not be detected in any of the E. coli and Salmonella isolates. Bacteria studied were ESBL (21.10%) and MBL positive. Present study is suggestive of the fact that flies harbor multidrug resistant, ESBL, MBL and colistin resistant E. coli and Salmonella strains. Extensive monitoring of indicators organisms of AMR in unconventional reservoirs like flies is needed.

Title: Risk Factors Associated with the Lameness in Crossbred Dairy Cattle Maintained Under Field Conditions
Abstract :

A cross-sectional study was conducted with the objective to identify various risk factors associated with lameness in crossbred dairy cattle under unorganized production system in the state of Karnataka, India during November 2017 - May 2018. A total of 204 crossbred dairy cattle were investigated for lameness. The overall incidence of lameness was found to be 13.2%. The Holstein Friesian crossbred dairy cows (18.2%) were more prone to lameness than Jersey crossbred dairy cows (5.2%) The age of the animals greater than 6 years (36%), parity greater than three (21.4%), body condition score less than three (19%), animals affected with hoof disorders (35.5%), animals having white-colored hooves (41.2%), shallow foot angle (19.0%), injured hocks and knees (48.3% and 21.6% respectively) and animals maintained under unhygienic conditions (22.9%) were significant risk groups for higher incidence of lameness. Among herd management level risk factors animals kept on dirty floors (17.5%), free-stall housing (46%) and cemented floors (44.8%) had a significantly higher incidence of lameness. Results of binary logistic regression model (sensitivity 93.01%, specificity 77.8% and accuracy 97.67%) revealed a significant set of risk factors and also provided adjusted odd ratios. The results showed that hoof disorders (OR= 16.98; CI=4.67-61.66), hock injury (OR=11.99; CI=3.243-44.337) and lower body condition score (OR=6.99; CI=1.72-28.37) were the significant predictors of lameness.

Title: Management of Ocular Setaria in Horses: A Review of 16 Cases
Abstract :

Sixteen cases of horse presented with the worm in the anterior chamber of eyes were managed surgically in xylazine sedated standing horses using either blade incision (n=14) or needle paracentesis (n=2), near limbus. Vision was completely restored in all the cases with complete resolution of symptoms like corneal opacity, corneal oedema and epiphora within 25-30 days, post operatively.

Title: Prevalence of Sub-clinical Mastitis in Dairy Cow of Rewa District of Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :

Among myriads of factors causing huge loss to the dairy industry, mastitis occupies major cause of concern. Sub-clinical mastitis (SCM) is an inflammation of udder without any visible changes in the udder and milk. In this study, 242 no. of cows were screened by modified California Mastitis Test (mCMT), milk pH, electrical resistance (ER) and somatic cell count (SCC). Apparently healthy cows had the mean value of milk pH, ER, and SCC was 6.57±0.04, 356.67±13.33 and 1.52±0.12×105 cells/ ml, respectively, while the corresponding values in SCM infected cows were 7.55±0.04, 315.00±19.45 and 17.22±3.12×105 cells/ml. The overall prevalence of SCM infected cow was found to be 31.40% on animal wise, 7.85% on quarter wise, and 2.48% on blind teat wise. The individual quarter wise prevalence was found to be highest in left hind quarter (15.70%) and left fore quarter (5.78%), while lowest in right hind quarter (5.37%) and right fore quarter (4.54%). The prevalence of SCM in relation to stage of lactation in cows revealed highest (36.54%) in early stage of lactation followed by late (34.38%) and mid (27.78%) stages of lactation. The variable prevalence of SCM was observed at different stage of parity. The highest prevalence was observed at 2nd parity (66.67%) followed by 1st parity (43.33%), 4th parity (40.75%), 3rd parity (30.00%), 5th parity (19.44%), 6th parity (13.04%) and lowest at 7th and above parity (8.57%). Losses incurred due to mastitis can be minimized by improving management and milking practices.

Title: Effect of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) Leaf and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Powder as Feed Additives on Haemato-biochemical Parameters of Broiler Chicks
Abstract :

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of tulsi and ginger as feed additives on haemato-biochemical parameters of broiler chicks. Two hundred and ten day-old chicks divided into 7 groups and each group having 30 chicks. Control group was fed on basal diet and T1 and T2 group were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% of tulsi leaf powder in the ration, respectively. Likewise, G1 and G2 group were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% of ginger powder in the ration, respectively. T1G1 and T2G2 treatment groups were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% of both herbs in combination, respectively. Approximately 5 ml blood sample was collected aseptically from wing vein of six randomly selected birds from each group at 42nd day of experiment for haemato-biochemistry. Highly significant (P<0.01) effect of tulsi leaf and ginger powder was observed on Hb, PCV, TEC, TLC, total protein, AST and ALT at 42nd day of age. Serum albumin was significantly (P<0.05) increased in treatment groups G2 and T2G2. The serum glucose and triglyceride level was significantly (P<0.01) reduced in all treatment groups except T2 as compared to control group. Highest reduction in cholesterol level was observed in T2G2 group which showed non-significant difference with G2 and T1G1 group as compared to control and other treatment groups. However, creatinine and globulin showed non-significant difference among the treatment group. It may be concluded that supplementation tulsi leaf and ginger powder as feed additives improves haemato-biochemical parameters of broiler chicks.

Title: Impact of Dietary Supplementation of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Root Powder on Performances in Broilers
Abstract :
Use of antibiotics has been found to have negative effects on broiler health and its production therefore; there is a need for supplementation of herbal ingredients in broiler feed. An experiment was conducted on herbal dietary supplementation of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) root powder to study its effect on growth performance in caged broilers. A total of 48 day old broiler chicks of same hatch were procured and randomly divided into four groups with three sub groups comprising of 3 chicks in each to serve as replicates T0 (control) had standard ration as per NRC; T1 ration was supplemented with 5g Shatavari root powder /kg feed; T2 ration was supplemented with 5g Ashawagandha powder /kg feed and T3 ration was supplemented with 2.5g Shatavari +2.5g Ashawagandha powder/ kg feed. The birds were reared in battery type cages under standard managemental practices from day-old to five weeks of age. Statistically analyzed data shown that the average body weight gain, final body weight, and feed intake was significantly (p<0.05) highest in T3 group followed by T2, T0 and T1 group. Overall FCR suggested that supplementation of these feed additives did not negatively affect the FCR of caged broiler chicks. From this study it can be concluded that caged broilers supplemented with 2.5g Shatavari + 2.5g Ashawagandha powder/ kg feed may perform well in caged conditions without having negative impact on FCR of caged broiler chicks.
Title: Detection and Molecular Characterization of Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus Isolated from a Breeder Flock
Abstract :

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an economically important viral respiratory disease in poultry. Recently, re-emergence of Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) has been reported in several countries. This study reports the severe form of ILTV outbreak in a breeder flock located at Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh. Morbidity and mortality rate observed in the current outbreak were 70% and 12% respectively. On post mortem examination haemorrhage and caseous plug were noticed in the trachea. PCR for ICP4 gene was targeted for initial screening and ILTV was isolated from positive samples. Molecular characterization was carried out by gJ gene sequencing, one of the virulent gene responsible for viral egress. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the study isolate is genetically related to Australian virulent virus, Italy virulent virus, Russian virulent virus, USA virulent virus and CEO vaccines.

Title: Impact of Bio-preservatives on Sensory Quality of Milk Solids Incorporated Khoa Stored at Room Temperature (23±2°C)
Abstract :

The study was conducted to find the effectiveness of bio-preservatives and packaging method on the shelf life of milk solids based khoa. Khoa samples were prepared individually by combinations of SMP (skimmed milk powder) with ghee and whey protein concentrates and SMP with cream (50% fat). The control sample was prepared utilizing full cream buffalo milk (6% fat). Natamycin at 10 ppm and nisin at 100 IU/g were incorporated while khoa was still hot (85-90°C). The samples without biopreservatives were packaged in simple and vacuum packaging separately. The all treatments were evaluated for sensory quality during storage at room temperature (23±2 °C). The study revealed that vacuum packaged and bio-preservatives treated samples were organoleptically acceptable up to 20th day storage.

Title: Therapeutic Evaluation of Levofloxacin and Lugol’s Iodine for Subclinical Endometritis
Abstract :

Study was conducted in cross-bred cows (>60 days-in-milk) to evaluate various therapeutic regimens for Subclinical Endometritis (SCE). A total of 60 animals tested positive for SCE by Endometrial Cytology (EC) were divided into five groups with equal number. Therapeutic regimens viz. 0.3% Lugol’s iodine I/U (G-I), Lenovo-AP I/U (G-II), Meriflox I/M (G-III), Meriflox I/M + AI (G-IV) and No treatment + AI as control (G-V), each treatment opted for 3 days. In G-I, II and III, Whiteside test (WST) of Estrual Mucus and Artificial Insemination (AI) was done on subsequent estrus to evaluate recovery and conception rates, respectively. However, in G-IV and G-V, AI was performed on concurrent estrus to evaluate conception rate. Treatment efficacy was analyzed by recovery rate based on negative WST at next estrus (G-I, II, III) and conception rate evaluated based on pregnancy diagnosis after two months of AI in all groups. Group-I, II and III revealed recovery rate of 83.3%, 50% and 100% as well as conception rate of 50%, 50% and 66.7%, respectively. However, no difference was found in conception rate of G-IV (33.3%) and G-V i.e. control (33.3%). Further, treatment cost calculated per animal was `-9 for Lugol’s iodine, `-135 for Lenovo-AP and `-230 for Meriflox. In conclusion, Meriflox (Levofloxacin) by intramuscular route and AI on subsequent estrus can be recommended for treatment of SCE, and to improve conception rate. Apart from being economical, Lugol’s iodine laden with enormous benefits can be advocated as alternative treatment option via intrauterine administration for SCE.

Title: Down-Regulation of Rho GTPase-Activating Protein 7 (DLC1) in Tear Film and Modulation of Rho GTPase Dynamics by Rosuvastatin in Dogs Suffering from Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca
Abstract :

Rho GTPases activity in tear fluid as well as ocular surface epithelium (OSEC) during progression of Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and their modulation with Rosuvastatin in dogs was studied. Based on Schirmer’s tear test, KCS cases were staged as early (n= 21) and late KCS (N=14). Tear and ocular surface epithelial cell samples were collected from all cases for protein and gene expression studies. Rho GTPase activity in different stages of KCS was evaluated by tear fluid 1D-SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF/MS, western blotting and corneal tissue immuno-histochemistry (IHC). Protein expression studies showed increased expression of Rho GTPases in early and late KCS. Effect of Rosuvastatin on progression of KCS was evaluated on 12 client owned dogs divided into two groups A (control group) and B (treatment group) having six dogs in each. Group A dogs were treated with topical eye drops alone whereas, group B animals were treated with topical eye drops and Rosuvastatin orally @ 0.2 mg/kg B.W. 14 days. Tear proteomic study revealed significant down-regulation of Rho GTPase-activating protein 7 (DLC1) and up-regulation Rho modulators and Ras-related Rab proteins in KCS cases. Group B dogs showed better response in terms of corneal clarity both clinically and photographically compared to group A. Expression of Rho GTPase proteins was increased in group B compared A post treatment. On Real-Time PCR assay, mRNA expression of RhoA and GDI2 was contained post Rosuvastatin treatment in OSCEs. Rosuvastatin treatment reduced the gene expression of Rho GTPases and blocked the progression of KCS in dogs.

Title: Mode of Inheritance of Immunocompetence Traits in Three Japanese Quail Populations
Abstract :

In order to assess genetic attributes on immune traits of three varieties of domesticated Japanese quails developed by CARI (CARI-UJJAWAL, CARI-SUNEHERI AND CARI-BROWN) were chosen at random from the base populations and reared in individual cages to maintain sire and dam pedigree record system. Records of 160 progenies from 180 sires and 180 dams of each variety analysis carried using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) animal model. The progenies (480 birds) were exploited to predict the genetic variations in immune traits at 5th (Humoral) & 7th (cell mediated immunity) week of age. Analysis of data revealed that HA titre values was significantly (p<0.01) differed among the varieties and also the hatches. Sex had a no significant impact on the immune traits. For foot pad index test, varieties had significant (P<0.01) effect. But there was no significant effect between sex and also between hatches. Heritability estimates of the immunological traits based on the sire component of variance for antibody titre (HA) ranged from medium to high (0.25 to 0.44), and estimates were low in Foot pad index (0.011 to 0.171) in all the varieties.

Title: Incidence of Decreasing Population of House Crow (Corvus splendens) in Some Pockets of Malwa Region of Punjab, India
Abstract :

Not long ago, House Crow was the most wide-spread member of the Corvidae family in Punjab. Then, scattered observations revealed a decline in the population of this species, even so, that very few could be seen in many parts of Punjab. Till now there is no study on the House Crow disappearance from Punjab or any other part of the world. The present study was conducted for two continuous years from June 2015-May 2017 to obtain data on the current status of the House Crow population and to determine the possible reasons for their decline in three selected locations, viz. Ludhiana, Sangrur, and Bathinda districts falling in the Malwa region of Punjab. The survey showed that the population of House Crow in some pockets of Punjab has shown a considerable decline. These declines are troubling because the disappearance of House Crow means loss of cost-free scavenger services provided by them. This study could be used to predict and investigate the population of House Crow in other parts of Punjab and provide the baseline information for conservation practices to be adopted for the species in the state

Title: Efficiency of Dietary Supplementation of Flavonoid (Quercetin), Vegetable Oil and Its Combination on Growth Traits and Feed Conversion in Broilers
Abstract :

The study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of dietary supplementation of Flavonoid (Quercetin) compound, vegetable oil and its combination on feed intake, growth traits and feed conversion in broiler chickens. Four dietary treatments were assigned in to 192 Vencob-400 strain broiler chicks for the 35 days duration (7th-42nd days). The treatments were control (T1) without any supplementation, whereas T2, T3 and T4 supplemented with Quercetin (1g kg-1), vegetable oil (>10% of ME recommendation) and combination of Quercetin with vegetable oil, respectively. Each group comprised of four replicates (12 birds in each). All the treatment groups were fed similar corn soya based basal diet. Daily and weekly feed intake throughout the experimental period was found comparable among the dietary treatment groups except the period of 4th week, where higher (P<0.05) feed intake was observed in control (T1). During starter phase weekly body weight gain (g/bird/week) and weekly growth rate (g/bird/d) was significantly (P<0.01) differ amongst the group, which was highest in T4; while these parameters were found comparable in finisher phase. However, the cumulative weight gains and cumulative growth rate were significantly (P<0.01) higher in T3 and T4 group. Similarly, Quercetin supplementation (T2) had also revealed higher cumulative weekly weight gain and growth rate over control group (P<0.01). The feed conversion ratio was revealed better (P<0.05) in T4 group during 4th and 6th week and also for overall experiment. Thus, the supplementation of Quercetin or vegetable oil or its combination in broilers had shown a better growth performance and improvement in feed conversion ratio.

Title: Clinico-pathological Evaluation of PPR in a Flock of Ganjam Sheep and Goat in Odisha
Abstract :

Present study was aimed to investigate the mortality among a flock of Ganjam sheep and goat during December, 2016 in Odisha. These breed of small ruminant mostly reared in nomadic pattern by certain “Gola” community with native tract mostly in south-eastern and eastern-ghat of agroclimatic zones in Odisha with hot and humid climate. Clinical signs and gross lesions as observed among the animals were indicative of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR). There was nearly 90% morbidity and 42.22% mortality. Higher mortality was recorded among the weaners (~ 63%) followed by kids (~ 42%). Blood examination revealed anemia with significantly (p ≤0.05) decrease in total erythrocyte counts (TEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) through t-test. Affected animals showed leucocytosis with nutrophillia and lymphopaenia. Statistically significant (p ≤0.05) alterations in various serum biochemical parameters were evident in morbid animals. At necropsy, typical lesions were erosive as well as hemorrhagic lesions in buccal mucosa, abomasums and intestine along with fibrinous bronchopneumonia. Histopathological changes were mostly infiltrations of inflammatory cells, syncytia and presence of intranuclear and /or intracytoplasmic eosinophillic inclusions in epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, lungs and hepatocytes.

Title: Circulative Oxidative Stress Indices and Ameliorative Potential of S-Adenosyl Methionine in Canine Sarcoptes Infestation
Abstract :

Present study describes the rhythm of oxidant/antioxidant status of dogs affected with sarcoptic mange and ameliorative effects of antioxidant (S-Adenosyl Methionine) supplementation on oxidant/antioxidant status of dogs affected with sarcoptic mange. Study was undertaken on twelve client owned dogs presented at TVCC, DUVASU, Mathura, confirmed to be suffering from sarcoptic mange, which were randomly divided in two groups (group 1 and 2) irrespective of age, sex and breed, comprising of six dogs each, while six healthy dogs were taken as control. Group 1 dogs were treated with only Doramectin @ 0.4 mg/kg body weight subcutaneous weekly for 5 treatments along with standard treatment of pyoderma, whereas group 2 were additionally given S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) @ 20 mg/kg body weight orally for 28 days. In the present investigation dogs with sarcoptic mange were found in a state of oxidative stress as indicated by significantly elevated Total Oxidant Status (TOS) and Oxidative Stress Index (OSI) values and significantly reduced Total Antioxidant Capacity (T-AOC) values as compared to healthy dogs. The dogs of group 2 showed better clinical recovery and marked ameliorations in TOS, T-AOC and OSI values in comparison to group 1 at the end of therapy. On the basis of findings of present investigation, it is concluded that administration of SAMe in addition to standard therapy can mitigate these alterations expediting the clinical recovery of diseased dogs and therefore can be recommended as an adjunct therapy with miticides for management of canine sarcoptic mange.

Title: Effect of Replacement of Conventional Feeds by Prosopis juliflora Pods and Citrullus lanatus Seed Cake on Nutrient Utilization in Marwari Goats
Abstract :

A study was organized to evaluate the effect of replacement of barley and cottonseed cake by mesquite Prosopis juliflora pods (PJP) and watermelon seed (WMS) cake, respectively in complete feed with sixteen Marwari buckling goats. They were divided into four groups of four animals in each. Four complete feed designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 were prepared. T1 served as control having all the conventional ingredients whereas barley of control was replaced by mesquite PJP in T2, cottonseed cake was replaced by WMS (Citrullus lanatus) cake in T3 and both barley and cottonseed cake were replaced by mesquite PJP and WMS cake in T4, respectively. The DM intakes, digestibility of DM and gross nutrients, digestible nutrient intake, feed efficiency, were worked out for all the groups. Significant effects of treatment on DM intake, digestibility of CP were observed whereas effects on digestibility of DM, EE, CF and NFE were non-significant. It is concluded that both barley and cottonseed cake could be safely and effectively replaced by the mesquite PJP and WMS cake alone or in combination in the complete feed of goats.

Title: Effect of Feeding Rice Based Distillers Dried Grains Solubles with and without Enzymes on Gut health of Broiler Chickens
Abstract :

A biological experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding rice based distillers dried grain with solubles (rDDGS) without or with different enzymes on gut health in broiler chickens for 42 days. The experiment was conducted as per 3x4 factorial completely randomized design. A total of 384 broiler chicks were divided into twelve different treatments with 4 replicates for each treatment and each replicate consisted of 8 chicks. Two levels of rDDGS were taken (12.5 and 15%). Protease, xylanase and multienzymes supplementation under different treatments were done. The jejunum histomorphometry in terms of villus height (VH) and their ratio with villus depth (VD) were found significantly (P<0.01) lower at 15% rDDGS level compared to control and 12.5% levels. The xylanase and protease enzyme supplementation significantly (P<0.01) increased the VH and their ratio with VD as compared to control and multienzymes supplemented group. The interaction effect rDDGS and enzyme supplementation was found on VH and VD ratio, where higher ratio was observed at 12.5% rDDGS level with protease enzyme and lower ratio was observed at 15% rDDGS level without enzyme supplementation. The microbiology of the gut in terms of total viable count (TVC) of crop and jejunum significantly (P<0.01) decreased upon increasing rDDGS levels compared to control, whereas reverse effect was observed on Lactobacillus. Thus, it may be concluded that enzymes supplementation improved histomorphometry and microbiology of the gut in broiler chickens at inclusion level of 12.5% rDDGS.

Title: Effect of Different Levels of Rice Gluten Meal with and without Enzyme Supplementation on Duodenal Morphology of Broilers
Abstract :

Rice Gluten Meal availability is more, and it is also a low-cost feed source that can be used as substitute for protein sources in broiler diets. Present study evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation of rice gluten meal (RGM) with and without enzyme on duodenal morphology. 240-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to six groups with four replicates. During this experiment starter, grower and finisher period, experimental diets were fed to birds which were isonitrogenous and isocaloric formulated with different levels of RGM. They were T1 (control, without RGM and enzyme), T2 (control, without RGM and with cocktail of enzyme @100g/q feed), T3 (10% RGM), T4 (10% RGM with cocktail of enzyme @100g/q feed), T5 (15% RGM), T6 (15% RGM with cocktail of enzyme @100g/q feed). The birds of equal body weight were slaughtered on 42nd day. After thorough examination sections of duodenum were collected and processed for histomorphology. Images were taken to measure villi height and crypt depth. The present study showed the villus height was greater in the duodenum while there was a tendency for increased villus height to crypt depth ratio in the duodenum of broilers supplemented with 15% rice gluten meal. These results indicated that rice gluten meal enhanced the villus development in the small intestine of broilers

Title: Effect of Melatonin Supplementation on Physiological Observations in Buffalo Calves under Summer Stress
Abstract :

A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of melatonin supplementation on physiological parameters in buffalo calves under summer stress. Twelve healthy Murrah buffalo male calves of 6 month to 1 year age group were taken for the study. Buffalo calves were divided into control (CG) and treatment (TG) group. In TG, Melatonin (18 mg/50 kg BW) was injected subcutaneously, two times at 1st and 20th day. Rectal temperature (RT) (°F), respiratory rate (RR) (breathes per minute) and pulse rate (PR) (beats per minute) was recorded by a clinical thermometer, flank movement and by palpating the coccygeal artery respectively. RT, RR and PR differed significantly (P<0.05) in CG and TG between morning and afternoon. RT, RR & PR were increased significantly (P<0.05) from morning to afternoon in both the groups. During afternoon the rectal temperature was significantly (P<0.05) lower in treatment group. In conclusion, melatonin affected the fluctuation in physiological activity

Title: Propagation of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) Virus in Vero Cells for Vaccine Production using Tide Motion Bioreactor
Abstract :

Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR) is considered as one of the major constraints to the productivity of small ruminants in India. Currently PPR control is done by vaccination with an attenuated PPR strain (Sungri/96) produced in monolayers of vero cells grown in roller bottles or static flasks. This work focuses on the production of PPR vaccine using tide motion bio reactor as an advanced option for process scale-up. Both the roller and bio reactor cultures were propagated under same cultural conditions and infected with same multiplicity of infection of PPR vaccine virus. Assessment of infectivity titres determined at periodic intervals in both cultures revealed that the bio reactor culture produced higher amount of virus than the stationary cultures post infection. The results provide further insights into the feasibility of applying tide motion bio reactor cell culture technology to produce PPR vaccine in vero cells significantly simplifying the existing production process.

Title: Effect of Supplementing Butyric Acid on Growth Performance and Carcass Quality Traits in Broiler
Abstract :

The effect of supplementing different levels of butyric acid on the growth performance and carcass characteristics traits on broiler chickens was observed in the present experiment. One hundred and eighty day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 400) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (Control, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of Butyric acid). Each treatment was replicated three times with15 birds/replicate. Growth performance e.g. feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio were observed. Carcass characteristics traits and development of digestive organs were observed by sacrificing four birds per group at the end of the trial. Weekly body weight gain was found to increase significantly in all supplemented groups on 6th week. Overall body weight gain was found higher in T3 group than other groups. The eviscerated yield (gm) and eviscerated yield (%) were represented to highest in T4 supplemented group whereas ready to cook yield (gm) and ready to cook yield (%) is also highest in T4 supplemented group than control. Digestive organ except proventricular (%) and cecal length (%) were found to differ significantly in all experimental groups. Small intestine (%), small intestine length (%) and large intestine (%) were observed to highest in T4 supplemented group than control. The results indicated that supplementation of butyric acid up to the level of 1.5% of feed improves the growth performance and feed utilization in commercial broiler without having any adverse effect on carcass quality traits in commercial broiler.

Title: Secondary Sex Ratio in Gir Cattle and Assessment of Risk Factors
Abstract :

Present study was conducted to assess the influence of calf, dam and sire factors on female calves born in Gir cattle. Records pertaining to calf sex (n=1307), spreaded over 10 years (2010-2019) and various calf factors viz. period, month, season and sex of calf; dam factors viz. age, parity and gestation period and sire factors were used for the study. Female calf born in Gir cattle was 49.96%. Calf sex was not affected by period of birth (p=0.26), but significantly higher proportion of female birth than male (60.22% vs. 39.78%) occurred in 2013 (p<0.05). Odds of female calf being born was 1.75 times higher in 2013 as compared to 2010 (OR=1.75, p=0.04). Month (p=0.31) and season (p=0.41) of birth did not affect calf sex. There was significantly higher chances of female birth during February (OR=1.66, p=0.05) and March (OR=1.67, p=0.04) as compared to January. Calf sex was not affected by age (p=0.44) and parity (p=0.85) of dam. With increase in gestation length the birth frequency of female calf decreased significantly (p<0.001). Compared to gestation period of >290 days, the odds of female calf born increased by 2.25 (OR=2.25, p=0.001) and 2.27 (OR=2.27, p=0.001) times with gestation period of <275 and 275-290 days, respectively. Sire wise data showed that proportion of female birth ranged from 22 to 90%, but female calf born from different sires did not differ statistically (p=0.13). Chances of female birth was significantly higher (OR=3.79-31.5, p<0.05) in 12 sires. The results indicated that gestational length had significant effect on secondary calf sex ratio in Gir cattle and dam with shorter gestation period delivered more number of female calves.

Title: Nutritional Value and Physico-chemical Properties of Dog Diet in Sub-mountainous Zone of Punjab
Abstract :

A total of 50 samples of dog diet were collected from six districts i.e. Gurdaspur, Pathankot, Ropar, Mohali, Hoshiarpur and Nawanshahr of sub-mountainous zone of Punjab. These samples comprise of milk, chapatti, pulses, fruits, meat, eggs, vegetables etc. The collected samples were evaluated for proximate analysis (Crude protein (CP), ether extracts (EE), total ash (TA), acid insoluble ash (AIA) and crude fiber), minerals (calcium and phosphorus), physiochemical properties (pH, free fatty acids and peroxide value) and microbiological counts (total plate count, coliform count and staphylococcus count). The crude protein (CP), ether extracts (EE), total ash (TA), acid insoluble ash (AIA) and crude fiber values were in the range of 11.37-27.1%, 2.45-15.07%, 1.5-9.47%, 0.01-0.85%, 1.4-6.0% respectively. The pH, free fatty acids, peroxide value, total plate count, coliform counts, staphylococcal counts were in the range of 3.68-5.06, 0.08-0.41%, 0.29-1.13 meq/Kg, 2.14-2.51 cfu/gm, 1.07-1.53 cfu/gm and 0.22-0.64 cfu/gm respectively.

Title: Time Series Investigation of Milk Production in Major States of India Using ARIMA Modeling
Abstract :

In India, white revolution was started during 1970’s with Operation flood programme. After this revolution, production of milk in India had tremendously increased. Contribution of diary sector has continuously increased in Indian Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Livestock sector has emerged as an essential growth driver of the Indian wealth. This study is associated with time series data of five major milk producing states in 2017-18 in India. The milk production projection has been made using Auto Regressive Integrated Moving average model (ARIMA) for year 2024-25. From the forecasted figures, Uttar Pradesh would be leading states of India in milk production with 37.68 MMT in year 2024-25. Whole India milk production would reach 252.948 MMT in year 2024-25. This projection helps in formulating national agricultural policy as well as proper planning for products into dairy sector.

Title: Comparison of Calving and Conception Rate after Timed Artificial Insemination (AI) with Estrus Synchronization Protocols in Crossbred Cows under Field Conditions
Abstract :

This study was performed in 48 cross bred cows to evaluate the comparative efficacy of different estrus synchronization protocols with fixed time artificial insemination. Animals were allocated into four groups i.e. Group I: (n=12, Two Injection Prostaglandin system) Cloprostenol Sodium 500 μgm on day 0 and day 14 and AI was done 48 and 72 hours from second dose. Group II: (n=12, Heat-synch) day 0 Buserelin acetate 20 μgm, day 7 Cloprostenol sodium 500 μgm, on Day 8, Estradiol benzoate (1 ml) and AI on day 10. Group III: (n=12, Ov-Synch) day 0 Bruserelin acetate 20 μgm, day 7 Cloprostenol sodium 500 μgm, Day 9 Buserelin acetate 20 μgm and A.I. on day 10. Group IV: (n=12, Ov-Synch plus Indigenous progesterone sponge) on day 0 Buserelin acetate 20 μgm along with insertion of progesterone sponge with 1.20 gm natural progesterone, day 7 Cloprostenol sodium 500 μgm and removal of progesterone sponge, day 9, Buserelin acetate 20 μgm and AI on day 10. Inj. Buserelin acetate 20 μgm was administered on day 6th from AI in Group II, III and IV. Pregnancy was detected per rectally on day 40 after AI. In present study, estrus ratio was higher in Group II (91.66%) followed by group IV and Group III. Conception rate was significantly higher in Group III (100%). The calving percentage was significantly lower in group I and highest in Group III (100%), the difference in conception and calving rate suggests the minimum embryonic losses in Group I, but no embryonic loss was recorded in Group III, IV and II.

Title: Effect of Phytogenic Mixture Supplementation on Carcass Characteristics and Cost of Production in Broiler Chickens during Winter Season
Abstract :

In present experiment 288 day-old commercial broiler chicks were subjected to eight dietary treatments consisting of three replicates of twelve chicks in each replicate were reared for a period of 6 weeks in winter season. The dietary treatments includes: T0- Negative control, T1-control, T2-0.5 % Amla + 0.5 % Ashwagandha + 0.25 % Turmeric powder, T3-0.25 % Amla + 0.5% Ashwagandha + 0.25% Turmeric powder, T4-0.125% Amla + 0.5 % Ashwagandha + 0.25 % Turmeric powder, T5- 0.5 % Amla + 0.25 % Ashwagandha + 0.25 % Turmeric powder, T6-0.5 % Amla + 0.125 % Ashwagandha + 0.25 % Turmeric powder and T7-0.5 % Amla + 0.5 % Ashwagandha + 0.125 % Turmeric powder. Standard managemental practices were followed during the experimental period. Supplementation of phytogenic mixture consisting of 0.5 % amla and 0.5 % Ashwagandha with 0.25% or 0.125 % turmeric powder (T2 and T7) gave best results and improved the giblet percentage, eviscerated weight percentage and drawn percentage in winter season. The cost of production of drawn weight (`/kg) of broilers at six weeks of age was reduced as much as ` 10.23 (T2) and ` 9.48 (T7) in winter season. The study concluded that addition of 0.5 % amla and 0.5 % Ashwagandha with 0.25% or 0.125 % turmeric powder can be effectively supplemented as an alternative to antibiotics growth promoter in poultry ration in winter for improving the carcass characteristics and such ration was found more economical in comparison to that having antibiotic growth promoter

Title: Ecology of Gastrointestinal Parasites Interactions in Wild Gaur (Bos gaurus)
Abstract :

The Gaur (Bos gaurus), or the Indian bison, is native to South and Southeast Asia and has been listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 1986. Diseases manifestation may reduce the body potentials leading to morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the health parameters and gastrointestinal parasites infection in free-ranging gaurs as well as other wild animals. A detailed study was conducted to know the epidemiology and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in wild Gaur (Bos gaurus) at Satpura Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India. A total of 90 fecal samples from wild Gaur were collected from the grazing area of the tiger reserve. Detailed coprological examination for the presence of parasitic eggs/oocysts by direct smear examination, standard sedimentation, and floatation techniques was performed. Out of the 90 fecal samples of wild Gaur, 41.11% were found positive for single or mixed parasitic infection. The overall prevalence rate of Strongyles was maximum 13 (14.44%) followed by that of Eimeria sp. 11 (12.22%), Moniezia sp. 10 (11.11%), Amphistomes 6 (6.66%), Trichuris sp. 5 (5.55%), and Fasciola sp. 3 (3.33%). Wild gaurs at Satpura Tiger Reserve were exposed to parasites having pathogenic significance.

Title: Prevalence of Various Reproductive Disorders in the Foothills of Himalaya
Abstract :

The study was carried out to investigate the incidence of reproductive disorders in Assam region of India. A total of 554 crossbred cows were screened and survey was made to rule out prevalence of reproductive diseases. The risk factors such as age and parity were also taken into account to find the relation with occurrence of reproductive disorders. The anestrus (51.12%), repeat breeding (RB; 33.71%), retention of fetal membrane (RFM; 5.06%), dystocia (4.50%), abortion and cervico-vaginal prolapse (2.81%) were recognized as major reproductive disorder in Assam. Age had non-significant (P>0.05) effect in the prevalence of the diseases. However, incidences of anestrus, dystocia and RB, abortion, cervico-vaginal prolapse and RFM were found highest in age group of ≤ 3 and 4-7 and ≥ 8 years, respectively. Parity had significant effect on incidences of anestrus (P<0.05) and RB (P<0.01) however, had no significance effect on other disorders. The result specified adverse climatic condition, low pH of soil, poor managemental practices by dairy producers had contributed in the occurrence of reproductive disorders. Therefore, knowledge regarding the prevalence and factor associated with reproductive diseases could be fruitful to alleviate the problem.

Title: Investigation and Therapeutic Management of Hymenolepiosis in Wistar Rats from Chhattisgarh
Abstract :

The present investigation was aimed to know the cause of sudden mortality among Wistar rats in a rat colony. The dead rats (n=20) were subjected to necropsy examination. Intestinal lumens were examined to know the presence of parasites or parasitic body parts. Intestinal faecal contents were collected for identification of the parasitic eggs. Intestinal tissues were collected for histopathological examination. Necropsy revealed the presence of cestodes in the intestinal lumen. The intestines were found to be haemorrhagic and filled with serous and blood tinged contents. The cestode worms were identified as Hymenolepis diminuta based on gross morphological examination of the adult worms and microscopic examination of the eggs. Histopathology revealed necrosis of enterocytes, blunting of villi, degeneration and necrosis of villous and crypt epithelium. The diseased rats were observed for clinical signs and symptoms. Clinically, the rats showed inappetence, dullness, depression, loss of body weight, rough hair coat and a typical hunchback posture. The affected rats were treated by oral administration of Praziquantel, Pyrantel Pamoate and Febantel combination (kiwof plus tablet, Savavet) at a dose rate of 6 mg/kg body weight. The rats were cured after anthelmintic treatment. The present study highlighted the occurrence of hymenolepiosis that caused high mortality among Wistar rats. This study emphasizes the necessity of rapid and specific disease diagnosis and treatment to control the mortality among affected rats and to prevent and control the further spread of parasitic infection among susceptible rats and in the personnel in close surroundings of the infected rats.

Title: Studies on Productive Performance and Biometry in Traditionally Reared Indigenous Goats of Andhra Pradesh
Abstract :

Data collected on body weights and biometrical measurements i.e., height at withers, chest girth, body length, hip width, paunch girth, face length, ear length and tail length of 1421 goats at milk teeth, 2, 4, 6 and 8-teeth of age reared under field conditions in Rayalaseema region (Chittoor, YSR Kadapa, Anantapur and Kurnool) of Andhra Pradesh were subjected to least squares analysis to study the effect of district and sex. The least squares analysis of variance revealed significant effects of district and sex on body weights and measurements at one or the other ages studied. The overall least squares mean body weights (kg) at milk teeth, 2, 4, 6 and 8-teeth ages were 13.97 ± ± 0.16,20.57 ± 0.38, 26.56 ± 0.68, 30.66 ± 0.62 and 34.64 ± 0.85, respectively. The overall least squares means for height at withers, chest girth, body length, hip width, paunch girth, face length, ear length and tail length at milk teeth age were 66.60 ± 0.29, 61.08 ± 0.25, 53.24 ± 0.25, 13.02 ± 0.08, 61.05 ± 0.27, 16.65 ± 0.10, 14.66 ± 0.08 and 14.51 ± 0.09 cm, respectively and the corresponding means at 8 teeth were 84.07 ± 0.72, 82.83 ± 0.69, 69.66 ± 0.99, 18.05 ± 0.56, 83.50 ± 0.95, 20.78 ± 0.24, 16.39 ± 0.30 and 16.56 ± 0.32 cm. The least squares mean were higher in males than in females and increased as age advances

Title: Screening and Association of Polymorphism in Alpha-Lactalbumin Gene in Holstein Friesian Crossbred Cattle
Abstract :

This study was done to monitor milk protein variations in α-lactalbumin gene (LALBA) and to determine possible associations with various performance traits in Holstein Friesian (HF) crossbred cattle. Present study was conducted on 546 records of 60 HF crossbred cattle maintained at livestock farms, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab. The records consists of data pertaining to weight at first calving (WFC), first lactation milk yield (FLMY), first lactation 305-days milk yield (FL305-dMY), first lactation length (FLL), first peak yield (FPY), days to attain peak yield (DPY), age at first calving (AFC), first service period (FSP), first dry period (FDP) and first calving interval (FCI). PCR-RFLP technique was used to categorize the different alleles in the population. Genetic polymorphism was recognized by using MnlI restriction enzymatic digestion followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The test revealed occurrence of two genetic variants “A” and “B” for LALBA gene which was further confirmed by performing sequencing of amplified fragments. Sequence alignment revealed 2 SNP’s in the whole 166 bp fragment, one SNP is present in the 5’UTR region of exon and one in promoter region. Gene regulation study revealed “Antp” transcription factor not binding at 35 to 44 bp due to point mutation at 37 bp of A>G, suggesting modulation of transcription. Association study showed significant (p≤0.05) relation of LALBA gene “BB” genotype with high first lactation peak yield (FLPY). Further investigations are required to elucidate the biological and practical relevance of these SNP’s and change in transcription factor.

Title: Association between Plumage Colour and Body Weight in Native Chickens
Abstract :

A study was conducted using 800-day old native chickens were procured from Veterinary College Hebbal. The chickens body weight was weighed, wing banded and reared under same environmental condition under deep litter system. The vaccination was performed against Newcastle Disease (ND) on 7th day and Infectious Bursal  Disease (IBD) on 14th day and booster on 21st and 28th day, respectively. The two hundred (200) each chick of White, Brown, Black and Mixed Plumage pattern of native chicks were selected for the study. The average day-old body weight was 31.10 ± 1.10, 30.20 ± 1.32, 31.08 ± 0.89 and 28.70 ± 1.40 gm white, brown, black and mixed plumage pattern, respectively. The body weight was recorded in 2nd, 4th and 6th week of age showed an average body weight of 106.44 ± 11.97, 111.68 ± 11.53, 118.36 ± 9.08 and 108.68 ± 11.53 gm in 2nd week, 204.60 ± 27.60, 212.40 ± 27.07, 225.90 ± 21.00 and 202.12 ± 18.40 gm in fourth week and 361.80 ±56.00, 382.50± 54.00, 407.12 ± 35.76 and 366.48 ± 54.36 gm in sixth week of age for white, brown, black and mixed plumage pattern respectively. The highest body weight was observed in black plumage-coloured birds followed by brown plumage and there was no significant difference between white and mixed coloured plumage birds. This study revealed that the darker coloured plumage chickens could be selected for future breeding programme at an early age and also increase the body weight of the birds.

Title: Intrinsic Risk Factors for Bovine Tropical Theileriosis in Indian Cattle:A Meta-Analysis
Abstract :

Meta-analysis of systematically selected studies published during 2015-2020 on the prevalence of bovine tropical theileriosis from Indian cattle was done. It was found that age, sex and breed of cattle are important risk factors to get infected with Thieleria sp. Adult cattle are found at higher risk of getting infected with BTT than the younger stocks with an odds ratio of 2.062, however as regards sex of the cattle is concerned cows are little more susceptible to BTT than bullocks / bulls with an odds ratio of 1.632. The breed factor of cattle has shown that exotic/ crossbred cattle are more prone to contract BTT with an odds ratio of 2.113. The meta-analysis showed no publication bias.

Title: Assessment of Livestock Production Technologies and Package of Practices through Multivariate Typology: A Case of Maharashtra, India
Abstract :

The study was carried out in four different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra. A typology was developed applying multivariate statistical techniques i.e. Cluster analysis (CA) to classify groups of farm households with similar farm characteristics into four homogenous clusters, (i) households possessing small landholding, a larger high yielding dairy stock with small goat flock size (37.5%), (ii) households having small landholding with a small stock of high yielding dairy animal and small goat flock size (39%), (iii) households having large landholding with large high yielding dairy stock and small flock size (13.5%) and (iv) households possessing small landholding with small high yielding dairy stock and large flock size (10%). An assessment in terms of awareness, knowledge and adoption of dairy technologies and goat production practices were carried out across the clusters which was found significantly high within the household of cluster 3 and 4. The overall adoption index was found to be 65.16 per cent across the whole clusters. Multiple regression analysis revealed that total SAU, flock size, occupation, innovative proneness, scientific orientation, awareness of technology and knowledge of technology contribute positively (P<0.01, P<0.05) to the adoption of technology. The coefficient of determination was found (R2 =0.66) across the whole clusters.

Title: Association Analyses of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Leptin Receptor Gene with Reproduction and Production Traits in High Yielding Indian Cow Breed
Abstract :

The present study was designed with the aim to identify the polymorphism of bovine leptin receptor gene and their association with production and reproduction traits in population of Sahiwal cows. Blood samples were collected from 69 Sahiwal cows and genomic DNA was harvested for analyzing the genetic polymorphism in LEPR gene by PCR-RFLP (LEPR/BseGI) method. The results revealed three genotypes CT, CC, and TT in the population with 47.83, 36.23 and 15.94% gentotypic frequency, respectively and two alleles C and T with 0.60 and 0.40 allelic frequency, respectively. The LEPR/BseGI assay revealed significant association of genetic polymorphism on LP, TMY, MY300, and PY in third lactation in Sahiwal cows while PCR-RFLP assay did not reveal association of genetic polymorphism on reproductive traits. In conclusion, SNP identified in the LEPR gene and its association with production traits advocates that this gene might serve as a candidate genetic marker for selection of Sahiwal cattle with better milk yield. However, further studies are needed to validate this SNP of the LEPR gene in another breed and population of dairy cattle and its association with other production and reproduction traits further needed to be verified.

Title: Evaluation of Terminalia arjuna in Comparison to Taurine against Experimental Hepatotoxicity due to Cisplatin in Rats
Abstract :

Toxic effects of cisplatin (CP) and protective role of Terminalia arjuna (TA) and taurine were assessed on hepatic biomarkers using a total of 36 male Wistar albino rats that were grouped randomly into six groups (n=6). Group 1 acted as normal control. Groups 2, 5 and 6 were treated with CP @ 5 mg/kg b.wt, intraperitoneally on day 1 for cisplatin exposure. Thereafter, groups 3 and 5 were treated with TA @ 400 mg/kg b.wt. and groups 4, 6 with taurine @ 1000 mg/kg b.wt. orally for 14 days. Later rats were euthanized for histopathology of liver. Serum ALT was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in group 2. The tissue enzyme assays revealed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in TBARS and protein carbonyls and significant (P < 0.05) decrease in GSH in group 2 as compared to other groups. The concentration of cytokines showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in TNF-alpha and IL-10 in group 2 when compared with group 1. Sections of liver tissue showed marked changes i.e., central vein dilation with oedema, congestion and degenerative changes with pyknotic and condensed nuclei in few hepatocytes. The groups 5 and 6 treatedwith respective dose of TA and taurine showed mild to moderate improvement in all the parameters in comparison to group 2. It is concluded that supplementation of Terminalia arjuna and taurine was found beneficial in countering the toxic effects of cisplatin on liver.

Title: Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Butea frondosa (Koeing ex Roxb.) Seeds Extracts Against Benzimidazole Resistant Caprine Gastrointestinal Nematodes
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of crude aqueous and methanolic extract of Butea frondosa seeds extracts against benzimidazole resistant gastrointestinal nematodes of goats through in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro investigation was carried out by egg hatch assay (EHA), larval paralysis test (LPT) and adult mortality test (AMT) against different stages of gastrointestinal nematodes whereas, in vivo by faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test in goats naturally infected with benzimidazole resistant GI nematodes. In in vitro trial, methanolic extract showed better ED50 in egg hatch assay and larval paralysis test as compared to aqueous extract. Moreover, in adult mortality tests, the methanolic extract gave better average corrected mortality as compared to aqueous extract. In vivo results revealed that the group treated with methanolic extracts showed the significant reduction (p<0.05) on 21st day whereas, the group treated with aqueous extract showed the highest and significant reduction (p<0.01) on 14th day. The results of both in vitro and in vivo trials suggest that B. frondosa possess anthelmintic activity and could be considered as one of the alternatives to the chemical anthelmintic.

Title: Effect of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Powder and Synbiotic as Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoter on the Growth Performance and Mortality of Broiler Chicks
Abstract :

The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa) powder and synbiotic as alternative to antibiotic growth promoter on growth performance of broiler chicks. Total 150 day-old chicks were purchased and randomly divided into 5 treatments having 30 chicks in each group with three replicates of 10 chicks in each. The five dietary treatments were designated as T1 control group (basal diet), T2 supplemented with antibiotic @ 0.02% level, T3 supplemented with turmeric @ 0.5% level, T4 supplemented with synbiotic @ 0.05% level and T5 supplemented with turmeric @ 0.25% + synbiotic @ 0.025% in the diet. Highly significant (P<0.01) effect of dietary treatment was observed on growth performance and mortality percent as compared to control and antibiotic supplemented group. Highest body weight was observed in T5 group and lowest in control group. Body weight gain, daily weight gain, feed consumption and performance index was found significantly (P<0.01) higher in T5 group which was comparable with T4 group and lowest was recorded in control group which showed non-significant difference with T2 group i.e. antibiotic supplemented group. Significantly (P<0.01) lowest feed conversion ratio and highest protein efficiency ratio was observed in T5 group as compared to control group. Mortality was reduced in all treatment groups as compared to control group. It can be concluded that as an alternative to antibiotics, turmeric plus synbiotic supplementation can be used to increase the growth performance and livability of broiler chicken in the post-antibiotic period.

Title: Gastrointestinal Helminthic Challenges in Sheep and Goats in Afro-Asian Region: A Review
Abstract :

Sheep and goats, being hardy and prolific in their growth, play a crucial role in cultural and socioeconomic life of rural poor under privileged people in Afro-Asian countries by providing meat, milk, wool and hide to them. Gastrointestinal helminthic infections are worldwide problem in ruminants. They results considerable loss in them causing mortality and poor production. Various helminthes types like trematodes, cestodes and nematodes are prevalent in different climates and geographical regions depending on rearing systems, intermediate host’s availability and management practices. Epidemiology of helminthic diseases, though variable at times, is determined by various factors like treatment, climate and poverty (socio-economic and traditional practices). The study oversees gastrointestinal helminthic challenges in goats and sheep faced in Afro-Asian region in last decade. Methodology involves exhaustive exercise of screening and massive literature hunt which included published research, both abstracts and full length papers on the subject in last 10 years in addition to authors own observations. The diseases like Fasciolosis, Dicrocoelosis, Amphistomosis in trematodes, Monieziosis, Avitellinosis in cestodes and Haemonchosis, Trichostronglylosis, Oesophagostomosis, Trichuriosis, Strongyloidosis in nematodes were still serious challenges in the region threatening the small ruminant production. Frequent reports on Marshallgia, Ostertagia, Nematodirus, Stilesia, Thysaniezia spp. from this region showed emerging threats. Infections like Camelostrongylus, Graphidiops, Parabronema and Skrjabinema spp. were scarcely distributed. The paper reviews scientific work and developments of last 10 years on occurrence, distribution and epidemiology of common gastrointestinal helminthic infections of sheep and goats in Afro-Asian region with future research prospective in light of newer scientific approaches

Title: Modulation of Stocking Densities in California Cages to Enhance the Production and Welfare of Commercial Laying Hens
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out to investigate the optimum stocking density in conventional California cages depending on the production performance and welfare of commercial white leghorn hens. To achieve the objectives of the designed experiment total 270 commercial white leghorn layer strain of BV 300 were maintained into four stocking densities that is 60 sq. inch (T1), 75 sq. inch (T2), 85 sq. inch (T3) and 100 sq. inch per bird for 20 weeks period, with 18 replicates in each treatment. At the end of the experimental period the birds reared in 85 sq. inch and 100 sq. inches had significantly (P<0.001) higher percentage of hen day egg production, better feed conversion ratio, minimum cost of production per egg & higher egg weight (P<0.05) compared to the birds reared in 60 and 75 sq. inches group. Physiological indicators of welfare i.e. H/L ratio and Corticosterone was significantly better in birds reared at stocking density 85 sq. inch when compared to 60 sq. inches group. Laying hens maintained in California cages at stocking density of 85 and 100 sq. inch per bird recorded the best production and welfare parameters. Therefore, considering best utilization of the space with due weightage to welfare, the commercial layer birds reared at stocking density 85 to 100 sq inch per bird performed well.

Title: Epidemiological Studies on Gastrointestinal Helminthic Infections in Dairy Animals of Transitional Plain in Luni Basin of Rajasthan
Abstract :

A total of 625 faecal samples were collected from dairy animals of transitional plain in Luni basin of Rajasthan during winter, summer and rainy season from November 2018 to October 2019. Coprological examination revealed an overall prevalence of 66.88% for gastrointestinal helminths (GIH) with mixed infection of 26.24%. Among helminths, strongyle (60.00%) showed highest prevalence followed by Strongyloides sp. (17.60%), Trichuris sp. (8.16%), amphistome (5.76%), Moniezia sp. (4.00%) and Capillaria sp. (0.48%). Native cattle (76.78%) showed a significantly higher (p<0.01) prevalence followed by crossbred cattle (67.93%) and buffaloes (55.76%). Seasonal dynamics revealed a highly significant statistical seasonal variation (p<0.01) with maximum infection in rainy season (74.29%) whereas, a non significant statistical difference in district wise prevalence was reported with the highest prevalence rate in Sirohi district (74.66%). Coprolculture analysis revealed the presence of larvae of genera Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, Trichostrongylus, Bunostomum and Strongyloides in the decreasing order of prevalence.

Title: Biometrical Changes in Reproductive Organs of Bakharwal Goats with Age
Abstract :

To study the biometry of genital organs of Bakharwal goats, twenty reproductive tracts were collected from slaughterhouses of Jammu during October 2014 to December 2014. Based on the age of slaughtered animals, the reproductive tracts were divided into two groups (group A, age between 12-18 months and group B, age between 24-30 months). For cervix length and width and thickness, the average measurements of group A were 4.31 ± 0.02 cm, 1.24 ± 0.03 cm, 0.54±0.02 and in group B were 4.44 ± 0.03 cm, 1.37 ± 0.01 cm, 0.61± 0.02, respectively. Similarly in group A, the average size of body of uterus was 3.31± 0.03 cm, 1.53 ± 0.01cm, 0.56 ± 0.02 cm and in group B, 3.47 ±0.11 cm, 1.60 ± 0.03 cm, 0.64 ± 0.01 cm. The average size of the right horn of uterus in group A was 13.98 ± 0.39 cm, 1.83 ± 0.02 cm, 0.57 ± 0.03 cm and the size of the left horn of uterus was 14.62 ± 0.30 cm, 1.02 ± 0.04 cm, 0.45 ±0.03 cm while the average size of the right horn of uterus in group B was 15.51 ± 0.19cm, 1.90 ± 0.02cm, 0.62 ± 0.26 cm and the size of the left horn of uterus was 15.6 ± 0.35 cm, 1.01 ± 0.04 cm, 0.57 ± 0.02 cm for length, width and thickness, respectively. Mean length of right and left fallopian tube in group A was 18.18 ± 0.25 cm, 17.70 ± 0.28 cm while in group B was 19.11 ± 0.10 cm, 17.90 ± 0.20 cm. In group A the average size of the right ovary was 1.98 ± 0.05cm, 1.00 ± 0.04 cm, 0.66 ± 0.03 cm while in left ovary 1.88 ± 0.26 cm, 1.15 ± 0.15, 0.64 ± 0.04 cm for length, width and thickness, respectively. Similarly, in group B the average size of the right ovary was 2.11± 0.05 cm, 1.10 ± 0.05 cm, 0.60 ± 0.02 cm while in left ovary 2.00 ± 0.02 cm, 1.30 ±0.11 cm. 0.66 ± 0.03 cm, for length, width, and thickness, respectively. It was concluded that the size of genital organs of Bakharwal goat increases with age during 12-18 months to 24-30 months of age.

Title: Secular Analysis of Domestic Animals Composition in Indian Context: Recent Evidence
Abstract :

India is a developing country, where livestock sector is highly dynamic due to rapidly increasing demand for animal products in various sectors. Livestock sector contributes about 37 and 4.1 percent in agriculture and gross domestic product (GDP) respectively, of the country. It contributes in the socio-economic development of rural livelihoods. It is revealed from the investigation that in India, about 50 per cent of bovine (buffalo and cattle) population is maintained by the marginal farming households. We have argued that women have predominant responsibility for animal rearing. The productions of milk, meat and wool have increased tremendously with the increase in livestock composition. Despite the fact that exports of livestock sector have expanded in numerous times over the study period. India held strong position in exports of livestock products as poultry and dairy produce and buffalo’s meat. Study purposes that the Central Government of India should recognize and agree to implement the new programmes to expand the production behaviour of livestock products particularly in drought areas.

Title: Evaluation of PRP drop and L-PRF Membrane for Aggressive Ulcerative Keratitis in Dogs
Abstract :

Melting ulcer, moderate and severe aggressive ulcerative keratitis pose a threat for staphyloma formation, perforations and blindness. The only resort to correct such condition remains corneal transplantation. Due to various shortcoming of transplantation procedure the present pilot trial was conducted to evaluate efficacy of platelet concentrates in such conditions. Platelet rich plasma drop was prepared and 1-2 drops were instilled 4 times/day for 15- 30 days in affected eye. This treatment group was compared with application of Leucocyte Platelet Rich Fibrin membrane which placed over the corneal ulcer and affixed with conjunctiva under general anesthesia. It was found that homologous PRP drops served the purpose of healing of moderate or grade II corneal ulcer satisfactorily; moreover, it prevented their advancement to severe or aggressive form. On the other hand, homologous L-PRF membrane provided sufficient scaffold for sealing of severe or grade III corneal ulcers with or without perforations and staphylomas.

