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Title: Intellectual Disability: definition, classification, causes and characteristics
Abstract :

The term intellectual disability refers to the level of cognitive functioning that is demonstrated by particular children. It is the circumstance in which a children’s cognitive functioning is impeded to the point of causing a significant disability in receiving information from his or her environment, then effectively processing, problem solving and adapting to this information. This paper provides an overview of children with intellectual disability incorporating definition, causes and classification for conceptual understanding. Intellectual disability is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, the latter expressed as conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills. An intellectual disability is defined as an IQ below 70 and deficits in adaptive behaviour or daily living skills (eating, dressing, communication, participate in group activity). People with intellectual disability learn slowly and have difficulty with abstract concepts. This paper also throws some light on the characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities.

Title: Decision-making Power and Social Status of Women in Indian Society
Abstract :
‘Women’ the most beautiful creation on the earth. We can feel her divinity in form of a mother. We can feel her dedication in form of a wife. Women Empowerment refers to the creation of an environment for women where they can make decision of their own for their personal benefits as well as for the society. It also refers to increasing and improving the social, political, economic and legal strength of the women, to ensure equal right to women, and to make them confident enough to claim their rights, such as :
1. To have complete control of their life, both within and outside of their home
and workplace.
2. Have equal rights to participate in social, religious and public activities.
3. To have equal social status in the society.
4. To get equal opportunities for education.
5. To get safe and comfortable working environment.
Thus, making the right decision not only gives us peace, but also save time and in modern India, women have held high officies including that of the President, Prime Minister, Speaker of the Lok Sabha etc. but the safe and comfortable environment for the women is a major issue in India. If women Empowerment to aware the all urban and rural women to protect themselves then we can call it Entire Women Empowerment in India. And every woman has own power and social status.
Title: Effectiveness of Job Stress on Job Satisfaction of University Teaching Departments of Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalya, Indore
Abstract :

This study examined the Role Stress of teachers working at Devi Ahliya Vishwavidyalya, Indore. Thirty teachers of different UTD’S were chosen as sample, by using Simple Random Sampling Technique and administered with an Occupational Stress Rating Scale. The statistical techniques employed were ANOVA and the obtained results are analyzed accordingly. To overcome occupational stress, the researchers have suggested some measures which could prove beneficial to teachers in coping with Role Stress are: improve self-esteem, build self confidence, work on building emotional intelligence competencies, develop a good sense of humor, favorable organizational climate, good infrastructure in UTD’s.

Title: The Paniya Tribes in Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu
Abstract :
Paniyans are one among the Primitive Tribal Groups (PTG’s) in Tamil Nadu. The Paniyans or Paniyas are found in the Southern part of the India in the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka. They are concentrated mainly in the Gudalur and Pandalur taluks of the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu. The Paniya are one of the five ancient tribal communities of Tamil Nadu. They dwell in different hill and forest areas of Tamil Nadu. Various districts where the Paniya tribes have built their settlements. Include Gudalur block and Pandalur Taluk. The detailed information about the origin of the Paniya tribe is still unclear, but some details relating to this tribal community signify a little about the extraction of this tribal group. Thick lips, dark complexion and curly hair are the physical appearance of the Paniya people.
According to 2011 census, the total population of the paniyans in Nilgiris district is 9,824 (4741 males and 5083 females). 36 Scheduled Tribes have been notified in Tamil Nadu by the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled tribes order (Amendment) Act 1976 and among them, six groups, namely, Paniyan, Todas, Kotas, Irulas, Kattunayakkan and Kurumbas are categorized as particularly vulnerable tribal Groups (PVTG) who are populated in Nilgiri District. Paniyas are the most important tribal community in Tamil Nadu among these sections. The Paniyas has very limited wants. Food, shelter and clothing are the only important wants of Paniyas. Better education facility, modern health system and variety of commodities in the market are not familiar with this community.
Paniyans as they are mostly landless laborers; illiterate, leaderless, unorganized and therefore generally unable to demand the minimum wages fixed by the Government. It is poverty and lack of self-respect that make the Paniyas willing tools in the hands of the clever crooks among the Nilgiri settlers. The Paniyas, as a whole, are the poorest of the poor among other tribal communities. Vast majority of the Paniyan work hard as coolies in tea estates and agricultural fields, from morning till evening, earn approximately ` 150 to 200 per day.
Paniyan Children hardly attend school. Most of the Parents do not take effort to send their children to school; they are not even ready to spend money to purchase school bags and stationeries for their kids.
The teachers in the elementary schools take effort to visit the settlements and bring the children to schools. At times the children hide themselves from teachers. Though they have got the provision of Tribal Residential Schools within few kilometers from the settlements, children often flee from attending school. The Paniyan is trying to retain their tribal character; changes are bound to persist in their traditional social organization, economic pursuit, political behaviour, etc., Consequents on the changes in all spheres a human thought and activity. Despite governmental efforts for their economic uplift, these tribal groups still continue to eke out a pathetic life in the midst of ignorance, indebtedness, ill- health and above all unhealthy economic practices.

 

Title: International Centre for Curriculum and Research Development (ICCRD): The foundation, aim and future of an interdisciplinary & advanced unit of Crown University International Chartered Incorporated (CUICI), Argentina, South America—A Case Study
Abstract :

The Education system is changing rapidly and there are many changes and issues in education system around the world. The education systems for undeveloped countries compare to developed countries are developed one are totally different due to various nature. The foundation and elementary education systems, higher education and research centers of different countries are also different in many contexts. The infrastructure, curricula, pedagogy & teaching-learning process, availability of educational programs, specializations, mode of study and so on. There are many educational institutes are establishing in different parts of the world with different aim and agenda, facilities and way in delivery. Previously universities and higher educational institutes (HEIs) were only standalone and restricted towards a particular place only fewer programs but in recent past in many countries higher educational institutes are coming with more innovative and newly adopted model and among these newly established one, Crown University International Chartered Incorporated (CUICI) is important one with different and modern aim, vision and mission itself. This is a case study based paper and concentrated on Crown University International Chartered Incorporated (CUICI) with special reference to one of its academic unit called International Centre for Curriculum and Research Development (ICCRD). Paper highlighted as different aim, objectives, vision & mission including functions and future activities in brief. Different portion of this paper/chapter is carried from the concerned institute itself with proper permission from the competent authority.

Title: Role of ICT in E-governance and Rural Development : An Indian Scenario
Abstract :

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) play a key role in development & Economic growth of Rural India. A large number of rural e-Governance applications, developed as pilot projects were aimed at offering easy access to citizens services and improved processing of government to citizen transactions..This paper presents a brief review of the technologies, the rural ICT projects and the issues associated with the use of ICT for rural e-governance applications.

Title: Coping with Stress during COVID-19 Using Mind Map: Case Studies
Abstract :

Corona Virus turning into global pandemic and countries going under lockdown is taxing. The panorama of not being able to leave house may be distressing, and can negatively impact mental health of the people of any age group worldwide, especially learner community who are at the edge of academic year and looking forward for new endeavours. This uncertainty can lead to anxiety and severe stress. During such time the focus should be on aspects which are in control rather than worrying about what is not in control. It’s important for the learners at this stage to handle stress as it can take a toll on him/her both physically and mentally. Besides academic support, they need effective psychological support. Because during stress mind is clustered with several negative thoughts which hamper daily activities and performance. Mastering in ‘mind mapping’ is skill which could be useful for the learners. The major objective of the paper is to describe the nature of stress the learners can face during this pandemic, provide a framework of mind mapping to cope up with stress to achieve learning outcomes by reducing anxiety, encouraging creative ways to study. This paper will help the teachers and parents to provide effective support to the learners and the learners will be able to develop coping strategies to allocate their energy productively and build resilience against stress. The researcher investigated three case studies using mind map technique. The results show that mind map is one of the useful techniques to reduce stress as it facilitates in visualising all the thoughts and ideas at one place and take further decision by performing those written tasks.

Title: Self- Efficacy and Emotional Intelligence among Creative Professionals: A Study on Gender Differences
Abstract :
Self-efficacy is the individuals’ assessment of their capabilities to organize and execute actions required to achieve successful levels of performance. Emotional intelligence is defined as the composite set of capabilities that enable a person to manage himself/herself and others. The present study attempted to assess the impact of gender on self-efficacy and emotional intelligence of 100 creative professionals (dancers, musicians and painters), having a minimum of 5 years professional experience. For the present study, data was divided into two groups (i.e. 50 males and 50 females) of creative professionals randomly selected from three private academies ofthe tri-city (Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula). The t-test was applied for the purpose of statistical interpretation to test the significance of 
difference between these two means. Results indicated that males were found to be higher on the dimension of emotional intelligence than female creative professionals. However, no significant difference was found among male and female creative professionals on the dimension of self- efficacy. Further research however, is needed to comprehend the same.
Title: An Endeavour to Improve the Reading Skill of Tribal Children through Revival and Usage of Indigenous Adivasi Languages: My Experience in Mayurbhanj District, Odisha
Abstract :

Research says that language is the vehicle of communication. A person is able to express his inner feelings through his mother language. During the intervention of CARE India in Mayurbhanj, It was noticed that the languages such as Mundari and Ho were at risk of falling out of use due to the abundant use of the state language in the tribal area. It was clear from the earlier studies conducted by CARE India that oral language and vocabulary development is the base for improving the reading skill of children. CARE India also strongly believed that the reading skill of children can be improved by accessing the children to the age and grade specific supplementary reading materials developed in their mother tongue. Keeping this in view, an initiation was taken to develop some bilingual reading materials for the tribal children with support from the community people. Development of these materials not only helped improve the reading skill of children but also preserved and revived the Tribal languages from being extinct. This paper clearly states the methods adopted for conservation of the languages.

Title: Integrating Social Studies Education, Religion and Cultural Values for National Interest as Panacea for Curbing Social Violence in Nigeria
Abstract :

The experience of civil war that threatened the unity of this nation Nigeria would have been lessons for all citizens if the society would continue to be a united nation, but the recent spate of anti-social activities leading to outright social violence points to blank reminiscence of those gloomy days. New forms of social violence that are alien to our cultural and society are on the increase. Our unity, security, peace and survival as a nation are threatened. Yet there is an unpredictable expansion of our education sector and a prolific growth and development of religious groups which in the ordinary sense should be agents of peaceful co-existence. What then is wrong? This paper argues that there is a missing link between social studies education, cultural values, ethnicity, religious values and ideals. Ethnocentric interests are priced above national unity; religions highly politicized thereby leading to clash of ideologies and thus social violence. It is the opinion of these writers that since social studies education is both value free and value laden subject which cannot be out rightly separated from religious, cultural and political interest, a synthetic integration of the virtues of these institutions for national interest will be panacea for curbing social violence in Nigeria. The paper delves into the role of social studies education in eradicating or stemming all forms of social violence in Nigeria. The paper then recommends that National inter-ethnic and inter-religious conferences to be organized quarterly every year for values assimilation and orientation as a measure for curbing social violence.

Title: Contents Vol. 10, No. 1, April 2019
Abstract :
Title: Cyber Crime Awareness among Student-Teacher of B.Ed in Relation to Internet Usage
Abstract :

The use of technology in the field of education has become a necessity. Computers have become a blessing to the modern educational system. Computers are being use in the education system in the management process, administrative process and in the teaching learning process. Both teacher and students are seen using the computer for their personal and academic works. Teachers and students have access to the internet through computers which are available in schools and colleges or through personal computers or through smart phones. Teachers and students can use these information to complete assignments, project, to gain better understanding on the subject matter, to publish papers and research works and share information. The study used descriptive survey method. The sample of 75 student teachers from BEd colleges of Shillong was randomly selected. The study found that the locale and having computer have impact on cyber crime awareness. There is a relation between the browsing period and cyber crime awareness among student teachers of Shillong.

Title: Study of Cyber Crime Awareness in Relation to Internet Addiction
Abstract :
This study aims to find out the relation between cyber crime awareness and internet addiction. In this study, a sample of 200 college students from Sonepat district was taken through random sampling method. Two tools viz. Cyber Crime Awareness Scale and Internet Addiction Test were used for the collection of data. Analysis was done by using the statistical techniques like mean, t-test and correlation. It was found that there was no significant difference among urban and rural college students on cyber crime awareness and internet addiction. However, significant difference in the cyber crime awareness and internet addiction was observed between boys and girls. Positive relationship between cyber crime awareness and internet addiction was observed. It was found that high internet addiction will produce high cyber crime awareness and vice-versa.
Title: Assessing Civic Education as Instrument for Building True Democratic Structures Among Students of Tertiary Institutions in Ogun State
Abstract :

This research work investigated on the assessing civic education as instrument for building true democratic structures among students of tertiary institutions in Ogun State. This study adopted a descriptive research survey design. The population comprised of all the students in Higher Institutions in Ogun State. Simple random sampling techniques was used for this study and sample of two hundred (200) students were selected from four (4) Higher Institutions in Ogun State. Fifty (50) students were selected from each school for the purpose of this research work. Questionnaire was the instrument used to elicit information required from the respondents. Four (4) null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The data collected was analyzed using Chi-square statistics tools however, the findings indicated that: there will be significant effect on the level of Civil Education as instrument for Building True Democratic Structures among Students of Tertiary Institutions; the role of Civic education will significantly serve as instrument for building true democratic structures among students of tertiary institutions in Ogun State; there will be significant relationship between Civic Education and true democratic structures among students of tertiary Institutions in Ogun State and there will be significant relationship between knowledge of Civic Education and creating awareness on the building of true democratic structures among students of Tertiary Institutions in Ogun State. However, it was discovered that all the constructed hypotheses were rejected. Therefore, it was recommended that: Civic Education Curriculum contents should be strengthened to be seen as a catalyst for the advancement of individual and national development in order to ensure true democratic system in Nigeria and socio-civic and political education should not be limited to the school system. Hence, both formal and informal approaches should be adopted to orientate the citizens on the need for active participation in the political system and proactive civic engagement.