Title: Association of Flooring Materials with Milk Yield and its Composition in Crossbred cows
Abstract :

Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of concrete or rubber surface, in combination with open yard with either brick paving or sand bed on milk production and composition in crossbred dairy cows under loose housing system. Total 20 crossbred cows, were assigned to four treatment groups (5 per group) viz. Control group (T0): Concrete floor (in covered feeding area) + Brick paving (in loafing area); Treatment 1 (T1): Concrete floor + Sand bed; Treatment 2 (T2): Rubber mat + Sand bed; Treatment 3 (T3): Rubber mat + Brick paving. Milk yield did not differed significantly (P>0.05) among groups, but it was higher in T2 followed by T3, T0 (control) and T1. Fat %, SNF % and Total Solids % were almost similar (P > 0.05) in all the groups. Therefore, it can be concluded that provision of rubber mat or sand floor alone does not affect milk production and composition. However, floor combination of rubber mat and sand bed in loose houses showed higher production.

Title: Detection and Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis from Blood and Milk of Bovines
Abstract :

Bovine tuberculosis, a chronic disease of animals is caused by species of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and it remains a potential threat to animals as well as humans. Differentiation of the species of MTC is required for epidemiological and diagnostic purpose. The present study evaluated the presence of different species of MTC in bovines using gyrB-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In this study, blood and milk samples from 50 milch animals which were positive reactors of comparative intradermal tuberculin test were collected. Screening of MTC was done by IS6110-PCR using primers INS1/INS2 specific for MTC. The positive samples were further identified using gyrB- Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Out of 50 positive reactors to CITT, only 4 (8%) animal were positive for MTC by IS6110-PCR. And gyrB-RFLP analysis using RsaI and SacII showed two positive for M. bovis and two animals for M. tuberculosis. Thus, gyrB-RFLP could be used as an additional tool in differential diagnosis of mycobacterial diseases thereby able to differentiate species of MTC

Title: Assessment of Non-Genetic Factors Affecting Production and Reproduction Traits in Badri Cattle
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to assess the effect of non-genetic factors on production and reproduction traits in Badri cattle. The study assessed the production and reproduction traits of 147 calving records of Badri cattle , spread over a period of 7 years from 2014-2020, at Instructional Dairy Farm, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India. Least-square maximum likelihood programme was used to analyse the effect of non-genetic factors (NGF) viz. parity number of animal, season of calving and period of calving on production and reproduction traits viz. total milk yield (TMY), peak yield (PY) and daily milk yield (DMY), service period (SP), dry period (DP) and calving interval (CI) respectively. Effect of animal’s parity number was significant (P <0.05) on TMY, PY, DMY and SP. Season of calving was found to be significant on PY (P <0.05). Effect of period of calving was significant (P <0.05) on DMY and (P <0.01) on TMY. Thus, it can be asserted that non-genetic factors have significant effect on the production and reproduction traits in Badri cattle. It is pertinent to pre-adjust the data of environmental factors for evaluating genetic parameters of production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle.

Title: Effect of Partial Substitution of Sodium Chloride with Potassium Chloride on Quality Characteristics of Buffalo Calf Meat Rolls
Abstract :

The study was carried out to develop low salt buffalo calf meat rolls partially substituting sodium chloride with potassium chloride (maintaining equivalent ionic strength) at the levels of 10% to 50%. Substitution up to 30% level did not result in any significant variations in sensory attributes but further increase in potassium chloride level caused significant decline in flavor, tenderness, juiciness, texture and overall acceptability. The replacement did not cause any significant difference in proximate composition, water holding capacity, emulsion stability of developed meat rolls. Increase in pH and decrease in cooking yield values was observed with enhancement in level of potassium chloride but significant effect was noticed only at 50% replacement. Texture profile and instrumental color of KCL treated rolls were comparable to control. Firmness and toughness declined with increasing incorporation of KCl but significant impact was noticed only at 50% level. The replacement up to 30 % was optimum to develop low salt buffalo calf meat rolls.

Title: Utilization of Wine Industry Waste (Red Grapes) as Natural Antioxidant for Development of Functional Mutton Rolls
Abstract :

This study was conducted with an objective to utilize the red grapes powder and its extracts as natural antioxidant for development of functional mutton rolls. Incorporation of red grapes powder at 1, 2 and 3 per cent levels, and red grapes aqueous and ethanolic extracts at 5, 10 and 15 per cent levels were compared with control, and selected on the basis of sensory evaluation. The total phenols and TBARS value of selected products were compared with control. The sensory scores including overall acceptability increased with the incorporation levels of red grapes powder and aqueous extracts, but decreased with addition of red grapes ethanolic extract. Addition of 3 per cent red grapes powder and 10 per cent of its aqueous extract were found suitable for incorporation in mutton rolls indicating very good acceptability scores (round 7.00). The addition of red grapes powder and its aqueous extract increased the total phenols while TBARS values were found significantly lower as compared to control and BHT added products. It was concluded that red grapes powder (3%) and red grapes aqueous extracts (10%) can be used for development of very well acceptable functional mutton rolls with improved total phenols and lower TBARS vale.

Title: Male Buffalo Calf: Potential Emerging Meat Animal- A Review
Abstract :

With 109.85 million heads, India ranks first in world buffalo population. Because of its extremely nutritive milk, leaner meat and top draught power for wet conditions, buffalo proposes extreme ability for the enhancement of living standard of mankind. Buffaloes are well known for their diet versatility, remarkable defiance to disease and flexibility to a wide range of dwelling, feeding and managemental circumstances. Meat of buffalo calf; have no religious prohibitions and is lean and liked by most of the segments of populations. The meat obtained from young male buffalo calves has more tenderness than that from higher age and connective tissue in the meat contributes to its toughness. Despite, the little toughness of buffalo meat than corresponding beef owing to existence of substantial proportion of connective tissue in buffalo, yet emulsified products like sausages, patties, loaf, nuggets, patties etc. can be nicely prepared from buffalo meat. The deliciousness of buffalo calf meat is almost identical to that of buffalo meat. Thus, rescue of buffalo calf for meat production can enhance the employment, revenue and export prospective.

Title: Wnt Target Proteins Up-Regulated in Tear Film of Corneal Ulcer Mediates YAP1 Activation and Corneal Pathology in Dogs Suffering from Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca
Abstract :

The study was performed to identify Wnt and YAP1 target proteins and regulators in the tear fluid and the role of Timolol (0.5% w/v) in corneal wound healing by mediating YAP1 activation in dogs suffering from corneal ulcer due to Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Complete clinical examination, the staging of KCS cases, and tear fluid collection were done. Protein identification from tryptic peptides of tear fluid of KCS cases was done through Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/ MS). Dynamics of YAP1 and its downstream targets CTGF and E-Cadherin in Tear fluid through immuno-blotting and in-situ detection through Immuno-histochemistry (IHC) was done. The role of Timolol (0.5% w/v) in the corneal healing through activation of YAP and CTGF was studied. Wnt target proteins like Frizzled-6 (FZD6), Catenin beta1(CTNNB1), G1/S-specific cyclin-D1(CCND1), Vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1), and Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were found significantly up-regulated (p<0.05) in corneal ulcer (KCS). YAP1 regulators Tyrosine-protein kinase Yes (YES1) was found significantly up-regulated (p<0.05) whereas Leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR), Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and Rho GTPase-activating protein 7 (DLC1) (p<0.001), Tight junction protein ZO-3 (TJP3), and Cadherin-1 (CDH1) (p<0.05) were significantly down-regulated in corneal ulcer compared to normal tear. Increased expression of YAP1 and CTGF was observed in the tear film and corneal tissues of corneal ulcer cases. Up-regulation of the Wnt target proteins and YAP1 activation occurred in corneal ulcer due to KCS and orchestrated characteristic corneal pathology. Timolol enhanced cell proliferation and thus was helpful in corneal healing but augmented KCS pathology in corneal tissue.

Title: Changes in Hormones of Somatotropic Axis during Transition Period in Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Supplemented with Vitamin E
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to assess the effect of vitamin E supplementation on GH-insulin–IGF-1 axis in Murrah buffaloes during transition period. The Murrah buffaloes (n = 12) were selected during their late gestation from National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI) livestock herd and divided randomly into two groups, comprising of 6 each. Buffaloes of group I were given only the control diet, while group II were supplemented with 2000 IU/day/head vitamin E along with control feed. Blood sample were collected from each buffalo at weekly interval from day -21 to day +21 relative to parturition by jugular vein- puncture. Growth hormone (GH) -IGF-1 and insulin were quantified by bovine specific ELISA test kit. The results revealed non significant difference in circulatory concentration of insulin and GH during transition period between the two groups. However, insulin and IGF-I magnitude of decline was significantly greater in Group I. It was concluded that decline in the levels of these hormones during transition period was a physiological phenomenon that was associated with negative energy balance. Dietary supplementation of Vitamin E had no direct influence on peripheral profiles of these hormones during transition period

Title: Quality Characteristics of Spicy Paneer with Oleoresins at Different Storage Temperatures
Abstract :

Spicy paneer with oleoresins is the novel approach to develop tailorable ready-to-eat snack food. Oleoresins were explored to replace the original ground spice with a standardized taste and aroma as per the requirement of the product. The storage life of the developed spicy paneer was assessed at different temperatures; ambient (25°C) and refrigeration temperature (4°C) under aerobic packaging conditions on the basis of various sensory and physico-chemical characteristics. All the sensory attributes viz., colour and appearance, texture, flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability decreased both at the ambient and refrigeration temperature during storage. There was significant (p<0.05) decrease in water activity whereas increase in FFA, tyrosine and pH during storage at ambient and refrigerated temperature. The microbial load (SPC, Yeast and mold and coliforms) followed an increasing trend during the storage. Results concluded that the paneer was stable for a single day at ambient condition (25°C) whereas 6 days at refrigeration temperature (4°C) with respect to sensory and microbiological quality.

Title: Effect of Body Condition Score (BCS) on Production Performance of Sahiwal Cattle
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out with the total of 18 Sahiwal cattle of 1st to 4th parity were selected for the study and distributed into three different groups based on their pre calving BCS (before 15 days of expected date of calving) namely G1 (2.50 - 3.00), G2 (3.25 - 3.75) and G3 (4.00 and above) with six animals in each group. The average fortnight milk yield increased up to 60th day and thereafter declined up to 90th day in G1, G2 and G3 group of animals, which was significant (p<0.05) up to 75th day. G3 group animals had highest average fortnightly cumulative Milk yield (Kg) in entire study period. Highest 305 days predicted lactation milk yield (2462.66 Kg /lactation) and average peak yield (16.50 Kg/ animal) was obtained in G3 group animals and the lowest predicted lactation milk yield (1870.68 Kg/lactation). The 305 days predicted lactation milk yield in G2 group animals was 2356.75 Kg /lactation and average peak yield was 14.90 Kg/ animal. The G3 group animals also attained their peak yield in 46 days compared to G2 and G1 group animals with 51 and 54 days, respectively. The persistency of milk production was highest in G2 group animals with 65.63 % followed by G3 and G1 group animals. The studied revealed that BCS had a significant (P<0.05) effect on post-partum estrus and service period in experimental animals

Title: Sero-epidemiological Study of Equine Piroplasmosis in Horses of South Gujarat (India)
Abstract :

Equine piroplasmosis is considered a notifiable disease of worldwide significance and endemic in many countries of the world. This study was designed for the sero-detection of equine piroplasm and to investigate the associated risk factors of EP. A total 295 horse’s serum samples were screened for T. equi and B. caballi infection by cELISA and result of the study indicated that 62.71% of horses having presence of antibodies by cELISA. Sero-prevalence of piroplasmosis in horses was found significantly (P<001) associated with different breeds of horses whereas non-significant difference was observed between age and sex of the horse. Highly significant (P<0.01) difference was observed in horses rear in pacca house and tick control adopted by owner for prevention of EP as compared to horses rear in kachcha house and ticks control not adopted by horse owner whereas significant (P<0.05) difference noticed in presence of tick infestations and absence of tick infestations on body of horses. Moreover, there was no any significance differences observed in presence of equine piroplasmosis from organized farm and unorganized farm, horses kept with other animal species and horses kept without other animals.

Title: Comparative Study of Automation and Conventional System on Production Performance in Poultry Farms
Abstract :

The study was conducted to compare the productivity performance of Layer breeder under conventional house and automatic house. Both houses were studied under small farms with an average of 250 birds. This study covered a period of 22 weeks with five replicates. Based on the results, the effect of different rearing systems on the mean body weight and FCR from week eighteen to forty weeks of age on weekly and cumulative basis were significantly (P≤0.05) influenced among the various treatment groups in HH-260 birds. Egg production, Hen housed and hen day egg production in experimental birds in automatic rearing system was significantly different from birds reared in conventional rearing system. The study also concluded that ARS birds had better liveability as compared to birds under conventional rearing systems. Litter quality analyzed based on the proximate analysis and E. coli count and found significant (P≤0.01) difference among the two-rearing systems. The proximate analysis of built up litter was significant higher (P≤0.01) in CRS than the ARS. The higher proximate values like crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, total ash and energy value were mainly due to feed wastage in conventional rearing system which leads to elevation of these values. There was highly significant difference (P≤0.01) in working time measurement of automation over conventional system of rearing. It accepted the hypothesis of the study that ARS housing have better productivity and profitability over conventional, this is testified by the general better FCR, egg production, liveability and litter quality in CCS houses.

Title: Modeling Vaccination Programs in Outbreaks of Hemorrhagic Septicemia in India
Abstract :

Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) is an acute septicemic endemic disease of buffalo and cattle in India with a case fatality rate of up to 80%. This disease causes an estimated economic loss of USD 792 million per year in India. Vaccination and control programs of HS can be understood by mathematical models. The main objective of our study was to design a mathematical model to analyze the effect of vaccination in controlling outbreaks of HS in India. We used posteriori model building approach to create and run the model for HS with the help of an outbreak data from Murshidabad district, West Bengal, India. The best possible transmission coefficient (β) to imitate the outbreak was found to be 0.335 and the best possible basic reproduction number (R0) was found to be 1.011. Introduction of the vaccination campaign from 5th to the 20th day of the HS outbreak reduced the proportion of the susceptible animals from 0.99 to 0.40 on the last day of the campaign. We concluded that animal vaccination modelling for eradication of HS by mass regional or nationwide vaccination campaigns can be understood by simple mathematical models.

Title: Differential Expression Profiling of Myogenic Regulatory Factor Genes in Postnatal Longissimus dorsi Muscle of Indigenous and Large White Yorkshire Breeds of Pigs
Abstract :

Pigs form a very important component of the Indian livestock. It has immense potential to ensure nutritional and economic security for the weaker sections of the society. Pork is a nutritious food that is commonly consumed worldwide. The current study was planned to investigate the distinction in the relative expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) genes (MyoD, Myf5, Myf6, Pax7 and Pax3) and their role in the postnatal myogenesis Longissimus dorsi muscles of indigenous and Large White Yorkshire (LWY) breeds. These genes help in muscle differentiation and regeneration of skeletal muscles. MyoD has shown significantly (P<0.05) higher quantitative transcript levels in indigenous pigs than in LWY. There is no significant difference in the transcript levels of Myf5 and Myf6 have been observed in the indigenous pigs whereas both the genes have shown significantly (P<0.05) higher quantitative transcript levels in LWY. Further, no statistically significant (P<0.05) difference for Pax3 and Pax7 have been recorded for both the breeds. The current study on relative expression of transcript levels of MRFs in LWY and indigenous pigs presents them as candidate genes for body growth rate. The current study will aid in understanding the genetic basis for myogenesis in postnatal stage. Moreover, it may act as steppingstone for the identification of marker genes related to body growth and meat quality in indigenous breeds.

Title: Comparison of Radiography, Ultrasonography and SNAP cPL in the Diagnosis of Acute Pancreatitis in Dogs
Abstract :

The study was aimed to compare various diagnostic modalities in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in dogs. Forty dogs with history of acute onset of vomiting, abdominal pain and anorexia were screened for acute pancreatitis by radiography, abdominal ultrasound and confirmed by SNAP cPL (Canine pancreatic lipase) kit test. Fourteen (0.375 per cent of gastrointestinal cases) dogs found to be positive for acute pancreatitis by abdominal ultrasound were selected and further subjected to radiography to rule out the underlying causes of acute pancreatitis and confirmed by SNAP cPL test. Out of fourteen dogs, four dogs (29 per cent) having specific radiographic changes gas filled intestinal loops with loss of serosal details, SNAP cPL was positive in nine dogs (64 per cent). Abdominal ultrasonography revealed hypoechoic pancreas, hyperechoic surrounding fat saponification, enlarged or irregular pancreas and dilatation of biliary or pancreatic duct as the major changes in acute pancreatitis dogs. Ultrasound was found to be superior to radiography in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis and SNAP cPL was found to be effective in confirming only in acute stages of pancreatitis

Title: Haematological Parameters and its Relationship with Faecal Egg Count and FAMACHA© Score in Haemonchus contortus Naturally Infected Goats
Abstract :

Haemonchus contortus is considered as main gastrointestinal parasite causing anaemia and hypoproteinemia in ruminants. The aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between haematological parameters with duo of faecal egg count and FAMACHA© score in goats predominantly infected with Haemonchus contortus. A total number of 100 goats were divided into five groups [Group I (EPG 100-300), II (EPG 400-600), III (EPG 700-1000), IV (EPG 1100-1200) and V (EPG 1300 and above)]. Results revealed a highly significant (P<0.01) negative correlation between EPG and FAMACHA© score with haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and total erythrocyte count (TEC). Mean values of Hb, PCV and TEC were declined in groups with increase in EPG and highly significant (P<0.01) differences were observed between all groups. Highly significant (P<0.01) and negative correlations were observed between TLC, lymphocyte, monocyte with duo of EPG and FAMACHA© scores whereas correlations between EPG, FAMACHA© score with both of neutrophil and eosinophil were highly significant (P<0.01) and positive. However, EPG and FAMACHA© score with basophil were showed significant (P<0.05) and negative correlation. The mean values of TLC were declined in groups having higher worms load. In DLC, the mean values of both neutrophil and eosinophil were elevated but lymphocyte and monocyte values were decreased with the increase in worm burden. Significant (P<0.01) differences were observed in values of TLC and DLC between all groups but, no significant difference was observed for monocyte between group-I and II and for basophil between group-II and IV; and group-III and V.

Title: Epidemiological Studies on Physical, Chemical, Zoonotic and Psychological Hazards among Veterinarians
Abstract :

The veterinary profession is complex and the demand of this profession expose veterinarians to various risks like traumatic injuries, zoonotic diseases and mental health hazards. This study reports physical, chemical, biological, psychological health hazards and awareness relevant to Indian veterinarians as obtained by self administered questionnaire. As many as 392 veterinarians were surveyed. Physical injuries reported were Bite (31.8%), scratch (65.1%), kick (62.8%), horn wound (14%), needle prick (89.2%), fracture (3.8%) and injuries due to falling/ lifting animals/ moving heavy equipments (61.3%). Majority of veterinarians experienced some form of allergy. Incidence of skin irritation was highest among (50.2%) veterinarians. Ringworm (13.5%) and fungal infection (26.5%) were most common zoonotic infection. Low level stress was reported in 45% of participants, 34% had moderate and 21% felt high level of psychological stress. The proportion of participants using protective equipments include 60% gloves, 1.1% goggles, and 39.8% apron The study showed that 171(43.6%), 122 (31.1%), 67 (17.1%), 32 (8.2%) veterinarians followed deworming at 6 month, 1 year, 2 year and more than 2 year intervals respectively. The awareness levels concerning occupational hazards among the veterinary health professionals was near optimal but the need was felt to implement efforts aimed at addressing deterrence of occupational hazards.

Title: Therapeutic Management, Genital Changes versus Blood Biochemical Constituents of Repeat Breeder Crossbred Cows
Abstract :

The study was aimed to determine the genital changes, blood biochemical profile and efficacy of different treatment protocols in addressing repeat breeding in crossbred cattle with prolonged oestrus which was usually associated with ovulatory defects such as anovulation and delayed ovulation. For this a total of 48 repeat breeder cows with the history of prolonged oestrus and with apparently normal oestrual discharge were selected and divided into 4 groups and each comprising 12 animals. Various commonly used therapeutic techniques like administration of hCG drug with or without supportive treatment, multiple A.I. and supportive treatment alone was used in the present study. Efficacy of treatment was based on post treatment conception rate and found that the hormone hCG was the choice of drug for treatment of repeat breeding without uterine infection resulting in post treatment conception rate of 83.33 per cent which increased to 91.66 per cent when fortified with supportive treatment. In terms of genital changes occurring in repeat breeder cows under different treatment regimens in the present study it could be mentioned that there was no much variation between treatment regimens

Title: Influence of Biopreservatives and Vacuuming Packaging on Sensory Quality of Milk Solids based Khoa during Frozen Storage (-18±2 °C)
Abstract :

The study was carried out to find out the effectiveness of biopreservatives and vacuum packaging on the shelf-life of milk solids based khoa. Khoa samples were prepared individually by combinations of Skim milk powder (SMP) with ghee and whey protein concentrates and SMP with cream (50 % fat). The control khoa sample was prepared utilizing full cream buffalo milk (6 % fat). Natamycin at 10 ppm and nisin at 100 IU/g were added when khoa was still hot (85-90 °C). The samples without biopreservatives were packaged in simple and vacuum packaging. It was found that vacuum packaged as well as biopreservatives incorporated samples were organoleptically acceptable up to 5 months of storage at freezing temperature (-18±2 °C).

Title: Retention of Magnet in Reticulo-rumen for the Prevention of Traumatic Reticulo-peritonitis in Dairy Cattle
Abstract :

The present work was aimed to study retention time of magnet in reticulo-rumen for prevention of traumatic reticulo-peritonitis in cattle. A total of 32 stall fed cattle from an organised dairy farm were screened for foreign bodies in reticulum with the help of stud finder. Metallic foreign bodies were detected in 37.5 per cent of the cattle. The animals were orally administered a cylindrical bar magnet of 70 mm length rounded at both ends. Subsequently, the animals were evaluated for the presence of magnet in their reticulum, twice at 6 months interval with the help of magnetic compass, as well as with reticular radiograph once at six months. The magnet was retained for 6 months in 78.1 per cent and for 1 year in 51.8 per cent of the animals. Yearly evaluation of reticulum with compass is recommended to detect retention of magnet in cattle.

Title: Study on Alteration of Critical Water Quality Parameters and Selected Metabolic Response of Labeo rohita Fingerling Subjected to Transportation Stress
Abstract :

The changes in physico-chemical characteristics of ambient water during transportation of fish causes stress and mortality. In this prelude, the present investigation involved the measurement of Physico-chemical characteristics of water (TAN, pH, and dissolved oxygen), biochemical parameters (serum total protein; serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, SGOT) during simulated transportation of Labeo rohita fingerlings using water additives. Four treatments of water additives were used in combination as T1 (1g glucose + 2g sodium chloride)/L, T2 (2g glucose + 2g sodium chloride)/L, T3 (1g glucose + 4g sodium chloride)/L, and T4 (2 g glucose + 4g sodium chloride)/L along with a control group, an experiment was conducted in triplicate. Before and after 12 h transportation, water quality and serum sampling were carried out. The analysis of the water quality parameters and serum sample showed a significantly higher (p<0.05) level of total ammonia nitrogen, lower pH, lower serum total protein, and higher SGOT activity in the control group after transportation. Whereas, a significantly (p<0.05) lower stress response and water quality values were observed in the treatment group indicating the potency of water additives in ameliorating the transportation stress, and in turn increases the survival rate of the IMC, Labeo rohita fingerlings after the transportation.

Title: Comparative Evaluation of Therapeutic Modules for Treatment of Parvoviral Gastroenteritis in Dogs
Abstract :

The present study was conducted on 18 clinically affected dogs of different breeds and age. All the dogs were divided into three groups A, B and C consisting of 6 animals in each one. Group A dogs were given standard therapy. In group B dogs were treated with immune plasma besides standard therapy. In group C dogs were treated with amino acid infusion besides standard therapy. In group A 3 out of 6 dogs (50%) showed complete recovery from dehydration and other clinical signs on day 4 post-treatments, while remaining 3 dogs (50%) recovered on day 5 post-treatments. In group B 4 dogs (66.66%) recovered completely from dehydration and other clinical signs on day 3 post-treatment, while remaining dogs (33.33%) recovered on day 4 post-treatment. In group C 5 dogs (83.33%) recovered completely from dehydration and other clinical sign on day 2 post-treatment, while remaining dogs (16.66%) recovered on day 3 post-treatment. It has been concluded that among various treatment groups, group C (Amino acid + Supportive therapy) was found to be superior as all six (6) dogs recovered day 3 post-treatment.

Title: Seroprevalence of Newcastle Disease, Chicken Infectious Anemia and Avian Influenza in Indigenous Chickens in Grenada, West Indies
Abstract :

This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) and Avian influenza virus (AIV) in indigenous chickens in Grenada, West Indies. Indigenous chickens are kept for eggs and meat for either domestic consumption or local sale. These birds are usually kept in the backyard of the house with little or no shelter. The mean size of the flock per household was 14 birds (range 5-40 birds). Blood was collected from 368 birds from all the six parishes of Grenada and serum samples were tested for antibodies against NDV, CIAV and AIV using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The seroprevalence of antibodies against NDV, CIA and AI was 66.3% (95% CI; 61.5% to 71.1%), 59.5% (95% CI; 54.4% to 64.5%) and 10.3% (95% CI; 7.2% to 13.4%), respectively. Since indigenous chickens in Grenada are not vaccinated against poultry pathogens, these results indicate exposure of chickens to NDV, AIV and CIAV Indigenous chickens are thus among the risk factors acting as vectors of pathogens that can threaten commercial poultry and other avian species in Grenada

Title: Effect of Tomato Pomace Supplementation on the Nutritional Value of Dog Diet as Assessed by In-Vitro Digestibility
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect on different processing techniques on nutritive value of dog food and to determine appropriate supplementation level of tomato pomace (TP) in dog food. Standardized diets were subjected to different processing techniques viz. raw, boiling and extrusion. Proximate analysis of feeds revealed that boiling of feed decreased the ether extract content of diets. The in-vitro analysis was done with two incubation phases, first gastric phase of 2 hours duration in the presence of pepsin, gastric lipase and HCl and a second intestinal phase with 4h duration in presence of pancreatin and bile salts. TP was included in diet at 0, 2.5 and 5% level. Results revealed that among different processing techniques, irrespective of level of TP in diet, best results were observed in case of extruded diets. DMD and OMD of boiled diets was lower (<0.001)than extruded diets and higher than raw diets. As far as level of TP is concerned, best results were obtained in diet without TP. However DMD and OMD was (<0.001) higher at 2.5 % inclusion level than at 5% inclusion level while CPD and EED were non-significant at 2.5 and 5% inclusion level. Parameters viz.pH, FFA, PV and aflatoxin content of prepared dog diets was with in permissible limits.

Title: Effect of Inclusion of Dried Garlic (Allium sativum) Powder in the Diet on Serum Biochemical Profile of Japanese Quail
Abstract :

An investigation is carried out to study the effect of inclusion of dried garlic powder at varying levels on serum biochemical profile of Japanese quails. One hundred and fifty, day old quail chicks distributed randomly to five dietary groups each with three replicates of ten quails and were offered broiler quail diets (starter and finisher) to meet the nutrient requirements (ICAR, 2013). During the experiment, dried garlic powder is included at 0.0% (T1 : Control), 0.50% (T2 ), 1.0% (T3 ), 1.5% (T4 ) and 2.0% (T5 ) level by marginal adjustment of other feed ingredients. All the rations were made iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Results indicated that the serum total protein (P<0.05), HDL-C and phosphorous (P<0.01) contents increased while serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C and creatinine levels decreased (P<0.01) with increase in the level of inclusion of dried garlic powder from 0 to 2.0% in the diet. However, inclusion of dried garlic powder up to 2.0% in the diet had no effect (P>0.05) on serum albumin, globulin and calcium levels. The study indicated that dried garlic powder can be incorporated up to 2.0% level in the diet as natural feed additive for production of low cholesterol meat without any adverse effect on performance of quails.

Title: Effect of Heat Stress on Reproductive Performance, Blood Biochemical and Physiological Parameters of Sows Following Mating
Abstract :

The experiment was conducted with a total of 12 sows of different breeds (Pure Hampshire, Khasi local and Ghungroo) for evaluating the effect of heat stress on reproductive performance, blood biochemical and physiological parameters of sows following mating. The experiment was conducted at Livestock Production Farm, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya-793103, India for a period of 3 months. The animals were divided into 2 groups viz. experimental and control groups consisting 6 sows in each. The animals of experimental group were kept in continuous exposure to direct sunlight daily for 6 hours (from 9 A.M. to 3 P.M.) up to 20 days following mating and after that, they were kept separately. The animals of the control group were also kept separately in normal condition in shaded room with temperature average 71.6 oF following mating. The serum protein (9.2 ± 0.87 g/dl) and glucose values (112.25 ± 0.75 mg/dl) & the physiological parameters like rectal temperature (41.9 oC ± 0.10 per minute), respiration rate (30 ± 0.07 breaths per minute) and heart rate (82 ± 0.15 beats per minute) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in experimental group of animal than the control but the value recorded in relation to the litter size number (5.97 ± 0.19) at weaning was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in control than that of the experimental group and serum cholesterol concentration (116.65 ± 0.05 mg/dl) also increased significantly (p<0.05) in control group than that of the experimental.

Title: Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Intramedullary Interlocking Nailing for Fracture Repair in Dogs
Abstract :

The study was conducted on 12 dogs of either sex, breed, aged between 1-8 years which were randomly divided into two groups. In group I, fractures were repaired with intramedullary interlocking nailing using open method and in group-II, closed method of fracture repair under C-arm guidance was used. The occurrence of fracture was found to be 1.04%. The non-descript, young male dogs were most commonly affected with fracture. An automobile accident was the most common cause of fracture. Intra-operative haemorrhage was significantly less with closed method. Rectal temperature and heart rate decreased after induction of anaesthesia in both the groups. In both the groups, the exudation decreased on 7th day and no exudation was observed at 14th postoperative day. The mean value of weight bearing score was significantly (p˂0.05) lower in group-II as compared to group-I. Animals started to take weight from 3rd postoperative day in group-II. Significant increase in radiographic score was observed at different intervals in both the groups. The blood loss was recorded more in group-I as compared to group-II. Thus, on the basis of clinical and radiographic findings, it can be concluded that the closed method of intramedullary interlocking nailing was better than the open method.

Title: Contents Vol. 10, No. 3, June 2020
Abstract :
Title: Comparative analysis of cultural isolation and PCR based assay for detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in foods of animal origin
Abstract :

The present study was designed to determine the occurrence of C. jejuni and C. coli in chicken meat, chicken offal, chevon and milk samples from Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India) to elucidate the role of these products in transmission of Campylobacter to humans. The samples were examined using both cultural as well as polymerase chain reaction based detection method. Out of 280 samples examined, 29 (10.36%) samples were found positive by cultural method, where as 68 (24.29%) samples showed presence of Campylobacter species by polymerase chain reaction. All the samples depicted positive by culture were also found positive by PCR. The highest occurrence rate was observed in chicken meat (46%), followed by chicken offal (20%), chevon (18%) and milk (3.75%). The results depicted the superior efficacy of PCR for rapid screening of samples owing to its high rapidity, specificity and automation potential. The study suggested the potential of transmission of Campylobacter species to humans due to the consumption of raw or contaminated meat or milk.

Title: Effects of Kefir on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Pekin Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica)
Abstract :

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of kefir as a probiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Pekin ducks. For this purpose, 42 ducklings at 2-week-old age were randomly and equally divided into 1 control and 2 treatment groups. All groups were fed with the same diet during the 6 week study period. Group 1 served as control and received normal drinking water. For group 2 and 3, 2.5% and 7.5% kefir was applied in drinking water. Feed and water was offered ad libitum. All birds were individually weighed at the start and then weekly intervals until the end of the experiment. At the end of the study, a total of 30 ducks, 5 male and 5 female from each group was randomly selected for slaughter. The results showed that after a 6 week feeding period, the total body weight in group 2 and 3 were significantly lower than group 1 (P < 0.05). Despite the numerical variations, no statistical difference was seen among the groups in terms of body weight gain, feed intake and FCR values (P < 0.05). Group 3 with high kefir percentage was significantly lower and different than the other experimental groups in terms of liver and gizzard weights, hot carcass (g), cold carcass (g) and abdominal fat (%) (P < 0.05) parameters. Despite the numerical variations, no statistical difference was seen among the groups in terms of meat composition values (P > 0.05). Our findings showed that, the decrease in total body weight, abdominal fat ratio, liver and giblets weights based on the increased kefir rates attracted attention. In conclusion, kefir usage as a supplement in ducks does not provide an economical benefit but kefir could be used for human consumption for antiobesity.

Title: Effect of Feeding Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles on Nutrient Utilization and Blood Biochemical Profile of Buffalo Calves
Abstract :

A 90 day growth trial was conducted on 10-15 month old male buffalo (Murrah) calves (average initial body weight 252.92+17.0 kg). Twelve calves were randomly distributed into three groups of four animals each. The animals in control group were fed with basal diet consisting of chopped wheat straw, berseem fodder and SBM based conventional concentrate mixture and animals in experimental groups 2 and 3 were fed wheat straw, berseem and concentrate mixtures in which SBM was replaced with DDGS at 50% and 75% levels on N basis, respectively. Digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance was comparable in all the groups, indicating RDDGS did not have any adverse effect on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention. RDDGS inclusion as a partial replacement of soybean meal had no deleterious effect on blood profile (total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, BUN, glucose) and the values of all parameters were within the physiological range. Therefore, from the present study, it was concluded that RDDGS can replace soybean meal upto 75 percent in the concentrate mixture of buffalo calves on N basis without any adverse effect on palatability, digestibility of nutrients, nitrogen balance and health of the animals.

Title: Multi-Nutrient Blocks with and without Tanniferous Leaf Meal Mixture: Formulation and Preparation under Sub-Tropical Environment of Jammu
Abstract :

An experimental study was conducted on formulation, preparation and production of two types of multi nutrient blocks (MNB) with and without tanniferous leaf meal mixture (LMM) for supplementation of goats fed on wheat straw based diet. The condensed tannins (CT) containing multi nutrient blocks (MNB-CT) and MNB were formulated, prepared and developed where MNB-CT had CT containing LMM of Psidium guajava and Eugenia jambolana in 70:30 ratio while MNB had no CT source. Other ingredients used included mustard oil cake, molasses, urea, limestone powder, di-calcium phosphate, mineral mixture, wheat bran and common salt were 875, 825, 181.25, 175, 193.75, 100, 112.5, 37.5 and 487.5, 825, 212.5, 162.5, 200, 100, 62.5, 37.5 (g/block), respectively in MNB and MNB-CT blocks. Nutrient composition (g/ block) of MNB and MNB-CT for organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, total ash, acid insoluble ash, calcium and phosphorus were 1939, 867.25, 17.25, 561, 20.5, 140.75, 62.25 and 1965.5, 861.75, 23.75, 534.5, 21.75, 130.75, 59 g, respectively. The MNB-CT blocks had good binding ability, compactness, hardness, less brittle and remained fit for licking to the animals compared to MNB blocks. The acceptability and intakes of both types of blocks were equally good. The LMM incorporation in MNB-CT reduced the cost of production as well as deworming in H. contortus infected goats so it directly curtailed the cost of goat rearing. Therefore, farmers could be benefited by supplementing MNB-CT blocks to improve health and productive performance of goats in sub-tropical region of Jammu (J & K), India.

Title: Antimicrobial Resistance and Biofilm Production Potential of Staphylococci from Bovine Mastitis in Andhra Pradesh
Abstract :

Bovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss to dairy farmers. This study is aimed at investigating the biofilm formation ability and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococci from bovine mastitis. Among a total of 125 Staphylococcal isolates obtained from cows and she buffaloes with clinical and subclinical mastitis, 45 were coagulase positive (CPS) and 80 were identified as coagulase negative (CoNS) by tube coagulase test. Considerably high proportion of Staphylococcal isolates (56/125, 45%) formed biofilms on Congo red agar and when these isolates were screened for biofilm genes (icaA, bap, icaAB, aap), only four (7.2%) were found to possess bap gene. The icaA, icaAB and aap genes were not detected in any of the isolates. Majority of the CPS and CoNS isolates from our study (around 96%) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone, but most of them were resistant to gentamicin (100% of CPS and 92.5% of CoNS). The isolates (49/125, 39.2%) that showed resistance to cefoxitin were phenotypically identified as methicillin resistant, out of which 10 were MRSA and 39 were CoNS. In PCR for mecA and mecC genes, only eight isolates (8/125, 6.4%) of Staphylococci were found to possess mecA gene. None of the isolates carried mecC gene. The results suggest that the CoNS isolates (44.8%) from bovine mastitis had the potential to form biofilms and has considerably high (49%) methicillin resistant phenotype though only 6.25 per cent of them carried mecA gene and could be confirmed as MRCoNS.

Title: Evaluation of Morphometric Measurements to Estimate Body Weight in Crossbred Landly Pigs (Landrace*Desi)
Abstract :

Weight is an important index in swine meat industry. Indirect method of weight measurement involves usage of body measurements. Heart girth is known to be better correlated with body weight in pigs. A study was carried out to determine the relationship between different girths like the heart girth (measured just behind the forelimbs), middle girth (measured around mid-region of the body) and tail girth (measured just in front of the hind limbs) and live weight in Landly pigs (Landrace* Desi). Data was collected for body length, girths, and live weight in 39 pigs, both male and female and 9-10 months of age, reared in the IVRI Swine farm. Multiple linear regression method was used for analysis under GMP9. The results showed high positive correlations of weight with middle girth. Area calculated using middle girth and heart girth had the best fit and the lowest error. This can be applicable to pigs reared under field conditions.

Title: Leptospirosis a Neglected Re-emerging Zoonoses in India: An overview
Abstract :
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease of worldwide economic importance affecting both humans and animals. It is bacterial disease caused by spirochete of genus Leptospira. The symptom ranges from flu-like illness to acute kidney failure, jaundice in humans while it causes abortions, stillbirths, reduced milk production in animals. Rodents, domestic and wild animals act as carrier and excrete live organism is their urine. It is an occupational disease affecting farmers, veterinarians, slaughterhouse workers, etc those who are in direct or indirect contact with the carrier animals. The diagnosis is done by direct and indirect laboratory methods for detection of infectious agent and its antibodies. The disease can be controlled through vaccination of domestic animals, control of rodents, strict and proper environmental hygienic measures.
Title: Altered Immune Response to Decellularized Porcine Small Intestinal Sub-Mucosa (DPSIS) Graft in Dogs Suffering from Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca
Abstract :

Study was conducted to explore immune response to decellularised porcine small intestinal sub-mucosa (DPSIS) graft though clinical evaluation and mRNA expression of selected genes of ocular surface epithelium after corneal surface reconstruction in dogs suffering from Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Sixteen client-owned dogs that underwent deep lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) and DPSIS graft for corneal surface reconstruction were selected; seven dogs with corneal ulcer were included in group A as control and nine dogs with corneal ulcer as a complication of KCS were included in group B as treatment group. Healing of corneal ulcer under graft was evaluated clinically and by digital photographs. Gene expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, PD-L1 and FASL before and after grafting was done by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) at definite intervals post graft. DPSIS graft promoted effective healing of corneal defect of partial/full thickness in group A and preserved corneal integrity whereas fibrosis and corneal pigmentation ensued in group B post DPSIS graft. Gene expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were found elevated in group B before and after PSIS grafting. PD-L1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in group B. Protein and gene expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 varied with severity of inflammation in corneal surface post DPSIS grafting. Enhanced mRNA expression of PD- L1 and inflammatory mediators ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the ocular surface epithelial cells suggested an altered immune response to DPSIS graft and warranted strategies to modify them for successful repair of corneal epithelial defects in KCS affected dogs.

Title: Effect of Feeding Formaldehyde Treated Rapeseed and Cottonseed Cakes on Milk Yield and Composition at Various Stages of Lactation and Parity in Jersey Cows
Abstract :

The aim of this study was to document the response of lactating Jersey cows to feeding of formaldehyde treated oil cakes of rapeseed and cottonseed on milk yield and composition at various stages of lactation and parity. Formaldehyde treatment of oil cakes was performed at 1% of crude protein, and these treated cakes were used in preparing treatment concentrate mixture. The experiment was carried out for 40 days using 27 lactating Jersey cows differing in parity 1-3, 4-6 and ≥7 with different stages of lactation i.e. early (1-3 m), mid (4-6 m) and late (7-9 m) in each lactation groups. The animals were grouped into Control and Treatment. For first 10 days, cows of Control group were offered with a control concentrate and thereafter same animals were grouped as Treatment group and fed the same concentrate having both the protein meals treated with formaldehyde, along with ad libitum access to barley green fodder and wheat straw. The milk yield and its component yield were decreased linearly as lactation advanced and the differences were significant (P<0.05) between early and late lactation. The highest increment (P<0.05) in milk yield was noted in early lactation (0.69 kg/d) and least during late lactation (0.56 kg/d). Milk SNF yield was improved (P<0.05) up to the tune of 40 g/d in mid lactation cows only. With respect to parity, the highest (P<0.05) milk yield was observed in 1st-3rd parity and lowest after 7th parity, while milk fat% followed the reverse trend upon feeding formaldehyde treated oil cakes, while other parameters like fat and SNF percentage did not differ due to treatment. Furthermore, milk fat yield was increased (P<0.05) to the extent of 50 g/d and 20 g/d in 1st-3rd and above 7th parity cows, respectively. It was concluded that feeding of concentrate mixture containing formaldehyde treated oil cakes (rapeseed and cottonseed) economically improved yield of milk and milk components. Furthermore, the treatment effect was more pronounced during early lactation and in lower (1-3) parity Jersey cows.

Title: Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Helminths of Sheep in Aeolian Plains of Haryana
Abstract :

The epidemiological study of gastrointestinal parasites was carried out in unorganized sheep farms in aeolian plains of Haryana from March, 2018 to February, 2019. A total of 1080 faecal samples were examined, out of which 899 (83.24%) were positive for helminthic infections. The different helmiinths observed were strongyles (80.93%), Strongyloides spp. (28.24%), Trichuris spp. (7.31%) and Moniezia spp. (1.02%). Infection was non-significantly higher in adults (83.34%) as compared to young (76.67%). Males showed a non-significantly higher infection (89.79%) as compared to females (82.59%). Significantly higher (p<0.05) infection was observed in monsoon (98.88%) as compared to winter (74.17%), spring (78.88%) and summer (82.72%) season. Significantly higher (p<0.05) infection (100%) was observed during month of August and September while lowest infection was observed during month of November (56.67%). Coproculture studies revealed that Haemonchus contortus was predominant parasite during all the seasons, followed by Strongyloides spp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. No trematode eggs were identified during study period

Title: Effect of Transglutaminase and Egg White on Functional Properties and Microstructure of Fish Paneer from Tilapia and Common Carp
Abstract :

In this research study a high value restructured surimi gel product fish paneer was developed from the fish mince obtained from commercially low value fishes like tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The effect of protein additives (transglutaminase and egg white) on functional properties and microstructure of fish paneer was studied. Functional properties such as gel strength (23.7 kgf), water holding capacity (142%), expressible moisture content (26%) were highest in fish paneer prepared with transglutaminase (0.5%) added in surimi (tilapia: common carp, 1: 1). Folding test also revealed the highest quality of gel prepared from surimi containing transglutaminase. The egg white (1%) influenced the functional qualities positively but had lesser effectiveness than transglutaminase. The microstructure study using scanning electron microscopy images of fish paneer confirmed better effectiveness of transglutaminase (0.05%) in binding the protein molecules than egg white (1%).

Title: Adaptive Capability as Indicated by Redox Status and Endocrine Responses in Crossbred Cattle Exposed to Thermal Stress
Abstract :

A series of studies were conducted to assess the effect of increasing environmental temperatures on redox status and endocrine responses in crossbred cattle under simulated conditions. In present study four non-lactating crossbred cattle were exposed to 25, 30, 35 and 40°C temperature with relative humidity of 40-50% in psychrometric chamber for 5 hours/day from 10:00 to 15:00 hours for 21 days. The physiological responses, feed and water intake were recorded and blood samples were collected at 15:00 hours on day 1, 6, 11, 16 and 21 of the experiment. Blood serum was harvested to estimate superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), reactive oxygen species (ROS), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and cortisol concentration. The temperature exposures of 25 and 30°C did not affect physiological responses, feed intake, water intake, T3, T4, cortisol concentration and SOD activity in serum. The dry matter intake (DMI)/day decreased significantly (p<0.05) whereas water intake, respiratory rate and rectal temperature increased progressively at 35 and 40°C as compared to 25 and 30°C temperature exposure. The serum ROS level increased progressively with increase in exposure temperature and a corresponding increase in serum SOD activity was also observed up to a temperature exposure of 35°C however, SOD activity declined at 40°C exposure. Serum T4 concentration decreased whereas cortisol level increased significantly at 35 and 40°C exposure as compared to 25 and 30°C temperature exposure. It can be concluded from the present study that the crossbred animals can readily adapt to a temperature exposure of 25 and 30°C and can acclimatize up to 35°C with compensatory physiological, biochemical and endocrine changes but fail to do so at the temperature exposure of 40°C.

Title: Carcass Traits and Leather Quality Characteristics of Blackhead Ogaden Sheep Fed Different Proportions of Roughage and Concentrate Ratios
Abstract :

An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of varying level of roughage to concentrate ratios on carcass traits and leather quality characteristics of Blackhead Ogaden sheep aged 2 years (20.8±1.8 initial body weight). Twenty four lambs were blocked into 6 groups of four lambs based on initial body weight and randomly assigned within group to 4 diets. Roughage composed of natural grass hay and haricot bean hauls (50:50 ratio) and concentrate mixture composed of wheat bran (69%) and 31% of oil seed meal (noug seed cake and cottonseed meal in the ratio of 1.1:1) were offered at roughage (R) to concentrate (C) ratios of 60R:40C, 50R:50C, 40R:60C, and 30R:70C. Roughage and supplement were offered separately and percentages of the two feeds were determined based on ad libitum consumption of individual animal on dry matter (DM) basis. After the completion of stall feeding, animals were slaughtered for carcass parameters and leather quality evaluation. Slaughter body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage as a proportion of slaughter body weight, empty body weight, and total usable products are greater in group consumed 30R:70C than 60R:40C ration (P<0.05). Fat content and elongation percentage of leather produced from sheep consumed 60R:40C was higher (p<0.05) than 30R:70C. However, the other chemical and physico-mechanical quality of leather were not affect by the treatment diet (P>0.05). Thus, we conclude that feeding of roughage and concentrate at the ratio of 30R:70C could be recommended as better feeding strategy for better performances of finishing sheep.

Title: Prevalence of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Live Bird Markets of Eastern Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :

A cross sectional study was carried out to know the status of H9N2 LPAI virus in retail poultry shops (RPSs) established in live bird markets (LBMs) of eastern Madhya Pradesh, India. A total 288 samples were collected from 4 districts of eastern Madhya Pradesh following cluster sampling method. Samples included 120 tissue samples and 168 environmental samples of live bird markets. All the samples were analysed for virus isolation by embryonated chicken egg inoculation, Hemagglutination (HA), Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) and Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RTPCR). A prevalence of 9.2 % was found in tissue samples and that of 20.8 % was found in pooled environmental samples. Out of four districts in the study, samples from three districts were found positive for H9N2 AIV. A strong positive correlation (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r = 0.92) was found between tissue and environmental samples. This study indicated presence and possible spread of H9N2 AIV in these LBMs. These LBMs might impose risk of acquiring infection to occupationally exposed individuals. Therefore, a proper vigilance is needed over the poultry supply chain especially the poultry retail shops along with general awareness about basic biosecurity measures for prevention and control of H9N2 infection.

Title: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Antibiofilm Potential of Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Essential Oil for Application in Meat Products
Abstract :

The current study was carried out to examine in-vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant and antibiofilm efficacy of Peppermint essential oil (PEO) for its potential application in meat products. Antimicrobial activity was measured by using zone inhibition assay (ZOI) and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against ten food borne pathogens including four Gram-positive viz. Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus and six Gram-negative viz. Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa whereas antioxidant assay was measured using 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2-2- azinobis-3 ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Maximum zone size was observed for Proteus mirabilis whereas, MIC values ranged from 5000-20000 ppm for all tested organisms. The oil was found to be more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Antibiofilm activity (%) was also performed against pure cultures of two pathogens i.e. Listeria monocytogenes and Proteus mirabilis as positive control. The results exhibited that with application of PEO, biofilm formation of both Listeria monocytogenes and Proteus mirabilis was inhibited by 45.80% and 73.01%, respectively in contrast to their respective controls. ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity of PEO was measured at five different concentrations and values were ranging from 17.24-49.07% for ABTS whereas 35.16 – 60.70% for DPPH under investigation. It can be concluded that peppermint essential oil possesses potent antimicrobial, antioxidant and antibiofilm activity and can be further used as a natural alternative for preservation in meat industry

Title: Identification of Differentially Expressed Tear Proteins after Corneal Reconstruction with DPSIS Graft in Dogs Suffering from Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca
Abstract :

Differentially expressed tear proteins after corneal reconstruction with decellularized porcine small intestinal sub mucosa (DPSIS) in Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) affected dogs was explored through Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) followed by Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF). Anterior lamellar keratoplasty followed by DPSIS graft was performed in seven dogs with corneal ulcer (group A) and in nine dogs with corneal ulcer as a complication of KCS (group B). Tear was also collected from 12 healthy dogs with no ocular pathology. PMF based protein identification was performed on tryptic peptides of tear film trapped in major bands of ID-SDS PAGE (in duplicate) using MALDI-TOF/MS. PMF revealed 432 unique tear proteins from major gel bands of DPSIS treated dogs (group A and B) and normal tear from healthy dogs. Based on MOWSE score, relative abundance of proteins in both groups were compared with that in normal tear. Proteins USP37, KRT1, Major allergen Can F1, CCDC39, PRKCD, Serum albumin, TERT and CD163 were found to be significantly (p<0.001) down-regulated in group A and group B compared to normal tear from healthy dogs. Protein INVS was found significantly up regulated (p<0.001) in Group B post DPSIS graft compared to pre-operative tear. ZNF252 was found significantly up regulated (p<0.001) in Group A tear film post-operatively compared to pre-operative tear. Intrinsic cellular stress disrupting DNA replication and cell division, cellular senescence and apoptosis were found as key events underlying corneal pathology in KCS which needs consideration while attempting surgical reconstruction of cornea using DPSIS graft.

Title: Biochemical Parameter Derangement in Commercial Broilers during Heat Stress and Their Mitigation using Ascorbic Acid Supplementation
Abstract :

Poultry production suffers huge losses due to heat stress, which is caused by high temperatures in many areas during the summer. Therefore, maximum production requires the elimination of the deleterious impacts of environmental stressors. The aim of this study was to check the amelioration of heat stress in commercial broilers by ascorbic acid supplementation on biochemical parameters viz., effect on plasma ascorbic acid, plasma albumin, plasma glucose, breast muscle pH, thio-barbituric acid value. A total number of 96 birds were randomly divided into 8 groups, 4 groups of birds were kept at (37±5.0°C) in heat stress conditions, while 4 other groups of birds were kept at 26±1.0°C (comfort temperature) using an air conditioner and each group consist of 12 birds. G1 was taken as control whereas G2, G3 and G4 were supplemented with 100 mg, 200 mg and 300 mg of ascorbic acid respectively. G4 group supplemented with 300 mg of ascorbic acid showed better results with overall plasma ascorbic acid values (6.84 ± 0.14) as compared to other supplemented and non-supplemented groups. However, G3 group supplemented with 200 mg of ascorbic acid showed better results with overall plasma glucose (310.39± 3.60) and plasma albumin (4.07±0.14) values. On 45th day, G3 group supplemented with 200 mg of ascorbic acid showed better results with respect to Breast muscle pH (6.2) and thiobarbituric acid (2.18) values. This shows Vitamin C/Ascorbic acid has potential antioxidant effect able to modulate physiological adjustments to mitigate the undesirable effects of exposure of broilers to high temperatures.

Title: Seasonal Prevalence and Antibiogram Studies of Bovine Mastitis in Southern Haryana
Abstract :

Mastitis in bovines causes huge economical loss to the dairy industry. It affects the public health due to the transmission of pathogenic bacteria and the toxins produced by them through the food chain. The timely diagnosis of subclinical mastitis (SCM) and its proper treatment based on antibiogram have significant impact on reducing the economical loss to the dairy farmers. Therefore the present study was conducted to find out the prevalence and antibiogram pattern of the mastitis causing bacteria in Southern Haryana. A total prevalence rate of 65.79% was observed for subclinical mastitis in Southern Haryana by the screening test. The highest prevalence was observed in winter (59.49%), followed by rainy season (69.61%) and cattle were found as more susceptible to SCM when compared to buffaloes. The major Gram negative pathogens isolated were belonged to E. coli, followed by Klebsiella species and Pseudomonas species, the common organisms responsible for environmental mastitis. The antibiogram patterns of the isolates were also studied and the maximum sensitive antibiotic against mastitis was found as Chloramphenicol, followed by Enrofloxacin, Amikacin and Ampicillin. The most resistant antibiotics in the study area was found as Ceftizoxime followed by Amoxicillin as these antibiotics were frequently and indiscriminately used for the treatment of mastitis in the study area without subjecting to in vitro antibiotic sensitive test. This emphasis the need of awareness among dairy farmers regarding the hygienic managemental practices to be followed at farm level as well as necessity of conducting antibiotic sensitivity test for the treatment.