Title: Quality Assurance in School Education
Abstract :

The concern of any parent today is to make their children realize their dreams in life. The race for a good education starts the day the child enters in the school. With the economy becoming global year after year and parents attaching more importance to quality education, the competition to secure a seat in the best schools has become even more severe. Schools, therefore, should allow early acquisition of life skills within a complex learning environment. To be successful, teaching and learning – and the learning environment in the school – must be coherent. This requires a capacity-building process, which permeates the whole school life and aims to achieve a wide range of governance including knowledge, skills, values and dispositions.   Large numbers of researchers have viewed school quality in terms of the learning outcomes of students exhibited in form of cognitive achievement, which has been identified as the major explicit objective of all schools. Hence, it is the students’ cognitive achievement that is most often taken as an indicator of school quality. The NPE 1986 envisaged that teaching staff would be responsible for academic standards and providing academic leadership to ensure better performances by schools. School authorities, therefore, must adopt a proper quality assurance mechanism, monitor quality continuously with respect to different identified indicators and initiates appropriate actions to achieve the goals. Such an approach will help the management and the teachers to become aware of their responsibilities with regard to establishing quality in their management and teaching functions.

Title: A study of role of SMC as mentioned in Right to Education Act, 2009 among Municipal Corporation Primary Schools of Delhi.
Abstract :

The present article is an attempt to study the role of SMC members in the implementation of Right to Education Act, 2009. The study is descriptive survey.The data was collected from SMC members of Municipal Corporation Schools of Delhi. A questionnaire comprising of closed ended and open ended questions was prepared for studying the role of SMC members in the implementation of RTE Act. The data collected was systematically tabulated and was analysed qualitatively. The findings of the study show that the provision of SMC is not functional in the investigated schools. There is lack of awareness among teachers, parents and SMC members regarding functioning of SMC.

Title: Effectiveness of Job Stress on Job Satisfaction of University Teaching Departments of Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalya Indore
Abstract :

This study examined the Role Stress of teachers working at Devi Ahliya Vishwavidyalya, Indore. Thirty teachers of different UTD’S were chosen as sample, by using Simple Random Sampling Technique and administered with an Occupational Stress Rating Scale. The statistical techniques employed were ANOVA and the obtained results are analyzed accordingly. To overcome occupational stress, the researchers have suggested some measures which could prove beneficial to teachers in coping with Role Stress are: improve self esteem, build self confidence, work on building emotional intelligence competencies, develop a good sense of humor, favorable organizational climate, good infrastructure in UTD’s.

Title: Representation of women in Jammu and Kashmir Bureaucracy: A Sociological Analysis
Abstract :

The status of women is not homogenous throughout the social and economic fabric of Jammu & Kashmir; there exists wide range diversity on the status and role of women, but generally it has been observed in Jammu & Kashmir those women’s rights to inheritance, education, employment, and political rights, are considerably lower compared to that of men. The social construction in Jammu & Kashmir is predominantly patriarchal. Consequently, women are seen to succumb to subordination .Additionally women are provided with limited opportunities to create choices that allow them to change the realities of their lives. Public sphere activities in Jammu & Kashmir are predominantly male and the Jammu & Kashmir state Administration is governed by male actors. Administration is one of the most important instruments available to the Government to achieve the goals of the nation. Kashmir bureaucratic organization is not a gender neutral; the women in the organization are not a professional neutral but are sexualized by their gender. They are not rewarded for their competence or expertise, but are stereotyped and allowed to have limited access to excel in the bureaucracy. They are excluded from the power equation. This sort of discrimination not only ensures that women do not have powerful, successful career like their male counterparts, but also de-motivates and disillusions the women about future success in their career. In this context the present paper entitled women’s representation in bureaucracy: A sociological Analysis will try to analyze the various impediments that continue to hinder women in moving up the bureaucratic ladder in Jammu and Kashmir Administration.

Title: A Situational Study on the Nature of Questions being Used in Early Grade Classes: My Experience in Government Schools of Mayurbhanj, Odisha
Abstract :
Questioning is essential for two-way communication between a teacher and children or among children themselves. Questions play an important role in the processes of teaching and learning because children’s achievement and their level of engagement depend on the types of questions teachers formulate and use in a classroom. Good questions promote child-centered teaching. As we move from a teacher-led mode of teaching and learning to more child-initiated approaches, questions rather than answers are imperative in shaping the socio-cognitive development of learners as they explore and make meaning in collaborative contexts. This paper outlines a situational study in 2 early grade classes in two model Government schools of Mayurbhanj district in Odisha. This paper mentions that it is important to focus on promoting novice teachers’ knowledge and skills in questioning so that they can support children’s higher levels of thinking. This is especially relevant for teachers of the Government schools working in India.
Title: Relationship between Social Competence and Home Environment of Adolescents
Abstract :

This study was conducted to find the relationship between social competence and home environment of adolescents. This study also aimed at finding the relationship between dimensions of social competence (Personal adequacy, interpersonal adequacy and communication skills) and dimensions of home environment ( Protectiveness, parental involvement, academic stimulation, reward, parental warmth, punishment, participation in home affairs, control, permissiveness and parental expectations). Descriptive method was used in this study. The study was conducted on a sample of 800 students of +1 class taken randomly from schools of Jalandhar and Kapurthala affiliated to Panjab school education board, Mohali. Social competence scale by Sharma & Rani (2012) was used to find social competence among adolescents. Home environment scale by Akhtar & Saxena (2014) was used to study the home environment of adolescents. The analysis of data was done by using product moment correlation, mean, standard deviation, coefficient of skewness and coefficient of kurtosis were also calculated to know the nature of data. The results of the study show that the Personal Adequacy (PA) dimension of social competence has positive, low but significant relation with academic stimulation dimension of home environment. All other nine dimensions of home environment have positive, very low and not significant correlation with personal adequacy of adolescents. The results show that there exists positive, very low but significant correlation between interpersonal adequacy dimension of social competence and parental involvement, academic stimulation, reward, parental warmth, participation in home affairs, permissiveness and parental expectation dimensions of home environment respectively while there exists a positive, very low and not significant relation between interpersonal adequacy & protectiveness, punishment and control dimensions of home environment. There exists a positive, low,but significant correlations between communication skills dimension of social competence and parental involvement, parental expectations, academic stimulation and permissiveness dimensions of home environment while the correlation of communication skills with the remaining dimensions of home environment is not significant. There exists a positive, low but significant correlation between social competence and home environment of adolescents. The results indicated that as home plays an important role in developing social competence among adolescents, such a loving and caring environment should be provided at home that gives academic stimulation, protectiveness, freedom to express ideas and opportunities to participate in home affairs.