Title: Age Related Anatomical Changes in Articular Cartilage of Femoral Head in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
Abstract :

Present study was conducted to study the anatomical features of femoral head AC in twenty four intact hip joints of apparently healthy buffaloes procured from GHMC Abbattoir, Hyderabad. They were divided into four groups viz., Group I (prenatal), Group II (Birth - 3yrs), Group III (3 – 6 yrs) and Group IV (6 yrs and above). Morphological features of AC of femoral head revealed that articular surface was covered by a strip of AC made up of hyaline cartilage adjacent to sub-chondral bone in post natal groups, whereas in prenatal stage entire proximal epiphysis of femoral head was purely hyaline cartilage since AC was not yet differentiated. In post natal groups (II, III and IV) a layer of mature AC covered the hemispherical femoral head which blended peripherally with the epiphyseal cartilage. Thickness of femoral head AC reduced marginally with advancing age in various points of articular surface of femoral head viz., lateral surface, at neck and at midpoint. It was 1.89 mm, 1.38 mm and 1.49 mm thick in Gr-II which reduced to 1.64 mm, 1.37 mm and 1.36 mm in Gr-IV respectively. As age advanced, average length and width of femoral head increased fivefold from 2.83 and 2.43 cm in Gr-I (prenatal) to nearly 10.77 and 9.43 cm in Gr-IV (postnatal) specimens respectively. AC surface of young specimens was shiny pink in color in fresh state, whereas aged specimens it showed signs of yellowish discoloration and few indentations around the neck.

Title: Effect of Area Specific Mineral Supplementation on Biochemical Profile in Female Black Bengal Goats
Abstract :

To discern the effect of area specific mineral supplementation (ASMS), on some plasma parameters viz. glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), alpha amino nitrogen (AAN), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), the intensive study was conducted on 24 female Black Bengal goats at around of 4-5 months of age. The animals were divided into four groups viz. Group I (control), II, III supplemented with 0, 1 and 2% area specific mineral supplementation, respectively. Whereas, in another group (Group-IV), commercial mineral mixture fortified concentrate was given. Blood samples were collected at monthly interval and estimated five prime plasma parameters. Present study revealed that plasma glucose concentration was in normal range and differed significantly (P < 0.05) in groups. Highest plasma glucose concentration was observed in group IV and lowest in control group. Whereas, NEFA differed significantly in different groups. Plasma AAN level was higher in Group IV followed in Group III, II and I respectively. AAN did not differ significantly in groups. Plasma ALT and AST level differed significantly but highest Plasma ALT and AST level observed in Group II. Present study revealed that ASMS improved plasma biochemical profile in Black Bengal goats.

Title: Non-Genetic Factors Affecting Growth and Production Traits in Dorper Crossbred Sheep
Abstract :

Data on growth traits of 401 animals used in the present study were collected from history sheet of crossbred sheep maintained at Government Sheep Breeding Farm Panthal, Reasi, J&K, India. Traits included in the study were birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), 6-month body weight (6-BW), 12-month body weight (12-BW), mature body weight (MBW) and annual wool production (AWP). The statistical analysis was carried out using LSMLMW computer programme. The overall least-squares means were 2.857 ± 0.058 kg, 15.269 ± 0.296 kg, 17.034 ± 0.258 kg, 22.315 ± 0.298 kg, 29.375 ± 0.237 kg and 0.651 ± 0.012 kg, respectively for BWT, WWT, 6-BW, 12-BW, MBW and AWP. The co-efficient of variations for different traits were low to moderate. Period of lambing had significant effect on all the traits except for BWT. Moreover, there was no definite trend for different traits over different periods except for 12-BW, where increasing trend was obtained. Season of lambing had significant effect only on WWT and MBW. Genetic group had non-significant effect on all the traits under study although, 50% genetic groups were superior for most of the traits. Sex had significant effect on all the traits except for 6-BW and 12-BW. It can be concluded from the study that growth traits and production traits are influenced by different non-genetic factors like period, season and sex.

Title: Invitro Effect of Zinc Treatment on the Antioxidant Status of Heat Stressed Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Periparturient Sahiwal and Karan Fries Cows - A Comparative Study
Abstract :

The current study was undertaken to evaluate the invitro effect of zinc treatment on the Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase status in the heat stressed Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) of periparturient indigenous and crossbred cows. Twelve pregnant cows, six each from Sahiwal and Karan Fries in their second parity were selected for the experiment. Blood samples were collected at -21, 0 and +21 days with respect to calving from each animal. The 48 hour long cultured PBMC were exposed to three levels of treatment viz., 37oC, 42oC to induce thermal stress and 42oC+Zinc to minimize the effect of high temperature. SOD and Catalase showed a significant (P<0.05) difference between the two breeds, more concentration being found in Karan Fries. While comparing the days, the concentration of both SOD and Catalase was found to be more on the day of calving though non-significantly in case of SOD but the difference was significant (P<0.05) vis-à-vis Catalase. Zinc treatment caused a decreased production of both SOD and Catalase which were otherwise increased due to thermal stress. The antioxidant concentration was highest due to thermal stress in Karan Fries on the day of calving. The oxidative stress supervenes during peripartum and heat stress which could be alleviated by zinc treatment.

Title: Effect of Dietary Incorporation of Aniseed (Pimpinella anisum) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Rhizome Powder and their Combination on Haemato-biochemical Parameters and Carcass Trait in Broiler Chicken
Abstract :

A feeding trial was conducted to discern the effect of aniseed and ginger rhizome powder as feed additive on haemato-biochemical parameters and carcass traits in Ven Cobb 400 strain of broiler chicken. Day old 120 chicks were procured and randomly distributed into four treatment groups. Each treatment had 3 replicates with ten chicks in each replicate. The control group (T1) were fed basal diet without any supplementation. In treatment groups T2, T3 and T4, basal diet was incorporated with 1.0 % aniseed powder, 1.0 % ginger rhizome powder and 0.5 % aniseed + 0.5 % ginger rhizome powder, respectively. The haematological parameters were not affected due to dietary incorporation of aniseed and ginger rhizome powder. A significant (P<0.05) reduction in serum cholesterol in treatment groups T4, T3 and T2 as compared to control T1 however, there was also considerable reduction in serum triglycerides content in T2, T3 and T4 group. Dressing percentage, weight of cut up parts and giblet showed no significant difference among the group but there was significant (P<0.05) increase in gizzard in broiler chicks due to aniseed and ginger rhizome powder supplementation. There was significant (P<0.05) increase in ether extract content of breast muscles in T2 group. There was significant increase in protein content of thigh muscle in T3 and T4 group. It is concluded that inclusion of 1.00 % aniseed or 1% ginger rhizome powder in the diet of broiler improved meat quality by reducing cholesterol level in meat of broiler chicken.

Title: Identifying the Factors Affecting Birth Weight and Conception Rate in Sahiwal Bulls
Abstract :

The data on growth and fertility traits of 43 Sahiwal bulls during 27 years (1987-2013) belonging to 8 sets of Sahiwal Breeding Project at ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal (Haryana), India were analysed using fixed linear model to assess the effect of non-genetic factors on birth weight and fertility traits in Sahiwal bulls. The average birth weight (BW), conception rate based on first AI (CRFAI) and overall conception rate (OCR) in Sahiwal bulls was estimated as 22.19 ± 0.05 kg, 45.95 ± 1.37% and 46.38 ± 1.55%, with coefficient of variation of 13.42%, 21.84 % and 22.32%, respectively. The overall least-squares means for birth weight, conception rate based on first AI and overall conception rate was estimated as 22.04 ± 1.08 kg, 46.24 ± 0.35% and 46.86 ± 0.27%, respectively in Sahiwal breeding bulls. Period of birth had not influenced the birth weight of Sahiwal bulls, though period of conception had significant (P < 0.01) effect on fertility traits. Season of birth/AI, parity and age of female did not influenced the birth weight and fertility traits of Sahiwal bulls.

Title: Differentiation of Sheep and Goat Species by PCR-RFLP of Mitochondrial 16S rRNA Gene
Abstract :

The present study was carried out with an aim to develop a method for differentiation of sheep and goat meat using PCR-RFLP. Tissue samples were collected randomly from ten animals of each species and used for mitochondrial DNA extraction. PCR amplification of 600 bp fragment of 16S rRNA gene was done using universal primer. RFLP studies were carried out by digesting the amplicons using restriction enzymes viz. AluI and HhaI. Amplicons of Goat 16S rRNA gene was fragmented to 460bp and 140bp fragments by HhaI while the amplified gene of sheep was digested by AluI into two fragments of 360bp and 240bp each. This resulting RFLP pattern of 16S rRNA could easily identify and differentiate meat of sheep and goat species.

Title: Trace Minerals and Antioxidant Profile of Normo, Oligo and Ashthenozoospermic Crossbred Frieswal Bulls
Abstract :

The study was undertaken to assess the level of trace minerals, antioxidants and semen quality in normo, oligo and ashthenozoospermic breeding frieswal bulls. Semen samples were collected from breeding bulls (47) maintained at bull rearing unit of ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Cattle, Meerut. Trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Co and Fe) and oxidative stress parameters (SOD, Catalase and MDA) were determined in semen samples of breeding bulls. Sperm motility and concentration were measured in fresh ejaculates. The mean zinc and copper concentrations were significantly lower in blood and semen (p<0.05) in oligozoospermic and ashthenozoospermic bulls as compared to normozoospermic bulls. Cobalt and iron concentrations did not vary significantly in different group of breeding bulls. Significantly higher MDA and low SOD and catalase activities were present in seminal plasma of oligo and ashthenozoospermic bulls as compared to normozoospermic bulls. The MDA had significant negative correlation with motility (p<0.05, r = -0.303) and sperm concentration (p<0.001, r = -0.473) while SOD and Catalase had significant positive correlation with initial sperm motility (p<0.05, r = 0.273; p<0.001, r = 0.435) and sperm concentration (p<0.001, r = 0.575; p<0.001, r = 0.631). The study concluded that oligozoospermia and asthenozoospermia are associated with an increased MDA concentration and decreased activities of SOD and Catalase in the seminal plasma of breeding bulls. Present findings suggested that determination of antioxidant status of semen during infertility investigation seems to be useful.

Title: Gestational Age Estimation and Validation using Ultrasonic Measurements of Fetal Biparietal Diameter and Occipito Nasal Length in Nellore Brown Ewes
Abstract :

Gestational age estimation in small ruminants helps in nutritional management of pregnant ewes and optimizes the lamb survival. Nellore Brown ewes (n = 20) were subjected to short day estrus synchronization protocol and weekly once transabdominal ultrasonography from day 8 onwards until parturition. The biparietal diameter and occipito nasal length of fetal head measured from day 43 until day 113 of gestation. A positive correlation was obtained between gestational age and BPD (r = 0.9687) and ONL (r = 0.9873) and regression equations generated as y = 15.94x + 28.43 and y = 9.471x + 25.66 respectively for BPD and ONL where y is GA and X is respective head measurements. For validation of equations, BPD and ONL were measured in 21 and 12 pregnant ewes respectively, in field test. For linear relationship 61.9 and 71.4% of pregnant ewes delivered within ±7 and ±14 days of expected parturition dates for BPD and 58.3, and 100% of pregnant ewes delivered within ±3 and ±11 days of expected parturition dates for ONL. It was concluded that the ultrasonic measurements of fetal head diameters were well correlated with gestational age and can be used for estimation of pregnancy duration, however, ONL was precise over BPD in predicting parturition dates in Nellore Brown ewes.

Title: Gross and Biometrical studies of Placentome in Goat (Capra hircus) during Different Stages of Pregnancy
Abstract :

The present study was conducted on the 18 healthy and normal goat uteri of non-descript breed (Capra hircus) varying from day old to 150 days of gestation. The uteri were assigned in to three groups according to their gestational age; Group I (0-50 days), Group II (51 -100 days) and Group III (101-till term). The length, diameter and thickness of gravid horn, non gravid horn, body and cervix were significantly increased with the advancement of pregnancy. Weight of uterus was also significantly increased as pregnancy progressed. The thickness of endometrium, myometrium, perimetrium and total thickness of uterine wall in gravid horn was significantly increased with advancement of pregnancy. The numbers of placentomes ranged from 92 to 153, which were significantly increased from early to mid pregnancy and subsequently significantly decreased during late pregnancy. In the late pregnancy, the placentome were disc like with a shallow depression and had relatively thinner margin. The length, width and thickness of the placentome were significantly increased with the advancement of pregnancy.

Title: Pharmacokinetics of Cefquinome on Single Intravenous Administration in Marathwadi Buffalo Calves by Microbiological Assay Technique
Abstract :

Experiment was performed on six healthy Marathwadi buffalo calves of either sex of age above 6 months and weighing between 80 to 120 kg to study the different pharmacokinetic parameters after single intravenous administration @ 2 mg/kg body weight by microbiological assay technique. After intravenous administration of the drug, blood samples (4 ml each) of buffalo calves were collected from external jugular vein using disposable needles in clot activator tubes at different time intervals. The schedule of blood collection for pharmacokinetic studies after intravenous administration was at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30 min and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hrs. The serum levels of cefquinome were estimated by microbiological assay technique using large glass plate. Different Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated as described by different scientists. The peak serum concentration, elimination half life, volume of distribution, total body clearance, absorption half life and area under curve values found were 1.74 ± 0.151 mcg/ml at 2.5 min of sampling time, 1.97±0.14 h, 3.97 ± 0.83 L/kg (Vd(B)) and 2.86 ± 0.34L/kg (Vdss), 1.11 ± 0.13 L/kg.h-1, 0.10 ± 0.02 h, and 1.93 ± 0.23 μg/ml/hr respectively. The bioavailability of cefquinome in buffalo calves was found to be 100 %. It may be concluded that the elimination half life of cefquinome was 2.54 h in Marathwadi buffalo calves indicating the repeating of doses at 12 to 15 h intervals in Marathwadi buffalo calves and the loading dose would be double than the maintenance dose of cefquinome after intravenous administration.

Title: Detection of Virulence Genes in Salmonella Species Isolated from Chevon and Chicken Meat
Abstract :

The aim of present study was to investigate the detection of virulence factors encoded Salmonella enterotoxin (stn) and plasmid encoded fimbriae (pef) genes in isolates of Salmonellae isolated from chevon and chicken meat samples collected from different districts of Chhattisgarh. A total of 32 Salmonella isolates were recovered, among them 18 and 14 isolates were recovered from chevon and chicken meat samples, respectively. All the Salmonella isolates were tested for the presence of virulence associated genes viz., stn and pef by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols, standardized separately for each gene. All 32 (100%) Salmonella isolates were found to carry the enterotoxin determinant stn gene where as none of the Salmonella isolate was found positive for pef gene, indicating that the stn gene is widely distributed among the Salmonella isolates irrespective of source of sample, species, serovars and location. The stn gene in Salmonella was found to be highly conserved. Thus, stn gene may be used as a target gene for detection of Salmonellae in different types of field samples.

Title: Impact of Haematobia exigua (Buffalo Fly) in Cattle in Namakkal Region, Tamil Nadu
Abstract :

The impact of Haematobia fly menace in dairy cows was studied in cattle farms maintaining different breeds of cattle, located in Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu, India during the month of December 2019. The flies collected from each farm were identified as Haemtobia exigua. The fly avoidance activities include head throws, tail flicks, ear flicks, leg stamps (front and rear), and skin twitches were recorded for one minute and frequency of activities was correlated with fly intensity in animals. The frequency of tail flicks, skin twitches, ear flicks, head throws and leg stamps was 27.5, 20.3, 13.5, 3.0 and 2.8 respectively when the fly population was fairly high and also these activities were found to be higher in evening than morning. Of the 50 cows examined, 40 cows (80.0%) had skin lesions due to fly bites. Animals with dark colour skin had more lesions (90.32%) than medium (75.0%) and animals with light-coloured skin (42.85%). In addition, the prevalence of skin lesion in respect to breed was found to be the high in Jersey cross bred cows (89.18%) followed by Holstein Friesian cross (71.42%), but no such lesions were noticed in Tharparkar (0%) breed. The development of fly bite wound sore in relation to fly intensity in cattle was 85, 75 and 60 % in animals that had high (>150), moderate (100 &150) and low infestation (50 & 100) respectively. Approximately 50-100 flies were found to be sufficient to produce lesions, however the severity of lesions depends on level of infestation.

Title: Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Ram Lambs Fed Concentrate Mixture Containing Varying Levels of Cashew Nut Kernel Meal
Abstract :

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding concentrate mixture containing varying levels of cashew nut kernel meal (CNKM) on growth performance and carcass characteristics in ram lambs. In a completely randomized design, 18 ram lambs were divided into 3 equal groups of six each. They were allotted in to three dietary treatments (T1 to T3) comprising of green fodder viz., Super Napier and concentrate mixture (20% CP) containing CNKM at 0, 10 and 20%, respectively. The body weight gain and average daily gain increased (P<0.05) linearly with increasing level of CNKM in concentrate mixtures from T1 to T3, while the feed cost per kg weight gain decreased by ` 1.46 in T2 and ` 19.81 in T3 as compared to control. Carcass studies in ram lambs fed concentrate mixtures had no effect (P>0.05) on various carcass parameters expressed as percentage of hot carcass weight. No significant differences were observed in the proportion of whole sale cuts (% carcass weight) and yield of visceral organs (% of pre slaughter weight) among the different treatments. It is concluded that CNKM can be included up to 20 % in the concentrate mixture for improved body weight gain, feed efficiency and economical meat production in ram lambs.

Title: Evaluation of Sorghum Stover Based Complete Rations with Different Roughage to Concentrate Ratio for Efficient Microbial Biomass Production by Using In Vitro Gas Production Technique
Abstract :

An in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the optimum roughage to concentrate ratio in complete rations using sorghum stover (SS) as a roughage source since it is a main feed resource for urban and peri-urban dairies. Eight complete rations were prepared with roughage (R) to concentrate (C) ratio of 100R:0C to 30R:70C. In vitro gas production (ml) at 24 h incubation, in vitro organic matter digestibility and metabolizable energy, truly digestible organic matter and ammonia nitrogen production were increased linearly (P<0.01) as the proportion of concentrate was increased in the ration. Significantly higher (P<0.01) total volatile fatty acid concentration was observed in 50R:50C, 40R:60C and 30R:70C compared to other rations. Significantly (P<0.01) highest partitioning factor, microbial biomass production and efficiency of microbial biomass production were recorded at 60R:40C ratio followed by 50R:50C. Therefore, the present study suggested that SS can be included in complete rations for ruminants at the level of 60 per cent for economic milk and meat production.

Title: In Silico Characterization of β-Defensin-1 Complementary Deoxyribonucleic Acid from Osmanabadi Goat
Abstract :

Beta-defensins are cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) involved in resistance against microbial colonization. In this study total RNA was extracted from tongue of Osmanabadi goats and used to synthesize β-Defensin-1 complementary deoxyribonucleic Acid (cDNA) using reverse transcriptase. In this study in silico characterization of Osmanabadi goat β-Defensin-1 cDNA and its deduced peptide was carried out using PCR, Sequencing and DNAstar programme. CDS of Osmanabadi goat β-Defensin-1 consists of 195 nucleotides encoding a protein of 64 amino acids. Multiple alignment at nucleotide level revealed that Osmanabadi goat β-Defensin-1 had high homology with goat bD1-Y17679, Assam Hill goat Defensin, goat XM_018042143, and goat bD2-AJ009877 sequence. Similarly, multiple alignment at the amino acid level revealed that Osmanabadi goat β-Defensin-1 had high identity with goat bD1- O97946, Assam Hill goat-AST23025, goat- XP_017897632 and goat bD2- 097942 peptides. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that β-Defensin-1 of Osmanabadi goat, both at nucleotide and amino acid level, is closely related to goat, sheep and Reindeer sequences. The Osmanabadi goat β-Defensin-1 cDNA sequence is identical to goat β-Defensin-1 reported from USA. No nucleotide substitution/ change was observed in Osmanabadi goat β-Defensin-1 compared to β-Defensin-1 of goat from USA. It also showed high percentage of identity with goat defensin-1 related molecules. Structure prediction using Phyre2 revealed goat β-Defensin-1 had structural similarity with bovine neutrophil beta-defensin 12.

Title: Effect of Taurine and Methionine Supplementation on Leukocyte Profile of Broiler Chickens
Abstract :

The animal protein sources are rich in essential amino acids but transmission of zoonotic diseases and their high cost limits its use. Therefore it becomes necessary to supplement the synthetic amino acids in plant proteins based broilers diet. A study was conducted in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of three levels of taurine (0, 0.025%, and 0.05%) and two levels of methionine (0 and 0.15%) to determine the effect of taurine and methionine supplementation on leukocyte profile of broiler chickens. The study showed significantly (P < 0.01) increased total leukocyte count (TLC) in taurine and methionine supplemented treatments. As the taurine level increased in the diet heterophil and eosinophil count significantly (P < 0.01) increased whereas, lymphocyte and monocyte count significantly (P < 0.01) decreased . The result reveals that graded level of dietary taurine and methionine plays significant role in reducing the oxidative damage by altering the leukocyte profile.

Title: A Guide on Hemato-Biochemical Profiles of Indigenous Manipuri Cattle
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to establish a reference value of hematology and serum biochemical parameters of indigenous Manipuri cattle. The blood samples were collected from ten numbers (n=10) of apparently healthy indigenous Manipuri cattle from College Livestock Farm Complex (LFC), Jalukie, Nagaland. The hematology and serum biochemical parameters were estimated by utilizing an automated blood cell and biochemical analyser, respectively. Differential Leukocytes Count (DLC) was evaluated after staining the slides with Leishman’s stain. The overall value (Mean ± SEM) for Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW), Total Leukocyte Count (TLC), Lymphocytes, Neutrophils, Monocytes, Eosinophils, and Basophils were recorded as 32.24 ± 1.40%, 13.15 ± 0.77g/dL, 7.47 ± 0.28 ×106/μL, 43.3 ± 1.42 fL, 17.64 ± 1.02 pg, 40.64 ± 1.13 g/dL, 14.11 ± 0.44, 14.05 ± 0.94 × 103/μL, 56.75 ± 4.80 %, 31.48 ± 3.49 %, 8.75 ± 0.84 %, 5.25 ± 0.96 %, 0.625 ± 0.32 % respectively. Similarly, the overall mean value (Mean ± SEM) of Glucose, Calcium, Albumin, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Urea, Creatinine, Uric acid, Bilirubin, Cholesterol, Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT), Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST) and Alkaline Phophatase (ALP) were 55.53 ± 3.35 mg/dL, 11.23 ± 0.23 mg/dL, 2.72 ± 0.05 g/dL, 14.96 ± 1.14 mg/dL, 31.99 ± 2.45 mg/dL, 0.49 ± 0.11 mg/dL, 0.86 ± 0.07 mg/dL, 0.10 ± 0.007 mg/dL, 143 ± 9.78 mg/dL, 27.94 ± 1.76 U/L, 71.39 ± 4.19 U/L, and 62.4 ± 6.89 U/L respectively. The hemato-biochemical values were within the physiological normal ranges of cow except TLC. It can be concluded that the data of this study will be act as a guide on hemato-biochemical profiles of indigenous Manipuri cattle.

Title: Morphological and Biochemical Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria from Leaves of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica)
Abstract :

Endophytes are ubiquitous organisms that live within the host plants without causing any apparent symptom of disease. The aim of the study was to identify the various morphological characteristics of endophytic bacteria from leaves of Tamarindus indica. The preliminary identification of the endophytic bacterial isolates was done based on various morphological features of isolated endophytic bacteria from leaves of Tamarindus indica. Growth characteristics of endophytic bacteria isolated from Tamarindus indica on King’s B media showed that colonies were either irregular or circular in shape, either flat elevation on petri plate or of raised elevation, margin of colonies were either undulated or entire, the surface of the growth opaque and white in colour. All the endophytic bacterial isolates from leaves of Tamarindus indica were non-haemolytic in nature. Growth characteristic of isolated endophytic bacteria from Tamarindus indica in BHI broth showed turbidity and pellicle formation, either they form sediment or ring. The microscopic examination of endophytic bacterial isolates had shown that all endophytic bacterial isolates from Tamarindus indica were gram positive rods. Isolated endophytic bacteria were tested for various biochemical tests also. Based on the findings the endophytic bacteria were characterized and providing insights on the nature of microbiome present in the leaves of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica).

Title: Peanut Hull and Arjuna Tree Bark Powders as Potential Functional Ingredients in Development of Low-Fat, High-Fibre Pork Patties
Abstract :

The present study was envisaged to develop low-fat, high-fibre pork patties by incorporating optimum combinations of peanut hull powder (PHP) and arjuna tree bark powder (ATBP) in the basic formulation replacing lean meat. Five various combinations were prepared by using two different levels of peanut hull powder (PHP) viz. 0.5% and 1.0% and arjuna tree bark powder (ATBP) viz. 1.0% and 1.5% by using two-by-two factorial design viz. control (without PHP and ATBP), T1 (0.5% PHP and 1.0% ATBP), T2 (0.5% PHP and 1.5% ATBP), T3 (1.0% PHP and 1.0% ATBP) and T4 (1.0% PHP and 1.5% ATBP). The developed products were evaluated for various physico-chemical, proximate, instrumental colour, texture profile and sensory analysis. With increasing levels of PHP and ATBP in the developed products, mean fat and protein values exhibited decreasing trend whereas ash content showed increasing trend. Control exhibited significantly (P<0.05) lower crude fibre content as compared to treated patties. The lightness (L*) value of T2 and T3 was recorded comparable and significantly (P<0.05) higher than T4. The mean overall acceptability score of T2 was comparable to T1. The overall acceptability of control was recorded significantly (P<0.05) higher than T1 and T2. Thus low-fat, high-fibre, functional pork patties with good organoleptic quality can be prepared by incorporation of 0.5% peanut hull powder and 1.5% arjuna tree bark powder.

Title: Characterization of Free-range Indigenous Chicken Production System in North-East India (Assam)
Abstract :

A survey was undertaken in four agro-climatic zones of Assam to explore the existing free-range indigenous chicken farming system. Data were collected from 200 farmers, selected randomly by personal interviews with structured questionnaire. Results on existing free-range chicken production system were analyzed and documented. The overall mean age of the chicken farmer was 37.95±0.77 years. The primary purpose of chicken rearing was to meet day to day petty expenses (49.50%) and selfconsumption (24.50%). The overall mean flock size recorded as 29.79±0.28 number per household and the flocks were mostly comprised of chicks. Majority (63%) of the chicken coop were constructed inside the dwelling house without any specifications with locally available materials. The study also indicated that indigenous chicken production was characterized by scavenging with supplemental feeds. Primarily home produced eggs were used for natural incubation by broody hen or duck. Newcastle (Ranikhet) disease was the most fatal disease that caused heavy mortality in indigenous chicken flock as reported by 84.5 per cent of the respondents. Farmers seldom vaccinated their birds against any diseases, but none of them practiced deworming. Chickens were mostly sold as live chicken. Eggs were mostly collected from farmers’ doorstep by hawkers. The study indicated that the indigenous chicken played a significant role in nutritional and livelihood of rural smallholders.

Title: Prevalence of β-lactamase Producing Shiga Toxigenic E. coli (STEC) in Retail Meats and Chicken Cloacal Swabs
Abstract :

Foodborne illness caused by multidrug resistant STEC is one of the most important global public health problems in the world. So, the present study was undertaken to know the prevalence of β-lactamase (ESBL and AmpC) producing STEC in retail meats and chicken cloacal swabs by PCR. A total of 183 samples (135 foods of animal origin and 48 chicken cloacal swabs) collected from retail meat shops and poultry farms in and around Krishna district were subjected to cultural isolation and confirmation of β-lactamase producing STEC by different PCR assays. The overall prevalence of E. coli was found to be 37.15% (68/183) by species-specific PCR. The STEC specific virulence genes stx1, hlyA and stx2 were detected in 10.29%, 2.941% and 1.470%, of E. coli isolates, respectively and no eae A gene was identified. ESBL and/or AmpC-producing E. coli were found in 80.88% (55/68) of isolates with blaTEM being the predominant gene (87.27%) followed by blaCTX-M-2 (9.09%), blaOXA (7.27%), bla DHA (3.63%) and CIT (1.81%). β-lactamase activity was detected in 66.66% of STEC isolates. These findings revealed that retail meats are the potential source of ESBL and/or AmpC-producing E. coli.

Title: Effect of Poly herbal Phytobiotic on the Growth, Immunocompetence, Development of Digestive Organs and Carcass Characteristics of Commercial Broilers
Abstract :

Seventy two, one week old, Cobb 400 broiler chickens were distributed into two experimental groups having four replicates. The birds of the control group were fed a basal diet (22.5% CP & 2830 K cal/kg ME) while the other group was offered a basal diet supplemented with a polyherbal phytobiotic, AV/SSL/12 in drinking water@ 4 ml/100 birds/ day during 1-2 weeks, 8 ml/ 100 birds/ day during 2-4 weeks and 15 ml/100 birds/ day during 4-6 weeks of age. AV/SSL/12 birds had a significantly higher (P<0.05) body weight compared to the control at 2nd week of age. The body weight gain of the birds in the liver tonic fed group was significantly higher (P<0.001) compared to the control group at 2nd week of age. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly better (P<0.05) in the phytobiotic group compared to the control group during 3-6 weeks and 1-6 weeks of age. Total immunoglobulins and mercaptoethanol sensitive (IgM) antibody titer (log 2) values in response to sheep red blood cells was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the phytobiotic compared to the control group. The herbal supplemented group had significantly higher (P<0.05) large intestine length compared to the control group at 6 weeks of age. However, there was no significant difference between the treatment groups in the carcass characteristics and yield of cut up parts of the broilers after 6 weeks of age. Hence, it may not be unreasonable to infer that poly herbal liver tonic, AV/SSL/12 possesses promising immunomodulatory potential and supplementation of poly herbal liver tonic may elicit growth of commercial broilers.

Title: Carcass Traits and Meat Composition of Hansli × CSML bird under Intensive and Semi-intensive Rearing Systems
Abstract :

This study was conducted to compare the carcass traits and meat composition of Hansli×CSML crossbred chickens reared under intensive and semi-intensive rearing systems. At 18th week of age, three birds per sex from each rearing system were slaughtered. Carcasses were dissected into primal cuts. Breast and thigh meat samples were used for chemical analysis. The dressing and eviscerated yield % of birds under intensive system was significantly (P≤0.05) more than under semi-intensive system. The thigh and drumstick yield % of semi-intensive bird was significantly (P≤0.05) higher than that of intensive bird. The carcass traits of males were significantly (P≤0.05) higher than that of females. The results from the meat analysis recorded a higher protein and lower fat content in breast and thigh meat of birds under semi-intensive system. The meat samples of female birds had a higher fat content and somewhat lower protein content as compared to males.

Title: Epidemiological Study on Ticks infestations in Cattle of Jharkhand and Therapeutic Evaluation of Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin and Flumethrin
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to find out prevalence of ticks infestation in cattle and comparative therapeutic efficacy of cypermethrin, deltamethrin and flumethrin in dairy cattle of district Koderma, Jharkhand, India. Total 3890 cattle were examined out of them 1602 cattle were found infested with different species of ticks. The overall prevalence of ticks in cattle were recorded 41.18 %. Among them 876 (54.68 %) cattle were infested by Boophilus microplus followed by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, 332 (20.72%), Haemaphysalis bispinosa 261 (16.29%) and 133 (8.30%) with multiple species of ticks. Round the year prevalence of tick were recorded in the cattle and highest (65.84%) prevalence were recorded during month of September and lowest (24.22%) prevalence were in March. Prevalence was noticed higher in monsoon/ rainy season (60.53%) followed by winter season (34.21%) and summer season (28.25%). Prevalence of ticks infestations were significantly higher in young cattle (up to one year), cross breed, female, reared under intensive system. The common sites of predilection of ticks were udder, perineum, groin, and dewlap and flank region. After 28 days post treatment by cypermethrin, deltamethrin and flumethrin, reduction in mean ticks population density were 74.94 %, 78.84 % and 100%, respectively

Title: Polymorphism of Deleted in Azoospermia-Like (DAZL) Gene in Ongole, Crossbred and Murrah Bulls used for Artificial Insemination in Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract :

Selection of elite crossbred bulls at young age is inevitable for uninterrupted supply of semen to vast bovine population for genetic improvement and production. Identification of sperm molecular biomarkers could be a better approach for selection of young bull for efficient use of resources. The present study was undertaken on 270 bulls of various genetic groups to assess the polymorphism at two loci of DAZL gene by PCR-RFLP. On restriction fragment analysis of 3’UTR/DedI polymorphism was observed in Ongole, Jersey, Jersey crossbred, Holstein, and Murrah bulls. HF crossbred bulls were monomorhic with fixation of A allele and CC genotype was evident only in Ongole bulls. In the bulls across the breeds studied the AA genotype was predominant (90.0 to 99.0). PCR-RFLP of region comprising missense variant in exon 3 was performed with BstY1 and the study revealed that all the bulls were monomorphic at the loci. Further studies to identify polymorphisms and evaluating their association might elucidate the role of DAZL SNPs as a marker for fertility traits in bulls.

Title: Smart Phone Based Electrocardiography in Dogs – A Newer Concept in Veterinary Cardiology
Abstract :

With the advancements in veterinary cardiology, ECG has become a basic diagnostic aid and its role in primary diagnosis is becoming more and more important. Though there are multiple conventional electrocardiograms available with different specifications and price, use of smart phone based technology in recording ECGs in veterinary patients is a welcomed technology. This device is simple, handy and provides information that helps in assessment of heart rate, rhythm, conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias. In the present study, the smart phone device was used to trace ECG by placing onto the back of an iPhone or any android phone and / or by placing the phone close to the electrodes and recorded a single lead ECG for 30 seconds. Elevated R wave amplitude, deep S wave, deep Q wave, elevated T wave amplitude, electrical alterans, atrial fibrillation, bradycardia, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular premature complex, deep Q and elevated R wave, wide P wave, low voltage QRS complexes, absence of P wave, wide QRS, ST coving, fine atrial fibrillation, bradycardia with low voltage QRS complexes, deep T wave were the significant abnormal tracings recorded using smartphone based ECG device. Hence, it may be concluded that the smartphone base ECG device might be an alternative for conventional ECG with cables to record various abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias.

Title: Histology of Fetal Ovary and Oviduct of One Humped Camel
Abstract :

The main aim of this work was to study the histological development of fetal ovary and oviduct. The samples were collected from abattoir accidental findings over a period of six months. The ovary and oviduct samples were fixed and routinely processed with Haematoxylin and Eosin and Periodic Acid Schiff. Cortical and medullary zones were not so distinct at the first trimester ovarian tissue. Scanty follicles were found scattered within the connective tissue. The zones were more distinct in the second and most distinct in the third trimester. The primary follicles were also numerous along side with vessels. The oviduct had long branching folds bearing the pseudostratified epithelium that was clearly demarcated in the third trimester. It was concluded that these features can be added to the existing literature and Ultrastructure is recommended in the future research of fetal female Camelids.

Title: Effect of Kinnow Mandarin (Citrus Nobilis Lour x Citrus Deliciosa Tenora) Fruit Waste Silage on Nutrient Intake, Digestibility and Performance of Goat Bucks
Abstract :

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the feeding Kinnow mandarin fruit waste (KMW) silage viÅ›-a- viÅ› oat silage on nutrient intake, nutrient digestibility, utilization and general performance of adult male goats. Twelve local adult male goats were randomly allotted into two equal groups namely oat silage (OS) and Kinnow silage (KS) group. Animals were offered weighed quantities of respective silage (Oat silage to OS and KMW silage to KS) on ad lib. Silage intake (g/d), DM intake (DMI), digestible DMI, digestible organic matter (OMI) and digestible CP intake was comparable (P>0.05) among the two dietary groups. The per cent digestibility of all the analysed nutrients was analogous (P>0.05) in both the groups irrespective of the diet. Total digestible nutrient (TDN) intake (g/d) of goats kept on KMW silage was significantly (P<0.05) higher than OS group animals. Balance of nitrogen and phosphorus was positive in both the groups without any significant (P>0.05) difference between dietary groups. There was no significant difference in analysed blood bio-chemicals and serum enzymes level between different periods and groups, suggesting general well-being of goats. On the basis of results of present study, it can be concluded adult male goats can be maintained on the silage of Kinnow waste without affecting nutrient intake, utilization and general performance of animals

Title: Effect of Low Protein Diets on Blood Biochemical Parameters and Immunity in WL Layers
Abstract :

Two trials were conducted to assess the blood biochemical and immunity parameters in WL layers (25-44 weeks) at low protein and amino acid supplemented diets. First one is for assessment of digestible lysine and 2nd one is for digestible threonine at constant ratio of other essential amino acids at low protein levels. In experiment –I WL pullets (n=528) were randomly allotted into 11 treatment groups each with 6 replicates of 8 birds and fed with 2 levels of protein (13.36 and 15.78%) with five concentrations of d. lysine (0.50, 0.55, 0.60, 0.65 and 0.70%) and a control group with 17% CP and 0.70% lysine. In 2nd experiment pullets of 390 numbers were distributed into 13 treatment groups with 5 replicates of 6 birds. Basal diets with two d. lysine concentrations (0.65% and 0.60%) at two protein levels (from the experiment –I) and each lysine concentration was supplemented with 6 graded concentrations (60, 63, 66, 69, 72 and 75%) of crystalline threonine, and a control with 17 % CP, 0.70 % lysine and 66% threonine were fed to the birds. Results of these experiments revealed that there was no significant variation in total proteins, albumin globulin, A:G ratio, cholesterol, Alkaline phosphotase, Calcium, Phosphorus and HI titres in both the trials. It indicates that the levels of proteins 13.36 and 15.78% with 0.65%,0.60% lysine at 60% lysine as threonine are optimum for WL layers for production without altering health status.

Title: Screening of Non Tuberculous Mycobacterium Species from Farm Environment
Abstract :

The ubiquitous presence of NTM species in the environment is one factor which leads to misdiagnosis, treatment failure of tuberculosis throughout the world. The aim of the present study was to screen samples from farm environment to detect the occurrence of NTM species and to analyze their antimicrobial resistance pattern. A total of 218 samples of water, soil, milk, faeces and sewage were collected and processed as per standard isolation protocols for NTM species. Further, the isolates were subjected to biochemical characterization and molecular confirmation was done by PCR targeting genus specific primers like 16SrRNA and hsp 65. For species identification, the PCR products were sequenced and assessed the genetic relatedness. Antimicrobial resistance of the isolates was also studied by broth microdilution and disc diffusion method. The present study showed the presence of NTM species from farm settings and the isolates were found to be sensitive to antimycobacterial drugs.

Title: Insights into the Buffalo Housing Practices Followed by Farmers in the Non-Tribal Area of Chittorgarh District in Rajasthan
Abstract :

An effort was made to evaluate the existing housing practices followed by the farmers of Begun and Kapasan tehsils in Chittorgarh district of Rajasthan. In total, 160 respondents were randomly selected from four villages of each selected tehsil and interviewed regarding the various housing practices adopted by them. Our study revealed a largely traditional way of buffalo housing management, with scientific management adopted in certain sphere of housing like providing feed in manger, optimally ventilated housing, among others.

Title: Determination of Herd Prevalence of Brucellosis using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Indirect ELISA
Abstract :

The present study was aimed at diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle and buffalo using RBPT and iELISA and comparing the two tests. The animals belonged to a cattle shelter house (Gaushala). Out of 303 sera samples collected, 125 (41.25 %) were positive by RBPT and among 125 positive samples, 2 were of male and other 123 were of female animals. On the other hand the results of ELISA were tripartite and 142 (46.86%), 22 (07.26 %) and 139 (45.54%) samples were found as positive, moderately positive and negative, respectively. Overall by combining the both type of positive results, 164 (54.12%) samples were found positive by iELISA. On herd level, this was much higher than reports from most of earlier workers. On taking iELISA as reference test, the sensitivity and specificity of RBPT were calculated as 80.78% and 100%, respectively and the level of agreement between two tests was 0.871. But three categories of variations were observed between two tests, i.e. eighteen samples were positive in RBPT but negative in ELISA, 49 were negative in RBPT but positive in ELISA and 12 were negative in RBPT but moderately positive in ELISA.

Title: Unveiling the Effect of Garlic and Black Cumin Oil on Egg Yolk Lipid Profile of Birds: A Comparative Study
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to assess the effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and black cumin (Nigella sativa) oil on egg yolk lipid profile of adult layer birds. Forty eight 40-weeks-old birds were randomly divided into two preparation trials of 24 birds each. Each trial was further divided into 4 groups of 6 birds each. Birds were caged individually and diets were supplemented with 0 (control), 250, 500 and 750 mg garlic and black cumin oil/kg of feed in groups T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively for 56 days. The birds of T4 group showed maximum reduction in egg yolk lipid profile on day 56. The present study revealed that Allium sativum oil @750mg/kg of feed is the most effective supplementation in reducing the egg lipid profile in birds.

Title: Development and Shelf-life Extension of Cranberry Infused Caramel Paneer Bites for School Going Children
Abstract :

The plenary investigation was based on the development and shelf life extension of cranberry infused caramel paneer bites for school going children. Caramel paneer bites were standardized on the basis of preliminary trials and after cooking for 10 minutes in sugar solution of 50° Bx strength, sensory evaluation was performed by P and K hedonic testing with 100 children (7-16 yrs) selected randomly from Jammu city. Thereafter, shelf life studies were conducted on four different formulations i.e. control (without cranberry extract), T1, T2 and T3 (with cranberry extract) at storage interval of 15 days up to spoilage at refrigeration temperature (4±1˚C). No significant change was observed in fat, protein and ash content of all the four formulations; however, moisture content of control formulation increased significantly throughout the storage period. In case of all the treatments, significantly lower TBARS and FFA values were analysed relative to control samples on all the days of storage. Total plate count and yeast and mould count increased above permissible limits on day 45 in control samples and on day 60 in cranberry infused treatments. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that caramel paneer bites were well accepted by school going children with maximum shelf life of 30 days at refrigeration temperature of 4±1°C without appreciable loss of freshness and sensory attributes, however, its sensory and microbial acceptability could significantly be improved up to 45 days by addition of cranberry extract.

Title: Effect Trigonella foenumgraecum and Tinospora cordifolia feed additives on Carcass Traits of Broilers in Konkan Climatic Conditions of India
Abstract :

The different types of feed and combination of feeds are the major element in growth and getting high net return from the poultry. Feed additive plays important role in improving the efficiency of feed utilization and animal performance. The current study attempted to determine the influence of herbs i.e. fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum), guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) and in combinations of both at different levels in diet of broilers. The experimental trial was conducted with one hundred sixty two unsexed day-old Vencobb-400 broilers chicks. The nine treatments were given with three replication and each replicates had six birds. The herb stem powder were fed for six weeks at 0, 0.1 and 0.2 per cent level of each herb in combinations. In order to evaluate the seasonal variation it was conducted throughout the year viz. summer, rainy and winter. The chicks were fed with maize crumble at 0-4 days then starter feed from 5-21 days and 21-42 days with finisher feed. All the birds were managed under uniform managemental conditions in three seasons of Konkan climatic conditions. The experimental results showed that the significant increased dressed weight, dressing per cent, giblet, breast, drumstick thigh and meat to bone ratio in broiler fed with 0.2 per cent fenugreek seed and guduchi stem powder during winter season than rest of the treatments and seasons. It would be suggested that the supplementation of broiler chicks’ diets with 0.2 per cent fenugreek seed and guduchi stem powder improved the carcass characteristics of broilers.

Title: Clinico-Biochemical Alterations and Therapeutic Management of Canine Gastroenteritis
Abstract :

The clinical investigation was done on 45 dogs suffering from gastroenteritis. The affected dogs showed diarrhoea, vomition, depression, anorexia and dehydration. Significant decrease in plasma glucose, albumin, potassium and chloride were observed. The affected dogs were randomly divided into three groups. In group-I (n = 15), levofloxacin was given along with antiemetic, vit B-complex and fluid therapy. In group-II (n = 15) and group-III (n = 15), cefotaxime and ceftriaxone were used instead of levofloxacin. The present investigation showed that therapeutic regimen in group-I (levofloxacin) was most effective for the treatment of gastroenteritis as compared to group-II (cefotaxime) and group-III (ceftriaxone).

Title: Histomorphology and Histochemistry of Liver of Adult Bakerwali and Non-descript Goats of Jammu, India
Abstract :

The present study was conducted on the histomorphology and histochemistry of liver of Bakerwali and non-descript goats. Histologically hepatic lobules, portal lobules and liver acini were observed. Hepatic lobules were hexagonal with clear boundaries in Bakerwali goat whereas in non-descript goats, the interlobular connective tissue was minimal making it difficult to recognize the lobule as hexagonal. Portal lobule was triangular, functional unit of liver consisting of parenchyma of three adjacent hepatic lobules. Liver acini were diamond-shaped area having three zones. Hepatocytes of zone 3 were darker stained as compared to zone 1 and 2 in both the breeds. Hepatocytes were arranged in radiating cords (hepatic cords) approximately one to two cells in thickness. This pattern of radiating cords was seen prominently in Bakerwali goats but in non-descript goats these cords anastomosed with one another showing interconnected network of hepatic arch, enclosing spaces “the sinusoids”. The histochemical distribution of mucopolysaccharides, proteins and sudanophilic lipids didn’t vary among Bakerwali and non-descript goats but reactions was variable in different parts of liver parenchyma.

Title: Seroprevalence of Leptospirosis in Clinically Ailing Bovine
Abstract :

The purpose of this study was to carried out seroepidemiological study of leptospirosis in clinically ailing cattle and buffaloes of South Gujarat where cases of leptospirosis in human is increase every monsoon since last decade. To determine clinical pattern of bovine Leptospirosis in this area a total of 130 serum samples of cattle and buffaloes were collected randomly from different age groups of cattle and buffaloes of either sex reared in this area and tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) using different serovars of Leptospira spp. The prevalence of leptospiral antibodies was detected in 15.84 and 17.24 % in clinically ailing cattle and buffaloes, respectively. In clinically ailing seropositive cattle history of mastitis/agalactia/oligolactia was recorded in maximum number of cases (24.00 %) followed by abortion (20.00 %), fever (14.81%), repeat breeding (11.76%) and anorexia (5.88%) in different combinations. In seropositive clinically ailing buffaloes the clinical signs included mastitis (30.00%), fever (16.66 %) and abortion (14.28%). In clinically ailing cattle highest prevalence was noted in animals above 4 years of age (20.00%) followed by 1-4 years of age (4.76%) whereas in clinically ailing buffalo seropositivity was recorded only in above 4 years of age (20.00%). The most prevalent serovar pomona has been reported from different clinical conditions in both cattle and buffaloes. Based on present and few past investigation reports the sero-epidemiological condition of bovine leptospirosis that need due attention as South Gujarat region is endemic zone for leptospirosis.

Title: Clinical and Rumen Fluid Evaluation of Ruminal Disorders in Cattle
Abstract :

Clinical and rumen fluid changes in various ruminal disorders were studied clinically in 13 cattle at University of Gondar veterinary clinic, Gondar town, Ethiopia from September 2013 to May 2014. History, clinical signs, physiological and rumen fluid parameters were studied in all the cattle. The comparisons of the means between different stages of physiological parameters of different ruminal disorders were determined by repeated measure ANOVA to evaluate pre and post rumenotomy changes. The predominant clinical observations were, abdominal distension in non potential foreign bodies; grunt with bruxism in potential foreign bodies; bloat along with colic signs in ruminal tympany; and fluid splashing sound with palpable mass in the rumen in ruminal impaction. Poor quality roughage and excess concentrate were found to be the predisposing factors in ruminal disorders. In physiological parameters significant increase in temperature and decrease in rumen motility from the presurgical values up to 24 hrs and 48 hrs after rumenotomy were observed. Heart, pulse and respiratory rates revealed none significant changes between pre and post surgical intervals. The rumen fluid of cattle with different ruminal disorders on analysis before rumenotomy showed brownish colour, watery consistency, aromatic odour, pH range 4.9-8.0, increased MBRT and sedimentation activity time in most of the cases.

Title: Effect of Protein Supplements on Feed and Water Intake in Gir Cows
Abstract :

A study was conducted on 16 lactating Gir cows, which were divided into four groups on the basis of body weight and average milk yield/day at Dairy farm (LPM Deptt.) S.K.N. College of agriculture, Jobner (Rajasthan) and subjected to four dietary treatments i.e. Wheat straw ad-lib. + Green Lucerne (5 kg) + Concentrate (T1), T1 + Urea 75 g/cow (T2), T1 + Mustard oil cake 614 g/cow (T3) and T1 + Guar meal 505 g/cow (T4). The studied for their feed intake and water intake in Gir cows. Daily in kg DMI was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T4 (11.87) than T3 (11.76), T2 (9.83) and T1 (10.76). The Mean DMI/100 kg body weight was also higher (P<0.05) in T4 cows as compared to other groups. VWI (litre/animal) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T4 (32.80) than T3 (31.42), T2 (31.35) and T1 (29.91).

Title: Supplementation of Enzymatic and Non-enzymatic Antioxidants to the Extender improves Sperm Functionality during Storage at 4°C in Labrador Dog
Abstract :

Several extenders to preserve fertilizing capacity of preserved canine semen have been successfully tested, but further studies are requisite to improve its quality. Effect of supplementation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione (GSH) to Tris-citric acid-fructose-egg yolk extender on Labrador dog sperm survival during storage at 4° was evaluated. Different concentrations per antioxidant i.e. SOD (50-300 IU/ml), GPX (1.5-2.5 IU/ml), CAT (100- 400 µg/ml) and GSH (2.5-10 µM/ml) were evaluated to look for an optimum dose. Semen was analyzed for motility, viability and plasma membrane integrity (PMI) after every 24 hrs till 72 hrs of preservation. Semen was also analyzed for acrosome integrity (AI) at 0, 72 hrs and lipid peroxidation at 72 hrs of storage. Values for motility, viability, PMI, AI were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the presence of 200IU/ ml SOD, 2 IU/ml GPX, 200 µg/ml CAT and 7.5 µM/ml GSH compared to control and other tested doses. MDA concentration was non-significantly (p>0.05) less in the presence of all doses of SOD and 2.0 IU GPX compared to control at 72 hrs of preservation. MDA concentration in the presence of 200 µg/ml catalase and 7.5 µM/ml GSH was non-significantly (p>0.05) higher than control. It was concluded that SOD, catalase, GPX and GSH at a concentration of 200 IU, 2.0 IU, 200µg and 7.5 µM per ml were optimum concentrations to be supplemented to the extender for positive effect. Supplementation of antioxidants could improve sperm attributes by maintaining proportionate level of oxidative stress during preservation of Labrador dog semen at 4° for 72 hrs.

Title: Prevalence of Gastro-intestinal Parasites in Captive Wild Animals of Kanan Pandari Zoo, Bilaspur
Abstract :

The present study was envisaged to record the prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in captive wild animals of Kanan Pandari Zoo, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh. For this investigation, a total of 145 faecal samples of different captive wild animals were screened, 54 were found positive for various helminth parasites, indicating 37.24% prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites. Among different helminthic infections, the prevalence of nematodal infection was higher than cestodal infection. Among different captive wild animals, the prevalence of parasites was higher in herbivores (45.68%) followed by carnivores (28.33%). The intensity of gastro-intestinal parasitic infection in captive wild animals was mild as eggs per gram ranged from 100-500.

Title: Physicochemical Analysis and Sensory Evaluation of Burfi Enriched with Dried Date
Abstract :

The study was aimed at evaluating the quality of burfi enriched with dried date. Three samples of khoa-dried date blends viz. T1 (90:10), T2 (85:15), T3 (80:20) and control (T0) burfi was analyzed for physicochemical parameters and sensory attributes. The physicochemical composition of burfi was affected due to addition of dried date. The moisture, fat and protein contents decreased with increase in the amount of dried date while that of total solids and total sugar content recorded an increasing trend. Based on sensory analysis, the dried date burfi prepared with 15% dried date in treatment T2 scored highest sensory score. The cost of production of highly acceptable burfi enriched with dried date (T2) was `. 156.50 per kg.

Title: Heat Shock Protein70 (HSP70) Gene Expression Pattern in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) during different Seasons in Sahiwal Cows (Bos Indicus)
Abstract :

Thermal stress alters the normal body homeostasis and causes severe detrimental effects on production and productivity of animals. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly conserved family of proteins that are ubiquitously expressed in animal’s body during thermal stress. Out of all the members present in this family, HSP70 is regarded as the most significant indicator of thermal stress. The present study was therefore conducted to demonstrate the relative mRNA expression pattern of HSP70 gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during different seasons in Sahiwal cows (Bos Indicus). Apparently healthy, non - lactating and non - pregnant sahiwal cows (above two years of age) were taken for study (n = 6). Blood samples were collected thrice i.e. once in December-January (THI <72), between February - March (THI = 72) and June (THI > 72). Blood sample collected in thermo - neutral zone (THI = 72) was taken as control. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) study was undertaken to investigate the variation in relative mRNA expression profile of HSP70 gene during different seasons. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as a housekeeping gene. The relative expression values of HSP70 during summer season were found statistically significant in comparison to winter. These results suggest that HSP70 gene expression varies with THI and this variation may play an imperative role in conferring thermo tolerance against heat stress during different seasons of a year.

Title: Effect of Dietary Chromium, Vitamin E and Selenium Supplementation on Growth Performance and Cost Economics of Holstein Friesian Calves Under Heat Stress
Abstract :

A study was conducted in Holstein Friesian calves with an average body weight 172.79 ±4.39 kg and aged 7-8 months for a period of 90 days during the months of peak summer (April 15-July 15). Calves were distributed randomly into four dietary treatment groups of six animals each considering their body weights. The treatment groups were T0 (control), T1, T2 and T3. The calves of control group were fed total mixed ration (TMR). Other treatment groups were fed with TMR supplemented with chromium propionate @ 0.5mg/kg DM (T1); vitamin E @ 500 IU/animal/day and selenium @ 0.3 mg/kg DM (T2) and chromium propionte @ 0.5 mg/kg DM, vitamin E @ 500 IU/animal/day and selenium @ 0.3 mg/kg DM (T3). The mean THI values were 75.10±0.42 in the morning and 80.01 ±0.64 in the afternoon indicating that the animals were under mild to moderate heat stress. High THI was found in the month of May with a THI value 83.48±1.41 in the afternoon. Dry matter intake (kg/d), DMI per 100 kg BW and per kg BW 0.75 were comparable among the calves fed different experimental rations. DMI per kg weight gain was significantly (P<0.05) lesser in T3 calves. Weight gain and the average daily gain were significantly (P<0.05) higher with supplemented rations compared to control ration. Supplemented rations were found to be economic. However chromium fed rations proved to be more profitable.