Title: Absenteeism among High School Students in Relation to School Climate
Abstract :

There is a strong relationship between school, teacher and student. Schools and teachers are meant for the development of students. Absenteeism of students occur due to such as school climate, motivation, lack of parental support etc. the higher the absenteeism, the lower the academics of students. The tool used in the present study is School refusal assessment scale standardized by Kearnel A. Christoper. The survey method was selected as it was found relevant for the present study. Stratified random sampling technique is followed in this study. The sample of the study consists of 300 high school students from Coimbatore city. The present study reveals that there exists a positive relationship between school climate and students absenteeism. Hence there exists a moderate correlation relation between absenteeism and school climate. In order to reduce the level of absenteeism with regard to school climate, necessary measures should be taken by the school authorities.

Title: Role of ICT in Professional Development of Teachers
Abstract :

The most striking and latest innovation in the field of education is the integration of Information and Communication technology in education. The educational institutions, administrators, and teachers should cope with the suddenly increasing demand for information and skills. One cannot depend on only the same big blackboards, an overhead projector and video-graphed concepts as either because the transaction of curriculum is poor or the tools used in its transition lack application and skill. Technological resources that are available for teaching and learning specially include computer hardware and software, in addition to the growing range of peripherals, which include video, CD-ROM and electronic communication media. The rapidly changing nature of computer technology continues to expand the range of resources available for any subject- specific learning. Educators must be imaginative, flexible and willing to renew their vision of teaching and learning if they are to fully realize the potential of educational technology.

Title: A Study of Job Burnout of Factory Workers in Relation to their Age
Abstract :

Job burnout is a special type of job stress-a state of physical, emotional or mental exhaustion combined with doubts about the competence and the value of the work. In the present study, the researcher has attempted to study the effect of age on the job burnout of the factory workers. For this purpose, 100 factory workers (Male=50, Female=50) were selected as sample through random sampling method. Normative survey method was employed in this study. The collected data was analyzed through one way analysis of variance. The findings revealed that there was a significant difference in the job burnout of rural factory workers of age group of below 35 years, 36 to 50 years and above 50. Rural factory workers of age group of below 35 years had higher job burnout. On the other hand, no significant difference was found in the job burnout of urban, male and female factory workers of age group of below 35 years, 36 to 50 years and above 50.

Title: Contents Vol. 11, No. 1, April 2020
Abstract :
Title: Caste Divide and Social Imbalances Driving Naxalism In Central India
Abstract :

In the present day scenario, Naxalism has become the major internal security threat. The root causes of spread of Naxalism are poverty, unemployment, famishment and difference in the status of people in the society. Since, the dawn of the human civilisation, poorer have been ill treated and harassed by the people of higher class and when the level of suffering and harassment reached the pinnacle, people decided to take up guns under the umbrella of Naxalism. There is need to identify and address the root causes of spread of Naxalism. Government has taken up the various steps and launched various schemes with an aim to win the hearts and minds of common people. However, it is important to ensure that these benefits of government initiatives must reach the common man.

Title: The Naxal Quagmire in Bihar & Jharkhand – Genesis & Sustenance
Abstract :

Today the threat to national sovereignty is not limited to our borders, it has reached to the core of our nation. Naxalism is gradually becoming another major source of concern. Government is taking both kinetic and non kinetic efforts to subside this devil; however states of Bihar and Jharkhand are still in the grips of this devil. It lures the people of weaker section in its gamut and portrays as their fighters. Government has been genuinely working to get misguided people on the right track of normalcy and growth. Several initiatives and schemes have been launched by the government for the upliftment of the common man. At the sametime , it is important to ensure that the benefits reaches to the right person in right time.

Title: How does Academic Self-Handicapping Relate to Achievement in Mathematic? A Small Scale Study among Indian School Chult
Abstract :

Many research revealed that Self-Handicapping is associated with the students’ personal motivations, academic achievement, global self-esteem and certainty of self-esteem. This study is designed to find out the relationship between Self-Handicapping, and Achievement in Mathematics of learners of chult age (adolescence). Using Multi-stage cluster sampling 204 secondary school students of Thiruvananthapuram educational sub district were selected for the study. Participants were directed to fill in the self-reported Self-Handicapping Scale; the Achievement score in Mathematics were taken from the school records. Data has been analyzed with SPSS-16th version. Students of chult age have a moderate level of Self-Handicapping and High level of Achievement in Mathematics but there is a negative low relationship between Self-Handicapping and Achievement in Mathematics. This study disclosed that self-Handicapping and achievement in Mathematics are correlated. Thus, a positive variation in Self-Handicapping will make a corresponding decrease in Achievement in Mathematics and vice-versa

Title: Awareness among B.Ed teacher training towards Cyber-crime-A Study
Abstract :

The present study aims to find out the Cyber Crime Awareness among B.Ed. Teacher Trainees. For this purpose a sample of 120 B.Ed students was selected from Sonipat district.The data was collected by Cyber Crime Awareness Scale (CCAS-RS) developed by Dr. S. Rajasekar. The study reveals that there is no significant difference towards cyber-crime awareness among boys and girls. There is no significant difference towards cyber-crime awareness among rural boys and girls. There is significant difference towards cyber-crime awareness among urban boys and girls, science and art boys and science and art girls. The result shows that awareness towards cyber-crime is not significantly affected by Gender, whether it is male or female but it is significantly affected area, whether it is rural or urban stream, whether it is science or art.

Title: Contents Vol. 9, No. 2&3, August-December 2018
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Title: Effects of Market Share by Use of Mobile Phone Money Transfer on The Profitability of Micro and Small Enterprises in Bungoma County
Abstract :

There have been relatively few studies focusing directly on the way mobile payments are used to enhance the quality of the services of MSEs especially those in rural areas and therefore increasing their profitability. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mobile phone-money transfer services (M-PESA) on the profitability of Micro and Small Enterprises in Bungoma County. The target population was Micro and Small Enterprises which consisted businesses such as retail shops, tailoring, chemists, hardware’s, carpentry, metal workers, hair salons, repair services and butcheries. Descriptive research design was used to obtain information about the existing phenomenon by use of questionnaires. The sampling technique used was multi-stage random sampling where a total of 57 sample size was yielded. Excel Computer Package was used to analyse data which was descriptive and presented in form of graphs, pie-charts and percentage tables. Some of the major findings included that almost each business own or have used a mobile phone in their business at 98% which signifies that the high penetration of the mobile phone among the MSEs in rural areas can serve to help the high percentage of unbanked small businesses access financial services through M-pesa which helps them to increase their profits and as a result, the mobile phone industry can be seen as an ideal partner to offer mobile services to MSEs in rural areas. The government should assist in bringing down the cost of m-pesa transactions so as to induce MSEs in using mobile money transfer services.