Title: Effect of Feeding Artocarpus heterophyllus, Terminalia bellerica and Carica papaya Plant Leaves on Rumen Microbial Enzymes and Growth Performances in Assam Hill Goat
Abstract :

In this study, three medicinal plants viz. Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit), Terminalia bellerica (Bhumura) and Carica papaya (Papaya) were investigated for their effect on the rumen enzyme profiles and growth performances in Assam hill goat. A total of eighteen (18) Assam Hill (local) goats of 3-4 months of age were procured and reared in the Experimental Animal Shed, Department of Veterinary Physiology, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam, India. The animals were divided into three groups viz. control receiving substrate ration, T1 with plant leaves @ 5 % level and T2 groups @ 10 % level of total mixed ration (TMR). The duration of the experiment was 90 days (from March, 2016 to May, 2016). The fibre degrading microbial enzymes viz. carboxymethyl cellulase, endoxylanase, ß- glucosidase were estimated in rumen liquor of the animals during the study period and rumen liquor analysis revealed that out of the three rumen fibrolytic enzymes, Carboxymethyl cellulase showed better (P<0.05) enzyme activity in T2 group (2.83 ± 0.01 μmol glucose/ml/h). The average body weight (kg per animal) recorded in the present experiment showed significant trend (P<0.01) from 0 to 90 days of experiment where higher value (9.62 ± 0.43 kg/animal) was obtained in T2 group. From this study, it can be concluded that these three medicinal plants viz., A. heterophyllus, C. papaya, T. bellerica do not have any harmful effect on normal functioning of the rumen. Thus, the plant leaves can be incorporated in the diet up to 10% of the total mixed ration.

Title: Molecular Detection and Pathomorphological Studies of Canine Distemper Virus Infection (CDV) in Dogs
Abstract :

In this study RT-PCR was used to detect CDV NP gene from the whole blood samples of dogs clinically suspected for CD followed by the study of pathomorphological alterations in different tissues. Clinical signs such as respiratory distress, purulent oculo-nasal discharge, biphasic fever, gastroenteritis, pustular dermatitis, prominent hyperkeratosis of the digital pads and nervous disorders were observed in the clinically suspected cases. The nervous disorder includes seizure, convulsion, paddling movement, tremor followed by posterior paralysis. On necropsy, bronchopneumonia, congestion and haemorrhages over the mucosal surface of the urinary bladder, stomach, intestine and brain were prominent lesions. Microscopically, both eosinophilic intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were recorded in the neurons and glial cells, epithelial cells of the bronchioles, urinary bladder, kidney tubules and gastric glands. Congested vessels with haemorrhages were also found in the brain, lungs, stomach, intestine and lymphoid organs.

Title: Comparative Evaluation of Different Lactation Curve Models in Prediction of Monthly Test-Day Milk Yields in Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :

Present investigation was undertaken to compare the different lactation curve models for describing the shape of the lactation curve in Murrah buffaloes. Data for the present study included 9071 monthly test-day milk yield (MTDMY) from 965 Murrah buffaloes calved during 1977 to 2012 at the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. A total of 10 monthly test-day milk yield records were taken at an interval of 30 days. The data were used to estimate lactation curve parameters for four lactation curve models viz. Gamma type function (GF), Exponential function (EF), Mixed log function (MLF) and Polynomial regression function (MLF). The mean monthly test day milk yields (MTDMY) increased from 5.91±0.13 kg on TD1 to a peak yield of 7.41±0.12 kg on TD3. The estimates of coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) for GF, EF, MLF, and PRF were 96.42%, 98.65%, 98.48%, 99.86% and 0.077, 0.049, 0.052, 0.015, respectively. PRF fitted best to the test day data followed by EF on the basis of higher R2 and lower RMSE estimates, whereas GF fitted least.

Title: Immunoreactivity of PAX 6, Recoverin and Calbindin Activity in the Retina of Buffaloes with Ageing
Abstract :

The present study was conducted in retina of 15 buffaloes and samples were categorized into group I (1-5 yrs), group II (6-10 yrs) and group III (10 yrs above). Immunopositive reaction for Pax6 in retinal pigment epithelium was strong in group I, mild to moderate reaction in group II buffaloes and no reaction in group III buffaloes. Strong immunopositive reaction against recover in was noticed in rods and cones, their nuclei of outer nuclear layer and binucleate cells of inner nuclear layer in group I and II buffaloes. Whereas moderate reaction was observed in the similar cells of retina in group III buffaloes. Strong Immunopositive reaction against calbindin was observed in the horizontal and amacrine cells of retina in group I and group II buffaloes and moderate reaction was observed in group III buffaloes

Title: Prediction of Breeding Value Using Bivariate Animal Model for Repeated and Single Records
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out on Karan Fries cows maintained at National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Karnal, Haryana. Data were collected on fertility and production performance spread over a period of 34 years (1978 to 2012). Breeding values estimated by univariate animal model were compared with univariate animal repeatability model on the basis of spearman’s rank correlation estimate. The rank correlation estimates ranged between 0.39 to 0.47 indicating that sires rankings on first lactation basis had moderate correlation with the rankings on the basis of breeding values estimated by repeatability model. Further the bivariate animal repeatability models viz. SP & 305MY, CI & 305MY and DPR & 305MY had lower error standard deviation 251.85, 254.92 and 249.93 kgs in comparison to bivariate animal model for single records for which the error standard deviation estimates were 281.84, 279.81 and 278.99 kgs, respectively. The error standard deviation estimates of SP & TMY, CI & TMY, DPR & TMY were 284.99, 294.35 and 285.47 kgs in comparison to bivariate animal model for single records for which the error standard deviation estimates were 272.01, 315.30 and 298.22 kgs, respectively. Results of the present study indicated that the repeatability model was superior in comparison to the animal model for single records and thus repeated records should be used for breeding value prediction in dairy cattle.

Title: Growth Dynamics of Salmonella, Isolated from Different Sources, at different Temperature and pH
Abstract :

A total of 350 samples 50 each from raw poultry meat, poultry cloacal swabs and human diarrheic cases, besides 200 eggs were processed for the isolation of Salmonella. Effect of varying temperature and pH on growth of Salmonella isolates was evaluated by growing the organism in Brain Heart Infusion Broth at 4, 10, and 30°C with pH values of 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5. At 10°C, the mean generation time of the isolates at pH values of 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5 was 44.23 ± 0.44, 15.51 ± 0.08 and 10.23 ± 0.10 hrs, respectively, while at 30°C, the generation time of the isolates at pH values of 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5 was 126.10 ± 0.68, 59.96 ± 0.14 and 36.22 ± 0.07 min, respectively. No growth observed at 4°C, at any given pH value. As the temperature and pH were lowered, significant increase in generation time of the organism was observed.

Title: Association of Semen Attributes and Seminal Plasma Proteins of Buffalo Bulls
Abstract :

This study was conducted to explicate the association of semen attributes with seminal plasma proteins of buffalo bulls. Total 108 ejaculates were collected from six sexually mature adult Bhadawari buffalo bulls aged 2-4 years in three seasons (rainy, winter and summer) of a year by using artificial vagina. Immediately after collection, semen samples were divided into two aliquots. One aliquots of neat semen were evaluated for ejaculate volume (EV), sperm concentration (SC), mass motility (MM), progressive motility (PM), percent live-dead (LD) count, percent Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST), and percent acrosomal integrity (AI). The other semen aliquots were centrifuged for harvesting the seminal plasma. SDS-PAGE was performed for separation of seminal plasma proteins and gel images were analysed to determine molecular weights, IOD of protein bands and relative protein fractions (protein %) using the Gel doc system. The correlation results revealed positive correlation of SC with 70 and 72 kDa proteins while negative correlation with 86 kDa protein. The PM showed positive correlation with 24.5, 70 and 72 kDa proteins and negative correlation with 84 and 86 kDa proteins and AI showed positive correlation with 18.5, 24.5, 44.5, 70, and 72 kDa and negative correlation with 20 and 84 kDa proteins. The results of correlation among seminal plasma proteins showed positive correlation of 24.5 kDa with 35, 44.5, 70 and 72 kDa and negative correlation with 86 kDa proteins. The 70 and 72 kDa proteins showed positive correlation with 18.5 and 24.5 kDa and negative correlation with 20, 84 and 86 kDa proteins. The 84 kDa proteins showed negative association with 24.5, 70 and 72 kDa proteins while 86 kDa proteins showed negative association with 24.5, 35, 36.5, 70 and 72 kDa proteins. In conclusion, though significant correlations among seminal plasma proteins and semen characteristics were detected, yet it is noteworthy that correlation does not mean cause. Therefore, more refined studies that allow higher-resolution separation of seminal plasma proteins and more detailed characterization of those proteins, as well as investigation of their physiological role, will further advance knowledge in this area.

Title: Elucidation of Molecular Basis of Neutrophil Apoptosis during Staphylococcal Mastitis in Crossbred Cows
Abstract :

Neutrophil apoptosis is a dynamic process following their recruitment to the site of infection that varies depending upon the type of challenge. The proposed study was designed to elucidate the role of classical mediators of apoptosis in neutrophils isolated from milk samples of crossbred Karan Fries cows suffering from subclinical (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CM). Milk samples were collected from 12 KF cows suffering from clinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcal aureus. Clinical mastitis was confirmed on the basis of CMT scoring, bacteriological evaluation, gross and morphological changes in milk and by counting milk somatic cells (SCC). Milk Poly Morpho-Nuclear Cells (PMNs) were isolated and apoptosis was studied. Neutrophil apoptosis was evaluated by studying the exteriorization of phosphatidyl serine, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, Caspase 3, 7, 8 and 9 by fluorescent microscopy. Results showed that apoptosis in neutrophils were mediated through exteriorization of membrane phosphatidyl serine; increased mitochondrial transmemebrane potential and activation of caspases 3, 7, 8 and 9 like other somatic cells. From the study, it was evident that neutrophils undergo induced apoptosis during Staphylococcal mastitis. The findings of the study provide an insight into the molecular basis of neutrophil apoptosis and form a basis to enhance the host immunity by the process of apoptosis modulation to combat the infections caused by the pathogen. The study provided a base for future studies by which neutrophil apoptosis can be modulated so as to enhance the phagocytic clearance of the microbes from the site of infection.

Title: Relationship Among Intramammary Infection and Raw Milk Parameters in Jersey Crossbred Cows under Hot-Humid Climate
Abstract :

The raw milk quality has increasing importance for producer and consumer as it is directly related to processing, production and price. The aim of present study was to determine the relationship among intramammary infection (IMI) and raw milk parameters in Jersey crossbred cows. Total 24 lactating Jersey crossbred cows were randomly selected and representative animal wise morning milk samples were collected in monthly interval for four month. The level of somatic cell count (SCC) and milk parameters (fat (%), solid non-fat (%) and pH) was estimated from the collected sample. Test day milk yield for individual animals was also recorded and then the data obtained were statistically analyzed. A significant (P<0.01) negative correlation of Log10SCC with test day milk yield, fat and SNF percentage was found, while, milk pH was highly positive correlated with Log10SCC in milk. The mean±SE values of milk yield, fat and SNF were significantly (P<0.01) lower in subclinical infected group except for SCC and pH, which were higher in subclinical infected group. It can be concluded that IMI and higher SCC adversely affect the milk production and raw milk quality parameters and these parameters can be used as useful indicator as complimentary to SCC to monitor udder health and for early diagnosis of subclinical mastitis at dairy farm.

Title: Comparative Efficacy of Nitazoxanide and Sulphadimidine in the Treatment of Cryptosporidiosis in Bovine Calves
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to assess the therapeutic efficacy of oral Nitaxoxanide and Sulphadimidine treatment against Cryptosporidium infection in bovine calves reared under field conditions. A total of 18 diarrhoeic calves naturally infected with Cryptosporidium infection were evaluated. Nitazoxanide was found to be very effective on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs, restoration of altered haemato-biochemical parameters to their normal level and 78.89% reduction in Cryptosporidium oocysts shedding. On the other contrary, sulphadimidine was found almost ineffective in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in calves. Intravenous infusion of Ringer’s lactate and 5% Dextrose used as adjunct therapy for correction of fluid and electrolyte losses fastened the recovery.

Title: Different Treatment Regimen for Eradication of Pinworm (Syphacia obvelata) Infection in Mice Colony
Abstract :

Syphacia obvelata infection was diagnosed in mice during routine health monitoring of rodent colony at Animal Facility, ILS-NISER, Bhubaneswar. Entire mice colony was treated with fenbendazole mixed in drinking water @70 mg / liter in combination with topical spray of injectable 0.1 % ivermectin solution to arrest the disease. At the same time mice were isolated and grouped (n=18) to compare other treatment regimens using ivermectin (oral & spray) and fenbendazole (oral) and chalk out an effective therapeutic strategy for large rodent colonies. Use of cocktail of oral fenbendazole and 0.1 % ivermectin spray was able to eradicate pinworm infection in mice colony but study with individual use of fenbendazole in drinking water was not able to treat the infection in group. Oral use of ivermectin was able to treat pin worm infection in mice but is not recommended for treatment due to its deleterious effects. Use of 0.1% ivermectin as spray alone resulted in complete eradication of Syphacia obvelata hence suggested to be safe and effective method for pin worm eradication in large rodent colonies.

Title: Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers Supplemented Mineral Premix without Cobalt, Iron and Copper
Abstract :

Ninety, day old broiler chicks were arranged into 5X3X6 pattern to investigate the effect of exclusion of Cobalt, Iron and Copper from the mineral mixture. Five dietary groups (T1 to T5) were assigned basal diets containing 2800 kcal ME/kg and 22% CP (Starter) and 20% (Finisher) for a total duration of 6 weeks. The chicks in T1 were fed commercial mineral mixture, T2 were supplemented with mineral mixture prepared with laboratory reagent grade minerals while chicks of T3, T4 and T5 were fed laboratory reagent grade mineral mixture without Cobalt, Iron and Copper, respectively. No significant difference was observed in weight gain, feed intake, FER and PI of broilers fed various mineral supplements. Significantly (p<0.05) higher nitrogen and energy retention (%) was recorded in broilers (T5) fed mineral supplement without Copper compared to broilers fed (T1) commercial mineral supplement (77.18±0.28 vs. 70.50±2.70 and 81.86±1.04 vs. 75.71±2.36). It was concluded that Cobalt,

Title: Comparative Efficacy of different Antimicrobials Used in the Treatment of Colibacillotic Calves
Abstract :

Colibacillosis of newborn calves is characterised by rapid onset, watery white or yellowish diarrhoea and high mortality. In the present therapeutic study the efficacy of four highly sensitive in-vitro drugs viz., ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin and co-trimoxazole was evaluated. Ciprofloxacin at the dose rate of 4mg/kg body weight was found 100 per cent effective, gentamicin at the dose rate of 4mg/kg body weight was found 83.33 per cent effective where as neomycin @10mg/kg body weight and co-trimoxazole @ 25 mg/kg body weight were found 66.67 per cent effective in this study. Treatment regimen used in four different groups of clinical cases of colibacillosis indicated ciprofloxacin being most effective drug followed by gentamicin, neomycin and co-trimoxazole which was comparable with in-vitro studies.

Title: Effect of Season and Age on Bacterial Load in Fresh Semen Ejaculates of Buffalo Bulls
Abstract :

Fresh semen of 10 Murrah buffalo bulls of two different age group viz. 4-5 years and 8-9 years having five bulls in each, were evaluated for total viable bacterial load during three different seasons (summer, rainy and winter).Mean bacterial load in fresh ejaculates of buffalo bulls (three ejaculates per bull in each season) was measured using standard plate count method and expressed as mean (± SEM) CFU per ml of semen. Non significant (P > 0.05) but visible differences of mean bacterial load in bubaline semen was recorded between seasons. Comparatively higher bacterial count in bubaline semen was observed during summer season (18000 ± 4667 CFU/ml) as compared to rainy (16000 ± 3055 CFU/ml) and winter season (12000±3266 CFU/ml). Likewise, nonsignificant (P>0.05) seasonal influence was recorded over bacterial load in semen from bulls of two different age groups. However, appreciable variation was noticed within seasons. During summer season, younger bulls (aged between 4-5 years) showed higher bacterial load (22000±8000 CFU/ml) as compared to older bulls (14000±5099 CFU/ml) and vice versa during winter season. Variations recorded during present study was due to significant variation (P<0.05) among individual bulls within and between seasons. Bacterial load in bubaline semen during summer season was negatively correlated with that during rainy (r = -0.296) and winter season (r = -0.19), however positive correlation (r = 0.423) was noticed between rainy and winter season. In conclusion, the changing seasons during the period of study produced nonsignificant effect on microbial quality of the spermatozoa in Murrah bulls.

Title: Effect of Epidural Administration of Promethazine With and Without Bupivacaine on Biochemical Attiributes of Canines
Abstract :

Six apparently healthy nondescript adult dogs weighing 15 to 20 kg were used for investigation on effects of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Promethazine as epidural anesthetic on Biochemical attributes. Nine serum samples from each dog were collected at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and at 96 h post treatment for the estimation of Blood Glucose, Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT), Serum Alkaline Phosphatase (SAP), Total Bilirubin and serum creatinine. It was observed that the Blood Glucose levels rise after administration of Promethazine alone and with Bupivacaine and achieved peak on 72 h post administration and then declined. Serum Total Protein levels remain unaffected after administration of Promethazine alone while along with Bupivacaine increase in total serum protein during different time interval with peak value recorded at 24 h post administration. SGPT levels increased and reached peak at 12 h post administration after administration of Promethazine alone and with combination with Bupivacaine. SAP values followed trends of SGPT and reached peak at 12 h post administration and then declining gradually in both treatments. The Blood creatinine values increased gradually post administration in both treatments and achieved peak at 48 h post administration and then declining gradually.

Title: testing
Abstract :

testing

Title: Comparative Gross Anatomical Studies on the Sternum of Emu, Turkey and Duck
Abstract :

Study was undertaken to provide a reference for the gross anatomy of the sternum of emu as one of the ratite species and also to compare the structural differences with sternum of duck and turkey. The sternum from four adult emu, turkey and duck were collected and used for the present study. The sternum was a large unsegmented bone located on the antero-ventral aspect of the body cavity, bowl-shaped in emu, triangular in turkey and rectangular in duck. It consisted of deeply concave dorsal surface, more convex ventral surface without keel in emu, with prominent keel in turkey and duck and had two extremities and two borders. An upward and antero-laterally directed flat antero-lateral process was observed and was long in turkey, short and curved in emu and very small in duck. The posterior extremity or metasternum was triangular and flattened in emu. It had very long posterior process and carried ventrally a thin plate of bone called keel in duck and turkey. Single and divided postero-lateral process was noticed in duck and turkey respectively but was absent in emu.

Title: Biofilm Quantification in Listeria monocytogenes 4B Serotype isolated from Animals of Gujarat State, India
Abstract :

The purpose of this study was to assess slime production and quantification of biofilm in a set of well-characterized Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from healthy and clinically affected animal. In all 28 strains of L. monocytogenes belonging to serotype 4b having proved in vitro pathogenicity potential is included in the study. Slime production was determined by cultivation of the organisms on Congo red agar medium, while quantification of biofilm was performed with the help of microtitre plate assay. Out of 28 isolates, 22 (78.57 %) strains of L. monocytogenes produced slime. The rest of the 6 (21.43 %) isolates were negative for slime production. For biofilm production, out of the 28 strains, 5 (17.86 %), 18 (64.29 %), and 5 (17.86 %) were found moderate, weak and negative, respectively. Strains belonging to Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b showed inconsistent results regarding biofilm production. Biofilm productivity exhibited profound intra-strain variations irrespective of source of isolation. As L. monocytogenes are biofilm producers, this increases the probability of occurrence of animal and human infection. Further, as L. monocytogenes produces biofilm, infections caused by this bacterium may be underestimated because diagnoses in the presence of biofilm are difficult.

Title: Ultrasonographic Study of Testicular Development in Beetal Bucks
Abstract :

Two dimensional (2D) ultrasound imaging of testis was conducted on six prepubertal bucks from 1 month to 9 months of age. Testicular scanning was done through direct contact in longitudinal and vertical positions by using 6.0 MHz frequency with a real time ultrasound scanner. The testicular parenchyma (TP) appeared homogenous with a coarse medium echo-pattern which appeared anechoic at first month of age and then moderately echogenic as development occurred with advancement of age. The mediastinum appeared as a longitudinal structure in the middle of testis having greater echogenicity than TP in longitudinal plane and as an echogenic spot in centre of TP in transverse plane. The scrotal septum was seen as a hyperechoic structure in lateral sonograms from initial scanning onwards. The tunics of the testes appeared as a bright echogenic line. Inter-testicular septal depression also appeared between testes as anechoic linear band on transverse scanning. The length, width and circumference of the testes showed significant increase (P<0.05) with the advancement of age. Pixel value of testes showed an incremental pattern with slight deviations at few points. All testicular parameters increased linearly as age advanced, with maximum increase from third to fourth month.

Title: Contents Vol. 10, No. 4, August 2020
Abstract :
Title: Physicochemical Study of Livestock Farm Oriented Wastewater as a Source of Surface Water Pollution
Abstract :

The water from surface source provides sustenance to plants, animals, constituents of the habitat for aquatic animals and to meet importance of agricultural and industrial need. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the physicochemical properties of livestock farm oriented wastewater in and around Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam. Five farms were selected and wastewater samples from these livestock farms were analysed to find out bacteriological quality using standard analytical methods. The wastewater samples were collected on a monthly basis for a period of 7 months. In the present study temperature, total alkalinity, sulphate concentration, total suspended solids, total solids, chloride concentration, calcium concentration, turbidity,electrical conductivity and dissolved oxygen were ranged from 18.21°C to 27.87°C, 45.00 mg/L to 50.25 mg/L, 145.99 mg/L to 165.65 mg/L, 840.24 mg/L to 875.40 mg/L, 1700.96 mg/L to 1720.81 mg/L, 148.19 mg/L to 164.53 mg/L, 155.99 mg/L to 175.81 mg/L,936.00 NTU to 943.52 NTU, 10.20 ms/cm to 18.00 ms/cm and 14.30 mg/L to 18.39 mg/L respectively. Out of 140 samples studied, most of the samples were found to have the different physicochemical parameters within the prescribed limits with exceptions such as Total Dissolved Solids (860.71 mg/l), Nitrate (248.98 mg/l), pH (12.20) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (18.25 mg/l). Significant difference between the samples in different months was observed during the study period. Thus, the present study on farm wastewater sources in and around Khanapara indicated that proper wastewater treatment is required in the livestock farms to prevent surface water pollution.

Title: Sub Clinical Pregnancy Toxaemia Diagnostic Indicators and its Therapeutic Evaluation in Goats
Abstract :

A total of 516 adult non descriptive does brought to Veterinary University Peripheral Hospital, Madhavaram Milk Colony, Chennai – 51, during the period October 2016 to September 2018. were treated for various medical conditions. Of this, 72 does were in their last six weeks of gestation carrying twins/triplets and presented with the history of off feed. They were subjected to determination of blood beta hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) concentration by means of a portable blood ketone and glucose monitoring system and qualitative urinalysis using urine dip stick. Does with BHBA > 0.8 mmol/L and < 1.6 mmol/L were classified as sub-clinical pregnancy toxaemic group (n = 12) while the remaining does BHBA level were within normal range (< 0.8 mmol/L). The control animals were selected from adult Tellicherry does in the age group of 2 to 4 years maintained at Livestock Farm Complex (LFC), Madhavaram Milk Colony, Chennai – 600 051 and a private goat farm (ECR Goat Farm), Injambakkam, Chennai. The sub- clinical pregnancy toxaemic group were resorted to treatment with intravenous glucose therapy (5 per cent Dextrose) and oral administration of glycerine for 3-4 days @ 25 ml twice daily supported with parenteral Vitamin B1, B6 & B12 therapy with an overall cure rate of 100 %.. Reliable diagnostic indicators for sub-clinical form of pregnancy toxaemia include presence of ketone body in urine and BHBA > 0.8 mmol/L and < 1.6 mmol/L.

Title: Subclinical Bovine Mastitis in Rural, Peri-Urban and Suburban Regions of Jaipur District of Rajasthan, India
Abstract :

A cross section study was carried out from June 2013 to May 2014 on a total of 110 lactating cows of rural, peri-urban and suburban regions of Jaipur District of state of Rajasthan, for sub clinical mastitis by using California Mastitis Test (CMT), White side test (WST), Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT) and Somatic cell count (SCC). Prevalence of subclinical bovine mastitis in animal level was recorded as 67.27, 64.55, 63.64 and 74.55 % by CMT, WST, SFMT and SCC, respectively whereas 39.55, 38.86, 37.95 and 45.23 % by CMT, WST, SFMT and SCC, respectively in the level of quarters. Staphylococcus species (46.3%) occupied the prime position among the bacterial isolates followed by Streptococcus species (9.76%), Escherichia coli (6.1%), mixed growth (32.96%) and sterile growth (4.88%). Antibiotic susceptibility test revealed highest sensitivity towards Enrofloxacin. However, antibiotics showing higher rate of resistance patterns were Streptomycin, Penicillin G, Ampicillin, Cloxacillin, Amoxicillin, Kanamycin and Lincomycin. This reflects the poor quality of milk available to the consumers, lack of adequate hygienic practices, pre-emptive prophylactic regimen and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials.

Title: Immunomodulatory Activity of Moringa oleifera in Albino Rats
Abstract :

The study was conducted to evaluate immunomodulatory property of hot aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera in albino rats. This study comprised of six groups containing six rats in each group. Group I served as control, received standard feed and water. Group II and IV received hot aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera @ 400 mg/kg b.wt, orally for 45 days. Group III and V received ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera @ 400 mg/kg b.wt, orally for 45 days. Group VI received standard immunomodulatory drug Levamisole @ 50 mg/kg b.wt, orally for 45 days. A significant increase (P< 0.05) in HA titre was observed in levamisole treated group VI, ethanolic extract treated group V and hot aqueous extract treated group IV of Moringa oleifera as compared to group I. In delayed hypersensitivity test a significant increase (P< 0.05) in paw volume was observed in response to Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBC’s) in group II (hot aqueous extract), group III (ethanolic extract) and group VI (levamisole). Phagocytic index was also found to be non-significantly increased in levamisole treated group VI, ethanolic extract treated group III and hot aqueous extract treated group II as compared to group I. Thus the results showed that Moringa oleifera possess immunomodulatory property.

Title: Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Strains Isolated from Clinical and Environmental Samples in Andhra Pradesh
Abstract :

Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is a severe zoonosis with a great impact on animal and human health. In the present study, 15 out of 16 isolates from clinical ear piece and soil samples (16), 8,6 and one samples isolated respectively from bovine, sheep and goat were confirmed as Bacillus on amplification of rpoB gene, 22 isolates (ear piece13, soil-9) were PCR positive for PA gene of PXO and 10 isolates (ear piece) amplified CAP gene confirming Bacillus anthracis. Similarly, all 31 isolates (earpiece-15 and soil-16) were confirmed as Bacillus anthracis on amplifying rpoB gene and chromosomal Ba813 gene. On nucleotide analysis with genus specific rpoB gene of earpiece and soil isolates shown 99-100% identity, whereas nucleotide analysis with species specific genes; PA of PXO1, CAP of PXO2, rpoB and chromosomal Ba813 gene shown 98-100% identity with their respective reference strains of Genbank. On phylogenetic analysis, earpiece isolates and soil isolates from endemic districts of Andhra Pradesh shown close evolutionary relationship with each other. However, earpiece isolates of Sr6 (Accession No:MK310254) and N3 shared ancestral relation with global reference strains of USA (Accession No:CP012730) and Japan (Accession no: AP014833) respectively. Similarly soil isolate of VM9 also shared ancestral relation with global reference strain of Japan (Accession no: AP014833). This phylogenetic analysis deciphered that there is no strain variation among isolates of B. anthracis collected from different clinical and soil samples of different districts of Andhra Pradesh.

Title: Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Mastitis for Biofilm Formation
Abstract :

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major contagious pathogen responsible for both the clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle all over the world. The ability of S. aureus to form biofilm is considered to be a major virulence factor influencing its pathogenesis. In addition, it often creates intricacy in treatment of bovine mastitis using conventional antibiotics and produce recalcitrant drug resistant infections. This indeed demands urgent remedial measures as outbreaks of livestock associated methicillin resistant S. aureus (LA-MRSA) and community associated methicillin resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) are on the rise and currently being implicated as a rapidly emerging cause of numerous life threatening and therapy refractory human infections as well. In this study, a total of 22 S. aureus isolates from bovine clinical mastitis were evaluated for their ability to form biofilm by using phenotypic and genotypic methods. Using Congo red agar method, 9.09 per cent and 22.72 per cent of S. aureus were considered as strong and intermediate biofilm producers respectively. The presence of icaA and eno genes associated with biofilm formation was confirmed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This study indicates a high prevalence of the ica (63.63 per cent) and eno (100 per cent) genes among S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis.

Title: Steroid induced hyperadrenocorticism in dogs- A Short study
Abstract :

The present study screened ten dogs with the history of prolonged exogenous glucocorticoid administration. The dogs were subjected to detailed clinical examination and special diagnostic procedures to study the clinicopathological changes associated. The most common signs observed were thinning of skin and asymmetrical alopecia. Serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol were elevated. The adrenal glands were found to be atrophied on ultrasonography. The cortisol levels were within normal range in Low Dose Dexamethasone Suppression Test LDDST. Iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed in these dogs and were advised withdrawal of steroid. Initial improvement of clinical signs was observed at 8 weeks after corticosteroid withdrawal.

Title: Comparison of Growth Performance of Goat Kids Under Supplementation with Different Probiotics
Abstract :

This study was conducted to assess the comparative growth performance of goat kids supplemented with yeast as individual probiotic and yeast based combined probiotic preparation. Fifteen male crossbred Malabari goat kids of three months age and having body weights in the range of 8.5 kg to 10.5 kg were selected, dewormed and divided randomly into three treatment groups each having 5 animals (Average body weight of each group being 9.5-9.6 kg). The first group of goats (T1) was kept as control and was not supplemented with any probiotics. The second group of goats (T2) was supplemented with yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae while the third group (T3) was supplemented with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae based combined probiotic containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii. The final body weights of both the probiotic supplemented kids (T2 and T3) were significantly (P<0.05) higher than unsupplemented kids in control (T1) group. The body weight among both the yeast (T2) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae based combined probiotic supplemented groups also differed significantly (P<0.05). Similarly, goat kids fed Saccharomyces cerevisiae based combined probiotic preparation had higher average daily weight gain over individual yeast fed and control goats.

Title: testing asd
Abstract :

asdtesting asd

Title: The Ultra Structural Studies on Jejunum of Goat (Capra hircus)
Abstract :

The tissues from the small intestine containing jejunum were collected from six young goats and processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies. The jejunum villi were of different heights having a broad base with tapering to blunt ends. The surface of the villi showed slight corrugation in the initial part of the jejunum. These corrugations were very faint in this region and also showed orifices for goblet cells. The caudal segments of the jejunum showed some structural changes in the form of more prominent corrugations on the villi surface. The villi surface showed orifices with irregular boundaries for openings of goblet cells in between the dense areas of the microvilli. Whereas the transmission electron microscopy revealed that the epithelium of the jejunum was of a columnar type having goblet cells and no Paneth cells were observed in the villous part of the jejunum. A very few goblet cells were interspersed in between the columnar cells. The glandular epithelium consisted of different cell populations consisted of columnar, Paneth, endocrine and goblet cells.

Title: Effects of Probiotics Supplementation on Growth Performance, Feed Conversion Ratio and Economics of Broilers
Abstract :

Two hundred and forty (n=240), day-old broiler chicks of strain ‘cobb400’ were divided equally into 3 groups of 80 chicks each in group to observe the effect of probiotics (Protexin) supplementation on growth performance and economics of feeding in broilers. Different dietary treatments were T1–basal diet without probiotics supplementation (control), T2–T1 + probiotics supplementation (50 g/ton of feed) and T3– T1 + probiotics supplementation (100 g/ton of feed). Average daily body weight gain (BWG) was significantly higher (P≤0.01) in T3 compared to T2 and T1 (41.63 ± 0.25 g vs 39.48 ± 0.15, 39.99 ± 0.10). Feed intake during starter, finisher and overall study period remained statistically (P≥0.05) at par. Feed conversion ratio was significantly (P≤0.01) improved with probiotics supplementation @100 g/ton of feed compared to control. Dressing percentage and organ weights (% Body Weight) remained statistically (P≥0.05) similar. Mortality (%) was lower for group T3 (1.25) compared to T2 (3.75) and T1 (5.00) but differences were non-significant (P≥0.05). The return over feed cost was significantly (P≤0.01) higher in T2 (`30.99) compared to T1 (` 27.82) and control (` 26.45). The profit per bird over control in group T2 and T3 was ` 1.37 and ` 4.54, respectively. Thus, the dietary supplementation of probiotics at 100 g/ton of feed significantly enhanced body weight gain along with better feed conversion ratio and profit without any adverse effect on feed intake, mortality and carcass characteristics.

Title: Effect of Different Fillers on the Physico-chemical and Sensory Attributes of Chicken Meat Caruncles
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of three different fillers i.e. rice flour, tapioca starch and potato starch, on the physico-chemical and sensory attributes of chicken meat caruncles, so as to find the best filler for chicken snacks. Four different batches were prepared as follows - control (35% refined wheat flour), T-1 (22.75% refined wheat flour + 12.25% rice flour), T-2 (14.00% refined wheat flour + 21.00% tapioca starch) and T-3 (35.00% potato starch). All the variants were assayed for physico-chemical, proximate composition, texture profile, colour profile and sensory attributes. The cooking yield (%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T-2 batch than control and other treated groups. There was continued and significant (P<0.05) increase in Water Absorption Index (WAI) of all the samples from control to T-3. In texture profile, hardness was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T-3 batch than control, T-1 and T-2. Adhesiveness, adhesive force and stringiness remained non-significant (P>0.05) in control and treated batches. L* value increased non-significantly in all the treated samples due to addition of fillers. Moisture (%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T-1 followed by T-2, control and T-3. Among the sensory attributes, colour/appearance, crispiness, after-taste, meat flavour intensity and overall acceptability were significantly higher (P<0.05) in T-2 (tapioca starch) batch than control, T-1 and T-3 batches. Hence 60% tapioca starch could be used in place of refined wheat flour along with 65% spent hen meat for the development of good quality chicken meat caruncles.

Title: Effect of Bypass Fat With and Without Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Herbal Galactogoue on Milk Yield, Fat Content and Serum Triglyceride Levels of Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :

60 buffaloes of early and 60 buffaloes of mid lactation stages are selected to study the effect of Bypass fat with and without combination of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Herbal galactogogue on milk yield, fat percentage and serum triglyceride content. It was observed that combination of Bypass fat with Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Herbal galactogogue supplementation increased weekly average milk yield of supplemented buffaloes as well as fat content and serum triglyceride content compared to plain Bypass fat supplemented buffaloes which in turn performed better than non supplemented buffaloes. This effect is attributable to beneficial effect of Yeast on rumen metabolism and subsequent increased dry matter (DM) digestion,   propionic acid production, and protein digestion compared with  the control provides energy as well as yeast to balance and improve rumen metabolism which in turn improves milk fat and serum triglyceride level.. The increased energy supply to the animals in negative energy balance was responsible for increased milk yield and availability of low density serum triglyceride in plasma led to increased fat content and serum triglyceride levels.

Title: Process Protocol and Cost of Production of Functional Fiber-Enriched Pork Loaves
Abstract :

The objectives of the present study was to standardize the protocol for production of functional pork loaves and to assess the economics of production of the developed product.Four treatments were prepared with incorporation of inulin powder (IP) as fibre source viz. Control (0% IP; C), 1% (T1), 2% (T2) and 3% (T3) by replacing the amount of lean meat in the product formulation. Different batches were steam cooked at 110 ºC for 40 minutes, cooled, sliced and evaluated for different quality parameters. The cooking yield and emulsion stability improved with the increase in level of incorporation of inulin. The cost of production also increased with increase in inulin level in product and calculated as highest in T3. The net profit for the control and 1% IP enriched pork loaves was highest whereas lowest for 3% IP pork loaves. The break-even point was estimated on the basis of value ` marketed product and calculated as ` 1195188.00 for control whereas ` 1331576.00 for T3 and cost-benefit ratio 35% for control and T1. Net Income (`/month) after repayment of loan was highest for control and T1 as ` 77533.00 and lowest for T3 70033.00. The estimated details of economics of the developed product concluded that there is marginal increase about 1% in the price of functional pork loaves and this venture can a successful enterprise.

Title: Haemato-biochemical and Immunological Study on NSAIDs Induced Acute Toxicity in Broiler Chicken
Abstract :
The present study was aimed to elucidate the effect of Nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induced toxicity in the broiler chicken. For this purpose, 120 broiler chicks were utilized and divided into 4 major groups (C, D, B and N) and within each major group the chicks were divided into 3 sub groups having 10 chicks each. The control chicks received normal diet without any medicine. Diclofenac was used @ 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg b.wt. in D1, D2 and D3 group respectively. Ibuprofen was fed @ 15, 30, 45 mg /kg b.wt in B1, B2 and B3 group respectively. The nimesulide group viz. N1, N2 and N3 were given Nimesulide @ 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg b.wt respectively. NSAIDs induced toxicity showed no effect on the haematological parameters of broiler chicks in the present study, however, there was increase in the serum alkaline phosphatase level in intoxicated birds indicating hepatotoxicity compared to the control group with highest value of 173.33 ± 0.80 IU/L in B3. Further, atrophy of spleen and bursa of fabricius was observed in intoxicated birds. Highest atrophy of spleen (1.1 gm/kg body weight) was observed in N3 and D3 while as maximum bursal atrophy of 1.20 ± 0.06 gm/kg body weight was recorded in B3.
Title: Use of Acidified Litter for Broiler Production in Winter Season
Abstract :

This experiment was conducted to compare the effect of litter amendments by using acidifier on growth performance, carcass characteristics and welfare of commercial broiler chicks along with its economical implication during winter season (December-January months). A total of 180, day-old (Vencobb) broiler chicks were equally and randomly assigned to two litter abatements with alum and sodium bisulphate (ATL and SBTL) treatment groups along with one Control group of 60 birds each for 6 weeks. All the chicks were reared under identical managemental conditions except the treatments. The result revealed that, average body weight gain was significantly (p<0.05) highest in SBTL group (1860g) followed closely by ATL (1813g) than the Control group (1770g) at end of 6th week. The growing chicks significantly gained more body weight with better FCR, PER, EER and higher carcass yield with better immunity in the same order of succession. Findings proved that the pH of the acidified treated litter and the control litter had significant difference which clearly reveals the efficiency of litter treatment products to improve the quality of litter thus in turn enhances the productivity and welfare in broiler production.

Title: Effect of Storage Duration and Temperature on Hatchability and Egg Weight Loss of Kuroiler Breed of Chicken
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out to investigate egg weight losses and hatchability of eggs of Kuroiler breed of chicken at poultry farm SKN College of Agriculture, Jobner (Rajasthan). Total 180 fresh eggs of Kuroiler chicken of 25-38 week age were collected for this study and stored for 0, 5 and 7 days at two different temperatures i.e. 30±2oC and 20±2oC as per treatment i.e. T1 (30oC+0d), T2 (30oC+5d), T3 (30oC+7d), T4 (20oC+0d), T5 (20oC+5d) and T6 (20oC+7d). Treated eggs tray are placed incubator to determine hatchability. Result shows that egg weight loss was maximum (2.06%) in treatment T3 followed by T2 and T1. The egg weight decreased with increase in storage duration and temperature conditions. In present investigation percentage hatchability (Fertile Egg Set Basis) was found significantly higher (90.70%) in 5 days stored eggs than 7 days storage (85.37%) and 0 day storage (77.50%) under cold temperature (20oC) with fumigation and hatchability of (Total Egg Set Basis) was found significantly higher in eggs that stored for 5 days (86.67%) and found lower in 0 days stored eggs (68.89%). Duration of storage and temperature significantly (P≤0.05) affected hatchability of eggs (both TES & FES). Hatchability declines when storage duration is beyond 5 days. Hatchability also found higher in eggs stored at 20oC temperature.

Title: Expression Profile of CXCL3 Gene in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Challenged in vitro with Theileria annulata in Crossbred Cattle
Abstract :

Bovine tropical theileriosis is a major haemoprotozoan disease associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality particularly in exotic and crossbred cattle. Recent studies suggest that a number of immune response genes, expressed differentially in exotic and indigenous breeds play an important role in breed specific resistance to tropical theileriosis. In the present study, expression of CXCL3 gene which has chemotactic activity for neutrophils, controls migration and adhesion of monocytes and ultimately mediates its effects on target cells by interacting with a cell surface chemokine receptor called CXCR2 was studied in crossbred cattle. The in vitro experimental result revealed significant difference in CXCL3 gene expression in Theileria annulata challenged peripheral blood mononuclear cells of crossbred animals as compared to healthy controls and a 2.53 fold increase (p < 0.05) was recorded. The results of current study indicate that CXCL3 may be involved in host-pathogen interaction during tropical theileriosis.

Title: A study on Epidemiology and Haematological changes of Fascioliasis in Cattle and its Therapeutic Management with Indigenous Medicinal Plants
Abstract :

The present investigation has been carried out to study the epidemiology of fascioliasis in cattle and its therapeutic management with indigenous medicinal plants. Under the prevailing agro-climatic condition of four locations of Kamrup district of Assam, out of 551 nos. of randomly selected cattle, 46 number of animals were found positive for fascioliasis. The overall occurrence of fascioliasis was 8.35% out of which 8.28% local male, 8.23% local female, 8.33% crossbred male and 8.59% crossbred female cattle were found to be affected. In the present study, efficacy of Entada phaseoloides was found to be 87.50% and that of Azadirachta indica was 81.25%. However, triclabendazole showed 100% efficacy. Various blood parameters viz., haemoglobin, TEC and albumin level were found to be elevated following treatment with methanolic extract of E. phaseoloides, A. indica as well as triclabendazole in comparison to the Fasciola positive untreated group. The declining levels of TLC, eosinophil, monocyte count, total serum bilirubin, ALT, AST, ALP and GGT could be observed after treatment with these drugs. However, the percentage of PCV did not increase significantly after the administration of all these drugs, singly. Also, no significant difference could be observed in basophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte count and ESR level following treatment with triclabendazole, E. phaseoloides and/or A. indica. Based on clinical recovery and improvement in haemato-biochemical parameters, the methanolic extracts of the indigenous plants were found to be highly effective against fascioliasis in cattle through their efficacy were not at par with that of standard commercial drug, triclabendazole.

Title: Constraints Perceived by the Gujjars regarding Adoption of Improved Animal Husbandry Practices
Abstract :

Gujjar is a major tribal pastoral community of India. In Jammu and Kashmir state, Gujjars that deal with dairy and animal husbandry practices are known as Dodhi Gujjars. Their herd mainly constitutes of local buffaloes, buffaloes of Nili-Ravi breed and in some cases they keep two or three indigenous cows also. The study was conducted in Jammu district of Jammu and Kashmir, with a view to find out the constraints faced by Gujjars in adoption of improved animal husbandry practices. The data were collected from 120 Gujjar respondents belonging to R.S Pura and Bishnah block of Jammu district with the help of structured interview schedule containing selected dependent and independent variable, through personal interview technique. In general, constraints related to awareness of the respondents and non availability of veterinary services were perceived as the most serious constraints in adoption of improved animal husbandry practices by the Gujjars. Lack of knowledge about; “keeping up to date management records, antibiotics in milk and their ill effects to human population, recommended feeding practices”, high cost of mineral mixture, perception of A.I. as an unnatural process and veterinary center/ dispensary functioning without a veterinary assistant surgeon were the most serious constraints perceived by the Gujjars.

Title: Cross Sectional Study to Determine Apparent Occurrence of Protozoan Parasites in Cross Bred Cattle Inflicting Reproductive Failures
Abstract :
The study was carried out with an aim for detection of protozoan aetiology for infertility in cross bred cattle using conventional and molecular tools in Rayalaseema region, Andhra Pradesh. Blood and cervico-vaginal swabs of 85 crossbred cattle above 3 years of age with and without pyrexia and with the history of infertility/abortion and ten brain, sixteen liver tissue samples of aborted foetuses collected were subjected for the detection of Theileria annulata, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma evansi, Neospora caninum and Tritrichomonas foetus using Giemsa and Acridine orange staining techniques and species specific PCR.The overall prevalence of blood parasites was 17.6% by Giemsa staining with highest incidence of T. annulata (7.0%), A. marginale (5.8%) and T. evansi (4.7%) where as Acridine orange staining showed 36.4% with highest prevalence of T. annulata (15.2%), A. marginale (14.1%) and T. evansi (7.0%). PCR was standardized for detection of T. annulata, T. evansi and A. marginale, out of 85 blood samples subjected to PCR, 45 (52.9%) were found positive for blood parasites, at 25.8% (22/85), 20.0% (17/88) and 7.0% (6/85) were positive for A. marginale, T. annulata and T. evansi, respectively. The Nested PCR was found to be sensitive than primary PCR in detection of A. marginale. Blood parasites prevalence was higher in H.F cross (58.8%) and the animals with pyrexia (68.0%). The study indicates the marginal role of protozoan parasites in inducing infertility of cross bred cattle.
Title: Risk Factors Associated with Porcine Leptospirosis in Uttar Pradesh, India
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Porcine leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease. Pigs act as reservoir host for various Leptospira serovars. A study aimed to pinpoint the risk factors of porcine leptospirosis was designed on pigs of three agro-climatic zones- Midwestern plain zone (Bareilly), Eastern Plain zone (Barabanki) and Southwestern semi- arid zone (Aligarh) of Uttar Pradesh. Risk factor analysis was done using pretested structured questionnaire. The univariate analysis of the variables of interest was done using Fisher’s exact test/Pearson’s chi-square. Further, multivariate analysis was done through logistic regression model using serological status of animal in Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) as dependent variable. The overall seropositivity of 23.81% (70/294; 95% CI: 18.94% - 28.67%) was recorded in MAT with Icterohaemorrhagiae as the leading serovar. Multivariate risk factor analysis
revealed that accessibility of swine to unsanitary wallowing ponds (Odds ratio: 8.58; 95% CI: 3.34-21.93; P<0.001), contact of domesticated pigs with wild/feral pigs and water buffaloes (Odds ratio: 12.83; 95% CI: 3.72-44.26; P<0.001) and accessibility of swine to garbage pits (Odds ratio: 3.97; 95% CI: 1.28-12.26; P<0.016) were statistically significant. Further, risk factor analysis revealed that mature pigs of >2 years age had higher chance of contracting leptospirosis than young pigs of <2 years (Odds ratio: 12.09; 95% CI: 2.92-50.03; P<0.001) owing to higher probability for exposure to above mentioned risk factors. Domesticated pigs reared under mixed farming system that gets access to wallow in unsanitary ponds frequented by feral pigs and water buffaloes and pigs that access garbage pits frequented by rodents were at high risk of contracting leptospirosis.
Title: Water Quality and Nutrient Dynamics of Biofloc with Different C/N Ratios in Inland Saline Water
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A study evaluating water quality and nutrient dynamics in inland saline water was carried out using biofloc technology with different C/N ratios employed to raise Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. The study was carried out for 60 days in FRP with no water exchange. Salinity, temperature, Dissolved oxygen, pH, nutrients, Biofloc Volume and Total Suspended Solids were monitored. All biofloc units indicated reduction in alkalinity at 40th day except the treatment with highest (25:1) C/N ratio, pH and alkalinity was not significant different among various treatments. Dissolved Oxygen was found to be significantly decreasing with increasing C/N ratios. The least Dissolved Oxygen was recorded at higher C/N ratios of 20:1 and 25:1 at the end of experiment. The Total Ammonical Nitrogen (TAN) and NO2–Nin C/N ratios 15:1 and 20:1 were found to have a significantly decreasing in trend after 20th and 18th day respectively. The NO3–N, PO43-–P, BVF and TSS in biofloc were shown an increasing trend in all the experiments. The present study elucidates the suitability of optimum C/N ratios in biofloc for maintaining the water quality to raise L. vannamei in inland ground saline water. The finding could help in reducing the environmental concern saline waste water discharge from the shrimp pond to the land.

Title: Effect of Infrared Lamps to Ameliorate Morbidity and Mortality in Vrindavani Calves
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The present study was carried out to determine the effect of Infrared lamps to ameliorate morbidity and mortality in Vrindavani calves. Ten newborn calves were randomly divided into two groups (G1 and G2) of five each. The calves of G1 were provided with no additional protection; however calves of G2 were protected against cold weather by using the Infrared lamps. The health status of calves was monitored daily both in the morning and evening. The blood samples collected within six hours of birth and then at fortnightly interval were analyzed for total leukocyte count (TLC, thousands/µl) and differential leukocyte count (DLC). The physiological parameters i.e. respiration rate (RR, breaths/min), heart rate (HR, beats/min) and rectal temperature (RT, °F) were recorded at weekly interval. The health performance was better in calves of G2 as compared to G1. The calves in G1 showed comparatively higher values of TLC and neutrophils and the differences were found significant (P<0.05) on 15th day for TLC and 15th and 45th day for neutrophils. The values of lymphocytes were found significantly (P<0.05) lower in calves of G1 than G2 on 15th and 45th day.The physiological parameters did not varied significantly between the groups except for RT which was most of the times significantly (P<0.05) lower in calves of G1 than G2. On the basis of the results, it could be concluded that the Infrared lamps are efficient in providing favourable microclimate and hence can be effectively used in calf shed to protect newborn calves from adverse conditions of winter.

Title: Effect of Supplementation of Different Forms of Selenium on In Vitro Dry Matter Digestibility and Microbial Biomass Production
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Nano selenium was synthesized by wet chemical method at laboratory level. In this study particle size, particle shape, zeta potential and selenium content were characterized by using particle size analyser (PSA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The result revealed that selenium nano particle is spherical in shape with mean particle size of 31.8 ± 2.31 nano meter (nm) and concentration of selenium is 98.34 ± 2.8 per cent selenium that ensured the purity of nano selenium. The toxicity was analysed by MTT assay against Vero cell line. The nano selenium effectively inhibited the growth of Vero cells in a dose dependent manner. In vitro digestibility and microbial biomass production also evaluated on different form of selenium on basal diet at different levels. We used sodium selenite, selenocysteine and nano selenium. Based on the calculations, IC50 for nano selenium derived from selenium powder was 89.11 μg/ml. when selenium is added at graded level to the basal diet in any form resulted in significant increase (P<0.05) in digestibility parameter such as in vitro apparent dry matter digestibility, in vitro true dry matter digestibility and microbial biomass production at all levels of addition compared to when no selenium was added. From the results it can be inferred that spherical shaped, nano-selenium particles of size ranging 31.8 nm could be produced by wet chemical method at laboratory level.

Title: Comparative Study of Efficacy of Fenbendazole and Ivermectin against Haemonchus contortus in Goats of Jammu region
Abstract :

Parasitic disease constitutes 60-70% diseases affecting the animals and has serious economic implication in livestock entrepreneurship by direct and indirect production loss. Indiscriminate use of anthelmintic drugs has made the situation even more precarious. A similar problem was encountered in goat farm of SKUAST-Jammu, where goats with constant complain of diarrhoea and loss of body condition was reported despite of routine deworming. The present study was therefore conducted with the objective of determining the efficacy of conventional dewormer used and its comparison with some unexploited antiparasitic drug for the same reason. Twenty seven goats with above said problem were divided into three groups after qualitative examination Group I was treated with ivermectin at dose rate of 0.2 mg per kg body weight orally. Group II was treated with fenbendazole @5 mg/kg body weight orally and Group III goats were kept as untreated control. Quantitative examination for EPG was conducted on day 0, 7 and 14 by Stoll’s technique. FECRT percentage revealed 100% efficacy of ivermectin @ 0.2mg/kg b.wt. whereas FECRT percentage in fenbendazole treated group was found to be 57.44% on day 7 and 70.87% on day 14 post treatment. Coproculture revealed presence of only H.contortus larvae, post treatment. The study revealed low efficacy of fenbendazole and hence ivermectin is the better drug than fenbendazole to control GIT nematodes.

Title: Content
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Contents February Issue 2020

Title: Evaluation of Propofol Anaesthesia inMedetomidine-Pentazocine and Midazolam-Pentazocine Premedicated Buffalo Calves
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Twelve buffalo calves of either sex presented to the college clinic with various surgical conditions were utilized to study the effect of continuous intravenous infusion of propofol after premedication with medetomidine – pentazocine and midazolam – pentazocine. The animals were divided into two groups of six animals each. Group I animals were premedicated with Medetomidine @ 2.5 µg/kg b.wt. – pentazocine @ 0.5 mg/kg b.wt IV and Group II animals received midazolam @ 0.25 mg/kg b.wt. – pentazocine @ 0.5 mg/kg b.wt. IV.. Propofol was given @ 4 mg/kg b.wt. IV after premedication and maintained by continuous intravenous infusion of propofol @ 0.4 mg/kg b.wt. in 5 % dextrose normal saline in both groups. Induction quality was excellent, smooth and attained sternal recumbency rapidly without struggling in both groups. Anaesthetic character, Physiological & haematobiochemical parameters were studied at 0, 5,10,15,30 and 60 minutes following anaesthetic injections. No significant changes were recorded in both the groups. ECG studies did not reveal any abnormalities except slight variations in the amplitude of P wave, T wave and QRS complex in both groups. The study suggests that medetomidine – pentazocine premedication with continuous intravenous infusion of propofol provided better surgical anaesthesia and was compatable and safe in buffalo calves.

Title: Contents Vol. 10, No. 5, October 2020
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Title: Minerals Profile of Soil, Feed, Fodder and Serum of Dairy Cattle in North Eastern Ghat (NEG) of Odisha
Abstract :

A survey based study was planned in North Eastern Ghat (NEG) of Odisha to analyse the mineral profile of soil, feed, fodder and serum of dairy cattle. This agro-climatic zone comprises of four districts namely Kandhamal, Ganjam, Raygada and Gajapati. Amongst those two districts viz Ganjam and Gajapati are taken for the study considering the density of dairy cattle population. In the similar manner two Blocks from Ganjam District namely Khallikote, Kukudakhandi and two blocks from Gajapati District namely Mohana, R.Udayagiri was considered for our experimental area with two villages from each of the block. Macro and micro minerals like Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn) and Iron (Fe) were estimated for soil, feed, fodder and serum. Soil Ca was estimated by rapid titration method and available soil phosphorus was determined by colorimetric analysis. The soil micro minerals like Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn were analyzed as per the method of Lindsay and Lindsay (1978). Dry ash and Wet ash method were used for analysis of macro and micro minerals respectively for feed and fodder. The concentration of Ca and P in serum was estimated by using the kit method. The serum micro minerals like Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn were estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method. The findings depicted that cattle of this region are severely deficient in Ca, Zn, and Cu and marginally deficient in P and Mn with higher value of Fe content than the respective critical levels. Considering the importance of productivity and reproductive performance of dairy animal an area specific mineral mixture must be prepared and fed to the animals to meet the deficiencies of these minerals.