Title: Convergence Networks, Current Trends with its Challenges and Benefits for Complete Digital Age: An Overview
Abstract :

The Convergence Network refers to the easy provision of video, telephone and data communication services within a Single Network. It’s said to be a Convergence Network. In different words, one company provided for all forms of a communication through a Single Media. The main purpose of convergence network is provided to better service in a lower rate to the clients. Convergence Network is a primarily driven by development of technology and need and the practices it follows. Ideally suited Convergence Network offer the service providers and option to selected and adopt new models for business, taken into consider a new innovation services and also enter into absolutely new markets. The Convergence Network is said to be a blend of telecommunication, Internet and Broadcasting network services. In earlier days transformed of data is limited to just two way send and received of the data or Text Messages. But now a day’s even telephone networks are transmitted data up and down, and also cable networks can be supply services for the voice messages.

Title: Government Policies and Programmes for Elderly Women in India: A Special Reference to Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme in Slums Areas of Aligarh
Abstract :

There are various policies and programs being run by the government of India for uplifting the status of the citizens. This paper focuses on the policy that has been particularly introduced for the betterment of elderly people named Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme popularly known as ‘Vridhdha Pension’. The main aim of this study is to gather information about the implementation of this scheme on elderly women in slum areas of Aligarh city and the behaviour of the people of the concerned departments towards them. 40 elderly women were selected randomly from slum areas for this study. Interview schedule was used for data collection. The analysis of the data results in the view that there are a number of impediments in the way of receiving the pension and in approaching the concerned authorities

Title: Factors and Principles that Stimulate FinTech Growth: A Case of Safaricom Company in Kenya
Abstract :

Financial technology (FinTech) continues to receive much attention and promises to transform financial services industry. As this technology emerges there is a strong conviction that it will reduce costs and create new opportunities to the participants. And, although the development of FinTech is still in early stages, many believe that it will define and shape the future of the financial services industry, and at the same time increase participation by those who have until recently been under- or un served. Fin tech is evolving in an environment that portents intense competition and there is a doubt of outright success in this space. Various factors, both internal and external, will impact on this rather highly fluid product providing technology. Survival in this market will rely on how best a participant positions oneself and meet customer expectations. This article demonstrates some key factors that determine the success of FinTech firms in this competitive industry. Some of these factors, termed the LASIC (low margin, asset light, scalable, innovative and compliance easy) principles have been mentioned. FinTech companies could benefit from applying some of the ideas presented in this article to their businesses. We surveyed key firms in the financial sector investing and innovating new FinTech products. Safaricom was singled out and it’s LASIC basic principles isolated to illustrate how its success relies on these principles. The conclusion drawn is that in the ever changing financial environment consumers represent a key focal element. Firms should strive to manufacture products that meet the expectations of the changing needs of customers in the financial market- personalized services that provide convenience, security and connectivity. Connectivity can be achieved through smart phones, wirables and across radio signals. The financial market needs an integration of both social linkage and financial inclusion. FinTech expansion does not evolve in a vacuum. There will always be government and its agents ready to institute regulatory processes to protect both consumers and service providers. It is important to point out that regulation should be pro- tech rather than anti-tech. The regulations created should encourage growth of technologies like M-PESA because of the benefits that come with such technology.

Title: Effectiveness of innovative technique on the working of brain and creativity and performance in mathematics of fifth class students
Abstract :

The present study was intended to investigate the effectiveness of abacus technique on the working of right and left sides of Brain, Creativity and Performance in mathematics among fifth class students. The study was conducted on 100 students of fifth class of two schools; Pre-Post test experiment control group design was employed. Abacus technique was treatment variable where as brain functioning of right and left hemisphere, creativity and performance were dependent variables. The findings of study reveal that abacus technique yielded higher gain scores than conventional class room teaching with respect to right and left brain functioning, elaboration (non verbal) and originality (non-verbal) on creativity test and in performance of fifth class students in mathematics. Also the gain scores of performance time shows after treatment time taken was less and differ significantly for conventional class room teaching. The group target taught through Abacus technique took significantly less time for completing the same syllabus then the control group.

Title: A Study of Computer Phobia among Prospective Teachers
Abstract :

Computer technology has revolutionized the Indian educational system. The main goal of computer in education is to enhance the teaching – learning process, but computer phobia is one of the major obstacles. In the present study, the researchers have made an attempt to find out computer phobia among the prospective teachers and also suggested some measures to remove this phobia among prospective teachers.

Title: Effect of Gamification on Motivated Learning Strategies among College Students
Abstract :

Gamification is becoming highly popular in the scenario of teaching and learning activities. It is a powerful educational strategy for academic process as it instigates and enhances the motivation for the learners of digital generation. The study was carried out using a correlational descriptive design. The population of the study college students of Malappuram district, Kerala. The sample selected for the study comprised of 153 students which is selected using random sampling technique. The points, badges and leader boards were given to students as gamified strategies for online classes using LMS with a maximum score of 30. Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) is used to assess students’ motivation towards learning. The statistical tests used for analysis of data are, person’s correlation test and simple liner regression analysis. The study found that there is a significant effect of gamification on motivation among college students as overall and in a varying degree in its various dimensions. The study concluded that there is a significant effect and gamification is moderate predictor of motivation for learning among college students.

Title: Contents
Abstract :

Vol. 9, No. 1, April 2018

Title: Electronic Banking and Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Migori County
Abstract :

Devolution in Kenya has brought changes in many sectors of the economy. With the aim to attain the vision 2030 of industrialized nation and technological invention and innovation, many industries have embraced innovation in the field of information communication technology. ICT is seen as the main drive towards attainment of technological goals. Innovation in IT has been the force behind transformation of financial institutions in Migori County. Tremendous development in IT and the struggle to attain the vision’s goals has made banking services more effective, accessible and cheaper. The study investigated the effects of E-banking on financial performance of commercial banks in Migori County. There are 4 variables used to investigate the main objective of the study. The study investigated 6 banks in five towns in Migori County. 56 respondents filled the questionnaires and emailed them back. Purposive sampling was used to select banks in the towns whereas stratified random sampling was used to cover the total population. The study adopted descriptive research design where qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. Primary data was be collected through questionnaires developed and sent to respondents of commercial banks. The data was augmented with secondary data that was incorporated in the questionnaires and the central bank of Kenya supervisory reports. Regression analysis with aid of Statistical packages for social science and Microsoft Excel played a major role aid in data analysis and presentation. To test for significance, paired t-test and non-parametric test was used at 0.05 level of significance. The analysed data was presented using narrations, tables and line graphs.

Title: Social Media and Political Mobilization in India
Abstract :

India is considered as the largest democracy in the world. The proper functioning of a democratic system depends upon its electoral politics and election result is the outcome of the mobilization strategies adopted by the different political parties of the country. Thus political mobilization is particularly important in any democratic politics. This paper seeks to understand how the mobilization strategy has been redefined due to the entry of social media into politics. There is no scope to deny the fact that conventional media still play an important role in political mobilization. But the coming into being of social media into politics has made things more interesting, politics more democratic and the electoral system more inclusive. The political leaders irrespective of political parties are trying their best to utilize the social media platforms for their electoral benefits. The paper is evaluating the role of social media in political mobilization as different from conventional media with the expectation that doing away with the fake news will make this new media a prospective media in the near future.