Title: Alteration in Serum Concentration of Canine C-Reactive Protein (CRP)Associated with Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME) and its Amelioration by Conventional Treatment
Abstract :
Present investigation has recorded ehrlichiosis associated C-reactive protein status in dogs. Total 79 dogs were screened for ehrlichiosis based on the clinical diagnosis criteria. All the screened dogs underwent for blood smear examination followed by primary and nested PCR analysis which confirm total 64 dog positive for ehrlichiosis. These confirmed cases were taken for further analysis to assess the extent of inflammation caused by acute phase protein such as C-reactive protein. Results of present investigation revealed significant increase in serum concentration of canine C-reactive protein in ehrlichiosis affected dogs as compared to healthy ones. Conventional treatment of diseased animals reduces these values towards the reference values as assessed in healthy animals. It can be concluded thatserum level of C-reactive protein is significantly increases in case of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and can be used as potent clinical biomarker for assessment of extra cytokines induced inflammatory reaction.
Title: Coagulation parameters in dogs with heat stroke – A short study
Abstract :

The present study was performed to detect the usefulness of coagulation parameters that helps in the diagnosing the severity of changes associated with heat stroke. Twenty five previously healthy dogs with the history of epistaxis, hyperthermia and dyspnea after exposure to high environmental temperature were selected and subjected to detailed clinical examination, physical examination, laboratory tests and coagulation analysis. Bilateral epistaxis, hyperthermia and respiratory distress were the common clinical signs recorded. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were significantly increased in affected dogs than normal. Dogs with normal coagulation parameters responded to the treatment.

Title: Induction of Estrus and Fertility Response in True Anoestrus Buffaloes Using Intravaginal Progesterone Sponge During Summer
Abstract :

Present study was carried out to study the efficacy of intravaginal progesterone sponge for induction of estrum in post partum anoestrus buffaloes during summer. True anoestrus animals were identified by repeated rectal examinations twice at 10 days interval apart having the small and smooth ovaries without any follicular activity. Out of 40 animals identified, 30 were treated with intravaginal progesterone sponge for 10 days and PGF2 injection was given one day prior to removal of sponge. Remaining 10 animals were kept as anoestrus control without treatment. The animals were watched closely for change in external gentallia after sponge removal and for estrus symptoms. The animals exhibiting estrus were inseminated artificially. Estrus was induced in 80% of animals (24/30) and the conception rate was 66.66% (16/24). This result indicates the better possibilities of inducing ovarian cyclicity in functionally anoestrus buffaloes by cost effective intravaginal progesterone sponge.

Title: Contents
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Contents

Title: Evaluation of Immune response to Enterotoxaemia Vaccine in Sheep reared under Experimental and Field conditions using ELISA
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Immune response to enterotoxaemia vaccine (ET) was evaluated in sheep reared under laboratory and field conditions using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Under experimental condition, six sheep were vaccinated with booster dose on 14th day and evaluated for immune response; however in field conditions, serum samples from 386 ET vaccinated sheep (139 from organized farms and 247 from unorganized sector of Andhra Pradesh) were evaluated for protective antibody titre using ELISA. Highest protective titre was recorded in sheep reared under experimental condition; on day 30 after vaccination followed by gradual decrease up to day 90. Immune responses of sheep maintained under rural conditions were found to be low when compared with sheep maintained under experimental/laboratory conditions. The protective titers were maintained up to 3 months in sheep maintained under village conditions whereas up to 4 months in those maintained in experimental conditions. So, it can be concluded that good managemental practices along with booster vaccination of ET in farms could evoke better immune response in sheep against ET.

Title: Polymorphic Sperm Phenotype Suggesting Genetic Sperm Defects in a Jersey (Bos taurus) X Zebu (Bos indicus) Crossbred Bull
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Data on semen collections from a Jersey X Zebu crossbred bull, consistently producing semen with high proportion of sperm abnormalities was collected and the semen characteristics were analyzed. Observation of the records of 58 ejaculations from the bull has revealed that 96.6% of the ejaculates were rejected for poor semen quality especially in sperm morphology. A representative semen sample from the bull also showed sperm abnormalities up to 72.9%, of which 14.9% and 14.5% of the spermatozoa exhibited loose heads and microcephalic heads respectively. Coiled tail (16.7%) and short tail (14.9%) were the main tail defects observed. Since sperm defects were consistently appearing in high proportions in almost all the ejaculates the genetic cause of the sperm defect was suspected.

Title: Incidence of Cystic Liver Caused by Cysticercus fasciolaris in Laboratory Rat
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Herein we are reporting about an incidence of Cysticercus fasciolaris infestation in a male and female Sprague Dawley housed for experimental purpose. The clinical finding includes anorexia and dullness. Post mortem examination of both the animals revealed cystic liver with irregular lump of hard tissue attached to left lateral lobe of liver in male rat. A thin, pale white segmented larva with distinct head was found lodged inside the cyst in both the animals. Based upon the morphological features, the larva was identified to be intermediate stage of Taenia taeniaeformis which is a tapeworm of cat with rodents acting as intermediate host. Most of the rodent facilities do not screen laboratory animals for presence of this parasite in regular health monitoring procedures. The findings are important due to impact of this parasite on animal health, research studies and sporadic zoonotic potential.

Title: Polymorphism in Exon-40 of FASN Gene in Lesser known Buffalo breeds of India
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Present study was aimed to discover the single nucleotide variation present in exon 40 region of the Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) gene. FASN plays a central role in de novo lipogenesis in mammals and variation in this enzyme may affect economic traits including fatty acid composition of buffalo milk. A total of 80 DNA samples in two riverine buffalo breeds namely, Gojri and Chhattisgarhi were screened using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). FASN gene was found to be polymorphic with an adenine to guanine transition. Three types of genotypes, viz. AA, AG and GG were observed in the studied breeds. Allele A was found to be more frequent than G allele. All the genotypes showed almost the same frequency across the breeds, indicating that there is absence of selection for FASN gene in lesser known buffalo breeds of India. The study will augment the information available and can be applied in future studies to determine the role of bovine FASN gene as a candidate gene marker for a milk-fat content.

Title: Ocular Ultrasonography and Biometry of Healthy Eyes in White Leghorn Birds
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Ocular ultrasonography is an important diagnostic tool which permits precise assessment of the eyeball and orbital structures contributing to a quick diagnosis and better therapy. The objective of the study was to describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the normal poultry eyes and to compare the biometric measurements of both the eyes. Hundred eyes from 50 poultry birds were assessed after a routine ophthalmic examination using an 10 MHZ linear transducer. Ultrasound examination could clearly differentiate different parts of the internal eye, including the pecten oculi in the vitreous. Ocular biometry was performed by B-scan of the following structures (in mm): Corneal thickness (CT) (RE: 0.13 ± 0.07, LE: 0.12 ± 0.07), Axial length (AL) (RE: 1.13 ± 0.01, LE: 1.05 ± 0.18), Lens width (LW) (RE: 0.33 ± 0.15, LE: 0.34 ± 0.19). Lens length (LL) (RE: 0.71 ± 0.02, LE: 0.65 ± 0.02). There was a uniform correlation between the ocular structures, however, no statistical difference was observed in the parameters of both the eyes. The anatomic and biometric assessment will be helpful in identifying routine clinical abnormalities.
Title: Effect of Different Cryoprotectants in Cryopreservation of Dog Semen: A Review
Abstract :

Several canine practitioners are facing limited success in canine artificial insemination using poorly assessed frozen dog semen due to unestablished set of semen evaluating parameters and semen diluents. The types of cryoprotectants plays import role in formulation of good semen diluents in canine semen cryopreservation which limits spermatozoa structure and viability in assisted reproductive technology. The cryopreservation process causes change in osmotic pressure and ice formation in spermatozoa which lead to cryoinjury and loss of viability and membrane integrity in post-thaw spermatozoa. This causes poor sperm quality and so poor fertility. The efficient cryoprotectants are those which penetrate deeper of spermatozoa and non-toxic. Glycerol and ethylene glycol are the most commonly used cryoprotectant for dog spermatozoa and other cryoprotective agents have been tested only sporadically. Hence, selection of better cryoprotectants based semen diluents and evaluation parameters of post-thaw semen is very much important for successful canine breeding to achieve dissemination of genetic material even after death, overcome quarantine restrictions, prevent venereal infections and semen exchange without moving stud dogs for breeding, etc. Therefore, establishing an efficient cryopreservation technique for dog sperm would be an essential resource for better dog breeding systems. The present article present the details reviews on cryopreservation of dog semen, different cryoprotectants and semen evaluation parameters for determining better production of quality dog semen.

Title: Characteristics of Geese Production and Management in the Valley of Kashmir
Abstract :

The study was conducted in geese-rearing districts of Kashmir valley, India with the aim of studying various characteristics of geese production and management. Geese-rearing was recorded to be the primary occupation of 6.56% of farmers. Out of the total, 23.73% rearers were landless and kept geese as a subsidiary source of income. Three diverse production-systems viz. backyard (56.45%), semi-intensive (33.87%) and extensive-system (9.68%), were being practiced. Different types of houses included separate-sheds (50.00%), separate pen/cage (26.67%) and pen underneath the farmers’ house/veranda (23.33%) with only 76.47% farmers using litter-material. Feed was offered in a large bowl, on floor and on a polythene-sheet by 8.62%, 29.31% and 62.07% farmers respectively. Types of incubation nests included grass-nest placed on floor (57.41%), basket-nest (27.78% farmers) and colony-nests (57.41%). Average number of eggs set for incubation was 9.531±0.282 and age of eggs kept for incubation averaged to 24.167±1.923 days. 88.24% farmers practiced custom of placing an iron-sickle underneath the straw-bedding of the nest. Goslings were allowed to go into the water after 10.878±1.497 days of hatching.. Eggs were mostly kept for incubation while geese were sold as well as consumed by the family. In villages geese were being marketed at the farmer’s door-step and in city, middlemen played a role in the marketing. It was concluded that geese-farming promises a good future in an area where water-bodies are available in plenty and rearing is carried out on a large scale adopting an extensive-rearing and free foraging feeding system.

Title: Comparative Study of the Conventional Parasitological Methods for the Detection of T. evansi in Buffaloes
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In this study four conventional parasitological methods like Wet blood film (WBF), thin and thick blood smear and Buffy coat technique (BCT) were compared for diagnostic sensitivity of Trypanosoma evansi in naturally infected buffaloes. Out of 250 field blood samples collected from different places of Indore and Ratlam district of M.P., 1.2% were found positive by wet blood film, 4.4% by thin blood smear, 9.2% by thick blood smear and 14.8% by buffy coat technique for T. evansi. The sensitivity and specificity of the all methods were analyzed and it was observed that BCT is more sensitive than the other conventional methods of examination.
Title: Production Performance of Kathani Cattle in Mul Tahsil of Chandrapur District
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The study was undertaken to record the production performance of 50 Kathani cattle in Mul tahsil of Chandrapur district. The cows were mostly found with bowl shaped udder, cylindrical shaped teats and small size of milk vein. The lactational milk yield of Kathani cows was found to be 658.26 ± 4.95 kg, average lactation period was of 229.72 ± 0.90 days and average milk yield per day was 2.862 ± 0.025 kg. The milk production performance of Kathani cattle is fair, hence, it can be considered as the draught breed of cattle and by adopting better management and nutrition practices its production can be increased.
Title: Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis) as Feed Additive for Buffalo Calves: Effects on Gut Parasites and Cost of Production
Abstract :
The aim of this work was to compare the efficacy of two different doses of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) supplementation on gut parasites and cost of production in Murrah buffalo calves. A total of fifteen buffalo calves (3-6 months age) were selected and maintained at the Buffalo Farm, Department of Livestock Production Management, College of Veterinary Sciences, LUVAS, Hisar (Haryana), India. The duration of experiment was 90 days. The calves were placed into three treatment groups T1, T2 and T3 (based on nearness in body weight and age) and each group having five calves. The calves were fed with basal ration in all three treatment groups according to ICAR-2013 feeding standards along with supplementation of aloe vera leaves @ 2 g and 4 g per kg body weight in T2 and T3 group respectively. The calves fed basal diet supplemented with aloe vera @ 4 g per kg body weight were showed significantly lower (P<0.05) oocyst per gram (opg) and also showed less egg per gram (epg) but not significantly (P>0.05), in faeces as compare to control group. The cost of feeding per kg body weight gain was found lowest in T3 followed by T2 and was found highest in T1 treatment group. Thus, from above findings it can be concluded that aloe vera supplementation @ 4 g/kg body weight can be an effective herbal feed additive for buffalo calves and can increase the economic return to the farmers.
Title: Correlations among Egg Production Traits in IWD and IWF Strains of White Leghorn
Abstract :
Correlations are a measure of genetic factors shared between two traits. When two traits are highly genetically correlated, the genes that contribute to the traits are usually co-inherited. They contribute to understanding the development and pathways of traits, population-level gene flow and the co-occurrences of traits. They also play an important role in evolutionary biology. In the present investigation it was found that the genetic and environmental correlations of age at first egg with body weight were negative in IWD and positive in IWF strains. The genetic and environmental correlations of body weight with egg weight and egg production were positive in IWD and negative in IWF strain. The genetic and environmental correlations of egg weight at 40 weeks with EP40 and EP64 weeks were found negative. The genetic and environmental correlations of egg production upto 40 weeks with EP64 weeks were positive in magnitude in both the strains.
Title: Polymorphism of the Ovine Calpastatin (CAST) Gene and its Association with Productive Traits in Nellore Sheep
Abstract :

Calpastatin is a candidate marker for carcass and growth traits. The purpose of this work to study MspI polymorphism in the CAST gene in three strains of Nellore sheep breed viz., Jodipi, Brown and Palla and to find its relation with growth traits. The frequencies of M and N alleles in Nellore Jodipi, Nellore Brown and Nellore Palla were 0.83 and 0.17, 0.81 and 0.19, 0.76 and 0.24, respectively and genotype frequencies of MM, MN and NN genotypes were found to be 0.68, 0.31 and 0.01 in Nellore Jodipi; 0.64, 0.34 and 0.02 in Nellore Brown and 0.56, 0.40 and 0.04 in Nellore Palla, respectively. The PIC values for Nellore Jodipi, Nellore Brown and Nellore Palla are 0.24, 0.26 and 0.30 respectively, suggesting considerable amount of variation exist in these populations. Diversity estimates (FIS) were negative for the three populations of Nellore sheep i.e., Jodipi (-0.114), Brown (-0.105) and Palla (-0.097) indicating that there is no differentiation among the three populations. The χ2-test values revealed that all the three populations are in Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium. The association between genotypes and body weights revealed significant differences among three genotypes (MM, MN and NN) only for birth weight; while non-significant differences were observed among three genotypes for average daily gains

Title: Galactagogue- Its Effect on Milk Yield and Composition
Abstract :
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a galactagogue Milkease®, on the yield and composition of milk. Three multiparous crossbred cows in mid-lactation stages were selected for this study. It was given at the rate of 30 g twice daily and was fed to the animals for a total period of 2 months. Milk sampling for analysis was done in morning and evening hours once every week during the experimental period. At the end of the trial, it was observed that the galactagogue supplementation resulted in an increase of quality (composition) as well as quantity (Milk yield) of milk in all the three animals. Hence, it is concluded that Milkease® is a combination of all those essential nutrients which helps in increasing the milk yield as well as its composition.
Title: Relative Risk and Odds Ratio of Risk Factors Associated with Digestive Diseases in Ganjam Goats of Odisha
Abstract :
A two-year study on the morbidity and mortality in Ganjam goats of Odisha associated with digestive diseases was carried out in Ganjam district of Odisha and the effects of year, season, sex, age group and rearing management on morbidity and mortality rates due to these diseases were examined using suitable statistical techniques. Morbidity and mortality data of 5845 Ganjam goats of 71 goat keepers and 5205 Ganjam goats of 104 goat keepers from four clusters of Ganjam district were recorded from April 2018 to March 2019 and April 2019 to March 2020, respectively, each year divided into three seasons: summer (March- June), rainy (July-October) and winter (November-February). These goats reared under both range system and semi-intensive rearing system were divided into three groups: kids (0-3 months), young stocks (3-12 months) and adults (above one year) based on age. Overall morbidity and mortality due to digestive diseases were higher in 2018-19 (11.3%, 1.6%) as compared to 2019- 20 (8.2%, 0.7%). Morbidity was the highest in young ones followed by kids and adults whereas mortality was the highest in kids followed by young ones and adults. In rainy season, morbidity was the highest followed by summer and winter. However, mortality occurred mostly in summer followed by rainy and winter season. Both morbidity and mortality were more prominent in male goats than females. Morbidity and mortality in Ganjam goats reared in range system were higher as compared to those reared in semi-intensive system.
Title: Withdrawal Period of Enrofloxacin and its Primary Metabolite Ciprofloxacin Residues in Broiler Chicken after Pulse Water Medication
Abstract :
The administration of fluoroquinolone antimicrobials to broiler chicken without an adequate withdrawal time may lead to violative concentrations of residues in edible tissues destined for human consumption. To ensure food safety and human health, withdrawal period of enrofloxacin antimicrobial administration, before slaughter need to be studied based on maximum residue limit values in the target tissues. Hence, the present study has been undertaken to evaluate the withdrawal period and depletion of enrofloxacin and its primary metabolite ciprofloxacin residues in broiler chicken in accordance with MRLs set by various regulatory agencies. Group I (6 birds) was kept as untreated control received non medicated water, and Groups II, III, IV, V and VI each 6 birds were administered with enrofloxacin at recommended therapeutic dose 10 mg per Kg body weight, through drinking water for five consecutive days from 43rd to 47th day of age. The plasma and edible tissues viz., liver, kidney, muscle (breast & thigh) and skin were collected and subjected to liquid-liquid extraction followed by enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin quantification by a validated HPTLC-Fluorescent densitometry assay. Enrofloxacin was well distributed from plasma into tissues and the metabolic conversion of enrofloxacin to ciprofloxacin was observed in all the tissue samples; however the ciprofloxacin concentrations were always lower than that of the parent drug enrofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin was found to be rapidly depleted from the chickens’ body compared to that of enrofloxacin. The withdrawal period for enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin residues in broiler chicken was found to be 5 days and 9 days as per European Union and Japan MRLs respectively.
Title: Effect of Protein Supplements on Nutrient Utilization and Production of Lactating Gir Cows
Abstract :
A study was conducted on 16 lactating Gir cows, which were divided into four groups on the basis of body weight and average milk yield/day at Dairy farm (LPM Deptt.) S.K.N. College of agriculture, Jobner (Rajasthan) and subjected to four dietary treatments i.e. Wheat straw ad-lib.+ Green Lucerne (5 kg) + Concentrate (T1), T1 + Urea 75 g/cow (T2), T1 + Mustard oil cake 614 g/cow (T3) and T1 + Guar meal 505 g/cow (T4). The studied for their nutrients utilization of protein supplements and milk yield of Gir cows. Average daily intake of CP and DCP in kg/100 kg body weight was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T4 compared to other groups. Average daily TDNI kg/100kg body weight was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T4 (1.56) compared to T3 (1.41), T2 (1.32) and T1 (1.24) groups. The nutrient utilization as DM, CP, EE and NFE was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T4 compared to T3, T2 and T1 groups. Crude fibre was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T3 compared to T4, T2 and T1 groups. Average daily milk production (litre/cow) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T4 (7.85) than T3 (7.13), T2 (7.05) and T1 (6.67). It can be inferred from this experiment that feeding of concentrate mixture on Wheat straw diet with Guar meal supplement increased the milk production.
Title: Postnatal Histomorphological Studies on the Gall Bladder of Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)
Abstract :
Gall bladder is a small pouch found attached to the liver and stores bile. A total of 24 guinea pigs of four different postnatal ages with six animals each were collected from the Department of Laboratory Animal Medicine as per the Ethical committee approval. Gall bladder were dissected, fixed and processed for paraffin embedding. Sections of 4-5 μm thickness were cut and used for the routine and special histological staining techniques. The wall of the gall bladder consisted of tunica mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa in all the postnatal ages. The tunica mucosa of gall bladder consisted of irregular folds with primary, secondary and tertiary folds. All the folds were visible in the gall bladder of postnatal ages with the folding increased as age increased. Guinea pigs of 0-2 weeks of age showed only primary folds of less height. The tunica mucosa consisted of lining epithelium and lamina propria. Mucularis mucosa was not observed in all ages. Lamina propria and submucosa formed a continuous layer. The lining epithelium was simple tall columnar epithelium with irregular microvilli at the luminal border. Lamina propria – submucosa consisted of loose of connective tissue with collagen, reticular fibres, fibroblasts, lymphocytes and blood vessels. Tunica muscularis was a fibromuscular coat, consisted of loose arrangement of smooth muscular layers in longitudinal and circular fashion. Tunica serosa covered the external surface of the gall bladder in all ages and consisted of loose connective layer which was upcovered by a single layer of mesothelium.
Title: Growth Performance of Murrah Buffalo Calves under Humid Tropical Conditions of Kerala
Abstract :

Data obtained from Murrah buffalo herd maintained at Livestock Research Station, Thiruvazhamkunnu (Kerala) was analysed to determine average birth weight and average daily gain of calves. Mean body weight (±SE) at birth observed was 34.76 ± 0.54 Kg. Body weight at birth of female and male Murrah calves were 32.83 ± 0.63 Kg and 37.06 ± 0.73 Kg respectively. Significant difference was observed between sexes with respect to birth weight and body weight at 15 days of age (p<0.05). Average daily gain observed in male and female calves during 90 day period was 0.595 Kg and 0.612 Kg respectively. Difference in average daily gain was not statistically significant, except between 30-45 days during which female calves gained more weight than males (p<0.05).

Title: High Definition Oscillometric Blood Pressure Measurement in Apparently Healthy Dogs: A Clinical Study
Abstract :
Present clinical study was conducted in 170 apparently healthy dogs for monitoring of blood pressure (Systolic Arterial Pressure: SAP, Diastolic Arterial Pressure: DAP and Mean Arterial Pressure: MAP) by non-invasive (indirect) technique using a high definition oscillometric method. Blood pressure was measured in calm animals in lateral recumbency using appropriate size cuffs placed around the median artery of distal forelimb. The average of at least five measurements from each dog was recorded as the final blood pressure. Among breeds, higher SAP, MAP and DAP was recorded in Grey hound. Blood pressure was not influenced by age and sex. End organ risk categorization using value of systolic blood pressure revealed that out of 170 dogs, 42.35%, 20.59%, 31.18% and 5.88% dogs were at minimum risk, mild risk, moderate risk and severe risk respectively. Routine blood pressure monitoring using high definition oscillometer could be helpful in preventing cardiac and renal diseases by assessing end organ risk categorization.
Title: Successful Medical Management of Pregnancy Toxemia in Goats
Abstract :

Pregnancy toxaemia is a metabolic disorder that occurs in does and ewes during the late stage of pregnancy. Pregnant does that have low energy levels and having multiple numbers of fetuses are more susceptible to toxaemia. The present study was carried out in twenty five goats in advanced stage of pregnancy with the history of anorexia, torticolis, grinding of teeth, salivation and rigors. On clinical examination of animals, they were dull, depressed with tachycardia, tachypenia, opisthotonus and pale conjunctival mucous membrane. The biochemical parameters revealed hypoglycemia and hypocalcemia. Urine samples were collected and urine analysis revealed positive for ketone bodies. The goats were successfully treated with 25% dextrose i/v as a bolus, multiple electrolytes solution containing 5% dextrose i/v, glycerin orally and Vitamin B-complex injection intramuscularly and all the twenty five animals survived. Out of 25 animals medical termination of pregnancy was done in 21 cases and four animals delivered a live kid.

Title: Pulsed Wave Doppler Echocardiographic Evaluation and Management of Atrial Fibrillation in Dogs with Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Abstract :
Atrial fibrillation is usually a chronic supraventricular arrhythmia most commonly associated with canine dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and degenerative mitral valve disease in dogs. The management of atrial fibrillation is quite challenging with the control of rate and rhythm being the main strategies. In the present study, a total of 150 dogs were subjected to detailed clinical examination, physical examination, electrocardiography and echocardiography. Among 150 dogs, DCM was diagnosed in 58 dogs (38.66%). Out of 58 DCM cases, 21 had atrial fibrillation. The predominant clinical signs noticed in DCM with atrial fibrillation were exercise intolerance, ascites, cardiac cachexia, coughing and syncope. The study of echocardiographic changes in dogs with atrial fibrillation may be helpful to predict the prognosis and survival time. All 21 dogs with DCM and atrial fibrillation were divided into two groups (Group I & II) based on mitral E wave deceleration time (Edt) on Pulsed Wave Doppler. The mean values of Edt were 74.82 ± 1.29 ms and 88.99 ± 1.31 ms in Group I and Group II dogs respectively. All the dogs were treated with Tab. Pimobendan (0.25mg/kg b.wt, bid, PO), Tab. Digoxin (0.005 mg/kg b.wt, bid, PO), Tab. Enalapril (0.5mg/kg b.wt, bid, PO) and Tab. Furosemide (2mg/ kg b.wt, bid, PO). After 10 days of treatment, the echocardiography was repeated to measure the peak mitral E wave velocity and deceleration time. The study revealed a high degree of positive correlation between Edt and survival time, as indicated by the increase of survival time with every unit raise in Edt.
Title: Next-Generation Sequencing as Diagnostic Tool in Veterinary Research
Abstract :

The field of genomics has been revolutionized by next generation sequencing. NGS technology is likely to play an important role in the field of veterinary medicine and animal husbandry. The feasibility of sequencing genomes at a much faster rate and with greater precision has been made possible with the advent of newer methods. In the current review, we describe the various sequencing methods available and also discuss select areas of biology where application of next generation sequencing would open a whole new avenue in veterinary research.

Title: Expression and Purification of Exposed Outer Domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Opr86 protein
Abstract :
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is an opportunistic pathogen that can form a biofilm that provides crucial drug resistance components. The bacteria have many immunogenic outer membrane proteins (OMP) including, Opr86. The Opr86 is essential for the viability of bacterium, as it has a significant role in OMP assembly and its depletion leads to alteration of cellular morphology. Therefore, Opr86 may serve as a vaccine candidate. Moreover, Opr86 may be used for raising hyperimmune serum, which may be a potential therapeutic candidate in P. aeruginosa infection. In the current study, gene fragment encoded exposed outer domain toward extracellular side of Opr86 (E-Opr86) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloned into pJET1.2 vector, and sequenced. The gene was inserted into pET302/NT-His vector and was expressed in Rosetta-gami 2(DE3) pLysS cells. The recombinant E-Opr86 protein expression was confirmed by the sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) and subjected to purification using His-tag affinity chromatography. The purified protein (~18kDa) was confirmed by SDS–PAGE and by the Western blotting. This study successfully cloned and characterized Opr86 protein of P. aeruginosa.
Title: Comparative Study on Nutrient Utilization of Cross-Bred and Gir Cows Fed Green Lucerne During Winter Season
Abstract :
The present investigation was conducted Comparative Study on Nutrient Utilization of Cross-Bred and Gir Cows Feed Green Lucerne During Winter Season. Twenty lactating cows (in which 10 Cross-bred and 10 Gir Cows) were divided into four groups on basis of nearest their body weight and milk yield/day at dairy farm of S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner and subjected to four dietary treatments were formulated. i.e. Green Lucerne 10 kg + Wheat straw ad-lib.+ Concentrate for T1 Crossbred, Green Lucerne 20 kg + Wheat straw ad-lib. + Concentrate for T2 Crossbred, Green Lucerne 10 kg + Wheat straw ad-lib. + Concentrate for T3 Gir Cow and Green Lucerne 20 kg + Wheat straw ad-lib. + Concentrate for T4 Gir Cow and the studied for their nutrient utilization. DMI (kg/animal/day) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T2 (12.77) than T1 (12.18), T4 (11.49) and T3 (11.07). Average daily intake of CP, DCP and TDN in kg/100 kg body weight was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T2 compared to other groups. The nutrient utilization as DM, CP, EE, CF and NFE was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T4 compared to T3, T2 and T1 group.
Title: Salmonella Load in Rui Fishes and Suggestive Remedies in Cooking Process of Bangladeshi Dish
Abstract :

Bangladesh is a riverine country. At present we are 4th top producer of fish in the world Rice and fish in our main food. Among fishes, Rui (Labeo ruhita) is the most popular and tasty fish for Bangladeshi people. The major fisheries sectors of Bangladesh support not only the domestic needs but also contributes to world export markets. It fulfills a major portion of the protein requirement of the general mass. Bangladeshi people cooks this fish in several ways, without marinate and marinate it will salt & turmeric powder and then fry it and boil it and making most of their daily dish. But a lot of Bangladeshi specially the children are infected by typhoid for which Salmonella sp. is responsible. Food is one of the carriers of Salmonella

Title: Evaluation of the Role of Himpyrin Liquid in the Management of Inflammation and Pain in Cats
Abstract :
The present study was designed to evaluate in vivo efficacy of polyherbal formulation, Himpyrin liquid, for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities in cats. Twenty cats with a history of pain, inflammation, and fever due to scratch injuries/ accidents were selected (G1; n = 20) and supplemented with Himpyrin liquid along with standard treatment until complete recovery. The changes in assessment parameters score, viz. pain, fever, and activity level scores, along with adverse effects and product performance/satisfaction scores were evaluated. The results of the present study revealed that pain (p < 0.01) and fever (p < 0.001) were significantly decreased in cats as early as days 2 and 4, respectively, following Himpyrin liquid supplementation along with standard treatment. The administration of Himpyrin liquid to cats restored the activity level of cats affected with fever and pain due to scratch injuries/accidents. Furthermore, Himpyrin liquid was considered highly satisfactory for inflammation amelioration due to scratch injuries/accidents in cats without any adverse effects. In conclusion, this study supplies considerable preliminary data to hint that Himpyrin liquid possesses anti-inflammatory activities. Hence, Himpyrin liquid at 1 mL twice daily along with standard treatment could be recommended for inflammation amelioration and pain in cats. However, further clinical studies evaluating biochemical parameters were recommended to be carried out to better elucidate the mechanism of action and ultimate impact on the overall health of cats.
Title: Immunomodulatory Effects of Nigella sativa Extract on Chicken Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: In-vitro
Abstract :
Nigella sativa has been used since ancient time for curing various infectious diseases due to its miraculous biochemical and pharmacological properties. It belongs to the Ranunculaceae family and generally used as food additives and also known as black cumin. The active components in black cumin have shown remarkable characteristics like antimicrobial, anti-diabetics, anti-cancerous, anti-tumoral, analgesic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, and immunological and immune-potentiating effects. In the present study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of Nigella sativa seeds extract on the chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The chicken PBMCs were stimulated with two different doses (125 μg/ml; 250 μg/ml) of Nigella sativa seeds extract and the cells were harvested at different time points till 48 h post-stimulation for analysis of various immune gene expression by quantitative real-time PCR. High dose (250 μg/ml) of Nigella sativa seed extract showed remarkable induction of immune response genes (IL-1β, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IL-12 transcripts) expression at 48h post-stimulation. The results indicated the immunomodulatory activity of the Nigella sativa seed extract on the chicken PBMCs and suggested the potential use as an adjuvant with various vaccines in chicken.
Title: A Study on the Performance, Suitability and Economics of Pratapdhan Under Backyard Poultry Farming in Banswara District of Rajasthan
Abstract :
A study was conducted on Pratapdhan birds under backyard poultry rearing in Banswara district of Rajasthan. During the study four block of Banswara were selected randomly. 15 farmers from each block were randomly selected, 15 farmers awavy them having Pratapdhan poultry birds (beneficiaries under ARYA project) and rest 15 farmers having native poultry birds (non-beneficiaries) were selected out of 60 respondents. 20 Pratapdhan chicks per farmers provided by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Banswara under ARYA project after training for the respondent of economic point of view. The impact of training on poultry farming was significantly high and average knowledge score of the trainees increased from 3.68 to 8.50. The performance of dual purpose breed Pratapdhan was better under backyard poultry farming. The overall mean body weight, the mean eggs production were significantly (P≤0.05) higher in Pratapdhan poultry birds than native birds. The overall mortality rate of Pratapdhan poultry birds were significant lower (P≤0.05) than native birds. The benefit cost ratio of rearing in Pratapdhan poultry birds was recorded 1:5.15 per family. The income of small, marginal and landless poultry farmers were increased due to rearing of Pratapdhan poultry birds under backyard through low input and high output venture within a very short span of time. Pratapdhan poultry bird is one of the promising dual purpose strains of poultry, which can be popularized in rural areas of Banswara district of Rajasthan.
Title: Effect of Season and Period of Milking on Milk Constituents of Sahiwal Cow in the High Humid Condition of Assam
Abstract :
Data on 3908 milk records of Sahiwal cows recorded over a period of 11 months were utilized for the study. The cows were reared at Sahiwal cattle farm, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, India. The least-squares mean and standard errors for fat, solid not fat, protein, and density were reported to be 4.42 ± 0.02%, 8.45 ± 0.01%, 3.23 ± 0.01% and 29.34 ± 0.04 kg/m3, respectively. Analysis of the variance revealed that season had a highly significant effect (P<0.01) on the fat, solid not fat and on the protein percentage but there was no significant effect of season on the density of milk. Again, a period of milking was reported to produce highly significant effects (P<0.01) on fat, solid not fat, protein, and milk density.
Title: Superbugs: The Nightmare Bacteria
Abstract :
One of the major achievements in medicine was in 1928 when the first antibiotic penicillin was discovered by Alexander Flemming. They were touted as ‘Miracle drug’ and brought great promise of a future without infectious disease. And now we face the threat of superbugs or nightmare bacteria threatening to render our future bleak. Each year, Anti Micorbial Resistance (AMR) kills more than 700,000 people globally. A ‘superbug’ is a bacterium capable of causing uncontrollable infections, a microbe which can’t be eradicated, and a germ which can kill when normally it shouldn’t. These are no less than “nightmare bacteria” that have a potential to threaten people in every nook and corner of the world catastrophically. Widespread use of antibiotics without good stewardship has eventually led to emergence of multiple drug resistance against almost all of our life saving antimicrobial drugs including the last resort wonder drug colistin. Thus, if we still do not face this problem head on and make some strict decisions, we may be looking at a post antibiotic era marked with minor wounds becoming life threatening and people dying from simple infections.
Title: Assessment of Socio-economic Status of Farmers and Distribution of Buffalo Population in the Mahakaushal Region of Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :
The study of socio-economical status of the farmers and distribution of buffalo population were conducted at Mahakaushal region of Madhya Pradesh. Mahakaushal, a region of central India, lies in the upper or eastern reaches of the Narmada river valley in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Data were collected through farmer’s interview from target districts. Survey was indicated that the buffalo population was distributed in entire Mahakaushal region of the Madhya Pradesh particularly in Jabalpur, Mandla,
Dindori, Seoni districts and in parts of adjoining districts including Naringhpur, Balaghat, Chhindwada, Katani and Umaria. The overall socioeconomic status of farmers was poor in all the districts. The annual income of farmers of Jabalpur and Mandla districts was slightly higher than the farmers of Dindori and Seoni districts; it might be due to slightly higher irrigated lands (1-3 acres) and literate family members (4-5). The farmers in Mahakaushal region mainly depends upon the pasture feeding for their livestock. The place, where animals were gathered during grazing is known as Khirka. The mating normally occurs during grazing. It was revealed that on an average 90 percent farmers housed their animals only at night while 10 percent of farmers housed them both day and night. In 98 percent animal houses, floor was kachcha type. In about 95 percent animal house had no drainage system. In 100 percent animal house had kachcha type of drainage. The survey was the first attempt to study the demographic and geographical distribution in Mahakaushal region of Madhya Pradesh.
Title: Effect of Varying Dietary Cation-Anion Difference (DCAD) on In Vitro Nutrient Digestibility
Abstract :
An extensive in vitro experiment was planned to study the effect of varying levels of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on in vitro nutrient digestibility and its effect on rumen microbes. For experiment, two negative DCAD diet were prepared from conventional prepartum total mixed ration (TMR) supplemented with anionic salt @ -50 (Low negative; LN), -100 (High
negative; HN) and a negative control without any anionic supplementation (CON1) was used for comparison. Similarly, two positive DCAD diet were prepared from conventional postpartum TMR with cationic salt supplementation @ +200 (Low positive; LP), +400 (High positive; HP) along with positive control (CON2) diet. DCAD diets was formulated using equation (% Na/0.023 + %K/0.039) – (%Cl/0.0355 + %S/0.016) mEq/100 gm of DM. Analysis of result revealed that negative DCAD (LN & HN) had better PF (mg/ml), NH3-N% and EMMP % then CON1 diet (p<0.01) and highest value was observed with HN DCAD suggesting that negative (especially HN) DCAD during prepartum can be helpful in improving rumen nutrient digestibility and microbial protein synthesis. Whereas, CON2 had better in vitro parameters (p<0.05) than positive DCAD (LP & HP) but no deleterious effect was observed, thus, suggesting that, both positive and negative DCAD are safe for use in ruminants.
Title: Contents Vol. 11, No. 1, February 2021
Abstract :
Title: Contents Vol. 11, No. 3, June 2021
Abstract :
Title: Characterization of Pig and Poultry Origin Escherichia coli for Beta-lactamase Type Antimicrobial Resistance
Abstract :
A study was conducted to know the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in fecal samples of pigs and broiler chicken. Fecal swabs were collected from apparently healthy animals and birds using sterile swabs. From a flock of 6000 birds, and a herd of 550 pigs, 50 samples each, were collected randomly. E. coli was isolated from all the broiler chicken samples, and 82% pig samples. AMR studies revealed 42% and 36.58% E. coli, respectively from chicken and pigs as ESBL producers. Beta lactam genes, blaTEM and blaCTX-M were detected, however, the isolates were negative for blaSHV and blaOXA genes. About 47.61% and 46.66% E. coli of chicken and pigs, respectively showed presence of beta lactam genes. Chicken isolates were resistant to cefixime (96%), tetracycline (88%), and ciprofloxacin (94%). While, pig isolates were resistant to cefazolin (100%), ciprofloxacin (65.85%) and gentamicin (51.21%). High degree of sensitivity was recorded for imipenem and trimethoprim. Multidrug resistant E. coli showing resistance to three or more group of antimicrobials were also recorded. This study is significant in the context of AMR highlighting the importance of pigs and chicken in carrying ESBL type E. coli.
Title: Implication of Season and Parity on Bioacoustics Features for Detection of Estrus Phase in Murrah Buffalo
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to explore the season and parity effect on acoustic features of vocal signals articulatedn by Murrah buffaloes during estrous cycle. Voice and blood samples were collected from healthy Murrah buffaloes (n=60), maintained at ICAR-NDRI, Karnal. Animals were classified into three groups heifers (n=20), primiparous (n=20), pluriparousn (n=20) and further each group (20) was classified into two sub groups (n=10) based on winter (September-February) and summer (March-July) season. The acoustic features were extracted by the help of PRAAT 5.1.36 software package. The features like call duration (sec), intensity (mean, maximum, minimum) (dB), formants (Hz): F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, jitter (%), shimmer (%) and N/H ratio (%) were found statistically (P<0.05) different during estrus phase. The season effect especially during estrus phase was found significant (P<0.05) for minimum intensity (dB), F1 (Hz), F3 (Hz), and jitter (%). There was significant (P<0.05) difference between heifer and pluriparous buffaloes for intensity (dB) (mean, maximum, minimum), F1-F5 (Hz) and jitter (%). Significant differences were found for E2 (pg/ml) and P4 (ng/ml) plasma levels among four phases of cycle and between both seasons. This study concluded that hot season and parity cause variations in acoustic features like intensity, frequency and formants due to fluctuation in steroid hormones levels and summer stress. So, season and age factor might be considered for further determination of threshold values especially for estrus phase to develop algorithm/DSS for efficient and automatic estrus detection in buffaloes.
Title: A Case Study on Marketing Practices of Small Ruminants in Arid Region of Rajasthan
Abstract :
The present study was attempted to comprehend the small ruminant marketing system in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan. The primary data survey was conducted in three clusters viz., Manai, Binjvadia and Balrava of Jodhpur district during 2018-19. The study has covered 60 sheep and goat keeping households with 20 respondents from each clusters of Farmer FIRST programme. A structured questionnaire which had earlier to face the validity to collect the data from the sample respondents. The results of study revealed that majority of respondents (65%) sold their animals when they needed cash for domestic use followed by due to scarcity of feeds and fodder (15%) were the main reason to sell their animals. The marketing of sheep and goats completely unorganized and in the hands of large number of livestock traders and hardly attracted any interest of government. Important
marketing channels were petty traders, village collectors and relatives and friends. Farmers were facing the problems of animal marketing. Even in absence of any governmental support for marketing system, they were ready to organize and innovate own inability farmers continuing with the present system of sheep and goat marketing, none of farmer satisfied with the prevailing marketing system of animals. Establishing cooperative societies for marketing of animals in the breeding tract would ensure timely and adequate supply of inputs and channelize the marketing process.
Title: Cost and Returns of Milk Production Under Different Types of Dairy Farms in Kerala
Abstract :
The present study was carried out to study the cost and returns of milk production among different types of dairy farms in Kerala. A stratified multistage random sampling procedure was used to select the area of study and respondents. The farmers/farm households were categorized into small or subsistence farms (1-2 cows), medium (3-10 cows), and large farms (more than ten cows). The gross cost per milk animal per day was ` 229.81, ` 203.04, ` 249.51 and ` 226.38 in small, medium and large farms respectively. The net return from milk animal/day was ` 44.46, ` 45.31, ` 62.02 and ` 48.46 in small, medium, large and overall farms respectively. The net return after deduction of imputed cost was ` 110.36, ` 81.9, ` 70.12, and ` 93.61 respectively. The net return per day per milch animal was ` 23.34, ` 10.39, ` 27.74 and ` 20.58 respectively in small, medium, large and overall farms respectively. The net return after deduction of imputed family labour cost was ` 92.59, ` 52.42, ` 43.12 and ` 70.51 in small, medium, large and overall farms respectively. The cost after deduction of imputed labour was much better and was lower in small farms signalling the major contribution of family labour in small farms. Since the cost of concentrate feed constituted the major share of the production cost of milk, strategies for better scientific feeding of dairy cattle and support from government is to be included in the planning of projects.
Title: Contents Vol. 11, No. 2, April 2021
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Title: Phenotypic Characterization of Non-descript Cattle of Mahakaushal Region of Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :
The present research work was carried out in Jabalpur, Mandla, Dindori and Seoni districts of Mahakaushal region of Madhya Pradesh and total of 1121 animal were used for phenotypic characterization, where adult male, adult female, male calf and female calf was 184, 817, 40 and 80 in numbers, respectively. The cattle population of Mahakaushal region had mostly white and grey skin and coat colour; muzzle and eyelid colour was black. Tail switch, hooves and horn colour was mostly black. Horn orientation was towards upward and forward with straight orientation. Ear position was horizontal. Forehead was flat and triangular. Hump, dewlap and udder was small in size with round shape teats. Animals were mostly of ferocious nature and had alert temperament. Phenotypic characterization findings of the present study revealed that the non-descript cattle population of Mahakaushal region is a unique descriptive breed of Madhya Pradesh and can be registered as new breed of cattle. These findings will be used for conservation and designing breeding strategy for genetic improvement.
Title: Health Care Management Practices of Backyard Poultry Rearing in Dungarpur District of Rajasthan
Abstract :
The current research deals with the Health care management practices of backyard poultry rearing in experiment area of Dungarpur district. The field of investigation of this study covered four tehsils of Dungarpur district i.e. Dungarpur, Bicchiwada, Aspur and Sagwara. The Study reveals that in health care management practices maximum respondents (85.43 per cent) had veterinary facilities, 75.00 per cent did not follow the vaccination, 87.78 per cent respondents provided vaccine to bird after hatching, 48.89 per cent respondent cleans poultry and equipment on alternate days, 48.33 per cent farmers said that veterinary person visited the respondent poultry house monthly, maximum farmers were weighing their birds weekly (64.44 per cent), all180 respondents (100 per cent) used isolation distance of sick poultry birds and 49.44 per cent respondents used bamboo type poultry house in the experiment area.
Title: Effect of Lychee Peel Aqueous Extract on Kadaknath and Cobb Chicken Meat Patties during Refrigerated Storage (4±2°C)
Abstract :
This study was conducted to develop cobb and kadaknath chicken meat patties separately by incorporating Lychee fruit peel extract (LFPE) and BHT (butylated hydroxyl toluine) individually as antioxidant and to evaluate the effect on storage quality of developed products. Control patties were developed without adding any antioxidants. Sensory scores of kadaknath and cobb patties incorporated with BHT and LFPE were equivalent to respective controls on fresh basis. The sensory color scores of kadakanath patties were significantly lower than cobb patties however flavor, texture, tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability scores were statistically comparable for both types of patties on fresh basis. Sensory scores decreased and microbial counts increased significantly during refrigerated storage for all the treatments but scores for treated patties were significantly
higher than respective controls. At the end of storage TBA and microbial counts for LFPE treated patties were significantly lower than their respective control and BHT treatments. It is concluded that incorporation of 15 ml lychee peel aqueous extract per 100 g of kadaknath and cobb chicken meat resulted in the production of healthier patties. Lychee extract provides betterm protection against oxidative rancidity and microbial proliferation during refrigerated storage and can well used as a replacement of synthetic antioxidants like BHT.
Title: Microanatomical Features of the Uterus of Albino Wistar Rat (Rattus norvegicus) in Oestrous
Abstract :
This study describes histology of uterus in the Albino Wistar rat induced with oestrous. Twenty adult female Wistar rats were used in the study. Ten rats were induced with estrous using Diethylstilbestrol 1 mg/kg b.wt subcutaneously for three consecutive days. Uteri were obtained from both groups after three days upon induction of diestrous stage. Endometrial histology in both the groups displayed glandular mucosa comprising of lamina epithelialis and lamina propria mucosae. The epithelium was stratified cuboidal with numerous neutrophils and lymphocytes in the lamina propria mucosa. The cellularity was more in the estrous induced group. Lamina muscularis was absent in the tract of both groups. The uterine glands occurred in variable numbers and sizes in the propria-submucosae of the estrous induced group of rat uterii. These glands were lined by simple cuboidal epithelium. The myometrium consisted of inner circular and outer longitudinal layer wherein the smooth circular layer was comparatively thicker than the longitudinal layer in both groups. Stratum vasculare containing prominent blood vessels was well appreciated between the two muscular layers. The perimetrium comprised of simple squamous epithelium.
Title: Associative Diversity of ITS 1 gene in Different Trypanosoma evansi Isolates of Equine Origin from Semi Arid India
Abstract :
Trypanosoma evansi is an important haemoprotozoan parasite from the Indian context. A wide range of variations in the parasite genotype and subsequently, in disease pathogenesis have been described in the literature. The present study was designed to find out the associative genetic diversity, within the various equine isolates of T. evansi across India and the globe, based on the ITS 1 gene. A total of five equine isolates were characterized. PCR products were sequenced. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the maximum parsimony (MP) method with the tree–bisection– regrafting (TBR) algorithm. Indian isolates formed three haplotypes. The present isolates showed 99.06-100.00% nucleotide homology within themselves. In broader terms, present isolates were found to be phylogenetically closer isolates from Haryana. Broadly, Indian isolates of T. evansi were closely related to isolates reported from Thailand and China than those from Iran, Nigeria, and Egypt. Another remarkable finding is the close association of equine isolates from India with other isolates of family equidae and their clear divergence from isolates of T. evansi affecting other hosts from India and abroad. Vast genetic divergence was seen between the isolates suggesting of multiple distinct lineages of T. evansi amongst the Indian livestock.
Title: Collagen Encapsulated Oral Newcastle Disease Vaccine Induces Protective Antibody Response in Backyard Poultry
Abstract :

Newcastle disease (ND) is endemic in India and outbreaks are recorded throughout the year in commercial and backyard poultry farms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the acceptability, safety and immunogenicity of orally administrated live ND vaccine encapsulated in collagen beads to backyard poultry under field conditions. The birds were randomly divided into two groups of each 100 birds. In group 1, live lentogenic ND LaSota vaccine encapsulated in collagen beads (NDV-CG-BDs) were administrated orally at 21 days of age. In group 2, all the birds were vaccinated on 21 days of age with the same batch of live lentogenic ND LaSota vaccine using drinking water. The Newcastle disease humoral antibody response was assessed using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The chicks readily taken the live lentogenic Newcastle disease LaSota vaccine encapsulated in collagen beads (NDV-CG-BDs). There were no untoward reactions or mortality throughout the study period of 90 days. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in body weight observed between the groups during the study period. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) of mean HI titers in NDV-CG-BDs group in comparison with NDV vaccine administered through water on 7,14,28,45,90 days post vaccination. The protective HI titer of ≥ Log24 was observed from 7th days post vaccination and maintained up to 90 days post vaccination in both the vaccinated groups. In conclusion, the poultry farmers can easily adopt the procedure at the farm site and control the Newcastle disease in backyard poultry.

Title: Artificial Intelligence and its Application in Animal Disease Diagnosis
Abstract :

Present paper reviews about the origin, subfields, mandates and application of artificial intelligence in animal disease diagnosis. Artificial intelligence  (AI) is  intelligence  manifested by  machines and has developed into subfields; Machine and Deep learning. Machine learning (ML) provides application of algorithms for identification of patterns of data and creates a model to make future predictions. Commonly used algorithms are linear regression, random forest, decision tree, K-nearest and support vector machines. In deep learning, algorithms are classified into categories; Convolutional neural network, Restricted Boltzmann Machines, Auto encoder and Sparse Coding. The Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) is one of the most notable approaches, doesn’t require human supervision and automatically detects the significant features. Some of the commendable CNN architectures presented at ILSVRC (ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC); AlexNet, ZFNet, VGG-16, GoogLeNet etc. Regarding use of AI technique in veterinary sciences, this paper reviewed some of the documented data of its application in disease prediction and diagnosis; The National Animal Disease Referral Expert System (NADRES) of ICAR-NIVEDI, detection of left atrial enlargement on canine thoracic radiology (Li et al., 2021), Predicting survivability and need for surgery in Horses with Colic (Fraiwan et al., 2020), detection of sub clinical mastitis in cows with the help of machine learning by Ebrahimie et al. (2018), CNN  (GoogleNet)   in discriminating between meningiomas and gliomas in canines MRI’s (Banzato et al., 2018) and using a xenograft platform and machine learning in development of exosomal gene to detect residual disease in dogs with osteosarcoma (Makielski et al., 2021).

Title: Effect of Area Specific Minerals Supplementation and Deworming on Productive and Reproductive Performance of Lactating Buffalo
Abstract :
The present study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of area specific mineral mixture supplementation and deworming on the productive, reproductive performance and economics of lactating buffalo. Demonstration was conducted on 200 buffaloes of nearly at the same lactation stage, milk yield and parity selected from three Blocks- namely Kotputli, Viratnagar and Jamuaragarh, District- Jaipur, Rajasthan. Buffaloes were divided in two group; 100 buffaloes were kept in each group viz. control (T1) and demonstrated Group (T2). Two buffaloes of each farmer were selected to maintain similarity in feeding and management practice. Demonstrated Group (T2) was fed with area specific mineral mixture @ 50 gm/buffalo/day till 100 days of early lactation period and 1 ivermectin (80 mg) bolus , whereas the control group (T1) was not supplemented. The data were recorded by the farmers daily in the morning and evening and by the researcher at monthly interval. Analysis of data revealed that supplementation of area specific mineral mixture and ivermectin bolus increased the milk yield by 1.57 litres/ day (17.15%) in demonstrated group. Similarly, reproductive performance traits such as onset of first estrum after calving, No. of AI required for conception and Service period were also recorded at the same interval between these groups. The B:C ratio of area specific mineral mixture supplementation and ivermectin bolus was observed 1:14.7 under farmer management practices. These findings may suggest that supplementation of area specific mineral mixture and deworming with ivermectin enhanced the productive and reproductive performance for getting higher return and sustainable profit from buffalo farming.
Title: Current Advances in surgical Management of Ruminal Disorders of Bovine
Abstract :
Ruminal disorders in ruminant are numerous and constitute a major clinical problem. Disorders of forestomach in adult cattle can result from a variety of common causes including traumatic reticulo-peritonitis, ruminal acidosis, bloat, simple indigestion and vagal indigestion. The bovine forestomach are affected highly due to ingested foreign bodies which are the subject of attention almost all over the world and also major economic importance due to severe loss of production and productivity and sometimes death of the animal. The animals are stabilized with fluids and electrolytes for the imbalances preoperatively. Preparation of the animal for surgery includes removal of the hair and cleansing of the skin around the surgical site. Rumenotomy and diaphragmatic hernia repair are surgeries performed for treating many ruminal disorders in bovine. Anaesthetic techniques required for rumenotomy are para-vertebral nerve block by use of lignocaine hydrochloride. Ultrasound diagnosis, completely siphon out of the fluid, visceral blockade and refilling of rumen with refilling agents are among the current advances in surgical managements of ruminal disorders. A long vertical skin incision starting about three to four centimeters below the transverse process of the lumbar vertebrae is made. The abdominal muscles and peritoneum are also incised corresponding to the skin incision. The rumen incision is closed by double row of continuous inverting sutures using chromic catgut. The commonest
complications are wound dehiscence and hemorrhage and seroma formation.
Title: Effect of Rice Based Distillers Dried Grain Soluble (Rddgs) With or Without Enzyme Supplementation on Nutrient Retention and Antioxidant Activity Parameters of Commercial Broiler Chicken
Abstract :

The objective of this study was to evaluate the Effect of Rice Based Distiller Dried Grain Solubles (RDDGS) with or without Enzyme Supplementation on Nutrient Retention and Antioxidant Activity Parameters of Commercial broiler chicken. Four hundred day old commercial broilers (Vencobb 400) were randomly allotted to 10 treatments each treatment containing 8 replicates and 5 chicks in each replicate. The basal diet consisted of corn and soya bean meal. The remaining experimental diets were prepared with inclusion of RDDGS at 4 levels (4, 8, 12 and 16%) with or without enzyme supplementation as given in Table 4. The composition of the experimental diets of broiler starter (23% crude protein and metabolizable energy (ME) 3000 K.cal/kg) and finisher rations (19.50% crude protein and metabolizable energy 3150 K.cal/kg). Cocktail Enzyme supplemented @ 250 gm/ton of feed. The feed and water were provided adlib during the entire experimental period of 42 days. Authors concluded that 16% RDDGS without enzyme supplementation was more effective among all the dietary treatments in terms of Nutrient Retention and Antioxidant Activity Parameters of Commercial broilers during the entire experimental period.