Title: A Study to find the perceptions of teachers towards child with dyslexia
Abstract :
The present study was conducted with the objective of finding out the perceptions of teachers towards child with dyslexia.This study was conducted at schools in Delhi region. Many misperceptions were also identified based on how long teachers had taught, whether teachers had specialist certificate or training to teach child with dyslexia, the school from which teachers earned their teaching degree, and overall beliefs’ about child with dyslexia.Significance of the findings in relation to the wider inclusive educational ideology is discussed and suggestions are made about the child with dyslexia.
Title: Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instructional Package as Remedial Teaching for Learning disabled Children
Abstract :

The study determined the effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instructional package (Games/Simulations) as Remedial teaching for learning disabled children among fifth grade students. Two null hypotheses were tested. The study adopted the pre-test-post-test-control group design. Simple random sample of sixty four (64) students were drawn from seven schools in Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India. The researcher developed computer assisted instructional package (Game/Simulations) for Learning Disabled Children which was used as an instrument for experimental group while control group were exposed to traditional teaching method. The instrument for data collection was DTLD Test. The t-test statistics was used to analyse the hypothesis. The findings revealed that experimental group performed better than the control group.

Title: Effect of Advance Organizer Model of Teaching on Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Social Science
Abstract :Advance Organizers are models which help students organize information by connecting it to a larger cognitive structure that reflects the organization of the discipline itself. An advance organizer  is a cognitive instructional strategy used to promote the learning and retention of new information. According to Ausubel (1978), the Advance organizer is an introductory material at a higher level of abstraction, generally and inclusiveness, to the learning material presented before the actual learning task. Advance organizer model is more effective when the learner lacks prior knowledge transfer. Keeping in view the importance of Advance Organizer Model in teaching-learning process a study was conducted. The sample of the study included 60 students of class IX. Purposive sampling technique was used to collect data. Intelligence test was used for selection of experimental and control groups. The students were divided into two groups (30 students in each group) on the basis of intelligence test score. The experimental group was taught through Advance Organizer model and the control group was taught by using traditional method (lecture method). After completion of teaching a self developed achievement test was administered. For drawing out the result, t-test was used. Result showed that students exposed to Advance Organizer model possessed higher score than the students taught through traditional method in social science.
Title: Science teachers participation in Nigerian School evaluation
Abstract :

The concern of this paper is to find out from the science teachers in Nigeria, their perception of the functionalism and their participation in the internal testing programme of Secondary Schools special reference to Rivers State. A sample of 1000 science teachers was randomly stratified from the entire teachers’ population of 6,000 in Government-own Secondary Schools. The percentages and chi-square (x2) statistical tools were used. The three hypotheses of the study were accepted at an alpha level of 0.05. There was no statistically significant relationships found between the science teachers’ perception of the internal testing programme in their schools and their participation in the whole exercises viz: their classroom instructional management functions; the guidance and counselling of their schools and the administration of their schools respectively. A suggestion for the training and re-training programmes of the science teachers in measurement and evaluation, principles practice methods and capability were preferred in the paper

Title: Becoming Inclusive Teachers: Perspectives of Pre-service Teachers of Regional Institute of Education, Bhubaneswar on Inclusive Education
Abstract :

Preparing educators for inclusive education setup and improving learning outcomes of children with special needs is a major concern across the globe. The present study explored student teachers’ perspectives towards inclusive education. The study explored the experiences and preparation of secondary level pre-service teachers in theory and field-based activities for inclusive education. A descriptive survey method was used for this study. The research was limited to students studying at Regional Institute of Education, Bhubaneswar a constituent unit of NCERT, India. The sample consisted 125 final-semester student teachers (8th semester student teachers from four-year integrated B.A.B.Ed., B.Sc.B.Ed. and 4th semester student teachers from 2 year B.Ed. programmes). Attitude scale and self-developed questionnaire were used for this study. The result of the study revealed that, majority of the student teachers have optimistic attitudes toward inclusive education. Majority of the pre-service teachers stated that theory and field engagement activities for inclusive education are helpful for preparing inclusive classroom teachers. But they also stated that these activities and conceptual papers are not enough for preparing inclusive classroom teachers. The study’s findings have a wide range of consequences for teachers, teacher educators, and teacher education institutions as well as forthcoming research.

Title: III Criterion of NAAC Research, Consultancy and Extension : A Case Study of School of Education, DAVV, Indore
Abstract :

The life of the individuals and the nation cannot be uplifted without Quality Higher Education. With the sole objective to give a helping hand to the Institutions to improve the Quality of Higher Education, NAAC has designed the seven criterion system for the assessment and accreditation procedure. This research paper deals with III criterion of NAAC out of the seven criteria. It is a Case Study of University Teaching Department in which the researcher studied all the six key aspects under the III Criterion – Research, Consultancy and Extension. This criterion seeks information on the policies, practices and outcomes of the Institutions with reference to Research, Consultancy and Extension. The reason to choose this criterion is that NAAC provides 35% of weightage to it, for Autonomous Colleges. It throws light on the efforts and strengths of School of Education (SOE) to promote a research culture. It’s Quality of Research and Extension Work is known all over the Nation which distinguishes it from the other Institutions in the country and makes it an ideal symbol for the other Teacher Education Institutions. The authors have outlined all the policies and practices carried by the Department by categorizing under the six key aspects of III Criterion.

Title: A Comparative Account of Qualitative and Quantitative Research
Abstract :
Quantitative research is concerned with establishing the cause and effect relationship but qualitative research is more concerned with understanding the social phenomenon from the participant’s perspectives. In other words we can say that, qualitative research is concerned with the opinions, experiences and feelings of individuals producing subjective data. Whereas quantitative researchers seek causal determination, prediction and generalization of findings, qualitative researchers seek instead illumination, understanding and extrapolation to similar situations. Qualitative and quantitative research differ in many ways but they complement each other as well Researchers who use one type of research alone do not always communicate well with those using the other, but the languages and orientations of the styles are mutually intelligible.
Title: Use of the internet and electronic resources for medical science information in Bangladesh: A case study
Abstract :

This article reports a survey on the use the Internet and electronic resources for medical science information of Sylhet Division, Bangladesh: a case study. Efforts are on to find the search requirements related to the use of the Internet information. Data were collected by using a questionnaire and follow-up interviews with Internet users from four medical colleges and hospitals of Sylhet Division, Bangladesh. Results show that all the respondents are using the Internet frequently because all faculties have provided connection to the Internet. It is revealed that the researchers and students of medical colleges are getting quality information through the Internet. Eighty eight % of respondents search for health science information through the Internet because the medical college’s library has provided access to various databases and online journals for all students and staff. They use the Internet in different ways, such as accessing to online journals, downloading software or text, chatting, discussion, E-mail services and for finding related references. It was unveiled that the Internet services are normally used for research. The analysis reveals that 72.2% of Internet users always find useful information on the Internet. Forty-two % of respondents believed that quality information is available on the Internet.

Title: Strategies and Implication of Situated Learning: An Overview
Abstract :

Situated cognition is a theory of instruction that suggests learning is naturally tied to authentic activity, context, and culture. Situated cognition or learning is a concept advocated in social constructivist approaches and is a natural extension of the importance attached to the context, social and cultural, in which learning is believed to be born Jean Lave (1988) is often credited with starting the situated cognition movement, although its ideals are not new. John Dewey and Lev Vygotsky both advocated similar approaches for situated learning. Present paper deals with situated learning, strategies of situated learning and their implications.

Title: Women in Higher Education: A Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Higher Education from Gender perspective in India
Abstract :

The paper is based on quantitative work of secondary data extracted from census of India and Directory of Colleges, University Grant Commission. It is an attempt to study the spatial and temporal analysis of the availability and enrollment in higher education for female across the Indian states. Analysis of the paper reveals that there is very high male-female disparity in gross enrollment ratio among the Indian states. Northern states especially, BIMARU states are most backward in higher education for female. There is an increasing trend of inequality between male-female in higher education despite the several governmental efforts for women empowerment.

Title: Human Rights and Education: A Hope for Peace
Abstract :

Human Rights are those minimal rights that every individual must have by virtue of his being a member of human family. They are the basic or natural rights which are inalienable and essential for development of human personality and for the happiness and progress of the human society. The need to make people aware of their rights is of paramount importance at their juncture. So Human rights and its education help in every human being from any type of discrimination and help the people to live peaceful and prosperous life in the society. Education can play a vital role in removing the ignorance and exploitation of human rights. In India, due to illiteracy and poor education system, people are not able to exercise them properly. Human Rights Education (HRE) is the only hope which helps in fulfilling the dream of “ Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam” i.e. The whole world is a family. So the main function of HRE is to acquire and generate those values which encourage justice, freedom and peace. A Sincere effort has been made to focus on the need of human rights for peace so that we will be able to make the world a better place to live.

Title: Perception of Stakeholders about Education of Students from Slum Area: A Case Study at Elementary School Level
Abstract :
This research paper is based on a case study of issues in education of students from slum areas at elementary school level. It was conducted to explore issues, if any, in education of students from slum area. The objectives of the study were to study the perception of teachers working in the elementary school, perception of parents of children, and perception of students studying in the schools in slums about education and educational issues, if any, on educational, social and economic aspects associated with the education of such children. Case study method was adopted to conduct this study. The informants in the case were teachers including Headmaster (05), parents (10) and two groups of students (16) were taken for focus group discussion. Tools such as, interview schedule for HM/teachers, interview schedule for parents, and a guideline for focus group discussion (FGD) with the students were used for collection of data. The dimensions covered in the tools were such as: educational issues (school infrastructure, student attendance, retention of the student, method of the classroom teaching transaction, peer group interaction, parent teacher interaction, pupil-teacher interaction, evaluation of the pupil’s performance and curricular activities), social issues, and financial issues. Data were analyzed by using qualitative data analysis techniques. In order to cross-check and validate, the data collected through different sources and triangulation was used. The results revealed are: Mostly school facilities provided nearest place from the resident of the child. There was no provision of using computer, white board, and projector in the school. The Provision of sanitation facilities i.e. Water & drinking water facilities, separate toilet for girls and boys available in the school. Student attendance rate is increased when the mid-day-meal scheme is implemented in the school. Sometime children faced difficulties in regularly attending the school due to the various reasons i.e., heavy household activities, health problem, helping their parents in business, illness and disinterested toward the study. Regarding retention, students get promoted to the next class without consideration of performance in the examination. Peer group interaction as observed are that, students face difficulties in interacting with other due to the lack of interest for the study, indifferent attitude towards others, shyness etc. Parents are unable to attain PTMs due to involvement in house hold activities, lack of information about when the meeting etc. Social issues as found include, various factors that influenced the educational attainment of the child i.e. illiteracy, poverty, conservativeness and neglecting attitude of the parents, lack of parental guidance and involvement etc.
Title: Status of Inclusion of Children with Special Needs and Effective Teaching in Inclusive Classroom
Abstract :

Inclusion, right of Children with Special Needs, is an approach to educate students with special educational needs with non-disabled children, i.e., Inclusive Education. And therefore, the point here to think about is when we think about teaching in an inclusive classroom, what are our concerns? Do we have enough training? Do we get the support we need from school administrators or specialists? Does working with the children with special needs take time away from our other responsibilities? These questions are very common, and sometimes concerns are justified. The objectives for this study of concern are- (i) to study the status of inclusion of Children With Special Needs in schools of Indore city; and (ii) to suggest solutions for inclusion of CWSN in terms of awareness of teachers, school administration and effective teaching in inclusive classrooms. The sample will include the teachers of the schools in Indore city and a questionnaire will be used as a tool of study. The present study, therefore, will concentrate on the common concerns mentioned above, with a special focus on RTE-SSA (SarvaShikshaAbhiyan) policies and its status.

Title: Cleft Born Children: Families Perception
Abstract :

Cleft born children are perceived differently by different people in the society. Therefore, these children find them in difficult situations. Hence, the paper made an attempt to understand the perception of family members about the causes of cleft birth and the problems faced by the cleft children. For the study, thirty families of cleft born children who have undergone cleft surgery from comprehensive cleft care centre, Guwahati has been selected conveniently. Structured interview schedule as a primary tool of data collection was used when secondary sources were like journals, reports, and websites. The study found that the causes held responsible for cleft birth by the family members are associated with superstitious belief which was debarring cleft children to receive proper treatment from the family. The study also found that the same cleft lip children are treated differently by the families after surgery. The family members feel surprised and happy seeing the cleft child like normal child. The lack of awareness about the genuine causes responsible for cleft birth among family members is creating mental stress among the parents of cleft children. Hence, the study suggested that there is a need to have proper awareness of the problems and the treatment procedures so that more and more people can get acquainted with cleft and treat it as a “birth disorder” which is curable.

Title: Ignored Claims: A Focus on Status of Tribal Women Education of Santal Community of Puruliya District, West Bengal, India
Abstract :In a tribal world, role of women is more respectful than so called civil society. She enjoys and shares economic burden of her family as well as take part in almost every decision making. Thus she is more empowered than her counterpart. But in terms of materialistic development point of view a tribal women still suffers disproportionately from education and decent standard of living. In this juncture the paper tends to explain the status of tribal women education of one of the major tribal communities of Puruliya district, West Bengal namely the Santal. To understand the educational condition of Santal women, a statistical measurement technique is developed known as Female Educational Attainment Index (FEAI) which is comprised of two indices i.e. Combined Enrolment Index (CEI) and Female Literacy Index (FLI).
Title: Tracking the Impact of COVID-19 to United States Airline Industry: A Case Study
Abstract :

COVID-19 is having a significant impact on the wider global transport framework. This article draws attention to the analysis of the impact of the travel restrictions imposed in the context of COVID-19 to the U.S Airlines. As per the Analysts, major and more profound misfortunes are expected for the U.S Airlines in the coming months. A recuperation is muddled as instances of the virus and related fatalities keep on climbing. Delta and United Airlines have rumoured their 1st and 2nd quarterly losses in additional than 5 years. Their competitors are expected to unharness dismal leads to the approaching weeks. succeeding few months look even additional painful for the world because the coronavirus pandemic saps travelling demand throughout what is commonly the foremost profitable time of year (CNBC News 2020). Before the pandemic hit, airlines struggled to spice up revenue, as they older increasing volumes of traveller and merchandise traffic. Over the past 5 years, earnings for the world airlines business grew at a less-than-desirable pace, because of unstable fuel costs, increasing competition, the prevalence of inexpensive fare, and call-in world trade. celebrated for prime fastened operational prices, airlines have usually two-faced a spread of great market challenges. Therefore, this aviation market setting is filled with reasons for concern, however, the associate ultimate recovery is anticipated for the U.S airline business. While COVID-19 continues to endanger many various sectors of the economy, “no trade has seen a larger impact than airlines,” in step with the marketing research firm Global Data (Sarah, 2020).