Title: Application of Locking Compression Plate as Hybrid Locked Plate for Transverse and Short Oblique Diaphyseal Fractures of Tibia and Radius-Ulna in Dogs
Abstract :
Study was conducted to evaluate clinical effect of hybrid locked plating for management of transverse and short oblique diaphyseal fracture of tibia and radius-ulna in 12 dogs. Based on demographic data, clinical and radiographic evaluation, preoperative planning was done. Stable fixation was achieved with locking plates (2.7 or 3.5 mm) in hybrid locking manner. Stance, gait, pain and lameness were scored and evaluated at regular intervals which showed improvement over time. Complete weight bearing was observed in all cases with no observable lameness on 10th postoperative week. Primary bone healing was initiated on 6th postoperative week in 83.3% of cases and complete cortical continuity was noticed on 10th week post-surgery. Seroma, wound dehiscence and screw loosening were some of the minor complications observed and outward limb rotation was observed due to anatomical mal-alignment. Functional recovery was good in 83.3% of the cases. Technique of hybrid locked plating provided effective inter-fragmentary compression and achieved complete radiographic primary union with very good functional outcome when applied on transverse and short oblique diaphyseal fracture of tibia and radius-ulna in dogs.
Title: Genetic Studies on Productive and Reproductive Traits of Crossbred Jersey (Jersey × Nondescript) Cattle
Abstract :
The southern Indian states depend mainly on crossbred cattle for milk production. For maintaining a high level of milk productivity of crossbred cattle and their further genetic improvement, it is necessary to know the genetic parameters and influence of various non-genetic and genetic factors on economic traits. Hence, in the present study, we estimated the heritability and influence of non-genetic factors on production and reproduction traits in crossbred Jersey cattle (Jersey × nondescript). The overall leastsquares means (±standard error) of age at first calving (days), calving interval (days), services per conception, service period (days), dry period (days), lactation milk yield (liters), and lactation length (days) were 1057.83±21.25, 449.52±8.55, 2.55±0.11, 176.31±7.67, 130.27±6.73, 2265.24±63.44, and 318.61±5.62 respectively. Period of calving had a significant (p<0.05) effect on all economic traits studied except the dry period. Calving interval and service period were affected by the season of calving. The heritability estimates of age at first calving, calving interval, services per conception, service period, dry period, lactation milk yield, and lactation length were 0.289±0.06, 0.306±0.09, 0.123±0.18, 0.329±0.33, 0.381±0.48, 0.508±0.88, and 0.455±0.45 respectively. This information will be useful to disclose action plans to make scientific interventions on the production and reproduction of crossbred Jersey cattle to exploit its maximum genetic potential.
Title: Effect of Chitosan Coating Enriched with Cinnamon Oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on Storage Stability of Refrigerated Chicken Meat Nuggets
Abstract :
The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the shelf-life of chitosan and cinnamon oil coated chicken meat nuggets under refrigeration conditions. Three types of coated nuggets were developed viz., Meat coated with Chitosan (1%) and Cinnamon oil (0.05%) (T1), direct addition of Chitosan and Cinnamon oil in emulsion (T2) and nuggets dipped in Chitosan and Cinnamon oil (T3) and were aerobically packaged in low-density polyethylene pouches and assessed for various storage quality parameters under refrigerated (4±1°C) conditions during 28 days of storage. T2 had slightly higher emulsion stability and yield although no significant difference (P>0.05) in between samples. T1 exhibited better storage stability as indicated by lower lipid oxidation than other treatments and the control. Texture profile studies indicated that T2 sample had higher hardness value than other samples. SPC significantly (P<0.05) increased in all the samples with control having the highest value followed by T1, T3 and T2 throughout the storage period. T2 sample exhibited lowest sensory scores and were not accepted by sensory panellist while T1 and T3 samples had better acceptability. It was concluded that chitosan in combination with cinnamon oil had synergistic effect to extend the shelf-life of products (T1 and T3)
Title: Alteration in Serum Concentration of Canine C-Reactive Protein (CRP)Associated with Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME) and its Amelioration by Conventional Treatment
Abstract :
Present investigation has recorded ehrlichiosis associated C-reactive protein status in dogs. Total 79 dogs were screened for ehrlichiosis based on the clinical diagnosis criteria. All the screened dogs underwent for blood smear examination followed by primary and nested PCR analysis which confirm total 64 dog positive for ehrlichiosis. These confirmed cases were taken for further analysis to assess the extent of inflammation caused by acute phase protein such as C-reactive protein. Results of present investigation revealed significant increase in serum concentration of canine C-reactive protein in ehrlichiosis affected dogs as compared to healthy ones. Conventional treatment of diseased animals reduces these values towards the reference values as assessed in healthy animals. It can be concluded thatserum level of C-reactive protein is significantly increases in case of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and can be used as potent clinical biomarker for assessment of extra cytokines induced inflammatory reaction.
Title: Practical approaches for doubling livestock farmers' income
Abstract :
Agriculture is the backbone of rural Punjab.Around 70 percent people of the state are involved in agriculture and allied activities and more than 83 per cent of the total land in the state is under agriculture. In 2016-17, agriculture had 23.96 per cent share in State's GDP while livestock had 8.63 percent share (Statistical Abstract Punjab, 2017). In the recent past, the share of livestock GDP in agriculture increased steadily. Livestock economy including fisheries contributed 29.60 per cent of the agricultural GDP in 2000-01 while the share increased to 36.01 per cent in 2016-17. Livestock sub-sector has registered highest growth among all the sub-sectors of agriculture in India while Punjab is rated among the highest for the share of livestock output to agricultural output (Jha et al., 2009). Thus, livestock sector proved to be an important growth engine for the overall development of agricultural sector in the state.
Title: Changes in the Composition of Colostrums, Transition Milk and Milk of Crossbred Cows due to Transition Period Supplementation of Vitamin A, E and Zinc
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken with the objective to study the effect of transition period supplementation of Vitamin A, E and Zinc on composition of colostrums, transition milk and milk of cross bred cows. Thirty-five cross-bred advanced pregnant cows and divided into 5 groups of 7 each at 30 days prior to calving were selected from the NDRI experimental herd. The cows were supplemented individually with Vitamin A (T1) (100000 IU/animal/day), Zinc (T2) (60 ppm/animal/day), Vitamin E (T3) (2500 IU/animal/day) and combination (T4) of all to study cumulative effect of all micronutrients. One group without supplementation acted as control (T0). Colostrum (up to 4th day postpartum), transition milk (day 5 to day 7) and milk (day 8 to day 30) were collected and estimated for milk composition and SCC of the experimental crossbred cows. Total solid percentage in colostrums was significantly (p<0.05) higher in all supplemented groups compared to control . Significantly higher (p<0.05) colostrum fat percentage in T3 and T4 compared to T0, T1 and T2. Significantly higher (p<0.05) colostral protein percentage in T4 group from day 1 to day 4 compared to T0, T1, T2 and T3. Significantly higher transition milk and milk total solid percentage, fat percentage and protein percentage value (p<0.05) in T4 group when compared with T0, T1, T2 and T3 groups. It can be concluded that Vitamin A, Vitamin E and Zinc when supplemented to peripartum crossbred cows during the transition period improves the nutritional quality of colostrums and milk.

Title: Effect of Replacing Groundnut Cake with Dried Distillers’ Grains with Solubles (DDGS) on Nutrient Utilization Efficiency of Magra Lambs
Abstract :
Non conventional feed resources are gaining importance in livestock feeding for reducing gap between demand and supply of feeds. DDGS is an agro industrial by product and it is obtained during ethanol production. It is most economic protein feed (crude protein 43.11%) for livestock feeding and it can be used as replacement of traditional protein feeds like groundnut meal and soybean meal. In current study, a feeding trial followed by metabolism trial of seven days was conducted on twenty 3-4 months old male Magra lambs at the sheep farm of ARC-CSWRI, Bikaner under “Network Project on Sheep Improvement of Magra Sheep” during period of May to July of year 2019 following randomized block design while dividing them into four groups of 5 lambs in each (T1-T4). In metabolism trial animals were harnessed with faecal bags and urine collection devices and samples of feed stuffs and their residues were collected individually for all the animals for chemical analysis. The faecal and urine samples for 24 hours were collected for analysis. The results revealed significant (P<0.05) effect of incorporation of DDGS on dry matter and crude protein digestibility, whereas the digestibility of OM, EE, CF, NFE, NDF, ADF and HC found to be non-significant among various treatment groups.
Title: Etiopathology and Haematobiochemical Alteration in the Anaemic Dogs of in and Around Anand Region, Gujarat
Abstract :

The present research work was undertaken to assess the etiopathology and haematobiochemical alterations in anemic dogs of Anand region, Gujarat irrespective of their age, sex and breed. Total 78 dogs were screened for anemia and blood samples were collected from a 51 anemic dogs of Anand region of Gujarat to identify etiopathology and haematobiochemical parameters alterations. Statistical analysis, interpretation, different etiology and comparison of haematobiochemical alteration with scientific literature were carried out to understand pathophysiology of disease. Amongst 78 of 51 dogs, incidence of anemia was recoded 65.38 per cent in which highest was due to liver disorders (23.53%). Incidence of anemia was observed higher in in adult group (58.83%) as well as in male (52.94%). Most clinical variants of anemic dogs showed pale mucous membrane (86.27%), hypothermia (68.63%), tachycardia (70.59%), tachypnea (74.51%) and increased capillary refilling time (64.71%). Haematological indices of anemic dogs revealed Hb, TEC, PCV, MCH, MCHC and MCV decreased significantly (p<0.01), whereas TLC increased significantly (p<0.05) as compare to healthy dogs. Serum biochemistry revealed significantly (p<0.01) increased BUN, Creatinine, Glucose, AST and ALT levels as well as decreased in total protein level in anemic case as compare to healthy ones. Different etiological factors for developing in anemia in dogs as well as hematobiochemical alterations are mentioned, which will be useful for further detailed investigations and therapeutic management.

Title: Comparative Studies on Growth and Haemato-biochemical Parameters of Kadaknath and Chabro Chickens Reared under Organic Condition
Abstract :
A comparative study on physical growth and blood parameter was investigated between Kadaknath and Chabro chickens. A total of 100 day old chicks, 50 of Kadaknath and 50 of Chabro birds were used in the study. Chabro as coloured birds gained significantly higher (P < 0.001) body weight comparison to Kadaknath as 861 ± 4.36 and 338 ± 3.99 respectively. The haemoglobin concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in Kadaknath (12.36 ± 0.09) than Chabro (9.6 ± 0.36). Cholesterol content in Chabro (101.26 ± 1.93) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than Kadaknath (101.26 ± 1.93). It was concluded that although weight gain was higher in Chabro birds but quality of meat of Kadaknath was much higher than Chabro and fetch higher price to farmers keeping scenario of market preferences.
Title: Histochemistry and Angiogenesis in Thyroid Gland of Prenatal Indian Buffalo
Abstract :
The present study was conducted on buffalo foetuses (n=19) ranging from 7.4 (62 days) to 108 cm (317 days) curved crown rump length (CVRL) to elucidate distribution of various histochemical moieties. The foetuses were divided into three groups based on CVRL. The content of neutral mucopolysaccharides was weak to moderate in Group I in parenchyma. The basement membrane of follicles was Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) positive with colloid material in few follicles indicating the beginning of appearance of colloid containing neutral mucopolysaccharides. The developing capsule in Group I showed positive reaction for acid mucopolysaccharides. The follicular epithelium showed mixed reaction for mucopolysaccharides. In Group 2 connective tissue strands in the interfollicular space were positive for acid mucopolysaccharides. Intrafollicular colloid showed differential moderate to strong reaction for positive for neutral mucopolysaccharides and resorption vacuoles appeared at this stage. In Group III colloid was intensely PAS positive whereas follicular epithelium showed mixed reaction for mucopolysaccharides. The capsule was intensely positive for acid mucopolysaccharides. The lipid content was weak in all the groups, Protein content showed a progressive increase with increase in gestational age. Immunohistochemical studies on angiogenesis revealed progressive increase in number and size of blood vessels along with gestational age. The distribution of various histochemical moieties and angiogenesis reflected the physiological and development requirements during prenatal development.
Title: Sero-prevalence of Ovine Brucellosis in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Abstract :
Brucellosis is a reproductive disease of livestock that is of immense economic importance. It predominates in most developing countries like India. The disease mainly causes infertility, delayed heat, disrupted lactation, and abortion, decrease of wool, meat and milk production which is of zoonotic value to humans. Brucellosis is transmitted to human through direct or indirect contact with infected animal and material or through the ingestion of animal byproducts. Sheep are natural reservoir of brucella and mainly infected by Brucella melitensis. Sheep mainly reared for wool, meat and occasionally for milk. Sheep skin and manure are also significant earning sources for farmers. The present study was carried out to know the age and sex wise sero-prevalence of brucellosis in sheep in and around Jaipur. A total number of 360 sera samples were collected from different locations of Jaipur from sheep and were tested by serological methods viz. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT) and Indirect Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (i-ELISA). The prevalence was 3.33%, 6.67% and 10.00% by RBPT, STAT, and i-ELISA respectively in more than 3 years of age group of sheep. In less than 3 years age group the prevalence were 1.33%, 6.33% and 6.67% using RBPT, STAT & i-ELISA respectively. The study revealed 6.25% prevalence both by RBPT and STAT & 9.37% by i.ELISA in male population. In female population the study revealed 0.67%, 6.41 % and 6.75% by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA respectively.
Title: Retrospective Analysis of Various Reproductive Disorders of Mares in Punjab, India
Abstract :
A retrospective data were analyzed to investigate the incidence of various reproductive disorders of indigenous mares (n=150) at various animal fairs and organized private stud farms of Punjab during the period of last five years (2013 to 2017). A common questionnaire was prepared to generate information regarding various fertility parameters for breeding practices, %
barren mares, % maiden mares and pregnancy losses during different stages of gestation. The reproductive parameters (estrus/mareyear, estrus/foaling, mating/mareyear, mating/estrus, mating/foaling) were calculated for 750 mare year, using SPSS software (version 16.00). The comparison of data was done using Hosmer and Lemesaw test, Logistic Regression and One-way ANOVA. Amongst 2,949 oestrous cycles in five years, 2,296 (77.86%) were spontaneous whereas 653 (22.14%) were induced with exogenous hormones. Out of 2296 spontaneous estruses, 426 (18.55%) were foal heats. The overall Mean values of estrus/mare year, estrus/foaling, mating/mare year, mating/estrus, mating/foaling were 3.93, 1.94, 1.78, 1.63 and 1.72, respectively. There was non-significant (P≥0.05) difference observed for these reproductive parameters during five years of period. The percentage of barren mares increased significantly (P< 0.05) whereas, the percent foaling mares decreased significantly (P<0.05) during last five years. An early stage of gestation (17-35 days) was more prone (3.47%) for the pregnancy losses followed by the stage at 30-60 days of gestation (2.27 %). Pregnancy losses during these stages were significantly (P<0.05) higher as compared to later stage of gestation.
Title: Assessment of Incidence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) in Penaeus vannamei in Maharashtra and Gujarat
Abstract :

The occurrence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in Penaeus vannamei samples were collected from Maharashtra and Gujarat farms. In the present study, shrimp samples from various shrimp ponds from two districts of Maharashtra and two districts of Gujarat were collected over a period of one year (February 2016 to April 2017). A total of 4513 shrimp samples were assessed for the presence of EHP by molecular characterization. Out of shrimp samples analysed, 31.2% samples were positive for EHP. The screening of EHP was done by single step and nested PCR targeting spore wall protein gene (SWP) of EHP resulting in product size of 514 bp and 148 bp for EHP respectively.

Title: Biochemical and Hormonal Parameters as Prime Markers of Postpartum Anestrum in Murrah Buffaloes
Abstract :
Reproductive and productive performance in buffaloes is greatly affected by post partum anestrus condition. So, the purpose of the present study was designed to determine alteration in blood biochemical and hormonal profile in post-partum anestrous Murrah buffaloes. 10 animals of same age were selected from a local farm at Tanuku, Andra Pradesh, India. Gyneco-clinical examination was done to confirm the condition of anestrum post calving. The anestrum animals had serum cholesterol, total protein and estrogen within the normal range but towards the lower side. However, the progesterone and triglycerides levels are significantly lower than the normal reference values. This indicated that anoestrum is characterized by reduced cholesterol, total protein, triglycerides and progesterone. In conclusion the findings of the present study might help us for better understanding of some aspects related to post partum anestrus buffaloes and thereby improve reproductive management.
Title: Molecular Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in Broiler Chicken Farms of Satara and Pune Districts of Maharashtra
Abstract :

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is one of most important pathogen economically affecting poultry worldwide. In the present study, filed samples from broiler flocks showing respiratory distress were analyzed by specific 16S rRNA PCR. The PCR products were sequenced and analyzed in silico by bioinformatics tool. At the flock level, 04 out 11 (36.36%) flocks were found positive for presence M. gallisepticum infection. Further, 7.57 % samples from Bhor and 6.06 % samples from Wai tested positive for presence of M. gallisepticum with PCR. In silico sequencing analysis revealed that field M. gallisepticum sequence was 100% identical with M. gallisepticum PB1/06/Ind sequence whereas it was 99.5% identical with f-99, ts-11 and 6/85 M. gallisepticum vaccine strains.

Title: Fatty Liver Haemorrhagic Syndrome (FLHS) in Broilers
Abstract :

Fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) in poultry is a metabolic disease. An outbreak of fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) was detected by post mortem examination of broilers in a commercial farm. There was severe loss of production and sudden deaths with moderate mortality. Post mortem of the dead birds were performed and histopathological examination was done as per standard procedure. At necropsy, dead birds had pale combs and wattles with significant liver lesions. The liver was enlarged, friable and greasy, yellowish brown with firm fatty layer deposits and haematoma was noticed in abdominal cavity. Fat vacuoles were seen in liver sections which was also confirmed by special stain. Multiple factors like high dietary energy and stress of production may have precipitated the FLHS in broilers.

Title: Medical Management of Rumen Collapse in Cows
Abstract :

Rumen collapse or rumen void is a syndrome usually observed in cattle affected with other primary diseases. It is a sequelae to other primary diseases due to total anorexia for several days. Recently purchased and calved animals brought into Large Animal Outpatient Medicine Unit, Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital, with the history of prolonged anorexia, mastitis and metritis were screened for rumen collapse. A total of 20 cases were included for the study. Animals were subjected to clinical, physical, rectal, haematological and biochemical examination. Anamnesis included were anorexia in all cases, high rise of temperature 15(75%) and high coloured urine 14(70%). An rumen collapsed in case of recently purchased animals were 12(60%). Clinical signs were anemia 18(90%), enlarged lymph node 17(85%), decreased rumen motility 17(85%), decreased or suspended rumination 16(80%). Rectal examination revealed a small sized rumen (rumen collapsed). Rumen fluid examination revealedvery few live protozoa or complete absence of protozoal motility and increased in MBRT (Methylene blue reduction test) time. The haematological examination revealed reduced level of Hb, PCV and RBC level. Biochemical examination revealed reduced level of total protein and other parameters were remain in the normal range. The suggestive of the primary diseases involved were hypocalcaemia, theileriosis, anaplasmosis, mastitis, septic metritis, indigestion and babesiosis. The animals were firstly treated for primary diseases followed by rumen cud transplantation and oral administration of rumenotorics bolus.

Title: An Animal Model to Visualize Differential Expression of Genes Related to Metabolic Process and Immune Reaction between Large White Yorkshire (LWY) and Indigenous Pigs of Punjab
Abstract :

The pig rearing is renowned area of Indian livestock. It is mainly adopted by tribal folk and economically week classes of country. The pig meat known as pork is highly proteinaceous. The four genes (ACAT2, ACAA2, APOA4 & SOCS2) are evaluated in the current study on the basis of their expression in indigenous pigs of Punjab in comparison to Large White Yorkshire (LWY) where the tissue used is liver. The quality and quantity of RNA transcript is assessed by gel-elctrophoresis and real-time quantitative PCR. All genes show significant difference (P<0.05) in both breeds except ACAA2 (P>0.05). The expression of ACAT2 is higher in indigenous breed whereas other three genes downregulates in indigenous breed of pigs. The mRNA expression of APOA4 is negligible i.e. only 1% expression of LWY. On the behalf of this data, we can say that indigenous pigs have good cholesterol metabolism as ACAT2 is higher in indigenous pigs but are more prone to cardiac diseases, gastric ulcers and other chronic diseases due to low expression of APOA4 and SOCS2. This study can be helpful to find the genetic differences between LWY and indigenous pigs of Punjab.

Title: Synchronization of Oestrus in Marwari Mares Using Different Hormonal Protocols During the Breeding Season
Abstract :
This experiment was performed to access the effect of different hormonal protocols during breeding season of mares (March to August) in Punjab. A total of 25 Marwari mares with regular oestrous cycle were selected betweenage group of 4-12 years and divided randomly into 3 groups. Group 1 (n=10) mares were treated with Estrumate (PG) and Chorulon (HcG) based protocol. The ovarian status of each mare was detected by ultrasonography. Mares having mature corpus luteum (CL) and medium size
(20 mm-24 mm) growing follicle (day 1) were injected with Estrumate (cloprostanol sodium 500 μg) 2 ml intramuscularly on day 1 morning and then on morning of 6th day injection Chorulon (3000 I.U.) was administered intravenously. On day 14 mares were again injected with Estrumate 2 ml intramuscularly followed by injection chorulon 3000 I.U. intravenously on 20th day morning. In group 2 (n=10) mares were injected with single injection of Estrumate 2 ml intramuscularly after detection of mature CL and medium size growing follicles (20-24 mm). In group 3 (n=5) all mares were covered during natural oestrus. Mares in all groups were covered twice at 36 hours interval after detection of dominant follicle (≥30 mm diameter), clinical oestrus signs and teasing score. The conception rates were 70% (7/10), 60% (6/10) and 60% (3/5) in Group 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Mares of group 1 had better pregnancy rate than other groups hence it was concluded that exogenous administration of hormones for oestrus synchronization in Marwari mares was quite beneficial and also reduced the rearing cost of the stud farmers.
Title: In vitro Anticancer Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Biosynthesized from Seeds of Sesamum indicum Against Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites
Abstract :

The objective of this study was to explore the anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles green synthesized from aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum (S. indicum) seeds in Dalton’s lymphoma ascitic cells. The anticancer efficacy of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles from plant extract (S-AgNPs) was compared relatively with chemically synthesized nanoparticles (C-AgNPs), which were produced using trisodium citrate. The C-AgNPs were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Following this, MTT assay was done in vitro to evaluate the percent cell inhibition and half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). Among the various treatments, S-AgNPs were found to have higher percent cell inhibition as 77.61 percent. Trypan blue dye test was done to assess the percent of cell viability and number of viable cells. The cell viability in percentage for S-AgNPs was low (43.8 percent), whereas for C-AgNPs, it was 57.48 percent. After this, cells after treatment at IC50 concentration, were subjected for Acridine orange / Ethidium bromide staining. This revealed the manifestation of cells in the late apoptotic stage, treated with S-AgNPs. Hence, it may be concluded that silver nanoparticles biosynthesized from sesame seeds induces cytotoxicity in cancer cells.

Title: Cryopreservation of Ram Cauda Epididymal Spermatozoa Using Different Buffers and Sugar Combinations
Abstract :

The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of different sugars and buffers combinations in the extenders viz. Tris citric acid fructose (TCF), Tris citric acid glucose (TCG), Sodium citrate fructose (SCF) and Sodium citrate glucose (SCG) on the quality of Cauda epididymal spermatozoa of ram during cryopreservation and post thaw. Spermatozoa were recovered from Cauda epididymidis by incision method. Samples showing ≥70 % progressive sperm motility were pooled. Each pooled cauda epididymal sperm sample was divided into four aliquots and spermatozoa in each aliquot were washed using isotonic buffer by double centrifugation. Washed spermatozoa in each aliquot were extended separately in the four different extenders using 20% egg yolk and 8% glycerol as cryoprotectant. The quality of spermatozoa was evaluated immediately after extension in the particular extenders (pre-freeze) and at post thaw. The percent sperm motility was significantly (p<0.05) higher for TCF (45.00±4.47) than TCG (27.50±6.55) and SCG (20.83±5.39) extenders at post thaw. The percentage of HOST reacted spermatozoa was significantly higher (P<0.05) for TCF (61.05±2.60) than SCF (45.81±4.90) and SCG (46.41±4.16) at post thaw. The percent intact acrosome was also significantly higher (P<0.05) in TCF (79.39±2.16), SCF (80.74±1.38) and SCG (78.34±2.94) than TCG (71.32±2.47) at post thaw. In conclusion, the use of fructose as energy source in the Tris extender (TCF) was found the best combination of buffer and sugar for maintaining higher sperm quality during cryopreservation of ram caudaepididymal spermatozoa.

Title: Performance of Kadaknath Breed of Fowl Under Intensive System of Housing in Malwa Region of Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :
Study was carried out on 500 straight run chicks of Kadaknath breed of fowl, under intensive system of housing up to 5 months of age. The average daily feed consumption, body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded weekly up to 8 week of age and thereafter at monthly interval up to 5 months of age. The average weight of day old chicks was 28.55 ± 0.5 g. The mean weekly feed consumption recorded from 1-8 week of age was 21.29 ± 0.11, 46.43 ± 0.71, 82.60 ± 0.9, 104.38 ± 2.09, 115.45 ± 2.66, 150.51 ± 1.17 and 163.63 ± 2.99 and 244.52 ± 2.62 g, respectively. The overall mean weekly body weight gain from 1-8 week of age was 7.54 ± 0.10, 16.84 ± 0.44, 32.23 ± 1.87, 42.42 ± 3.23, 50.91 ± 1.22, 72.30 ± 3.36, 70.59 ± 4.24 and 86.34 ± 5.65 g, respectively. The corresponding values obtained for FCR were 2.82 ± 0.35, 2.75 ± 0.09, 2.56 ± 0.05, 2.46 ± 0.05, 2.26 ± 0.03, 2.09 ± 0.08, 2.32 ± 0.13 and 2.84 ± 0.12. The weekly body weight gain linearly increased up to eight week. The mean monthly feed consumption during 3rd, 4th, and 5th month of age was 1682.09 ± 38.59, 1739.05 ± 11.84 and 1622.83 ± 7.14 g, respectively. The overall mean weight gain recorded at 3rd, 4th, and 5th month of age was 260.52 ± 7.49, 174.58 ± 7.50 and 131.41 ± 18.84 g, respectively. The corresponding values for FCR were 6.46 ± 0.06, 9.97 ± 0.37 and 12.56 ± 1.98, respectively. The dressing percentage, giblet yield, breast muscle, thigh muscle, abdominal fat and weight of organs (spleen, thymus and bursa) were 70.43 ± 1.79, 5.35 ± 0.02, 19.41 ± 0.13, 14.91 ± 0.25, 1.59 and 0.88 ± 0.04 per cent, respectively of live weight at 5 months of age. An overall mortality of 25.2 % was recorded during entire period of experiment with a maximum of 11.40% during first week.
Title: Influence of Pregnancy, Parity and Stage of Lactation on Milk Yield and Composition in Crossbred Dairy Cattle
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to explore the effect of pregnancy, parity and stage of lactation on milk yield and milk composition in crossbred cattle maintained at Livestock Research Station, Thiruvazahmkunnu, Palakkad, under Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University. The farm is located at latitude, longitude and altitude of 11o21’ N, 76o21’ E and 60-70 m above sea level and having a mean annual rainfall of 2,570 mm. Milk samples from 44 crossbred cows in different parity, stage of pregnancy and lactation were collected for seven consecutive days and composition was analyzed using Ekomilk Ultra pro milk analyzer (Milkana KAM 98-2A). The overall mean milk yield, fat, SNF, protein and lactose were 7.9 kg, 3.6%, 8.1%, 3.2% and 4.2%, respectively. Pregnant cows had significantly (p<0.05) lower milk yield (6.06 vs 8.30 kg) and significantly (p<0.05) higher lactose (4.35 vs 4.23%) and SNF per cent (8.28 vs 8.01%) when compared to non-pregnant cows. Order of parity didn’t have any influence on milk yield nor on the milk constituents. The mean milk yields during the three stages of lactation (<100 days, 100-200 days and >200 days) were 9.23, 7.57 and 6.52 kg/day, respectively, with peak yield being observed during the first stage of lactation (<100 days). The stage of lactation had significant effect (p<0.05) on milk yield and fat per cent whereas the other components were not influenced by the stage of lactation.

Title: Age related Anatomical Changes in Acetabulum and its Cartilage in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
Abstract :
Acetabular articular cartilage was not differentiated in prenatal group. Acetabular AC in post natal groups was well differentiated and continuous on anterio-lateral and caudo-lateral aspects i.e., towards ilium and ischium respectively, whereas at medial part i.e., towards pubis it was separated on either side. Mean AC thickness of acetabulum at three points showed slight variation. Overall average width of acetabular AC increased with age viz., 23.85 mm to 28.95 mm in Gr- IV, whereas the dimensions of acetabulum like the diameter and depth revealed a steady increase with advancing age. In Gr-I they were 0.35 cm and 0.4 cm which increased up to 5.38 cm and 4.11 cm in Gr – IV respectively. Irregular erosions towards centre of acetabulum were seen on AC surface in aged specimens of groups III and IV.
Title: Flow Cytometric Evaluation of Acrosomal integrity of Buffalo Spermatozoa at Different Stage of Cryopreservation using Different Extenders
Abstract :

With an objective to evaluate the value of different extenders semen was collected from Murrah buffalo bulls (n=6) by artificial vagina and subjected to dilution using different extenders viz Tris egg yolk citrate (TEYC), LDL, tocopherol (TEYC with 1 mg/mL tocopherol) and sericin (TEYC with 0.25% sericin) based extenders. Semen was cryopreserved and sperm with intact acrosome were evaluated by flow cytometry immediately after dilution, at equilibration stage and after cryopreservation. There were non-significant differences in the proportion of live sperm with intact acrosome (frozen-thawed semen) for all the diluters studied except for buffalo bull number 5333 which evidenced significantly lower (P>0.05) proportion of live sperm with intact sperm in the tocopherol based extender. The overall percent live sperm with intact sperm was significantly higher (P<0.001) for LDL based extender as compared to TEYC, tocopherol, and sericin extenders at the equilibration stage and in frozen-thawed semen. It was concluded that the LDL based extender is best for cryopreservation of buffalo semen.

Title: Genetic Evaluation of Murrah Buffaloes for Reproductive Disorders
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out on 459 Murrah buffaloes affected with some reproductive problem with 618 calving records(out of total 1336 Murrah buffaloes) sired by 118 sires over a period of 12 years from 2007 to 2018 at GADVASU, Ludhiana. The heritability estimates for dystocia, retention of placenta (ROP), anestrus, repeat breeding (RB), abortion and postpartum abnormal discharge (PPAD) were 0.04, 0.10, 0.05, 0.074, 0.085 and 0.121 respectively. The overall means for breeding values for dystocia, ROP, abortion, anestrus, RB and PPAD were 0.4, 0.2, 0.4, 0.2, 0.078 and 11.8%, respectively. Rank correlation of abortion with ROP was very high (0.99±0.02) and with anestrus, dystocia, RB and PPAD were also high i.e. 0.98±0.03, 0.98±0.03, 0.97±0.03, 0.95±0.04 respectively. Heritability estimates of reproductive problems have indicated appreciable values, signifying that incorporation of these traits in selection program will enhance the rate of improvement.

Title: Status of Serum Mineral and Biochemical Parameters in Cross bred Cows fed Different Levels of Wet Distillers Grains with Solubles (WDGS)
Abstract :

Serum mineral status and biochemical parameters were studied in crossbred dairy cows fed different levels of WDGS for 120 days. 24 Jersy × Sahiwal crossbred dairy cows were divided into 4 groups and randomly allotted to one of the dietary treatment containing APBN green fodder and paddy straw a s roughage and concentrate mixture (T1, control) or WDGS @ 15 (T2), 25 (T3) and 35 % (T4) of DM requirement. These animals were fed according ICAR (2013) feeding standards. Feeding WDGS did not affect the serum concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, Fe, Mn and Co among treatments, but lowered serum P (P<0.01) from 7.4 to 5.73 mg/dl, serum copper (P<0.05) from 75.19 to 64.80 μg/dl and zinc (P<0.05) from 83.09 to 64.84 μg/dl was observed with the increase in level of WDGS inclusion from 0 (T1) to 35% (T4). Mean BUN (mg/dl) was significantly (P<0.01) lower in T2 compared to other treatments. The serum glucose and total protein did not differ significantly among groups, but significantly (P<0.01) increased serum albumin content was seen in T3 (3.72 g/dl). Serum SGOT, ALP and GGT activity was not different significantly among treatments, while serum SGPT activity was significantly (P<0.01) lower in T4 (35% WDGS) group compared to other treatments.

Title: Method Validation for Detection of Sulphamethazine Residue in Chicken Meat Samples by Simple Rapid Liquid Chromatography Technique
Abstract :

The occurrence of antibiotic residues in chicken meat constitutes a potential risk to the health of consumers. The present study describes the optimization and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of sulphamethazine (SMZ) in chicken meat using photo diode array detector (PDA) and C18 analytical column. The extraction method involving deproteinisation of the chicken sample followed by a solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up of antibiotic residue has been optimized. The method was validated according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The recoveries for the studied antibiotics ranged from 81.6–84% with relative standard deviations between 6.6 and 7.2%. The method was applied for the analysis of antibiotic residues in 16 raw chicken meat samples collected from Durg, Chhattisgarh, India. 3 samples found contaminated with antibiotic residues. The method has limit of quantification below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) and easy to perform, thus found suitable for performing routine analysis.

Title: Molecular Identification of Marek’s Disease Virus in Vaccinated Commercial Layers of Tamil Nadu in India
Abstract :
We report the presence of Marek’s disease (MD) virus meq among commercial layer chickens with or without the history of MD outbreak. Feather follicle epithelial (FFE) samples (285) were collected from 50 vaccinated commercial layer flocks of Tamil Nadu in India regardless of MD outbreak and were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify MDV specific meq gene. The prevalence of MD was found to be 50 per cent. Among 285 feather follicle samples tested from different age groups, the highest prevalence was noticed at 17 to 40 week age groups (38.03 per cent) followed by 9 to 16 week age groups (33.33 per cent), 41 to 60 week (32.26 per cent) age groups, 61 week and above (32.14 per cent) age groups and 0 to 8 week (23.68 per cent) age groups with overall prevalence of 32.63 per cent. The highest prevalence was noticed in the peak production period which might be attributed to activation of latent virus. It is suggested that the MD prevalence in twice vaccinated layer flocks warrants for stringent control measures in order to check the re-emergence of MD among layer chicken.
Title: Histopathological and Molecular Investigation of Natural Cases of Bovine Tuberculosis Infection in Cattle
Abstract :

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), a chronic infection in cattle caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis/bovis, that impacts productivity and represents a major public health threat. Although the considerable economic costs and zoonotic risk consequences associated with the disease, accurate estimates of bTB prevalence are lacking in many countries, including India. Therefore, in the current study for collection of tubercular lesions the postmortem examination of 100 cattle was conducted. All major viscera and regional lymph nodes were examined and incised. Histopathology was performed in the cases where gross lesions were suggestive of tuberculosis. PCR was performed on the tissue and faecal samples by using IS6110 insertion sequence, Mycobacterium tuberculosis/bovis complex PCR kit. In 12 animals, nodular lesions with casseating mass suggestive of tuberculosis were observed in the lung tissue. All the 12 lung impression smear and only five faecal smear showed acid fast bacilli stained by Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Histologic features comprised a classic granuloma as a characteristic lesion of tuberculosis composed of a central caseous necrosis with mantle of macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, epithelioid macrophages and Langhan’s giant cells and were observed in all 12 cases. All the tissue samples and 11 faecal samples were positive for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex using IS6110 sequence. 8 tissue samples and 4 faecal samples were positive by using Mycobacterium tuberculosis/bovis complex PCR kit. It can be concluded that there was good agreement between histopathology, acid fast staining and PCR. It can also be concluded that faecal samples which are easier to collect should be preferred for diagnosis of TB by PCR in cattle.

Title: The Effect of Non-Genetic Factors on Body Weight and Zoometric Traits in Sirohi Kids
Abstract :

The least-square means for body weight at birth, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months of age of Sirohi kids were 2.53 ± ± 0.034 kg, 11.51 ± 0.29 kg, 15.04 ± 0.34 kg, 17.93 ± 0.45 kg, and 22.38 ± 0.53 kg, respectively. The least-square means of body height at birth, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months of age were 30.36 ± 0.288 cm, 49.46 ± 0.577 cm, 54.55 ± 0.676 cm, 54.62 ± 0.989 cm, and 64.00 ± 0.998 cm, respectively. The least-square means of body length at birth, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months of age were 29.15 ± 0.321 cm, 44.72 ± 0.537 cm, 49.34 ± 0.805 cm, 58.76 ± 0.851 cm, 58.89 ± 1.168 cm, respectively. The least-square means of body girth at birth, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months of age were 30.46 ± 0.284 cm, 49.43 ± 0.504 cm, 55.12 ± 0.620 cm, 59.36 ± 0.816 cm, and 64.13 ± 0.995 cm, respectively. The effect of location, period, sex of the kid, parity of dam, and type of birth was highly significant (P≤0.01) on body weight at birth to 12 months of age. The effect of season of birth was the highly significant effect (P≤ 0.01) on body weight at birth, 3, 9, and 12 month age. The effect of location, period, sex of kids, and type of birth was highly significant (P≤ 0.01) on all body measurements at birth to 12 months of age. The effect of season of birth was highly significant (P≤ 0.01) on the height at 3 to 12 months age while on body length and body girth at 12 months age. The effect of the dam's parity was highly significant (p<0.01) on body height at birth, 3, 9, and 12 months of age while on body length and body girth at birth, 6, 9, and 12 months age.

Title: Raw Milk Quality and Udder Health Status of Lactating Crossbred Sahiwal Cows Supplemented with β-carotene Enriched Mineral-Vitamin Premix
Abstract :

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of supplemented β-carotene enriched mineral-vitamin premix on lactating crossbred Sahiwal cows and analyzing the raw milk quality and udder health of the animals. Twenty-four disease-free lactating crossbred Sahiwal cows with a close date of calving were randomly divided into two equal groups as Control group (CONT; n = 12) and Beta-carotene group: 500 mg/cow/d (BETA; n = 12). These were animals from 7 days post-partum (dpp) until 105 dpp, and thereafter the raw milk quality and udder health status of these animals were determined. Statistical analysis of the data regarding post-partum udder health status fortnightly from 45 to 105 days of the experimental period was observed (P<0.001). Lower somatic cell counts in raw milk of 12.50 to 10.02 Log104 cells/ml were observed in BETA-group cows when compared with CONT-group cows with 12.69 to 13.17 Log104 cells/ml. The Modified California Mastitis tests from 45 to 105 dpp were lower in the BETA-group cows (2.27 to 1.35) than in the CONT-group cows (3.59 to 3.96). The post-partum methylene blue dye reduction test from 45 to 105 dpp indicated (P<0.001) that raw milk quality was significantly higher in BETA-group cows (107.96 to 139.89 in minutes) than in CONT-group cows (90.81 to 80.78 in minutes) throughout the post-partum period. This study revealed that orally supplementing crossbred Sahiwal cows with β-carotene improved their raw milk quality and udder health.

Title: Gross Study on Branching Pattern of the Brachial Artery in Goat
Abstract :

The axillary artery gave off the cranial circumflex artery of humerus distal to the shoulder joint and continued as brachial artery. The brachial artery continued on the medial aspect of the arm and gave off deep brachial artery from its caudal face near the middle of the arm. Brachial artery gave off collateral ulnar artery a little above the medial condyle of the humerus and then bicipital artery arose from anterior surface of brachial artery. Brachial artery gave off transverse cubital artery at the level of medial condyle of humerus and then continued as the median artery in the forearm region after origin of common interosseous artery.

Title: Comparative in-vitro Evaluation of Dog Food Using Either Rice Gluten or Maize Fibre with Commercially Available Dog Food
Abstract :
The study was carried out with an objective of studying in-vitro nutrient digestibility and quality evaluation of dog foods incorporated with 15% rice gluten and 2.5% maize fibre and its comparison with commercially available dog food for its nutritional worth and physical quality parameters. After standardization of diets, raw diets were subjected to different processing techniques viz. boiling and extrusion. Boiling of feed reduced the ether extract content of diets. The in-vitro analysis of dog feed involved two incubation phases: first, gastric digestion simulation at 39ºC for 2h in HCl solution in presence of pepsin and gastric lipase enzyme; second, small intestine digestion simulation at 39ºC for 4h using bile salts and pancreatin in phosphate buffer solution. Statistical analysis revealed that boiling of diet reduced the in-vitro digestibility of ether extract. Among different processing techniques, in-vitro digestibility was best in-case of extruded diets. In-vitro digestibility of CP had nonsignificant difference among different processing techniques; however CPD of boiled dog feed with 15% RG used dog feed was comparable with extruded and raw diet. Comparative evaluation of best preformed extruded feeds with commercial diets revealed that all diets had equal nutritional digestibility of various nutrients. pH, FFA, PV and aflatoxin content of feeds were within permissible limits. It was concluded that RG and MF can be included in dog diet at 15 and 2.5% level respectively showing equal digestibility of feed.
Title: Effect of Different Dietary Oil Sources on Enrichment of Omega -3 Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Japanese Quail Meat
Abstract :

An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of inclusion level of different feed ingredients rich in omega-3 fatty acids tooptimizethe production of omega-3 enriched Japanese quail meat. The feeding trial was conducted in Japanese quail broiler chicks for five weeks (0 - 5 week) period. The experiment had six treatments (T1-PO 4%; T2 LO 4%: T3 LO 3% + SO 1%; T4 LO 2% + SO 2%; T5 LO 1% + SO 3%; T6 SO 4%) with various inclusion levels of different sources of omega-3 fatty acids (linseed oil / sardine oil) with six replicates in each treatment and each replicate had ten birds. Inclusion level of 3 % linseed oil and 1 % sardine fish oil was optimum for producing omega-3 fatty acids enriched Japanese quail meat. Japanese quail meat was enriched with ALA- 12.67%; EPA-2.11%; DHA-2.16% and n-3-16.95% (% of total fatty acids). Omega-3 fatty acids were enriched by 9.79 times and Omega-6 : Omega-3 ratio was narrowed by 9.8 times than that of control which is ideal for human consumption.

Title: Prediction of Future Milk Production Trend in India and Central Punjab
Abstract :

Livestock is an important source of livelihood for small and marginal farmers of India. Indian cattle require an ideal combination of environmental conditions with temperature less than 23°C and humidity of 68 per cent for the best milk production. However, due to climatic variations, ‘thermo-regulatory’ system of livestock has disturbed, which leads to decrease in milk production. Keeping this in view, the data of milk production and yield of Ludhiana district (1993-2013) and for different states of India (2001-2018) was analyzed. The regression analysis indicated that during 2018-19 milk production and yield of Indian states was highly dependent on the population strength of cattle and buffalo. The analysis also indicated an increase in India’s total milk production in future mainly due to increase in cattle and buffalo population. But in the rising population scenario, this increase in livestock population does not seem to be sustainable due to land degradation and climate change induced weather unsuitability. Hence, intensification of production is a vital step to sustain milk supply for increasing population. The milk productivity for Ludhiana has been projected to be the lowest in 2040-41 and the highest in 2080-81 due to warming in future and then reduction in temperature at the end of the century (2094-95), the milk yield will be low as compared to the present time scenario. So, to increase the national milk yield, mitigation and adaptation strategies viz. construction of climate-resilient sheds, diversified farming, installing sprinklers etc. should be adopted to combat the effects of climate change.

Title: Contents Vol. 9, No. 6, December 2019
Abstract :
Title: Pathology and Molecular Diagnosis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae Infections in Broiler Chickens from Western Maharashtra, India
Abstract :

Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae are worldwide in distribution including India and causes heavy economic losses to the poultry industry. The present study confirms the incidence of M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae infections by gross and microscopic pathology and PCR in broiler chickens. Incidence of pathogenic Mycoplasma spp. in broiler chickens with respiratory lesions was found to be 26.66%. Out of total 60 flocks, 6 flocks (10%) were found positive for M. gallisepticum and 12 (20%) were positive for M. synoviae. The incidence of M. synoviae was found to be higher than M. gallisepticum. Catarrhal tracheitis, focal pneumonic consolidation of lungs and airsacculitis were consistent lesions in M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae positive broiler chickens. However, synovitis/arthritis was not observed in any of the flock positive for M. synoviae. Incidence of E. coli amongst broiler chickens with respiratory lesions was found to be 40% by PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene and was higher than Mycoplasma spp. Mixed infection of M. gallisepticum and E. coli was detected in 3(9.09%) flocks, M. synoviae and E. coli in 4 (12.13%), M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae in 1(3.03%) and M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae and E. coli combined infection was detected in 1 (3.03%) flock. Mixed infection of M. gallisepticum and E. coli, M. synoviae and E. coli and M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae and E. coli revealed moderate to severe lesions of chronic complicated respiratory disease.

Title: Dietary Micro-Nutrients Supplementation in the Ration of Transition Crossbred Cows Influences the Growth Performance and Hemato-Biochemical Parameters of Newborn Calves
Abstract :
The present work was planned to access the effect of dietary micronutrient supplementation to the transition crossbred cows affecting the performance of newborn calves. Twenty healthy advanced pregnant crossbred cows (average body weight 408.25 ±12.93 kg) reared under similar conditions were selected randomly and divided into two equal groups. Control cows fed
on the existing ration while the treatment cows additionally fed with antioxidant micronutrients (trace minerals Cu and Zn with vitamin A and E) as per the recommendations. Experimental feeding was started about two months pre-partum till two months post-partum. The influence of dietary micro-nutrients supplementation in transition crossbred cows was judged by measuring birth weight, fortnightly body weight, and some haemato-biochemical parameters of their calves. The mean birth weight (kgs) of calves was higher (P=0.06) in the treatment group (34.15±0.88) as compared to the control group values (32.08±1.55). Bodyweight at the termination of the experimental feeding though remained statistically comparable between the two groups but high in treatment (53.25±1.67 kg) than in the control (49.75 ±1.61 kg) group. The hematological parameters i.e. Hb (g/dl) was 9.53±0.53 and 11.03±0.70; total leukocytes count (×103 mm-3) 9.64±0.35 and 9.01±0.55 and percentages of neutrophil 34.67±1.94 and 29.33±1.67, lymphocyte 63.50±2.0 and 68.83±1.89, monocyte remained 2.00±0.68 and 1.67±0.33% in un-supplemented and supplemented group, respectively without any significant difference between two groups. It may be
concluded that supplementation of antioxidant micro-nutrients in the transition dairy cow’s ration was unable to influence the growth and hemato-biochemical parameters in their calves.
Title: Gross Morphological, Histological and Histochemical Studies on the Epididymis of Local Pig (Zovawk) of Mizoram
Abstract :

The aim of the research was to investigate the gross morphological, histological and histochemical structure of epididymis in local pig of Mizoram. The epididymis was collected from six apparently healthy adult Zovawk pigs. The epididymis appeared as a straight elongated tubular structure with reddish-white colour comprises of three regions; head, body and tail. The biometrical parameter including the weight, length and thickness (head, body and tail) were found to be higher in the left side of epididymis than the right side. Histologically, the duct of epididymis was surrounded by irregularly arranged tissue. The parenchyma of epididymis consists of tubules with distinct boundaries of connective tissues. The collagen and reticular fibers were abundant in tunica albuginea and connective tissue present between the tubules. However, few elastic fibers occurred in the capsule and only in the blood vessels in both the left and right epididymis of Zovawk pig. Histochemical studies revealed that basement membrane of tubules, blood vessels and stereocilia shows strong Periodic acid Schiff activity, whereas the basement membrane of tubules and stereocilia showed more concentration of acidic mucopolysaccharides. This is the first study to provide the detailed morphological, histological and histochemical structure of Zovawk epididymis.

Title: Occurrence of Intestinal and Caecal Coccidiosis in Rajasri Birds
Abstract :

Coccidiosis in poultry is still considered as one of the main diseases affecting performance of poultry reared under intensive production systems. Coccidiosis was diagnosed in Rajasri birds upon routine postmortem examination conducted at Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science, Hyderabad. PM examination of 423 birds conducted during a period of one month, out of which 136 birds were diagnosed with intestinal coccidiosis (32.15%) and 120 birds with caecal coccidiosis (28.36%). Clinically birds showed weakness, somnolence, ruffled feathers, pale comb, mucoid bloody diarrhea and death. Coccidiosis was initially diagnosed on the basis of faecal smear examination and histopathological alterations in intestines. Gross examination of birds showed pale muscle, dehydrated and emaciated carcass. Extremely ballooned intestine and caeca and haemorrhages in intestinal mucosa were seen. Upon opening of the small intestines and caeca, watery ingesta mixed with mucus and blood was observed. Faecal smears made from duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum revealed coccidial oocysts. Histopathological examination of intestine and caecum revealed coccidia lifecycle stages with destruction of different layers of the intestine and caecum with infiltration of heterophils and mononuclear cells (MNC).

Title: Effect of Frying on Quality Characteristics of Chicken Meat Samosas
Abstract :

Present study was undertaken to assess the effect of deep fat frying on quality characteristics of chicken meat samosas. The formulation and processing conditions for preparation of chicken meat samosas were standardized. A total of three types of samosa were prepared by using various frying methods as deep fat frying (T1, 185ºC for 6 min), flash frying (T2, 185ºC for 2 min) and flash frying followed by deep fat frying (T3, 185ºC for 5 min). The developed products along with raw samosas (C) were studied for various physico-chemical, proximate parameters, instrumental colour profile and sensory analysis. T1 and T3 products were compared for sensory attributes. The pH of T3 samples was noted significantly (P<0.05) lower than T1, T2 and raw samosa. T3 samosa was recorded with highest fat percentage and calorific value. Protein content of T1 and T2 were comparable and was significantly (P<0.05) higher than T3. The T1 samples were noted with significant (P<0.05) higher flavour and overall acceptability attributes as compared to T3 samples. Thus, it can be concluded that samosa cooked by frying in refined soybean oil at 185ºC for 6 minutes had better sensory attributes with good nutritive value.

Title: Prevalence of Wound and Associated Risk Factors of Donkeys in Merawi District,North-Western Ethiopia
Abstract :
A cross sectional study was conducted from October 2014 to April 2015 to determine prevalence of wound and associated risk factors in working donkeys in and around Merawi district, Amhara region, Ethiopia. A total of 384 randomly selected donkeys were physically examined for any external body injury/wound. Simultaneously, donkey owners were interviewed with a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire to extrapolate information regarding possible risk factors associated with wound occurrence. The overall prevalence of wound was 38.3%. The occurrence of wound varied significantly among donkeys with different age categories (χ2 = 43.027, p < 0.05) and with different body score conditions (47.5%, χ2 = 53.8, OR = 34.89, CI = 8.4-144.6). However the occurrence of wounds didn’t vary significantly among sex of the animals, type of pack saddle used and type of load carried (p > 0.05). In terms of working nature, donkeys working for more than 10kms per single trip showed
higher prevalence of wound (50.0%, χ2 = 9.39, p < 0.05) than those usually working for nearer distances (<10kms). There was a signifi- cant difference in the severity of wound among affected donkeys carrying different loads (χ2 = 26.71, p < 0.05).Questionnaire survey among the 384 respondents showed only 51% of the respondents usually seek for veterinary help for wound management. Generally, the study has clearly indicated wound as a prevailing welfare problem of working donkeys in and around Merawi district. Hence, implementing a comprehensive donkey health and welfare improvement program should be a priority for concerned stakeholder.
Title: Radiographic Assessment of Dogs with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Abstract :

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is most commonly diagnosed by Doppler echocardiography, which may not be easily accessible. Thus, in this study, radiography was performed as a means of diagnosis of PAH in canines. In this study, nine clinical cases with presenting complaint of cough, exercise intolerance, dyspnea, ascites were evaluated by lateral, dorso-ventral and ventro-dorsal chest radiography. PAH was diagnosed secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in eight dogs. However, one dog was diagnosed with PAH secondary to chronic degenerative mitral valve disease. The most common radiographic changes in dogs affected with PAH were found to be cardiomegaly, right ventricular enlargement of heart, tracheal elevation, enlargement of cranial and caudal lobar pulmonary arteries and pleural effusions.

Title: Study on the Effect of UMMB Supplementation on Performance of Buffaloes of Gujjar Tribe of Jammu
Abstract :

The present study was carried out in Agra chack area of R S Pura tehsil of Jammu district of J&K state. The productivity can be increased to greater extent by nutritional management (UMMB feeding). The Urea molasses mineral blocks based on locally available by products were made using standard procedure. The experiment comprised of eighteen female buffaloes of 5-6 years and 2nd -3rd parity. They were divided into three treatments having six animals each. In control (T0), basal diet was fed to the animals, in Ist group (T1), urea molasses mineral blocks (UMMB) were offered in last trimester of pregnancy and in 2nd group (T2), the UMMB were offered postpartum in addition to the basal diet. All supplemented buffaloes gained more body weight (1.59%), body condition score (1.67%) and heart girth than their unsupplemented controls. The UMMB supplementation appeared to have made better difference over controls where animals were already on poor diets. The birth weight and weaning weight of calves born to supplemented animals was significantly higher (30.50% and 23.55% respectively) in comparison to unsupplemented group. The postpartum estrus, conception interval and conception rate reduced in supplemented group than control. The increase in milk yield/ animal/ day was observed to be 1.5l in supplemented group with benefit cost ratio of 1:2.73. Overall, UMMB supplementary feeding during prepartum and postpartum period improved production and reproduction in buffaloes.

Title: Effect of Dietary Incorporation of Aniseed (Pimpinella anisum) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Rhizome Powder as Feed Additive on Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization in Broiler Chickens
Abstract :

A feeding trial was conducted to discern the effect of dietary incorporation of aniseed and ginger rhizome powder on growth performance and nutrient utilization in commercial broiler chickens. A total of 120, day-old broiler chicks were divided randomly into 4 treatment groups with 3 replicates each i.e. 10 broiler chicks per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 42 days viz., A metabolism trial was conducted during the 6th week of feeding trial to know the nutrient utilization. During the starter phase, maximum weight gain was recorded in broiler chicks of treatment group T3 (827.70 g) fed diet incorporated with 1.0% ginger rhizome powder followed by treatment groups T1, T2 and T4, however, there was no significant difference in body weight gain amongst the different treatment groups. During finisher phase, the average body weight gain was 1313.50, 1365.32, 1308.20 and 1291.36 g in broiler chicks of treatment groups T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively and did not differ significantly among different groups. During entire feeding trial period (0-42 days), incorporation of aniseed and ginger rhizome powder in the basal diets non-significantly improved growth performance in terms of body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and performance index. The average cumulative body weight gain was 2120.57, 2152.75, 2135.90 and 2064.43 g in broiler chicks of treatment groups T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively and did not differ significantly among different groups. There was no significant difference in nutrient utilization among different treatment groups of broiler chickens.

Title: Anti-inflammatory Potential of Whole Pomegranate Fruit Juice (POM) against Bleomycin Induced Lung Injury in Rats
Abstract :

The ameliorative potential of whole Pomegranate fruit juice was studied against Bleomycin (BLM) induced lung injury. A total of 48 male Wistar albino rats were procured and divided into 4 groups consisting of 12 rats in each. The group 1 (control), group 2 BLM toxic control {@ 5 mg/kg body weight (b.wt) via single intra- tracheal (IT) instillation}, group 3 administered with BLM (@ 5 mg/kg b.wt via single IT instillation) and Pomegranate juice (@ 1 mL/rat once daily orally) and group 4 rats administered with Pomegranate juice only (@ 1 mL/rat once daily orally). Grossly, in group 2 rats, lung showed congestion, haemorrhage and edema. Histopathological studies revealed interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary edema, neutrophilic infiltration in perivascular and peribronchiolar areas on 14th day of experiment. In addition to these lesions complete loss of architecture of lung alveoli, severe hyperplasia of bronchiolar epithelial cells, peribronchiolar infiltration and mild fibrosis in perivascular and peribronchiolar areas was noticed on 28th day of experiment. Group 3 rats showed moderate improvement in both gross and histopathological lesions. The cytokine activity in group 2 showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in tumor necrosis factor- Alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-Beta 1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin (IL)-10 while treatment with POM in group 3 exhibited significant decreased in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines. The current study concluded the anti-inflammatory effect of POM against bleomycin.

Title: Shelf-Life of Developed Instant Idli Mixes Incorporated with Chicken Meat Powder
Abstract :
A study was conducted to evaluate the shelf life of developed instant rice idli mix incorporated with 20% chicken meat powder (CMP) and instant semolina idli mix incorporated with 30% CMP under laboratory conditions. The control sample of rice idli mix was prepared using rice grit, salt, spice mix, sodium bicarbonate, citric acid, sodium carbonate and dry curry leaves and the control semolina idli mix was prepared by replacing the rice grit with semolina. The products were packed in low density polyethene bags and stored at an ambient temperature (30±2oC) for 90 days and samples were drawn at an interval of 0, 15th, 30th, 60th and
90th day to assess their shelf life. TBA values of CMP incorporated idli mixes were higher than their controls during storage. Moreover, TBA and pH values increased in all idli mixes during storage up to 90 days at an ambient temperature (30±2oC). The reconstituted idlies had desirable organoleptic properties as indicated by the taste panel studies. It is concluded that the rice idli mix incorporated with 20% CMP and semolina idli mix incorporated with 30% CMP could be stored for 60 days and 90 days, respectively, without any significant deterioration in microbiological quality and with acceptable sensory attributes.
Title: Diagnosis of Cryptococcosis in Dogs by Latex Agglutination Test and Enzyme Immunoassay
Abstract :

Cryptococcus spp. is a pathogenic fungus which is an increasingly important cause of infection, particularly in the immunocompromised hosts. Diagnosis of cryptococcosis in animals can be carried out by isolation of the fungus but this requires several days to detect and identify the organism. Detection of cryptococcal antigen by latex agglutination test and enzyme immunoassay in serum is a rapid and easy method for diagnosis of cryptococcosis. In the present study, a total of 142 blood samples were collected from apparently healthy (n=89) and diseased dogs (n=53) for diagnosis of cryptococcosis. Latex agglutination test and enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA) were carried out for the detection of cryptococcal antigen in serum. Of the 142 serum samples tested, six samples tested positive by Latex agglutination test while one sample tested positive by EIA. The sample which was positive by EIA was also positive by Latex agglutination test. The serum samples of dogs that tested positive for cryptococcal antigen were obtained from dogs suffering from symptoms like bloody faeces and vomit, emesis, chronic ear infection and discharge. Based on our findings, we conclude that the latex agglutination test in combination with the enzyme immunoassay can be used for the diagnosis of Cryptococcosis in dogs.

Title: Impact of A1/A2 forms of Cow’s Milk on Human Health-A review
Abstract :
Milk derived peptides may adversely affect the biological health of humans by increasing the risk of dependency on insulin to overcome the occurrence of diabetes. The higher occurrence of the diabetes relies on the relationship of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and the consumption of variants A1 and B beta –casein from cow’s milk. The production of BCM-7 is more in A1 milk than A2 milk and the difference is basically due to position 67 of the beta casein chain. However, proline in A2 is substituted by  histidine in A1 milk casein chain. Deleterious effects of A1 milk in the process of digestion in human stomach and intestines
have not been reviewed earlier. It is an effort to review the aspect thoroughly and bring minor details into focus to have better understanding of the milk particularly in perspective of human health.
Title: Occurrence of Bovine Coxiellosis in Small Livestock Farms of Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract :

The present study aimed at assessing the occurrence of coxiellosis in cattle and buffaloes on 117 small-sized livestock farms owned by small or marginal farmers of 36 villages in Uttar Pradesh of India. The samples of blood and serum (250 each) collected from 86 cattle and 164 buffaloes were screened for Coxiella burnetii infection by PCR assay targeting IS1111 transposase gene of the pathogen (trans-PCR), Latex Agglutination Test employing synthetic linear antigenic peptide (LAP) of Com-1 protein of C. burnetii (Com-1 LAP-LAT) and commercial ELISA kit (IDEXX), taken as a reference. In our study, none of the bovine blood or serum samples showed the presence of C. burnetii DNA in trans-PCR, however, antibodies against the pathogen could be detected in sera of 5.6% (14/250) animals by Com-1 LAP-LAT and 5.13% (13/250) animals by ELISA kit. A way forward is suggested for developing improvised LAT as a simple, pragmatic, affordable diagnostic test having field applicability by employing multiple antigenic peptides of potential immunogenic proteins of C. burnetii. The risk of bovine coxiellosis under small livestock settings seems to be less than that reported on organised farms in India; however, studies involving many farms with varying holdings of large ruminants, which constitute the main proportion of milch animals, are needed for assessing the risks in bovines and their handlers in the right perspective.

Title: Gross and Morphometrical Studies on the Female Reproductive Tract of White Leghorn and Kadaknath Hens
Abstract :

This study was conducted on 50 mature female birds comprising of 25 Kadaknath and 25 White Leghorn hens procured from the poultry farm of College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Bikaner. The left ovary of White Leghorn showed presence of hierarchy of mature follicles where as that of Kadaknath appeared as bunch of grapes. The length, width and follicular diameter were significantly higher in White Leghorn than Kadaknath hens. No significant difference was observed in the body weight of both the breeds. The mean length and weight of oviduct was significantly higher in White Leghorn than Kadaknath hens. Magnum was the longest segment with an average length of 19.216±1.44 cm in White Leghorn and 9.145±0.63 cm in Kadaknath whereas vagina was the shortest segment with an average length of 3.233±0.24 cm in White Leghorn and 1.352±0.09 cm in Kadaknath hens.

Title: Controlled Reproduction along with Crossbreeding for Genetic Up-gradation of Non-descriptive Goats
Abstract :

The present study was aimed on the genetic improvement of non-descriptive goats through estrus synchronization and by crossbreeding with Beetal goats they were reported to be a good milker, having higher body weight and dressing percentage. AVIKESIL-S, indigenously developed progesterone intra-vaginal sponges were utilized for estrus synchronization in does maintained at livestock farm complex, Veterinary College, Hassan. Response to estrus synchronization was noticed in all the does (100%) under study, irrespective of the genetic background. Natural service was practised with three mating designs ie. G1-Beetal × Beetal, G2-Beetal × non-descriptive, G-3 non-descriptive × non-descriptive. Pregnancy test was performed with ultrasonography at 45 days post-mating. The conception rates in does of G1, G2 and G3 groups were 87.5, 87.5, and 75.0% respectively. Kidding rate were 85.7, 85.7 and 100.0% in G1, G2 and G3 groups, respectively. Litter sizes were 1.5, 1 and 1 in G1, G2 and G3 groups, respectively. Average birth weight in G1, G2 and G3 groups were 3.82±0.20, 2.82±0.12 and 2.00±0.09 kg, respectively and average daily gain in G1, G2 and G3 groups were 42.86±1.69, 33.81±1.28, and 33.57±0.87 g, respectively. Better growth performances were noticed up to 3 months of study period in G1 and G2 compared to G3 groups. It could be concluded that combined utilization of ES technology and crossbreeding in non-descriptive goats would provide superior kids for bulk marketing and ease management by avoiding dispersed kidding. Also more number of animals would be available for selection thus increasing the selection intensity their by improving the genetic improvement.

Title: In vitro Evaluation of Concentrate Mixtures containing Graded Levels of Malt Sprouts
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to assess the chemical composition and in vitro nutritional worth of concentrate mixtures containing graded levels of malt sprouts. Malt sprouts in the concentrate feed was included at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels to make five isonitrogenous concentrate mixtures. Crude protein content of concentrate mixtures varied from 19.61% to 20.32%. Ether extract content in concentrate mixtures varied from 5.33% to 5.96%. No significant difference was observed in truly degraded substrate, partitioning factor, OM digestibility, NDF digestibility, DM digestibility and ammoniacal nitrogen among the concentrate mixtures tested. However, the net gas production, short chain fatty acids and metabolizable energy were lower (P<0.05) in concentrate mixture 5 (containing 40% malt sprouts) than other concentrates evaluated. It was concluded that malt sprouts could be could be incorporated upto 30% in the concentrate mixture of ruminants without affecting nutrient digestibility, ME availability and propionate production.

Title: Studies on role of Thyroperoxidase (TPO) Enzyme in Primary Hypothyroidism Affected Dogs
Abstract :
The study was aimed to explore the role of auto antibodies against thyroperoxidase (TPO) as a causative factor of primary hypothyroidism in dogs. Dogs presented at Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, Indian Veterinary Research Institute during 2016-17, were screened for hypothyroidism on the basis of clinical signs like lethargy, thickening of skin, bilateral symmetrical alopecia and obesity. Serum and blood samples were collected for biochemical parameters, thyroid profile, TPO concentration and complete blood count. Twenty (20) dogs found positive for hypothyroidism during the study period. Adult dogs aged more than 5 years were commonly affected. Male and female dogs were equally susceptible to hypothyroidism and there was no sexual susceptibility. Clinical pathology revealed significant reduction in FT4 level, altered protein, cholesterol and lipid metabolism in affected dogs. Thyroperoxidase ELISA study showed negligible role of auto-antibodies against TPO as a causative factor of primary hypothyroidism in dogs. All the affected dogs were treated with L-thyroxine (Eltroxin)® @ 20 – 40 mcg/kg bid for life long period along with other symptomatic therapy.
Title: Tube Cystostomy in Male Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis) Suffering From Retention of Urine
Abstract :

To evaluate tube cystostomy for the management of obstructive urolithiasis, 35 buffalo calves suffering from retention of urine were randomly selected for the study. Diagnosis was made on the basis of a history of anuria, clinical signs, abdominocentesis and ultrasonographic examinations. The confirmed cases of obstructive urolithiasis were managed by surgical tube cystostomy technique with Foley’s catheter. In all the affected buffalo calves, anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics along with urine acidifiers (ammonium chloride) were given. The affected buffalo calves had higher Heart rate, Respiration rate, but normal Rectal temperature. Haemoglobin (Hb), Packed cell volume (PCV), Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, phosphorus and potassium, Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) levels were higher, whereas calcium, total plasma protein, albumin, globulin and albumin:globulin (A:G) ratio were lower than normal reference value and plasma sodium, magnesium and alkaline phosphatase values were within normal reference range. Urine analysis revealed high pH and low specific gravity. Staphylococcus spp., E.coli and Streptococcus spp .were the most common organisms isolated from the urine of affected animals, which were sensitive to cephalosporine and fluoroquinolone groups of antibiotics. The overall recovery rate was 91.42%. It may be concluded that tube cystostomy was treatment of choice and feasible method for the surgical management of obstructive urolithiasis in field conditions. The oral ammonium chloride may be beneficial for the medical dissolution of urethral calculi.

Title: Estimation of Genetic Parameters of First Lactation and Life Time Traits Using Sire Model and Animal Model in Crossbred Cattle
Abstract :

Data for the present investigation were collected from the history sheet of crossbred cattle maintained at the instructional dairy farm of G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. The data pertained to 1029 crossbred cattle from 107 sires were distributed over a period of 49 years from 1966 to 2014. The overall least-squares mean of first lactation traits viz. AFC, FLMY, FLP, FDP, and FCI was estimated to be 1198.22 ± 9.78 days, 2857.00 ±38.76 kg, 334.46±3.05 days, 119.90±3.87 days, and 488.02 ± 4.26, respectively. The lifetime milk yield and lifetime lactation length were estimated as 10554.32±244.67 kg. and 1133.79±18.91 days respectively. The sire effect was significant on all the first lactation and lifetime traits, except the first lactation period. In contrast, different genetic groups were found to have no significant influence on all the traits. The season of calving was also found non-significant influence on all the traits. The period of calving was found to have a significant influence on all the traits except the first lactation period. The heritability estimates of different first lactation traits were observed from low to high. Estimates of h2 obtained from multiple traits analysis using the animal model were higher than the sire model. The estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlations were obtained from analysis using sire and animal models, estimates obtained from both sire and animal models indicated almost the same trend.

Title: Study of Incidence of Reproductive Disorders in Murrah Buffaloes in Relation to Non- Genetic Factors through an Animal Model
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out on 459 Murrah buffaloes affected with some reproductive problem with 618 calving records (out of total 1336 Murrah buffaloes) over a period of 12 years from 2007 to 2018 at GADVASU, Ludhiana. The overall incidence of dystocia, retention of placenta (ROP), anestrus, repeat breeding (RB),postpartum abnormal discharge (PPAD) and abortion w.r.t. total number of animals were 0.9, 0.3, 3.3, 9.3, 12.3, 13.3 and 6.2%, respectively and w.r.t. affected animals were 2.8, 9.8, 27, 35.7, 38.8 and 18.1%, respectively. Parity of calving had significant effect (P<0.05) on ROP and anestrus. Season had significant (P<0.05) effect on dystocia and ROP. Period had highly significant effect (P<0.01) on dystocia, anestrus, RB and abortion while significant effect on PPAD. Results indicated that incidence of RB, PPAD and ROP increases as the animal become older. Further incidence of dystocia are higher during first and last parities whereas incidence of anestrus are more during earlier parities (in heifers). Incidence of ROP and PPAD are more during rainy season. Incidence of dystocia and anestrus are more during winter season whereas incidence of abortion are more during summer season. Overall incidence revealed a reduction in reproductive disorders in latter periods showing progressive improvement in management of reproduction problems over period.

Title: Improvement in Reproductive Performance of Boron Supplemented Karan Fries Cows During Hot and Humid Season
Abstract :

The Present investigation was conducted on eighteen pregnant Karan Fries (Holstein Friesian × Tharparker) cows and was divided into three equal groups. Control group was fed with only basal diet. T1 and T2 group was fed with basal diet along with 250 ppm and 500 ppm Boron/day from 30 days before to 60 days after calving. Temperature humidity index, reproduction parameters were calculated and analysed. There was significant (P<0.05) reduction in postpartum oestrus interval, days of first observed estrum, service period and number of services per conception and significant (P<0.05) increase in the size of dominant follicle was observed by ultrasonography. Increase in conception rate, reduced incidence of retention of placenta, postpartum metritis was noticed in boron supplemented groups. Hence supplementation of boron at both levels found to be effective in improving reproductive performance of Karan Fries cows during hot humid condition.

Title: Contents Vol. 11, No. 4, August 2021
Abstract :
Title: Genetic Diversity Studies using Microsatellite Markers to Analyse Genetic Variation among the Buffalo Breed Populations in Jammu Region
Abstract :

The microsatellites are the markers of choice for similar genetic exploration in different buffalo breeds both in India and abroad. In the present study, the molecular genetic characterization of local germplasm within and between existing buffalo population carried out using microsatellite markers with the objectives of studying the molecular characteristics of these buffaloes and to study available genetic diversity in the existing breed population. Fifty (50) and Twenty five (25) venous blood samples were collected at random from genetically unrelated animals of different sex and age groups of local buffalo gemplasm from its natural breeding tract in J&K region. The PCR products for different microsatellite loci were resolved on 6 percent denaturing (urea) polyacrylamide gels along with 50 and 100 bp DNA ladders at 40-45W. Microsatellite alleles were visualized by silver staining. The microsatellite genotype data were analyzed using POPGENE version. The genetic distance (Ds) between two breeds as calculated according to Nei’s standard genetic distance revealed Nei’s genetic identity and genetic distance to be 0.8038 and 0.2184 respectively between local buffalo population and Murrah breed which shows suggests a close relationship between Murrah and local buffaloes as expected from their geographical contiguity although they are phenotypically distinct. Present findings may be useful in characterization of genetic diversity and to develop strategies for conservation and utilization of local germplasm of J&K region, within and between existing buffalo population. The two studied buffalo population in present study has shown genetically distinctness from each other.

Title: Epidemiological Pattern of Neonatal Calf Diarrhea and a Randomized On-Field Trial to Evaluate Effectiveness of Zinc
Abstract :

Diarrhea is a major cause of mortality in neonatal calves. The objectives of this on-field trial were to study factors responsible for neonatal diarrhea and to evaluate effectiveness of zinc. Cross-bred calves of either sex aged 1 to 45 days were randomized to one of 5 treatments within 1 day of their first diarrhea onset. Calves received a daily dose of zinc @ 2 or 4 mg/kg BW along with zinc-free oral rehydration solution (ORS) either alone or in combination with sulphamethaxozole and trimethoprim @ 20 mg/kg BW till resolution of clinical signs. Fecal and blood samples were collected upon enrolment and exit and analysed for microbiological and parasitological parameters, and trace elements. The study revealed high (80 %) diarrhea occurrence in spring season; more in calves aged less than 30 days (Odds Ratio = 6.000); more in male (63 %) than female (37%) calves. The association between body weight and diarrhea was strong (Odds Ratio = 6.4167). Comparison of epidemiological parameters revealed no significant difference between healthy and diseased calves. E. coli was isolated from all enrolled subjects but was not considered causal. Salmonella was isolated from 2 cases only. None was found Cryptosporidium positive on coprological examination. Diarrheic calves showed relatively low plasma zinc concentration and high fecal coliform count compared to controls. Calves treated with zinc either @ 2 or 4 mg/kg BW alone or together with antimicrobial took significantly (P<0.05) less number of days for clinical recovery. The results endorsed zinc as a viable non-antimicrobial alternative.

Title: Factors Associated with the Occurrence of Canine Parvoviral Enteritis in Dogs
Abstract :

A prospective study was conducted to identify the risk factors associated with the incidence of Canine Parvoviral Enteritis (CPE) in dogs. Total of 120 animals screened using PCR assay, 72.50 percentage of animal were found positive for Canine Parvo Virus (CPV). Incidence in history of unvaccinated and vaccinated dogs was 79.69 and 64.29 per cent respectively. Age-wise predisposition of CPE indicated that the highest incidence was observed in both less than 3 months (78.08 %) and 3 to 6 months of age group (77.42 %) followed by 6 to 12 months of age group (34.50 %). Incidence of CPE in scheduled and unscheduled vaccination was 30.00 and 83.33 per cent respectively. In this study, unvaccinated status, unscheduled vaccination and young age groups are found to be significant risk factors associated with the occurrence of CPE.

Title: Comparative Evaluation of Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus of Livestock Origin for Antibiotic Sensitivity, Biofilm Formation and Virulence in Galleria mellonella
Abstract :

The objectives of the study were to isolate and identify livestock associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) and methicillin sensitive S. aureus (LA-MSSA) from clinical mastitis cases and to compare their antibiotic susceptibility, biofilm formation and in vivo pathogenicity in Galleria mellonella larva model. A total of 60 milk samples were collected from cows suffering from mastitis and processed for isolation and identification of S. aureus using standard conventional methods. All the recovered S. aureas isolates were subjected for detection of MRSA and/or MSSA employing phenotypic (Cefoxitin disc assay) and genotypic (the mecA gene PCR) assays. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of LA-MRSA and LA-MSSA test isolates was determined using disc diffusion method, biofilm formation by 96 well microtiter plate assay and pathogenicity testing in G. mellonella larvae. On microbiological, biochemical and PCR analyses, 14 S. aureus isolates were confirmed. Of these, 4 were tested as LA-MRSA and the remaining 10 isolates were LA-MSSA. Comparative evaluation suggested that MRSA isolates were resistant to different classes of antibiotics and were equally lethal to G. mellonella larvae. However, bioflim forming ability was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the MSSA test isolates. An association of biofilm formation and pahogenicity testing was not observed between LA-MRSA and LA-MSSA test isolates. Further, LA-MRSA were resistant to different classes of antibiotic and were more lethal to G. mellonella larvae. These preliminary observations are of great concern as the LA-MRSA infections in the community have been documented and warrant in depth research for such pathogens.

Title: Efficacy of Area Specific Mineral Mixture and Vitamin AD3E Supplementation on Milk Production Performance of Dairy Cattle
Abstract :
The present study was carried out to assess the effect of Area specific mineral mixture (ASMM) and Vitamin AD3E supplementation on milk production and composition of dairy cattle’s in Betul district of Madhya Pradesh. A total of thirty lactating dairy cattle (n=30) were divided into three groups (10 milch cows/group) viz., control, Treatment 1 and Treatment 2. Animals from control group were not supplemented any vitamin or minerals, animals from treatment group T1 were fed Vitamin AD3E only @5 grams/animal/day, while animal from T2 group were fed with Vitamin AD3E @5 grams/animal/day and area specific mineral mixture @ 100 grams/animal/day for a period of 100 days. Basal diet was same for all treatments. Milk yield of these animals were recorded by their owners and these values were averaged for 0-100 day’s interval. Milk components such as milk fat and milk solids not fat (SNF) were also evaluated from milk samples collected daily and economy of the each treatment calculated. Area specific mineral mixture along with Vitamin AD3E supplemented animals showed significant increase in milk yield, Fat% and SNF% as compared to only Vitamin supplemented and Control group of animals. Also benefit cost ratio of milk production was also found significantly higher (p<0.05) in ASMM and Vitamin supplemented dairy animals as compared to only Vitamin supplemented and control group.
Title: Isolation, plasmid profiling and antibiogram of Salmonella from poultry meat and environmental sources
Abstract :
Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and its prevalence in the animals acts as a continuous threat to man. The present study was carried out to report the isolation along with the serotypes, phage types and antibiogram pattern of Salmonella among poultry meat and environmental sources in the India. A total of two hundred samples from poultry meat (100), poultry feaces (100) were processed for the isolation of Salmonella. All the isolates were subjected to antibiogram studies against 16 antimicrobials. Representative isolates of isolated Salmonella were phage typed. Out of two hundred samples only three (one poultry meat and two poultry feaces) were positive for Salmonella. The confirmed isolates were subjected to serotyping at National Salmonella Centre (Vet), India. The results indicated that S. Rough was found in poultry meat and S. Typhimurium and S.Berta was found in poultry feaces. A plasmid of 21 kb was consistence in all the isolates. All the isolates obtained in the present study were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing against 16 different antibiotics employing disk
diffusion technique in which ampicillin and sulphafurazole showed 100%
resistance in comparison to furazolidone. On the other hand all isolates were
sensitive to nalidixic acid. Highest level of antimicrobial resistance was recorded for isolates from poultry feaces. Fifty percent or more resistance was observed among these isolates for as many as 5 antimicrobials including sulphafurazole (100%), colistin (100%), ampicillin (100%), co-trimaxazole (50%) and furazolidone (50%).
Title: Inclusion of Antioxidants in Ovsynch Protocol for Improving Fertility in Pubertal Anestrus Buffalo Heifers
Abstract :

Present work was carried out to study the effect of hormonal regimens, together with vitamin E and selenium on estrus induction and fertility response in pubertal anestrus buffalo heifers. A total of 24 buffalo heifers were selected and equally divided into two groups. Heifers in Group I were treated with Ovsynch protocol, whereas Group II heifers were treated with Ovsynch plus antioxidants (Vitamin E and Selenium) at a dosage rate of 1 ml/50 kg body weight. In both treatment groups, the response to estrus induction was 100 per cent. Time required for onset of estrus ranged between 40 to 65 and 40 to 62 hrs. with an average of 50.17±2.66 and 47.83±1.92 hrs. In Group I and Group II, the duration of estrus was 21.42±0.62 hours and 22.17±0.66 hours, respectively. Intensity of estrus was Intense, intermediate and weak in group I as 33.33, 41.66 and 25.00 per cent, while in group II as 41.66, 50.00 and 8.33 per cent, respectively. First service conception rate in group I treated with Ovsynch protocol was 33.33% and in group II treated with Ovsynch protocol along with antioxidant was 41.66% and similarly overall pregnancy rate in group I and II was 58.33% and 66.66% respectively.

Title: Comparison of Four Growth Curve Models for Fortnightly Body Weights in Japanese Quail
Abstract :
The growth curve parameters of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) help in developing breeding strategies by modifying the management practices and can be useful in pre-selection of the birds as it provides prediction of future growth at any age. The study was conducted on fortnightly body weights of 681 black and 565 white plumage Japanese Quails. Four growth curve models viz. Gompertz, Von Bertalanffy, Richard’s and Logistic functions were fitted to the body weights for estimation of the curve parameters and identification of the best function based on root mean squares error (RMSE) values. The parameter estimates viz. asymptotic (mature) weight, scaling parameter, maturing rate and shape parameter were ranging from 189.34-217.20, 0.92-15.86, 0.35-0.68 and 0.55-0.73, respectively. The RMSE values were 3.12, 4.50, 1.77 and 2.21 g for overall data; 3.48, 4.62, 2.14 and 2.28 g for male quails; 3.58, 5.00, 2.48 and 2.97 g for female ones; 3.83, 4.88, 3.03 and 3.27 g for black quails; and 3.08, 4.63, 2.65 and 1.87 g for white quails; respectively using these functions. Richards function was the best fit for overall, male, female and black categories of observations whereas Logistic function had the better fit for white quails than Richards function.
Title: Pathology of Hepato-renal Disorder due to Non-infectious Etiology in Swine
Abstract :

An investigation was carried out during the period from the month of April 2017 to March 2018 to study the non-infectious pathological conditions of liver and kidneys of pigs in and around Guwahati city. A total of 29 cases of non-infectious pathological condition of the liver and kidneys were recorded out of 53 necropsied pigs. The samples were collected for both histopathology as well as for bacterial isolation. Gross and histopathological studies revealed variable histopathological changes such as congestion, haemorrhage, fatty changes and necrosis (Centrilobular and panlobular) in the liver. Kidneys showed haemorrhages, nephrosis, fatty changes, necrosis, atrophy of glomeruli.

Title: Effect of Different Rearing Systems on Heamato-biochemical Parameters of Kadaknath Chicken
Abstract :

Kadaknath is an important chicken breed of India. It is also known as Kalamashi due to its black-colored meat. The present study was planned to investigate the effect of different rearing systems i.e. intensive, backyard and scavenging system on heamato-biochemical parameters of Kadaknath. The experiment was conducted in the Department of Livestock Production and Management, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry and Amilki village in Rewa (M.P.). Day old 90 male chicks reared under electrical brooder up to 15 days of age were randomly distributed in equal number into intensive, backyard and scavenging rearing systems where they kept for 98 days. Heamatological studies revealed that the mean value of RBC, Hb, PCV, MCHC was significantly (p<0.05) higher in intensive system. The enhanced heamatological profile in intensive rearing system may be due to consumption of some bioactive nutrients in the feed supplements. Mean value of WBC, and DLC was significantly (p<0.05) higher in scavenging system, which indicated more chances of subclinical infections in scavenging system followed by backyard and intensive system. The mean value of glucose (mg/dl), total protein (g/dl), albumin (g/dl) and albumin globulin ratio, SGOT (IU/L), SGPT (IU/L), cholesterol (mg/dl), creatinine (mg/dl), bilirubin (mg/dl), blood urea nitrogen (mg/dl) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in intensive system. All these variations in biochemical parameters in Kadaknath birds may be due to the effect of different rearing systems and their feed habits.

Title: Seroprevalence of Leptospirosis in Dairy Cows with Reproductive Disorders
Abstract :
The present investigation was carried out to study the prevalence of leptospirosis in dairy cows with reproductive disorders in and around Kamrup district of Assam. A total of 130 sera collected from dairy cows with reproductive disorders in different localities of Assam were screened for leptospirosis by MAT. The seroprevalence of leptospirosis in dairy cows with reproductive disorders was found to be 14.62 per cent. Twelve Leptospira antigen serovars: L. Australis, L. Autumnalis, L. Ballum, L. Bataviae, L. Canicola, L. Grippotyphosa, L. Hebdomedis, L. Pomona, L. Pyrogenes, L. Sejroe, L. Icterohaemorrhagaie, and L. Javanica were used, to screen for leptospirosis. Leptospira antibodies were detected in four serovars: Australis, Autumnalis, Ballum and Bataviae. Australis was found to be the most circulating serovar with 47.37 per cent. The reproductive disorders reported in the present study were: repeat breeding 41 (31.54%), abortion 34 (26.15%), endometritis 25 (19.23%), post-partum anoestrus 14 (10.77%), dystocia 5 (3.85%), retention of foetal membrane 4 (3.07%), anovulation 2 (1.53%), uterine prolapse 2 (1.53%), silent oestrus 2 (1.53%) and cystic ovaries 1 (0.77%). Repeat breeding was found to be the most prevalent reproductive disorder (31.54%) followed by cases of abortion (26.15%) in different localities of Assam.
Title: Diagnosing Subclinical Endometritis in Postpartum Murrah Buffaloes Using Cytobrush Technique
Abstract :
A total of 150 postpartum (28 to 45 days) apparently healthy buffalo with normal calving history and free from peripartum disorders from college livestock farm and organized dairy farms in and around Jabalpur were screened. After recording history all the animals were subjected to gynaeco-clinical examination, White side test and endometrial cytology by cytobrush technique. On the basis of polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) percentage the animals were divided into different groups of normal, clinical and sub-clinical endometritic buffaloes. Endometrial cytology by cytobrush technique in different groups (normal, clinical and sub-clinical endometritic buffaloes) revealed PMN percentage to be 4.34±1.85, 35.35±3.43 and 21.17±0.45%, respectively. The difference between the groups was signifi cant (p<0.05). Fibroblasts count was recorded as 0.20±0.09 and 12.33±1.61% in subclinical
and clinical endometritic buffaloes while fi broblasts were not observed in endometrial smears of normal buffaloes. The difference was signifi cant (p<0.05) between the groups. It was concluded that endometrial cytology by cytobrush technique was easy and accurate method to diagnose subclinical endometritis in postpartum Murrah buffaloes.
Title: Development of Protocol for Production of Primary Antibody against Ovalbumin Protein in Chicken for Detection of the Protein through Western Blotting
Abstract :

Ovalbumin, a major protein of egg white plays many roles including providing nutrition to the developing embryo, acting as coagulating agent, folliculogenesis and angiogenesis in chicken and other animals. This protein is expressed mainly in magnum and then deposited over the yolk of the oocyte/zygote. Hence, it is important in formation of egg and is an essential target to measure. We cloned chicken ovalbumin CDS in pAcGFP-C1 vector and has been initially expressed in chicken primary magnum cell culture. The ovalbumin protein tagged with 6x Histidine was purified from cell culture and used for production of primary antibody in rat. The ovalbumin protein along with freund’s adjuvant was injected to the rat, booster was given, and finally, hyper-immune sera was collected from rat. The antisera was purified for isolation of IgG. The IgG was used as primary antibody for Western blotting. Through Western blotting, ovalbumin protein isolated from chicken magnum was detected and the protocol was established to detect chicken ovalbumin protein.

Title: Studies on Pulsed-wave Doppler Echocardiography in Small Breed Dogs
Abstract :

The study aims to evaluate and find the correlation of age and body weight of pulse wave Doppler echocardiographic indices of mitral velocity, tricuspid velocity, pulmonary and aortic velocity in 13 apparently healthy small breed dogs aged 1 to 9 years and weighing 6.5 to 15 kg were subjected to pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography examination. Except for a positive correlation with age by Mitral peak A velocity and a positive correlation with body weight by Mitral E/A ratio, all other parameters are negatively correlated with age and body weight. The findings can be used to further determine the pathophysiological affections in future studies on small breed dogs.

Title: Emerging role of statins in tissue engineering and therapeutics —A review
Abstract :
Statins are a group of secondary metabolites secreted by several microorganisms as a defense mechanism. They inhibit hydroxymethyl glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMGCoA) reductase enzyme in the cholesterol synthesis pathway and are an acceptable therapy for hyperlipidemia in human. More recently, however, statins have been shown to have multiple effects, called pleotropic effects, which are independent of their cholesterol-inhibiting action. In somatic and stem cells, statins influences the cellular proliferation, survival, differentiation, regeneration and repair which can be harnessed in ex vivo systems for cell expansion and/or differentiation of somatic and stem cells. Incorporation of statins in the biomaterials for scaffold production has improved the cell attachment and directed differentiation of stem
cells into target cells to enhance the functionality of the tissue engineered construct.
Thus, statins have generated a fresh impetus in its use in tissue engineering,
regenerative medicine and therapeutics. This review discusses the sources, mode of action and emerging roles of statins in tissue engineering and therapeutics.
Title: Effects of Split Weaning on the Performance of Hampshire Piglets
Abstract :
The investigation was carried out under the Department of Livestock Production and Management, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati-22. Forty eight piglets of Hampshire pig of three weaning age groups from six sows, considering an average litter size of 8 were selected for the experiment. Two groups (Group I and II) werem split weaned at 28th and 35th days of age where 50 per cent of higher body weight piglets of the litter were separated and rest 50 per cent were kept with mother up to 56 days of conventional weaning. Another litter was weaned as conventional weaning age, 56 days (Group III). After weaning, the piglets were reared up to 75 days for studying of post weaning effect. The average body weight gain and total body weight was found to be higher in Group II and was found significantly higher followed by Group III and Group I while, the corresponding results was also observed in respect to the average daily, total and final body weight gain. In regards to the average total feed consumption, feed consumption by per piglet, feed consumption by per piglet per day and total feed consumed till end of the experiment period was more or less equal; the feed conversion efficiency was found to be comparatively higher in Group II than Group I and III.
Title: Qualitative Assessment of Concentrate Feeds of Dairy Animals for Indore District of Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :
A survey of feeding practices among dairy animals of Indore District of Madhya Pradesh (MP) was conducted in all four tehsil of Indore District. Along with collection of common concentrate feeds being used in the area was done to assess their quality. It was indicated that majority of farmers were feeding wheat straw as roughage and cotton seed cake (CSC), wheat bran (WB) and compounded feeds as concentrate without supply of greens. Collection of 30 samples was done randomly for each feed from farmers, market dealers and feed manufactures and analyzed for proximate principals, acid insoluble ash (AIA), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). The samples of CSC, WB and compounded feeds having nutritive value below their required specifications (BIS) especially in case of unbranded samples, while the branded once were almost within their expectations except the amount of total ash and crude fiber (CF), which remained higher then recommended. The unbranded samples of these feeds were usually lower in protein and high in CF and especially the compounded feeds were very high in total ash and AIA remains indicative of adulterations. Hence, BIS have to tack strict initiatives to control the quality of concentrate feeds and among them complete feed requires special attention to be paid.
Title: Clinico-pathological Studies on Atopic Dermatitis in Dogs
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to record the clinico-haematological, biochemical and serological changes in atopic dermatitis in canines amongst the various dermatoses cases presented at the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, GADVASU, Ludhiana. Fifty two atopic dermatitis affected dogs were enrolled in the study with chief complaint of intense pruritus, erythema and alopecia. Prevalence of atopy among various dermatoses was 27.90% which mainly occurred during monsoon. Labrador, Toy breeds and German Shephard of 1-3 years of age were affected more. Dogs suffering from atopic dermatitis showed pruritus (100%), erythema (82.69%), alopecia (75.00%), hyperpigmentation (36.00%), scales/crusts (25.00%), lichenification (21.15%) and excoriation (19.60%). The lesions in atopic dermatitis were mainly located at groin (88.40%), abdomen (78.80%), neck (76.90%), perioccular region (75.00%), axilla (71.10%), muzzle and paws (69.20%), ear pinna (67.30%), limbs (48.07%) and tail (7.60%). Haematobiochemical study revealed significant changes in TLC, neutrophilia, eosinophilia and total protein. Serological estimation revealed significant increase in levels of IgE in the serum of atopic dogs.

Title: In vitro Evaluation of Concentrate Mixtures containing Graded Levels of Cottonseed Meal in Buffalo Inoculum
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to assess the chemical composition and in vitro nutritional worth of concentrate mixtures containing graded levels of cottonseed meal (CSM) at 0, 3.75, 7.50, 11.25 and 15% replacing SBM @ 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% on w/w basis replacing soybean meal (SBM) in buffalo inoculum. Crude protein content of concentrate mixtures varied from 20.07% to 20.95%. Ether extract content in concentrate mixtures varied from 5.26% to 5.64%. No significant difference was observed in net gas production, partitioning factor, OM digestibility, NDF digestibility, microbial mass production, efficiency of microbial mass production, short chain fatty acids and metabolizable energy among the concentrate mixtures. The ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N, mg/dl) was higher (P<0.05) in concentrate mixture 1 (34.00) and lower (P<0.05) in concentrate mixture 5 (27.00) than other concentrates evaluated. The total volatile fatty acid production, hydrogen recovery and hydrogen consumed via CH4 was similar among the concentrate mixtures evaluated. No significant difference was observed in VFA utilization index among the concentrate mixtures. It was concluded that soybean meal could be replaced by CSM up to 100% in the diet of ruminants without affecting the nutrient digestibility and microbial mass production.

Title: Factors Influencing Early Layer Economic Traits in Rhode Island Red Chick
Abstract :
Rhode Island Red (RIR) chicken is a brown-egger chicken. At Central Avian Research Institute, it is being used to develop strains viz. selected (RIRS) control (RIRC) and white (RIRW) for backyard poultry farming. Investigation was carried out to assess the influence of various factors on early layer economic traits in Rhode Island Red
chicken. Two hundred eighty six straight run chicks were obtained from 11 sires and 44 dams in four hatches. Early layer production traits viz., chick weight (CW), body weights at 16 and 20 weeks of age (BW16 and BW20), age at first egg (AFE), egg weight at 28 weeks (EW28) and part period egg production up to 28 weeks of
age (EP28)were recorded. Percent fertility and percent hatchability on total egg set and total egg transferred basis were 76.98, 61.44 and 79.85%, respectively. Least squares ANOVA revealed highly significant effect ( p<0.01) of hatch on BW20, EP28 and effect of sire on chick weight and significant effect of sire ( p<0.05) on BW16. The overall least squares means of CW, BW16, BW20, AFE, EW28 and EP28 were 34.50±0.47g, 1294.27±24.38g, 1562.32±25.65g, 136.79±1.52 days, 43.52± 0.76 g and 31.54±1.68 eggs, respectively. The pullets of first hatch revealed highest BW20 (1732.76±43.70 g) and EP28 (42.85±2.55 eggs). Present investigation revealed influence of sire and hatch on early layer economic traits and thereby suggested consideration of their role in planning breeding programmes for improvement of layers for economic traits in RIR.
Title: Effect of Multi-strain Probiotic Feed Supplement on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Commercial Broiler Chickens
Abstract :

Probiotics are the best feed additives used in poultry to establish beneficial gut microflora by maintaining normal intestinal microflora by competitive exclusion antagonism. Three hundred and fifty day old commercial broiler chicks randomly allotted to 7 treatments with 10 replicates containing 5 chicks in each replicate and reared for 42 days. The treatments consist of corn-soya and fish meal-based control diet, control diet supplemented with antibiotic (Bacitracin methylene disalicylate, @500 g/ton) and probiotic at 100, 200, 400, 600 & 800 g/ ton diet. Fish meal (4%) was included in the diets as microbial challenge so as to assess the efficacy of the probiotic supplement. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly (P<0.05) improved in birds fed on diets supplemented with probiotic at 200 g/ton and higher levels compared with the control. The overall feed consumption was significantly (P<0.05) lower in birds fed on control diet when compared to other treatment groups except the diets supplemented with probiotic 100 g/ton. There were no effects on carcass traits but the percent breast yield (%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in birds fed diets with probiotics at 400, 600 and 800 g/ton. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in dry matter (DM) and protein retention between the treatments. Hence, it can be concluded that probiotic at 400 g/ton may be supplemented as an alternative to antibiotic for improving performance of broiler chicken.

Title: Effect of Shelter Management on Lactating Crossbred Cows During Summer Under the Agro-Climatic Condition of Konkan Region of India
Abstract :An experiment was carried out on nine lactating crossbred cows (Jersey x local) were randomly allotted into three housing system in switch over design. The treatments were asbestos (T1) roofing, paddy straw thatched roof (T2) white painted asbestos roof (T3) during hot and humid season of Konkan. The variation in rectal temperature, respiration rate and pulse rate was recorded in the morning and evening through out the experiment. Temperature humidity index was more in microenvironment of thatched roof shed followed by white painted asbestos roof and asbestos roofing. Milk samples collected from experimental cows were analyzed for milk constituents. The use of paddy straw thatched roof shed significantly (P<0.05) reduced rectal temperature, pulse rate and respiration rate of cows. Thatched roof shed had significantly (P<0.05) incremental effect on the milk yield and milk composition of cows than the cows in white painted roof shed and asbestos roof shedding. The study revealed that paddy straw thatched roof shed effectively improves environmental temperature, humidity and during summer in the agro-climatic conditions of Konkan region of India.
Title: Survey and Performance Evaluation of Malpura Sheep in Farmers’ Flocks of its Native Tract
Abstract :

Data on growth, wool and milk yield of Malpura sheep maintained under farmers’ flocks in its native tract were recorded and analyzed. In breeding tract of Malpura sheep, more than 80 percent farmer’s family members were found illiterate. The average weight of adult rams was 49.17 ± 0.53 kg and of the lactating ewes was 34.36 ± 0.18 kg. Location significantly affected body height in the all age groups, while for other traits an erratic trend was noticed. The least squares means of body weight at weaning and hoggets stage were 13.09 ± 0.15 and 22.55 ± 0.34 kg, respectively. The wool yield of animal was higher (P<0.01) in March clip (755 g) followed by that in September – October (481 g) and was lowest in July (444 g). The week of lactation significantly affected (P<0.01) daily milk yield and maximum milk yield was in 4th week of lactation. The overall performance of Malpura in farmers’ flock was found satisfactory under prevailing harsh climatic conditions of semi-arid tropics.

Title: Effect of Complete Feed or Ggrazing with Supplementation on Ggrowth and Carcass Characteristics in Nellore Ram Lambs
Abstract :An on farm trial was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore ram lambs fed either complete feed or grazing with supplementation. One hundred Nellore ram lambs were randomly divided into two equal groups viz. G1 and G2 and the experiment was lasted for 120 days. The G1 lambs were maintained on conventional grazing for 6-8 h/d and supplemented with 200 g concentrate /animal/day, while the G2 lambs were fed complete feed comprising of black gram straw and concentrate mixture (60:40 ratio) intensively. Average daily gain was higher (P <0.01) in G2 lambs (93.85 g) than in G1 lambs (80.24 g). Feed efficiency (kg feed/kg gain) was higher (P <0.01) in G2 lambs compared to G1 lambs. The pre-slaughter, empty body and hot carcass weight of lambs was similar in both groups. Dressing percentage on live weight and empty body weight was significantly (P <0.01) higher in lambs fed complete feed compared to grazing lambs. Dissected lean content was significantly (P <0.01) higher, whereas bone content was significantly (P <0.05) lower in G2 lambs compared to G1 lambs. The per cent distribution of primal cuts i.e. leg, loin, rack and fore shank and brisket was higher (P <0.01) in the G2 lambs compared to G1 lambs, while shoulder and neck were lower (P <0.01) in G2 lambs. It is concluded that the complete feed comprising of black gram straw improved growth, feed efficiency and production of quality meat economically in Nellore ram lambs.
Title: Effect of Azolla Supplementation on Production Performance of Narmadanidhi Birds
Abstract :

The present work was carried out in the Department of Livestock Production Management, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Rewa to study the production performance of Narmadanidhi birds under Azolla supplemented diet on day old chicks. In this study 72 straight run chicks were divided into three groups, comprising three replicates and eight birds in each replicate. The birds of the control group (T1) was fed a basal diet while the other groups (T2) and (T3) was fed 5% and 10% of basal diet replaced by sun dried Azolla powder on DM basis. The birds were reared up to the attainment of market weight (1.0 kg live body weight). Body weight shows significant differences in different groups. Highest body weight was observed in group 2 which was supplemented with 5% Azolla in the diet. Growth rate data in the experimental birds clearly indicated that there was highly significant difference between the groups. The feed intake values revealed significantly lower in both the Azolla fed groups compared to the control group. The Overall FCR was significantly better in T2 group as compared T1 and T3 groups. The study will help to reduce feeding cost and improve the livelihood of rural farmers as additional income source.

Title: Study of Different Risk Factors for Canine Parvovirus infection by Haemagglutination Assay
Abstract :

Haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in canine is caused by different etiological agents like canine parvovirus, E.coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Coccidia and Giardia, among these agents canine parvovirus is the most important. Canine parvovirus binds to the sialic acid receptors which are present on the RBC’s, so haemagglutination test is used to detect canine parvovirus. In this study a total (n=102) of faecal samples from canines having haemorrhagic gastroenteritis were taken. All the 102 samples were subjected to haemagglutination assay and the prevalence of CPV was studied. Host associated risk factors like age, sex, breed, vaccination and seasons responsible for occurrence of canine parvovirus infection are recorded. Out of the 102 samples haemagglutination assay detected 41 samples as positive and a percent positivity of (40.19%) was recorded by this diagnostic test. Age wise prevalence was (69.23%) in (0-6 month) age group which is more than (7-12 month) (13.33%) and more than a year group (5%). Sex wise prevalence was more in males (47.94%) than in females (20.78%). Breed wise prevalence was more in Labrador (78.57%) followed by Doberman Pinscher (62.50%) lower prevalence was reported in Pomerarian and German shephered breeds. Non vaccinated canines showed a high prevalence of (42.70%) and in vaccinated canines no disease prevalence was detected. In the season wise prevalence, spring season showed more prevalence (54.76%) followed by summer season which showed (37.5%) prevalence and the least prevalence of (11.11%) was recorded in the winter season. Study showed that Haemagglutination assay is a good diagnostic test for the study of canine parvovirus where modern facilities of molecular diagnosis and the costly faecal ELISA test kits are not available.

Title: Proximates Composition, Physiochemical Properties of Dogs Food and Nutritional Practices Adopted by Dog Owners in Central Punjab
Abstract :

This research was conducted to study the nutritional practices adopted by the dog owners in the Central Punjab. 50 dog feed samples were collected from various part of Central Punjab, which includes Patiala, Fatehgarh Sahib, Ludhiana, Moga, Jalandhar, Tarn-Taran and Amritsar. Moreover, 491 dog owners were randomly selected and interviewed directly by visiting houses and polyclinics from Central Punjab. The appraisal of data revealed that, 42% of population offer homemade feed, 6% population offer exclusively commercial feed and 52% of the population offer both homemade and commercial feed to their pets. 28% of the population of the Central Punjab feed only vegetarian diet to their dogs while 72% of the population offer mixed feed. 95% of the population feed chapatti to their dogs however, only 33% of the dog owners feed rice to pets. Milk is offered by 84% dog owners to their pets. Nutrient composition of feed samples indicated that 24% of feed samples were in range of 18-22% protein, 94% of the feed samples were having less than 5% fat and 66% of feed samples were having fibre less than 3.5%. The pH value was less than 4.0. Based on the data available, it is clearly indicated that feeding practices followed by the dog owners in Central Punjab closely followed the trend of food consumed by the dog owners. 60% of the feed samples were found not to fulfill the overall nutrient requirement of dogs. The microbial parameters were well below the prescribed limits.

Title: Milk Production Function and Resource use Efficiency in Rajasthan
Abstract :

The study was undertaken in Rajasthan with the objective to examine the input-output relationships and assess the resource use efficiency in milk production. The study covered 60 dairy households. The results of Cobb-Douglas production function revealed that concentrate had positive and significant influence on returns from buffalo, crossbred cow and local cow milk. Green fodder and labour were also significantly influenced the returns from buffalo, crossbred and local cow. The results of resource use efficiency and marginal value productivity of inputs indicated that inputs were not optimally utilized by dairy households. The green fodder, dry fodder, concentrate and labour in buffalo, concentrate and labour crossbred cow milk production and green fodder in local cow milk production were found to be over utilized in study area resulting higher per litre cost of milk production on these species.

Title: Effect of Feeding Cow Urine Ark and Aloe Vera on Performance and Carcass Traits of Broilers
Abstract :
A study was carried out to find the effect of feeding Cow urine ark and Aloe vera extract on performance and carcass traits of broilers. For Performance Quality, Body Weight of birds were weighed on weekly basis till 6 weeks of age. Weight gain in different groups of broilers was calculated on weekly basis. Evaluation of Feed Intake was done on the basis of feed offered and left over feed recorded at the end of that week.Feed efficiency ratio (FER) and Performance index (PI) were also calculated.To study the carcass traits, two broilers in each replicate were slaughtered on termination of experiment. For Organ weight percentage various visceral organs like liver, heart gizzard and giblet were weighed.Carcass yield percentage were evaluated by recording dressed weight and eviscerated weight. Aloe vera extract causes significant increase in body weight gain, feed consumption, FER and performance index of broilers.Significant increase was also reported in carcass trait of bird
Title: Efficacy of Arteether Against Theileriosis in Cattle
Abstract :

The present study was done with the objective of comparative efficacy of arteether and buparvaquone against theileriosis in cattle. Total 67 cattle suspected for theileriosis were screened on the basis of clinical and blood smear examination. Group I (n=6) was treated with Inj. buparvaquone @ 2.5 mg/kg body weight once and Group II (n=6) was treated with Inj. arteether @5 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly for three consecutive days. Rectal temperature, heart rate and respiration rate were significantly increased before treatment and in both the groups after treatment showed significant improvement. Haematological parameters showed significant decreased in Hb, PCV, TEC, TLC and neutrophil and significant increase in lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophil. Non significant difference in basophil count was observed. After treatment, significant improvement was observed in mean hemoglobin, PCV, TEC, TLC, neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil. Non significant improvement was observed in monocyte and basophil count. Present study revealed percent efficacy of arteether was 66.66% and buparvaquone 100%.

Title: Storage Quality and Oxidative Stability Attributes of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) Seed Powder fortified Ghee Residue Burfi
Abstract :

Ghee residue is one of the important by-products of the dairy industry, the potential of which has not been commercialised and is otherwise discarded, which leads to loss of many nutrients, anti-oxidants and flavour compounds. Recognizing its vital importance, the present study was carried out to standardize the formulation and to evaluate the acceptability of the burfi. Initially, burfi was prepared by incorporating ghee residue in the proportion of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by replacing respective proportions of khoa from which 40% ghee residue and 60% khoa was optimised in the formulation. Further, different levels of gram flour (3%, 6% and 9%) were tried in the formulation of ghee residue burfi. Based on sensory parameters, optimum level of gram flour was found to be 3%. The addition of gram flour enhanced the textural attributes of the product. Further, jackfruit seed powder (JSP) was added at 1%, 2% and 3% and shelf-life studies were undertaken. The various levels of JSP non significantly decreased the pH, TBARS and FFA content of the burfi samples. An increase in the most of sensory parameters was seen at 3% of gram flour. The total phenol and total flavonoid content were found to be in the range of (1.71-3.34 mg/g GAE) and (0.46-6.12 mg/g Quercetin) respectively. The shelf-life of the products were reported to be 15 days without any marked loss of physico-chemical, microbial and sensory quality. Considering the nutritional content of the product, it shall prove to be beneficial in providing energy and protein content to the malnourished section of the society.

Title: Supplementation of Phyllanthus amarus and Cuminum cyminum Hasten Vaccinal Antibody Response against Newcastle Disease Virus and Increases Gut Absorptive Surface in Backyard Poultry
Abstract :

Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease that causes devastating effects in the economy of backyard poultry farmers. Even though, vaccination is highly effective in controlling the disease, the protective antibody titres can only be achieved after second dose of ND vaccine at 3-4 weeks of age. Certain herbs have immune-stimulant property, thus supplementation of herbs can help the chicks to attain the protective antibody titres earlier. In the present study, chicks were fed with Phyllanthus amarus as whole plant along with Cuminum cyminum (seeds) water to hasten the production of antibodies to ND vaccines. Humoral immune responses were assessed in terms of haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers. Morphometric analysis small intestinal villi were performed to assess the impact of herbal supplements on gut health. Our results showed that birds supplemented with herbs mounted a better immune response to ND vaccines. Birds received herbs attained HI titres ≥log24 as early as 7 days after the primary vaccination (P<0.001) and continued to have protective antibody titres until 60 days-of-hatch. Intestinal morphometry revealed that herbal supplementation significantly improved the length of villi in duodenum (P<0.01) and jejunal portions of small intestine. In conclusion, we suggest that feeding of P. amarus and C. cyminum aids birds to elicit better and earlier protective immune response against ND and improve gut health of backyard poultry.

Title: Differential Expression Profile of TGFβ2 in Immune and Visceral Organs of ggamiR-142-3p Knockdown Chicken Embryo
Abstract :
Differential expression of gga-miR-142-3p microRNA of haemopoeitic origin during immune organ development and functional stages in chicken embryos opens the new avenue towards understanding its pivotal role during embryonic developmental stages. To decipher the role of gga-miR-142-3p, in-ovo knockdown was carried out with locked nucleic acid (LNA) modifi ed antimiR- gga-miR-142-3p via, intravenous route at developmental and functional stages of these immune organ and visceral organs. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that predicted gene TGFβ2 have conserved binding sites at 3’UTR for gga-miR-142-3p which is involved in immune response and signal transduction during the embryonic developmental stage in the chicken embryos. TGFβ2 was evaluated as validate targets of gga-miR-142-3p by employing qPCR SYBR green based technology which was evidenced by aberrant expression of targeted gene, which could alter the postnatal development and functions of these immune organs and may lead to immune compromised chickens.
Title: Apocrine Secretory Adenoma in a 2.5 year Old Male Great Dane Dog
Abstract :
Apocrine glands are the major type of sweat gland in dogs, and distribution of
eccrine sweat glands is limited to footpad (Goldschmidt and Shofer, 1992). Apocrine sweat gland tumors are rather common in dogs and tend to occur on the head, neck and limbs. The Golden Retriever is a breed that shows a predisposition to such tumors (Kalaher et al., 1990). The tumor was greatly resembles its human counterpart and originate in the secretory part of eccrine sweat glands (Nibe et al., 2005).
Title: Supplementation of Phyllanthus amarus and Cuminum cyminum Hasten Vaccinal Antibody Response against Newcastle Disease Virus and Increases Gut Absorptive Surface in Backyard Poultry
Abstract :

Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease that causes devastating effects in the economy of backyard poultry farmers. Even though, vaccination is highly effective in controlling the disease, the protective antibody titres can only be achieved after second dose of ND vaccine at 3-4 weeks of age. Certain herbs have immune-stimulant property, thus supplementation of herbs can help the chicks to attain the protective antibody titres earlier. In the present study, chicks were fed with Phyllanthus amarus as whole plant along with Cuminum cyminum (seeds) water to hasten the production of antibodies to ND vaccines. Humoral immune responses were assessed in terms of haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers. Morphometric analysis small intestinal villi were performed to assess the impact of herbal supplements on gut health. Our results showed that birds supplemented with herbs mounted a better immune response to ND vaccines. Birds received herbs attained HI titres ≥log24 as early as 7 days after the primary vaccination (P<0.001) and continued to have protective antibody titres until 60 days-of-hatch. Intestinal morphometry revealed that herbal supplementation significantly improved the length of villi in duodenum (P<0.01) and jejunal portions of small intestine. In conclusion, we suggest that feeding of P. amarus and C. cyminum aids birds to elicit better and earlier protective immune response against ND and improve gut health of backyard poultry.

Title: Evaluation of Therapeutic Potential of Poly Herbal Formulation on Sub Clinical Mastitis
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to determine efficacy of poly herbal formulation (combination of Moringa oleifera, Ocimum sanctum and Azadirachta indica leaves and Curcuma longa rhizome) on sub clinical mastitis in cows. For this study, Three cows (12 quarters) were considered apparently healthy control group (group A) after thorough physical examination and various diagnostic tests. A total of nine cows (36 quarters) found positive for sub clinical mastitis on screening were randomly divided into three groups with three animals (12 quarters) each. Poly herbal formulation was administered orally for seven days twice daily at 10 mg/kg in group B animals. Group C animals were treated with conventional treatment for seven days. Group D animals were treated with combination of Poly herbal formulation and conventional treatment. Therapeutic efficacy of poly herbal formulation was evaluated based on alteration of somatic cell count of milk and qualitative changes in milk. A significant increased concentration of SCC and pH of milk and significantly decreased concentration of fat and solid not fat (%) was reported in SCM affected animals as compared to healthy control before treatment. Poly herbal formulation significantly reduced the SCC and pH as well as significantly increased the fat and SNF (%) as that of conventional therapy. The combination of poly herbal formulation and conventional treatment accelerate the recovery. Hence, the present poly herbal formulation may be advised along with conventional treatment for early recovery in sub clinical mastitis.

Title: Efficiency of Sesame Seeds as Fat Replacer to Develop Functional Chicken Sausage
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to explore the efficacy of sesame seeds (ST1, ST2 and ST3) on quality characteristics of chicken sausages replacing 50% vegetable fat (refined oil) at 0.75, 1.50 and 2.25% level. The formulation of emulsion was maintained by addition of water accordingly. The emulsion pH, product pH and moisture content increased whereas emulsion stability, product fat and emulsion fat content decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increased level of sesame seeds in chicken sausage. Fat retention, water activity and moisture retention values of treatments were significantly (P<0.05) higher than control, whereas a significant (P<0.05) decrease was observed among the treatments with increased level of sesame seeds. No significant difference was observed on protein as well as ash content between control and treatments. Among the textural and colour parameters, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and resilience values increased significantly (P<0.05) whereas lightness values decreased significantly (P<0.05) in treatments. There was no significant difference in hardness, redness and yellowness values between control and treatments. The scores of all sensory attributes decreased significantly (P<0.05) in treatments, however there was no significant difference between ST1 and ST2 for many sensory attributes including overall acceptability. Therefore, ST2- chicken sausage incorporated with 1.50% sesame seeds were selected as the best treatment.

Title: Isolation, Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiling of Listeria spp. from Raw Chicken Meat in Durg District of Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract :

Present work was conducted to determine the total aerobic plate count of raw chicken meat samples, isolation of the Listeria spp. and determining their pathogenicity along with antibiotic susceptibility pattern. The 100 raw chicken meat samples, collected from different retail outlets in and around Durg district of Chhattisgarh, revealed mean APC of 23.67×105 cfu/g (6.374 log10 cfu/g). Cultural examination of raw chicken meat samples showed an overall 37% prevalence of Listeria spp., comprising of L. monocytogenes (16%), L. grayi (11%), L. welshimeri (5%), L. ivanovii (3%) and L. innocua (2%). All the Listeria isolates exhibited a typical β-heamolysis with narrow zone on sheep blood agar and enhancement of hemolytic zone in CAMP test. The haemolytic Listerial isolates developed kerato conjunctivitis in Anton’s test and stunting as well as hemorrhages in liver and heart along with conspicuous thickening of CAM in chicken embryos. Results of antibiotic susceptibility testing of all Listerial isolates further revealed that most of isolates were multidrug resistance to antibiotics. The present work revealed that the raw chicken meat may act as an important source of Listeria for human being. The presence of multiple drug resistance among Listeria spp. isolates provides a evidence of the emergence of multi drug resistant Listeria strains, pointing to an increase in the potential threat to human health.

Title: Toxigenic Profiling of Enterotoxin-Producing Bacillus cereus Isolated from Marketed Raw Chicken Meat and Human Subjects by Triplex and Multiplex PCR
Abstract :

Bacillus cereus incorporates the most important group of endospore-forming micro organism and can cause emetic and diarrheal food poisoning. A total of 42 B. cereus strains isolated from marketed raw chicken meat and human subjects swab samples were assessed by a triplex and multiplex PCR for the presence of enterotoxin genes. The detection rate of nheB, hblA, hblD, cytK, nheA,CER, hblC and entFM enterotoxin genes among all B. cereus strains was 83.33%, 80.95%, 69.04%, 21.42%, 47.61%, 0%, 61.90%, and 92.85% respectively. Enterotoxigenic profiles were determined in enterotoxin-producing strains showed 19 different patterns. The results offer essential information on toxin genes prevalence and toxigenic profiles of B. cereus from sources of origin. The present study was taken into consideration about extreme fitness danger for public health and insuring extra ability in difficulty to food safety amongst all B. cereus group members. Also, there may be need for extensive and continuous tracking of food products embracing both emetic toxin and enterotoxin genes.

Title: Antimicrobial Resistance of Pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from Broiler Production Systems
Abstract :
The present study was carried out with an objective to evaluate antimicrobial resistant pathogenic E. coli from selected broiler production systems in and around Parbhani city. A total of 216 samples comprising 36 various contamination sources from each farm were collected from six broiler units. The initial isolation of E. coli was done on EMB and MacConkey agar. On morphological and biochemical tests, 105(48.61%) isolates were preliminary confirmed as E. coli. Out of 105 preliminary confirmed isolates, randomly selected 55 isolates were further confirmed as E. coli by PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene and phenotypically marked as pathogenic by Congo Red Binding Assay. Out of 55 confirmed isolates, 20 randomly selected isolates were tested against commonly used 15 antimicrobials. antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed higher resistance against Erythromycin (100%), Cephalothin (95%), Tetracycline (90%), Nalidixic acid (90%) Ceftazidime (85%), Cefotaxime (85%), Amikacin (80%), Gentamicin (75%), Amoxiclav (75%), Ciprofloxacin (70%), Enrofloxacin (70%), Levofloxacin (60%) and sensitivity observed against ampicillin/Sulbactam (85%), Amoxicillin/sulbactam (75%) and Chloramphenicol (50%). The average multiple antimicrobial resistance index of 20 isolates was 0.7. These 20 isolates subjected to genotypic antimicrobial resistance by PCR and found that 85 and 80% isolates expressed tet A and blaTEM genes which indicates resistance against Tetracycline and β-lactam antimicrobials. The study concludes that higher occurrence of multiple antimicrobial resistant E. coli with genotypic characteristics in broiler farms may pose high risk to human and animal health, therefore regional surveillance on use of antimicrobials and studies on antimicrobial resistant bacteria in broiler needs to be conducted regularly.
Title: Socio-Cultural Study of Village Deities in Peraiyur Taluk of Madurai District with Special Reference to Hero Stones
Abstract :

For as long as man has been on earth he wonders who he is where he comes from and why he acts the way he does. It would seem that much of human history has resulted from mans efforts to answer these questioning, because of the limits of his knowledge and technology, man throughout most of his history, has been unable to date concerning his own behavior and background. Hence, the has relied bodies of myth and folklore to answer these questions. Anthropology, as it has emerged over the last two hundred years is the scientific approach to answering mans questions about him. Even the early Anthropologists were led by their research to a realization of the social functional of religion. The study of totemic is points up this tendency. Thomism is based on the division of the whole world into those thing which are profane, or have no spirit was value for the Elam or tribe and these which are sacred. Not only gods spirits and sacred indeed, according to sociologist Emile Durkheim a rock, a spring, a pebble, a piece of wood, a house, in a world anything can be sacred.

Title: Cytology and Biochemical Analysis of Pleural Effusion in Dogs
Abstract :

Pleural effusion is the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space due to disruption of the hydrostatic and starling forces which maintain the pressure of pleural cavity. A total of 42 dogs presented to Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital Small Animal Medicine Outpatient Unit with a history of cough and dyspnea were selected. Pleural effusion was diagnosed and classified into cardiac, hepatic and tumour and others group based on physical examination, radiography, electrocardiography, ultrasonography, echocardiography, cytological and biochemical evaluation of pleural fluid. The incidence of pleural effusion was 13.5% of the respiratory cases. Cytology of pleural fluid revealed the presence of lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, RBCs, fibrin and mesothelial cells. Cytology of tumour group revealed mesothelioma (3), adenocarcinoma (1) and lymphoma (1). Cytology of other group revealed the presence of numerous RBCs and a few mesothelial cells in hemothorax and mature and degenerated neutrophils along with the presence of numerous clumps of bacteria and macrophages in pyothorax. Estimation of LDH of pleural effusion and ratio of pleural fluid to serum LDH was effective to classify pleural fluid into transudate, exudate and modified transudate.

Title: Study the Effect of Feed Additives on Physiological Performance of Sahiwal Growing Female Calves During Summer Season in Arid Region of Rajasthan
Abstract :

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of probiotics and encapsulated niacin supplementation on physiological parameters of growing Sahiwal female calves during summer season in arid region of Rajasthan. The present investigation was conducted at the Livestock Research Station, Kodamdesar, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences for a period of 90 days during the months of June to August, 2019. Eighteen Sahiwal growing female calves having ages between 6-15 months were procured, such that the calves were the best representation of the population. Calves were housed in a well-ventilated and protected shed and were allocated to three different groups, each group consisting of six calves. The selected female calves were divided into three groups viz., group 1 (G-1), group 2 (G-2) and group 3 (G-3). Group 1 (G-1) calves received basal diet and the calves of group 2 (G-2) and group 3 (G-3) were fed the basal diet additionally supplemented with feed additives. Results revealed that the temperature humidity index (THI), which was used to express the effect of environmental parameters, gradually decreased as the season changed from summer to autumn. The values of physiological parameters, respiration rate (RR), and pulse rate (PR) were beyond the normal range which indicates that the animals were in the state of heat stress. Calves receiving supplementations along with the basal diet showed a reduction in summer heat stress was indicated by a significant decrease in the various stress indicators viz. respiration rate, and pulse rate

Title: Electrocardiographic Variables in Kankrej Cattle Calves
Abstract :

Present paper recorded electrocardiographic (ECG) variables in 22 Kankrej cattle calves using the base apex lead system (Lead I). The mean values of heart rate (HR), ‘P’ amplitude, ‘P’ duration’, ‘PR’ interval, ‘QRS’ duration, ‘ST’ segment, ‘T’ amplitude, ‘T’ duration, ‘S’ amplitude, ‘R’ amplitude, ‘QT’ interval and ‘RR’ interval recorded were 66.59±2.33 (40-80) bpm, 0.231 ±0.016 (0.1-0.5) mV, 0.086±0.003 (0.08-0.14) s, 0.232±0.123 (0.16-0.44) s, 0.089± 0.002 (0.08-0.12) s, 0.301 ± 0.015 (0.18-0.4) s, 0.365± 0.034 (0.1-0.7) mV, 0.108±0.005 (0.08-0.16) s, 1.140±0.094 (0.4-1.9) mV, 0.500±1.00 (0.0-1.0) mV, 0.499± 0.158 (0.4-0.6) s and 0.927± 0.368 (0.75-1.5) s respectively. Significantly (P≤0.05) higher HR was observed in the female calves (71.36±2.78) as compared to male calves (61.81±3.25). Also, significant (P<0.05) differences between RR interval of male (1.00±0.058) and female (0.854±0.035) calves were recorded. It is concluded that the base apex system is a suitable lead for monitoring heart rhythm in cattle calves. This study provided information on the HR, duration, and amplitude of ECG deflections in Kankrej cattle calves, one of the common cattle breed of Gujarat state of India. Values of electrocardiographic indices for Kankrej cattle calves reported here in can be used as reference values by the practitioners to clinically evaluate cardiac healthiness/cardiovascular fitness, life threatening arrhythmias and, to take appropriate therapeutic measures.

Title: Dynamics of Selected Trace Minerals during Estrus Induction in Anestrus Sahiwal Cattle
Abstract :

The present study evaluated the effect of circulatory trace mineral profiles on fertility response during estrus induction by progesterone based therapy in acyclic Sahiwal cattle. Sahiwal cows and post-pubertal heifers (n=25 each) with true anestrus condition (acyclicity confirmed ultrasonographically) were subjected to CIDR-based protocol (intravaginal CIDR application for 7 days, 500 IU eCG at CIDR removal, followed by estrus observation and AI). In heifers, additionally an injection of 5.0 mg estradiol valerate at CIDR insertion was given. Blood samples on days 0 (before CIDR application), 3, 5, 7 and 9 were collected. Almost similar estrus induction (68% vs. 64%) and subsequent conception rates (41.2% vs. 50%) during the first induced estrus were recorded in cows and heifers, respectively. During the course of treatment, significant (P<0.05) variation in plasma copper and zinc concentrations was recorded both in cows and heifers. Contrarily, manganese concentrations varied significantly (P<0.05) in cows only. However, iron profiles remained uniform during the course of treatment. Significantly (P<0.05) higher pre-treatment plasma concentrations of copper, zinc and manganese was recorded in those cows and heifers in which estrus was induced, compared to those in which estrus induction failed to occur. No significant difference (P>0.05) was recorded for iron concentration vis-à-vis estrus induction response. Hence, it is indicated that circulatory copper, zinc and manganese profiles influence the reproductives energy in acyclic animals and their suboptimal profiles may reduce the efficacy of estrus induction protocols in Sahiwal cattle.

Title: Heavy Metal Contamination in Excreta of Blue Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) and Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) in Rural Areas of Punjab
Abstract :

Bird excreta are considered as bioindicator of heavy metal contamination in agricultural areas. The aim of the study was to evaluate the heavy metal concentrations in the excreta of Blue Rock Pigeon and Indian Peafowl to monitor the environment contamination in rural areas of Punjab. This study was carried out in two villages i.e Rampur Chhana (District Sangrur, location I) and Dargapur (District Patiala, location II). The excreta of Blue Rock Pigeon and Indian Peafowl were collected. After collection they were digested for metal analysis which was done through ICAP-AES. The study showed toxic level of Pb, high level above normal range of As and Ni more in the excreta of Indian Peafowl than in excreta of Blue Rock Pigeon. The concentration of B was in toxic range in excreta of Blue Rock Pigeon. It was inferred that they relied in similar environmental conditions while having exposure to different feeding habitats might have resulted in species specific heavy metal accumulation. Our studies showed that location I had more concentration of heavy metals like Pb, B and As which seems to be due to the presence of industrial units near this location. It has been concluded that more level of heavy metals in the excreta of Indian Peafowl was due to its high trophic level in the food chain. Statistical analysis showed significant difference among both the bird species which signifies the bioaccumulation of metals in the excreta of Indian Peafowl.

Title: Use of Homeopathic Medication for Treatment of Underdeveloped Ggenetalia in Heifers - A Field Level Study
Abstract :The study was carried out in 150 heifers; out of them 90 were buffalo heifers and 60 were cow heifers with an average age of 3-4 years. They were presented with a chief compliant of not conceiving. On clinical observations all heifers were having smaller size of external and internal gentiles and they were under weight. They were diagnosed as underdeveloped gentiles and treated with homeopathic medicines. On an average one month after the treatment the 120 heifers started showing the signs of estrus and immediately they were bred with artificial insemination and later they got conceived. The 24 heifers shown the signs of estrus in second cycle and they got conceived after insemination. However 6 heifers could not responded to treatment and advised for culling. It was observed in this study that homeopathic medication used for treatment of underdeveloped genitals can be an alternative treatment for initiating non functional ovaries to functional.
Title: Economic Impact of Challenge Feeding on Milk Production of Crossbred Cows
Abstract :

The aim of the present study was to find out the effect of ‘challenge feeding’ on the performance and economics of milk yield of crossbred cows. During the research trial in the pre-partum period, animals of the T1 control group were fed 1 kg concentrate for maintenance per day from the 60th day to prior to calving till the day of parturition. T2 group animals were fed 1 kg concentrate for maintenance plus 1.5 kg concentrate as challenge feed per day from 60th day to 22nd day prior to calving and from 22nd day prior to calving till parturition animals were fed 1 kg concentrate for maintenance plus 2 kg concentrate as challenge feed per day. T3 group animals were fed 1 kg concentrate for maintenance plus 2 kg concentrate as challenge feed per day from 60th day to 22nd prior to calving and from 22nd prior to calving till parturition animals were fed 1 kg concentrate for maintenance plus 2.5 kg concentrate as challenge feed per day. The overall mean daily milk yield per animal was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T3 (11.03 kg) as compared to T2 (9.85 kg) & T1 (6.96 kg). The cost of per litre milk production was ` 25.90, 23.79, and 23.72 in T1, T2, and T3 groups respectively. It was concluded that the practice of challenge feeding of crossbred cows improved the production performance during early lactation without affecting their periparturient health and was found to be economical.

Title: Physical and Morphometric Characterisation of Badri Cattle
Abstract :

Badri cattle is the only registered cattle breed of Uttarakhand. In the present study, an effort was made to characterize Badri cattle of the Kumaon and Garhwal region on the basis of physical and morphometric traits. The body length (BL), height at withers (HAW), heart girth (HG), paunch girth (PG), ear length (EL), face length (FL) and tail length (TL) of males from the Kumaon region were found to be 102.00±0.91, 103.25±1.12, 140.80±0.62, 145.64±1.71, 20.83±0.42, 37.82±0.45 and 73.40±0.34 cms, respectively. Similarly, the males from the Garhwal region had BL, HAW, HG, PG, EL and FL of 107.76±2.91, 106.80±3.59, 141.02±2.1, 146.28±2.22, 19.04±0.47, 37.78±0.80 and 77.42±2.16 cms, respectively. The study concludes that Badri cattle is a small sized cattle breed and the cows from both the Kumaon and Garhwal regions of Uttarakhand state had significantly lower morphometric characteristic estimates than the males.

Title: Association Between Virulence Genes and Serogroups of Escherichia coli Isolates from Calves
Abstract :

Escherichia coli associated calf diarrhoea is a major economic concern for the dairy producers in this geographic area. The aim of this study is to investigate various pathotypes, virulence genes and their association with serogroups of E. coli isolated from diarrhoeic and healthy calves. A total of 194 rectal swabs were collected from diarrhoeic (129) and healthy (65) calves of different age groups from various districts of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana States. The E. coli were isolated and confirmed by cultural, biochemical and molecular testes. The virulence genes of E. coli pathotypes were detected using PCR with specific primers. Serogrouping was carried out at National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh. Out of 129 and 65 faecal samples (194) collected 60 (46.51%) and 21 (32.31%) samples were found positive for E. coli in diarrhoeic and healthy calves, respectively. Among different age groups, high rate of E. coli was isolated from 1-7 day old calves. Among the virulence genes of STEC, eaeA & hlyA genes were most prevalent in diarrhoeic (20%) and healthy calves (14.28%) and only stx1 was detected in diarrhoeic (6.66%) and healthy (4.76%) calves. The cnf2 (5%) and EAST1(3.33%) genes were detected only in diarrhoeic calves. The serogroup O157 which is having zoonotic significance was detected in STEC isolates from diarrhoeic and healthy calves. This study concluded that E. coli isolates from diarrhoeic calves are potential source of virulence genes and both diarrhoeic and healthy calves are the reservoirs of O157 serogroup in this geographic area.

Title: Economic Impact of Gastrointestinal Helminth Infections on Milk Production in Swamp Buffalo
Abstract :
The objective of the present study was to assess the economic impact of gastrointestinal helminth infections on milk production in naturally infected swamp buffaloes of Guwahati, Assam, India. Selected animals were divided into three groups (I, II and III) having 10 animals in each group. Animals of group I (Amphistome sp.+ Strongyle sp.+ Trichuris sp.) and group II (Strongyle sp.) are infected treated groups whereas group III (Amphistome sp. + Strongyle sp.) was untreated control group. The animals of group I and group II was treated with Neozide plus bolus @ 10 mg/kg b.wt. and Minthal bolus @ 7.5 mg/kg b.wt., respectively. The egg per gram of feces (EPG) and milk production (litres) were recorded pre-treatment and post-treatment (1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks). Post-treatment EPG (Mean±SE) in animals of group I and group II was reduced to zero which was maintained up to 4th weeks. Post-treatment milk yield in animals of group I during 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th weeks were 0.83±0.16, 0.88 ±0.15, 0.92±0.16 and 0.96±0.17 litres, respectively while in group II post-treatment milk yield in animals during 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th weeks were 0.93±0.11, 0.95±0.11, 0.97±0.10 and 1.00±0.10, respectively. An increase of 24.67% and 25% milk production was recorded
over a period of 4 weeks in animals of group I and group II, respectively. However, in group III (control), milk production was reduced significant (P<0.05) by 38.46% over a period of 4 weeks.
Title: Imatinib in the Management of Canine Cutaneous Mast Cell Tumours
Abstract :

Mast cell tumours are one of the commonly recorded cutaneous tumours in dogs which are seen as either solitary lesion or diffused ones. The present case study discusses about the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitor i.e., Imatinib mesylate in the management of cutaneous mast cell tumours in seven dogs presented to Madras Veterinary Teaching Hospital with cutaneous ulcerations, nodular lesions and exudation. Fine needle aspiration cytology and tissue biopsy were done to confirm the diagnosis of cutaneous mast cell tumours. All the case were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor i.e., Tab.Imatinib @10 mg/kg orally SID for 10 weeks along with Tab. Prednisolone @1 mg/kg SID orally for three weeks followed by tapering of the dose to 0.5 mg/kg in fourth week. Chlorpheniramine maleate @3 mg/kg SID and famotidine @ 0.5 mg/kg BID were also added to the protocol. Out of seven cases treated, four showed significant improvement by 5th week while two showed partial remission and one did not respond. Thrombocytopaenia, Anaemia and ulcerative gastritis were the complications seen during the therapy.

Title: Influence of Media Supplementation with Alpha Tocopherol and/or Epigallocatechin Gallate on in vitro Maturation and Subsequent Fertilization of Bovine Oocytes
Abstract :

The present study was planned to determine the effect of Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG), Alpha tocopherol and their combination as an antioxidant in TCM-199 media for in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) in bovine oocytes. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from the ovaries derived from slaughter house and in vitro cultured in three groups using TCM-199 supplemented with EGCG @10 μM, Alpha tocopherol @100 μM, and Combination (EGCG @10 μM plus Alpha tocopherol @100 μM). Oocytes of a control group were matured in TCM-199 medium without any treatment. After IVM, cumulus-free oocytes were co-incubated with frozen-thawed spermatozoa for 15–18 h. Compared to no addition, the presence of EGCG @10 μM in medium during IVM significantly (p<0.05) increased the proportion of maturation and fertilization rate. Combination produced significantly higher percentage of in vitro matured bovine oocytes compared to the alpha tocopherol @100 μM alone. The results suggest that EGCG @10 μM in IVM medium had better effect than Alpha tocopherol alone and Combination on in vitro maturation and subsequent fertilization of bovine oocytes.

Title: A Field Survey of Feeding and Breeding Practices at Peri-Urban Buffalo Farms of Surat City of Gujarat
Abstract :
A survey was conducted during April, 2014 to December, 2015 and data were collected from randomly selected 50 buffalo farm owners through personal interview with the help of pre-tested structured schedule from peri-urban areas of Surat city of Gujarat. The present study revealed that majority of respondents (86%) followed stall feeding system. The 82% respondents did not cultivated green fodder crops and 62 & 90% respondents fed green non-leguminous and shedha grass to their milking buffaloes, respectively. Majority of respondents fed homemade plus compound cattle feed as concentrate to their milking buffaloes, based on milk production, mainly during milking. The 62% respondents fed concentrate to their animals after soaking in water while, 38% respondents fed concentrates as such. Majority of respondents practiced to feed green/dry fodders as such to their buffaloes. Majority of respondents did not fed concentrates to their young calves while, 54% respondents fed concentrates to their heifers. Only 42% respondents provided mineral supplements to their buffaloes. All the respondents detected heat in their animals by observing the symptom of bellowing and mucus discharge (84%) and bred their buffaloes by artificial insemination (52%) between 12-18 hours after heat detection (84%). The 12% respondents bred their buffaloes after 2 to 3 months of calvinand 64% respondents followed the pregnancy diagnosis but only 38% did it either from Livestock Inspectors or Artificial Insemination workers during three months of pregnancy. Majority of respondents followed treatment of anoestrous/repeaters in their buffaloes.
Title: Dynamics of Gastrointestinal Parasitism in Sheep during Peri-parturient Period on Organized Farm
Abstract :

The strongyle and coccidian parasitism was monitored through faecal eggs/oocysts count in Muzaffarnagri ewes, during peri-parturient period (PPP) to study the prevalence and effect of different environmental factors. The data generated on faecal count were transformed using log transformation (log (n +100)) for normalization. The transformed data were analyzed through least squares analysis considering the effects of factors like physiological state (pregnancy/lactation), season of lambing and years. Resulted means were back-transformed and presented as Geometric means. Strongyle worms and coccidian infections were the major infections affecting the ewes. Haemonchus contortus was the predominant strongyle worm in the ewes though worms like Oesophagostomum and Trichuris spp. were also observed. Coccidian infection was mixed and seven species of Eimeria were recorded. Overall prevalence of coccidian and strongyle worm in ewes during PPP was found to be 54.31 and 33.40 percent respectively. Specific coccidian prevalence in pregnant and lactating ewe during PPP was 54.98 and 48.18 percent respectively while strongyle prevalence was 31.07 and 36.50 percent, respectively. The coccidian prevalence in peri-parturient ewes differed kidding and lactating season-wise and Year-wise. However, the observation with strongyle worm infection was reverse. Mean faecal egg count (FEC) in lactating ewes was found to be significantly higher (P<0.001) than pregnant ewes. Also, means FEC in ewes lambed in two different seasons were significantly (P<0.001) different. Similarly significant variations in FEC were observed between years of lambing. Though, mean FOC in pregnant and lactating ewes did not differ significantly yet the effect of lambing season on FOC was significant and ewes lambed in first season (February–April) showed lower FOC mean.

Title: Elucidation of Immunomodulating Potential of Morus alba against Sub Acute Exposure of Fipronil in Rats
Abstract :

Immunotoxicity is defined as adverse effects on the functioning of the immune system that results from exposure to chemical substances. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate immunomodulating effect of Morus alba (500mg/kg B.w.) against immunotoxicity induced by sub-acute exposure of Fipronil (10mg/kg B.w.) in rats. Sub-acute immunotoxicity was conducted in adult male wistar rats. Rats were randomly divided into four groups (6 rats/group). Group I served as control in which corn oil (acting as a vehicle of Fipronil) was administered @10 ml/kg B.w. Group II served as Fipronil treated group @10 mg/kg B.w. In Group III Fipronil along with Morus alba fruits extract @ 300 mg/kg B.w. was administered and in Group IV Morus alba fruits extract @ 300 mg/kg B.w. was administered. Vehicle, Fipronil and Morus alba were administered daily to the rats by oral gavage for 28 days. The dose of fipronil was selected on the basis of LD50 in rats. TLC, DLC, serum total protein, albumin, globulin, A:G ratio, serum antibody titer/haemagglutination (HA) titer and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response were estimated. Fipronil produced immunotoxicity in the form of alteration from normal values in these parameters. Morus alba was significantly effective in restoration of these parameters towards normal. The study suggested that Morus alba has immunomodulating potential against toxicity induced by fipronil in rats.

Title: Clinical Evaluation of Two Techniques for Surgical Correction of Prolapsed Gland of the Third Eyelid in Dogs
Abstract :
The current study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical outcome and post surgical complications of two techniques for correction of prolapsed of third eyelid gland in dogs. The study was conducted in twelve clinical cases with unilateral prolapse of third eye lid gland in six and bilateral prolapse in six dogs, presented to Veterinary clinical complex (VCC), College of Veterinary Science,Jabalpur. Partial excision technique and Morgan’s pocket technique were employed for the treatment. Schirmer tear test values were recorded for the dogs subjected to surgical procedures on 1,7,15 and 30 postoperative days. Other complications were recorded till 30 days post procedure. Recurrence of prolapsed gland of third eyelid and development of Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca was followed up for 12 months. It was noted that till 30 days, no significant difference on tear production was observed in dogs subjected to either of procedure. Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca and corneal ulcer were reported in only one eye (n=1/9) in partial excision Group-I after 80 days. In the Group-II, one eye (n=1/9) suffered recurrence of prolapsed gland of third eye lid on day 11, post procedure due to suture break. It was concluded that, both partial excision of third eye lid gland and Morgan’s pocket technique can be used effectively for correction of cherry eye condition. The choice of technique is dependent on surgeon’s choice and competency.
Title: Clinical Efficacy on the Use of Titanium Intramedullary Interlocking Nailing (Ti-IILN) for Repair of Communited Diaphyseal Femur Fractures in Dogs
Abstract :
The study was conducted in dogs with comminuted diaphyseal fractures of femur. The dogs were stabilized with titanium IILN of diameter 5 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm were used. The length of nails used 140 mm, 160 mm and 180 mm. Good implant stability and remarkable improvement with normal limb function except bolt loosening and bolt breakage two dogs. All dogs showed
weight bearing of the affected limb while walking from 3rd day in 3 dogs, 10th day in 2 dogs, 15th day in 2 dogs, 30th day in one dog post-operatively. The mean lameness grades pre-operatively and on 1st day, 15th day, 30th day, 60th day and 90th day post- operatively were found to be 5.00±0.00, 3.25±0.16, 2.50±0.26, 1.50±0.26,1.12±0.12 and 1.00±0.00, respectively. The
mean age of the group to bear the complete weight were seen on 11.75±3.26 days. The radiographs on the 15th post-operative day revealed proper apposition and alignment, on 30th day showed evidence of callus formation, on 60th day, 6 dogs the fracture line disappeared showing clear restitution of cortico-medullary cavity and in two dogs, bridging callus formation. On 90th, day cortico-medullary distinction at the fracture site. Based on the results, it is concluded Titanium IILN was successful in the treatment of comminuted diaphyseal femur fractures in dogs with lower rate of failure and fewer complications and offered early return of limb function, with good fracture stability till the completion of the bone healing in all dogs when compared to stainless steel IILN.
Title: In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Against Mycobacterium smegmatis MTCC 994
Abstract :

Tuberculosis (TB) presently represent one of the biggest world health problems and hence it is urgent to find new drugs that allow better control of the outbreak and arrest the emergence of patients with multiple drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) cases which have arisen alarmingly. There is a general consensus that antimicrobials from natural products might prove very effective and must be validated so that the same can be exploited for human well-being. The present study provides a scientific validity to chitosan, a natural and readily available compound as chitin over the crustacean body. The chitosan is biodegradable and biocompatible in nature and hence causes minimum hazards to the body. Chitosan solution have shown very effective antimicrobial property against M. smegmatis MTCC 994 which was selected for this study as this bacterium is non-pathogenic in nature, has fast growing rate and have similarity in cell wall composition with that of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disc diffusion assay as well as resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) methods were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of chitosan. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the chitosan solution were found around 117.18 μg/ml. This finding suggests that even at lower concentrations, chitosan is very effective and hence can be potent antimicrobial agent in future for Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the MDR and XDR TB are evolving rapidly. The current study recommends similar research against Mycobacterium tuberculosis to evaluate the potential of chitosan to be used as anti-tuberculosis agent.

Title: Pathology of Wild Strain (DP/As-Km/0019) of Duck Plague Virus Infection Revived in Ducklings
Abstract :

Duck plague is an acute highly contagious disease of duck, geese and swan of all ages caused by Anatid Herpesvirus-1. The disease is characterized by significant decrease in growth, egg production and sudden death along with high morbidity and mortality which results into significant economic losses in duck industry. In present study, the pathology of wild strain (DP/As-Km/0019) of duck plague virus (DPV) was experimentally studied in 2 months old ducklings. The prominent clinical signs observed were depression, loss of appetite, greenish diarrhoea, ruffled feathers, nasal discharge, lacrimation and pasted eyelids with periorbital ring formation. The significant gross lesions were observed in spleen, oesophagus, liver, heart, brain and intestine. Vascular and degenerative changes like congestion, haemorrhages, necrosis and diphtheritic membrane formation were noticed in various parenchymatous organs. Microscopically, focal to diffuse areas of haemorrhages, coagulative necrosis, and fatty changes in liver, focal emphysema in lungs, formation of diphtheritic membrane on the mucosal surface along with presence of numerous infiltrating cells in oesophagus were recorded. Presence of Anatid Herpesvirus-1 viral DNA in liver and spleen tissue samples was detected by PCR.

Title: Effect of Supplementation of Ginger Root Powder and Black Cumin Seed Powder on Performance of White Leghorn Layers
Abstract :

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of ginger root powder and black cumin seed powder alone or in combination on performance and egg production in laying hens. A total of 270 Leghorn laying hens of 28 weeks old were randomly distributed among nine groups with 30 layers in each treatment with three replications following the factorial design (32). Experimental diets consisted of 0.00%, 0.50% and 1.00% levels of ginger root powder and black cumin seed powder alone or in combination. The experimental period lasted for a total of 84 days and laying hens’ performance was measured. Non-significant effect was observed on feed intake due to supplementation of black cumin seed powder whereas, significant (P<0.05) effect was observed due to ginger root powder supplementation. T5 treatment group which was supplemented with 0.00% ginger root powder and 1.00% black cumin seed powder had significantly (P<0.01) highest egg weight, egg production and egg mass along with best feed conversion ratio. It can be concluded that supplementation of 1.00% level of black cumin seed powder was recommended for best layer performance.

Title: Effect of Host Factors on the Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Goats of Maharashtra
Abstract :

A year round epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of goats from different regions of Maharashtra was carried out during 2017-18 in which faecal samples of 667 goats were examined. The overall prevalence of parasitism in goats was recorded as 74.66%. While it was to the tune of 87.57%, 76.15%, 65.00% and 71.57% for goats and for sheep it was 70.16, 56.57, 66.66 and 51.33 percent from Western Maharashtra, Vidarbha, Marathwada and Konkan region, respectively. The age wise prevalence reported in the goats of Western Maharashtra showed higher prevalence in adult stage as 91.44% as against 22.22% in the age group below one year. As regards sex wise prevalence there recorded non-significant difference among both the sexes from across the state. In Vidarbha, Marathwada and Konkan regions it was almost equal in quantum in both the age groups. Regarding breed-wise prevalence in goats, it showed non-significant differences among the four breeds from all the regions of state.

Title: A Retrospective Analysis of Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Labrador Retrievers
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to record the incidence, clinical presentation, electrocardiographic, radiographic, laboratory, two dimensional echocardiography, M-mode echocardiography, pulsed wave Doppler and color flow Doppler findings in Labrador Retrievers with Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) for a period of five years from 2013 to 2018. It included 210 healthy dogs and 327 confirmed cases of DCM. The incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy in Labrador Retrievers was found to be 7.49 per cent in the present study. On radiography, cardiomegaly and pulmonary edema were the major findings observed. In echocardiography, increased left ventricular end diastolic dimension and systolic dimension, reduced fraction shortening, increased E-point sepal separation, increased Left atrium (LA) / Aorta (AO) ratio, decreased ejection fraction, increased end diastolic volume and end systolic volume were noticed. On pulsed wave Doppler echocardiography reduced pulmonary artery (PA), Aorta (AO), left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) velocities were recorded. Mild to moderate regurgitation was observed in Mitral and Tricuspid valve by color flow Doppler echocardiography. M-mode derived chamber dimensions, E-point septal separation, ejection fraction, fractional shortening were reliable parameters in diagnosing Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Labrador Retrievers. Pulsed wave Doppler and color flow Doppler were useful in assessing velocity and flow pattern across valves.

Title: Morphological and Applied Anatomical Studies on the Head Region of Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus)
Abstract :

The Malayan sun bear is the smallest of the eight bear species. The aim of the research was to investigate the morphological and applied anatomical characteristics of the head region of the Malayan sun bear. The size of the head is large, broad and heavy in proportion to the body. The skull of the Malayan sun bear was mesocephalic according to the cephalic index (80.48). The skull length, skull width, cranial length and maximum skull height was 21.47 cm, 17.28 cm, 17.81 cm and 9.40 cm, respectively. The nasal length, nasal perpendicular height, nasal horizontal-transverse width and nasal circumference were 3.59 cm, 3.50 cm, 3.20 cm and 10.52 cm, respectively. The length and height of the mandible were 14.65 cm and 7.09 cm, respectively. There is no literature available on the regional applied anatomy of maxillofacial and mandibular regions of the Malayan sun bear. Therefore, this study was designed to provide information on morphological and applied anatomical studies on the head region of the Malayan sun bear. This is the first detailed study to provide morphological characteristics of the head region of Malayan sun bear and this information will aid the clinicians in the application of regional anaesthesia in Malayan sun bear.

Title: Chemoprofiling of Punganur Cow Urine at Different Physiological Stages
Abstract :

Cow urine is an important component of Panchagavya which contains plenty of biochemical constituents, vitamins, hormones, bioactive compounds and antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the biochemical changes in urine of Punganur cows. A total of 30 urine samples ten each from apparently healthy heifers, lactating and dry Punganur cows was collected. Qualitative analysis of Punganur cow urine at different physiological stages showed the absence of leukocytes, ketones, nitrogen, urobiliniogen, bilirubin, glucose, blood and Vitamin C. Quantitative analysis of minerals showed significantly higher values of Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphorous in urine of lactating cows when compared to dry cows and heifers. Whereas, urea, uric acid, protein and creatinine levels were found to be significantly higher in urine of dry cows followed by heifers and lactating cows. Urine protein to creatinine ratio (UPC) was more in lactating cows followed by heifers and dry cows which shows hyperbolic relationship with creatinine. The hormonal profile of urine showed significantly higher levels of cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in lactating cows, estrogen in heifers and thyroxine in dry cows. The level of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Epithelial growth factor (EGF) in urine of lactating cows was significantly lower when compared to heifers and dry cows. These results showed that physiological status had profound effect on biochemical composition of cow urine.

Title: Genetic Polymorphism of Leptin Gene in Relation with Reproduction Traits in Hariana Cows
Abstract :

Leptin gene is considered as marker of production and reproduction traits in dairy or beef cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic polymorphism in LEP gene in Hariana cows and their associations with reproduction traits. The blood samples were collected from 62 Hariana cows and analyzed in order to identify LEP/BsaAI (BTA 4, intron 2 and exon 3) genotypes using PCR-RFLP method. The allele frequencies observed were 0.37 and 0.63 for A and B LEP variants and genotypic frequencies were 9.67, 54.8 and 35.5 for AA, AB and BB genotype variants, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that SNP LEP/BsaAI significantly affected gestation period and dry period in analyzed population of cows. Observations of this investigation advocated that leptin is a candidate gene, which affects reproduction traits and might be implemented in breeding strategies to improve the reproductive performance of Hariana cattle breed.

Title: In Vitro Antibacterial Potentials of Various Extracts of Rosemary Leaf Powder and Black Cumin Seed Powder
Abstract :

The present investigation was undertaken for in vitro screening of antibacterial activities of acetone, benzene and ethyl acetate extract of Rosemary leaf powder and Black cumin seed powder. In vitro antibacterial efficacy of selected plants was assessed by well diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results showed that ethyl acetate and acetone extract of black cumin seed powder were most effective against the Staphylococcus aureus. The ethyl acetate extracts of Rosemary leaf powder was most effective against the Escherichia coli, while benzene extract of both herbs remained ineffective against Escherichia coli. The ethyl acetate extracts of both herbs were effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, whereas acetone and benzene extracts of both herbs remained ineffective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. The Present study showed that these plants possess compounds with antibacterial activity.

Title: Ultrasonographic Findings of Urinary System in Dogs suffering from Chronic Renal Failure
Abstract :

A total of 24 dogs suffering from azoturia on the basis of elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine level were subjected to ultrasonographic examination. The examination was performed in sternal recumbancy using 3.5 Mhz transducers with convex probe. Kidney and urinary bladder along with tract were explored for any abnormal changes. Different affections observed in 24 dogs were cystitis in 54.15%, loss of demarcation of kidney medulla and cortex in 37.5% cases, irregular shape and diffused border in 37.5%, nephritis in 25% of cases, hydronephrosis was observed in 20.83% cases and cystolith was also observed in 12.5% cases. Most important ultrasonographic features in these affections included cystitis and small kidneys with loss of corticomedullary demarcation (“end-stage” kidneys). Ultrasonography of urinary system serves as a prognostic and diagnostic marker in cases of chronic kidney disease.

Title: Prevalence Rate of Haemoprotozoan Infection and Assessment of Associated Risk Factors in Dairy Animals from Bikaner Region of Rajasthan, India
Abstract :

Haemoprotozoan diseases have deleterious impact on health and production of animals causing death in acute cases, production losses in chronically affected animals which decrease economic share of livestock sector. Thus with aim to record prevalence rate of haemoprotozoan infection in diary animals from Bikaner region of Rajasthan (India) present study was conducted from January to September 2021 on 200 (117 cattle and 83 Buffalo) dairy animals. Conventional microscopy method of Giemsa’s stained blood smears was used for screening blood samples for haemoprotozoans. Out of total screened 24(20.5%) cattle and 13(15.7%) buffalo were found positive for haemoprotozoans with highly prevalent Theileria spp. 12.5% (25) followed by Anaplasma spp. 3.0% (6), Babesia spp. and mixed infection 1.5% (3) each. Age wise highest prevalence showed by below 6 months aged (22.3%) followed by > 2 years (20.9%) and 6 months to 2 years (19.7%) in cattle and below 6 months (23.1%) followed by 6 months to 2 years (16.7%) and > 2 years (10.7%) in buffalo. Breed wise crossbred cattle showed highest infection rate of 23.5% with female more infected in both species 24.1% (20/83) in cattle and 18.7% (11/59) buffalo and highest prevalence rate in monsoon season in both cattle(28.4%) and buffalo(24%).

Title: Prevailing Marketing Practices and Consumer Preference for Pork in Bareilly City
Abstract :

Present study was conducted using purposive sampling technique to identify prevailing marketing practices and consumer preference for pork in Bareilly city. The study revealed that majority of retailers come under middle age group and belong to lower socio-economic strata. Facilities of chiller, deep freezer, disinfectant and packaging and labeling were not available at any retail shops. Majority of respondent sold 30-35kg pork/day with higher frequency of selling at morning within 4-5 hrs of slaughter. Problems faced by retailers were poor financial conditions and lack of marketing chain. Pork retailers required training and aids related to pork business from government. Majority of consumers at Bareilly city belongs to the lower socio-economic strata. Majority of individuals purchased pork at least 1-2 times per week, most of them purchased at morning time. Most of consumer preferred ham cut, purchased meat from road side stalls immediately after slaughter for preparing dishes from pork and preferred stewing. Finally, it can be concluded that pork was sold through unorganized sector, both consumers and retailers were not aware about quality and safety of pork and meager value chain exist for pork business at Bareilly city.

Title: Immunostimulatory Effect of Indian Herbs Tinospora cordifolia and Asparagus racemosus on Ranikhet Disease Vaccination in Chickens
Abstract :

Ranikhet disease (RD) is important infectious disease of chicken. Although vaccination available, sometimes immunosupression induced by factors like stress lead to vaccination failures. Immunostimulation by using of herbs in Ayurveda for enhancing the general host immune status is well documented. Present study is aimed to investigate the immunostimulatory effect of important Indian herbs Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) and Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) on RD vaccination in chickens. Stem dry powder of Guduchi and root dry powder of Shatavari were mixed in regular poultry feed to different groups of birds. All the groups of birds were vaccinated with primary, 1st booster and 2nd booster doses of RD vaccine and the sera samples were tested for antibody levels by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Significant higher (p < 0.001) HI antibody titers were found in Shatavari supplemented group and in both the herbs supplemented groups of chickens after 1st and 2nd booster doses of RD vaccination in comparison to RD vaccinated control group. However, Guduchi didn’t show any significant immunostimulating properties on RD vaccination after 1st booster and 2nd booster doses of vaccination.

Title: Effect of Age on Physico-Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Indigenous Kodiadu Goat Meat
Abstract :
The study was conducted to study the effect of age viz., young (6-9 months) and adult (2 years) on physico-chemical characteristics,
proximate composition, amino acid, fatty acid and cholesterol content of Kodiadu goat meat. The Longissimus dorsi muscle was collected from these animals and the physico-chemical characteristics viz., pH, water holding capacity, instrumental colour,
muscle fi bre diameter, myofi brillar fragmentation index and nutritional composition viz., proximate composition, amino acid, fatty acid and cholesterol content of two different age groups were studied. The results obtained in this study indicated that the meat of young goat had higher water holding capacity, Lightness (L*), moisture, threonine, glutamic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, ecosapentaenoic acid, docosohexanoic acid, total poly unsaturated fatty acids and total P/S than adult. Based on the quality and nutritional composition it was concluded that meat of young animal (6-9 months) had superior meat quality than the meat of adult animals
Title: Effect of Nano-Nickel Particles on Immune System of Wistar Rats
Abstract :

Nanoparticles that are targeting the immune system is an highly active area of study. Lots of new techniques for immunosuppression depends on nanoparticles as carriers for the delivery of immunosuppressive compounds in small molecules. Efforts have been made to understand mechanisms by which nanoparticles interact directly with the immune system. Nanoparticles immunological activity depends on the physiochemical properties of the nanoparticles and its subsequent internalization inside the body. As the underlying factors for certain reactions are explained, there could be more nanoparticles established and evaluated to cause immunosuppression and to complement immunosuppressive drugs. The current trends and advances in understanding how nanoparticles cause immunosuppressive reactions is still requires more research work in field of nanotechnology.

Title: Changes in Nutritional Behavior of Ladakhi Churpe Supplemented with Apricot and Spinach during Storage
Abstract :

Dried dairy products viz. churpe-balls and churpe-strips were developed with the incorporation of apricot powder into fresh cottage cheese at different levels (05, 10, 15 and 20%) and spinach powder at levels (03, 06, 09 and 12%), respectively. Nutritional attributes of the products were studied during the investigation. The addition of apricot powder in churpe-balls resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in moisture, ash, hydrosoluble vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin and ascorbic acid) and decrease in protein, lactose and fat contents. Similar trend was also observed due to incorporation of spinach powder in churpe-strips. Storage studies done for 120 days reveal that except moisture, there were losses of all the nutrients in both products with the advancement of storage. Except lactose in churpe-balls, all the interaction effects of supplementation and storage were found to be statistically significant.

Title: Effect of Different Litter Materials on the Performance of Broiler Chicken
Abstract :

The present study attempts to analyze the effect of different types of litter materials on the performance of broilers. Total 300 unsexed day-old broiler chicks (Cobb-400) were used on a completely randomized design in five treatments with four replicates, each consisting of 15 broilers. The treatments comprises of saw dust, wheat straw, rice husk, river bed sand and sandy soil (Balu ret) as litter materials. Standard feeding and management practices were followed during the experimental period. The effect of different treatments on growth parameters of broilers i.e. body weight, bodyweight gains, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed on regular interval of time. The results showed that feed conversion ratio was significantly different (p<0.05) among the litter types selected during 3rd and 4th week of experiment and other parameters were non-significant during the growing interval of broilers. The present study investigated the effect of different litter materials on broiler chicken performance may be viable for use of unconventional litter materials for broilers production due to cheap and locally available to the poultry entrepreneurs.

Title: In vitro Evaluation of Corn Germ Meal as Ruminant Feed
Abstract :

The present study was taken up to assess the chemical composition and in vitro nutritional worth of corn germ meal (CGM) in comparison to conventional oilseed cakes used in livestock feeding. The CP content of protein sources varied from 18.59% in CGM to 49.41% in soybean meal (SBM). CGM had the highest ether extract (EE) content, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and total carbohydrates. However, total ash, acid detergent insoluble crude protein (ADICP) and neutral detergent insoluble crude protein (NDICP) was lowest in CGM. In vitro net gas production in CGM (267.91 ml/g DM/24 h) was higher (P<0.05) than other conventional oil cakes. The digestibility of organic matter varied from 85.12% in DMC (deoiled mustard cake) to 96.19% in SBM. The ME availability was highest (P<0.05) in CGM (9.63 MJ/kg DM). Ammonical nitrogen in CGM was lower (P<0.05) than SBM and GNC (groundnut cake).The total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) production (mM/dl) was highest (P<0.05) in GNC (12.56) and lowest (P<0.05) in CGM (9.31). Methane production was lowest (P<0.05) in CGM than other conventional oil cakes. Hydrogen recovery (%) was higher (P<0.05) in CGM (65.76) and SBM (65.78) than other protein sources tested. Fermentation efficiency (%) was higher (P<0.05) in SBM (77.02) and GNC (76.75) while volatile fatty acids utilization index (VFA UI) was higher (P<0.05) in CGM (2.92) and DMC (2.84) than other protein sources tested. The results revealed that CGM can be used as a potential protein source for ruminants.

Title: Prevalence Status of Antibodies of Japanese Encephalitis in Pigs in Peri-Urban Area of Chennai
Abstract :

Japanese Encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito borne viral zoonotic disease caused by the Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) of Flaviviridae family and it is one of the leading causes of acute encephalitis syndrome in Asian countries. This study was conducted between November 2018 and February 2019 to understand the dynamic status of sero-prevalence of Japanese encephalitis in pigs in peri-urban areas of Chennai using indirect ELISA. A total of 241 sera samples of pigs was collected from peri-urban areas of Chennai and subjected to indirect IgG capture commercial ELISA kit for screening for JEV antibodies. The overall prevalence of JEV antibodies was found as 35.48% which showed the circulation of JEV antibodies in swine population in peri-urban areas of Chennai indicating that pigs still act as amplifier hosts for vectors for the transmission of the disease in Peri-urban areas of Chennai.

Title: Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Leaf Powder Along with Different Bedding Materials on Carcass Characteristics of Japanese Quail in Arid Region of Rajasthan
Abstract :

Japanese quail is the wild species of poultry popularly known as “Bater” that has been domesticated in recent times.The present trial was planned with the objective to investigate the carcass characteristics of Japanese quail fed on dietary supplementation of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf powder alone as well as in combination, along with different bedding materials like sand, saw-dust and wheat straw. A sum total of 360 day-old commercial quail chicks were reared under brooder for a period of 7 days and uniformly distributed to three different bedding material groups as B1, B2 and B3 with each group having four treatment groups, henceforth twelve treatment groups were made, each having two replicates and kept for duration of 42 days. The results indicated highly significant (P<0.01) effect of dietary supplementation of Tulsi alone or in combination with Moringa on dressing percentage as well as eviscerated percentage. For bedding materials used, results were non-significant both on dressing percentage and eviscerated percentage. Hence, it can be concluded from the investigation that there is significant effect of supplementation of Tulsi alone or in combination with Moringa however, no effect was seen due to bedding material on carcass characteristics.

Title: Multiple Anthelmintic Resistance in Goat Farms from Semi-Arid Zone of Haryana
Abstract :
Two unorganized goat farms from dry semi-arid zone of Haryana were surveyed to assess the status of anthelmintics against gastrointestinal nematodes using faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). A total of 120 goats, 60 each from Sighwal village, Jind (SVJ) and Andhli village, Kaithal (AVK) with at least 150 egg per gram (EPG) of faeces were selected. Goats were divided into four groups of 15 animals each in SVJ (G1, G2, G3 and G4) and AVK (B1, B2, B3 and B4) farms. Group G1 and B1 were treated with fenbendazole (@ 10 mg/kg b.wt. orally), group G2 and B2 were treated with closantel (@ 20 mg/kg b.wt. orally), group G3 and B3 were treated with ivermectin (0.4 mg/kg, subcutaneous injection) and group G4 and B4 served as untreated control. Faecal samples were collected on zero and 14th day after treatment from all groups a