Title: Promoting the Right to Education through Social Security System in India
Abstract :

Statistical data from the International organizations indicate that more than 57 million children were out of out of school in 2011. Globally, access to primary schooling has increased modestly in recent years. The right to education is a basic human right and a necessary piece of government social policy for the prevention and alleviation of poverty. In addition, one of the basic social security guarantees is providing access to education. Promoting the right to education through universal primary education cannot be achieved unless children are removed from child labour and are supported by social protection schemes. Studies have shown that if properly managed through social protection mechanism, education section improves all parts of the development of a country. In India, There are innovative policy and legislative approaches about improving universal education through social protection programmes. The question of the role of Social Security in promoting education system has been recently debated in International Law and Indian law field. However, these works have not adequately addressed this issue.This article will discuss the practical problems related to the extension to the right to education through social protection mechanism in India. It further examines the strengths and weaknesses of international standards and Indian social security system, and suggests ways and means by which better social protection of Right to education can be achieved.

Title: Career Choices and Perceptions of Students at a Rural University for Women in North India
Abstract :

The paper is an analysis of career perceptions of students studying in three different streams at a women’s university in rural Haryana (India). Society in Haryana has a patriarchal social structure and gender inequalities are evident in most of the socio-cultural spheres. The ideas of educating women in such societies remain tied with processes of gender socialisation and prevailing ideological beliefs. Choices and perceptions of women students regarding career and professional orientation thus become markers of their identity negotiation processes through education. These processes in turn help to evaluate the relevance of education for addressing gender imbalances in such societies.

Title: Contents
Abstract :

Contents

Title: Contemporary Issues in Indian Higher Education
Abstract :

According to a United Nations report (2014) with 356 million 10-24 year-olds, India has the world’s largest youth population and China is second with 269 million young people, followed by Indonesia (67 million), the US (65 million), and Pakistan (59 million). The United Nations Department of Economics and Social Affairs (2019) Central and Southern Asia was home to the largest number of youth (361 million), followed by Eastern and South-Eastern Asia (307 million). It is revealed that the Asian continent is the only region that shares the world-heist youth population. It is fortunate and provides good hops that can utilize the youth power for economic development by converting as skilled human resources by providing higher education. But, unfortunately, the contemporary unhealthy issues in higher education, most of the Asian region failed to effectively utilize the enormous youth power. Especially, India is one of the inevitable countries in the Asian region but it is the 78th place in corrupt nations out of 175 countries which affects higher education also. Keeping as background this article reveals various issues in higher education in India.

Title: Life Style of the College Going Students of Rural and Urban Area in Relation to their Level of Modernization
Abstract :

This study attempts to compare the life style of the college going students of rural and urban area in relation to their level of modernization. The objective of the study was to find the difference in the different kinds of lifestyle of rural and urban area in relation to their level of modernization. The researcher has used normative survey method in this study. Disproportionate stratified random sampling technique has been used to select 600 students from the degree colleges of rural and urban area of district Haridwar. A significant difference has been found in the health conscious lifestyle, academic oriented lifestyle, career oriented lifestyle, socially oriented lifestyle, trend seeking lifestyle, family oriented lifestyle as well as overall lifestyle of the college going students of rural and urban area. There has been found a significant difference in the health conscious lifestyle, academic oriented lifestyle, career oriented lifestyle, socially oriented lifestyle, trend seeking lifestyle, family oriented lifestyle as well as overall lifestyle of the college going students in relation to modernization.

Title: Adequacy of Tertiary Education Curricula for Sustainable Development of the Graduating Students in Nigeria
Abstract :

Curriculum paradigm is among some other parameters which have participative roles to play in the global vision of sustainable development. In Nigeria case, despite the several reform measures towards sustainable development (SD), tertiary education curricula have been doubted in their viability to attend to sustainable development vision. On this premise, this descriptive survey investigated the adequacy of tertiary education curricula for sustainable development of the graduating students in Nigeria. Two research questions and one research hypothesis and guided the study. A sample of 525 tertiary institutions lecturers participated in the study. The instrument used had a reliability value of 0.79. The findings revealed that the tertiary institutions curricula in Nigeria are somewhat adequate (32.6%). Statistically significant difference was also recorded between university lecturers and colleges of education mean ratings of the adequacy of the curricula ( t-cal (3.39) > t-crit )1.92), while their responses on gender basis did not yield any significant difference (t-cal (0.47) < t-crit (1.92) The tilting responses observed in the findings of this study is a pointer to the inadequacies in the curricula which pose challenges to preparing graduating students for the global world advocating for sustainable development. The author recommends among others interconnectedness by collaboration/partnership among agents of sustainable development.

Title: Intelligence and Divergent Thinking Abilities of Senior Secondary Students: A Co-relational Study
Abstract :

This study aimed at finding out relationship between Intelligence and divergent abilities of Senior Secondary Students. A sample of 120 students were selected randomly from the various schools of Rohtak Dist. of Haryana State. For the study, Thinking Creatively by Words (TCW) developed by Dr. Baquer Mehndi and Intelligence Group Test of Mental Ability developed by Dr. S.S. Jalota were used for data collection. The result revealed that there is significant relationship between Intelligence and Divergent thinking skills of Senior Secondary Students. The result also revealed that students of Senior secondary schools scored high mean scores in divergent thinking skills than intelligence.

Title: Value: Indian Scenario
Abstract :

In ancient India, education was primarily value oriented, however, the so-called modern education is unable to respond to the most crucial purpose of education, that is, character-building through inculcation of universal human values. On the contrary, there has been an erosion of values on a continuing basis. Whether a child shall grow up to regard life with suspicion or with confidence; to be deceitful or straight forward; contentious and grasping or co-operative and loyal. These and other characteristics are determined by the treatment he receives and obviously they enter into the essential qualities of spiritual life in general and of his religion in particular.

Title: Book Reviews
Abstract :

Fields of Protest: Women’s Movements in India

Title: Changing Pattern of Population Growth of Thalisain Block, Pauri District, Uttarakhand
Abstract :

The population is very important component of any region, which determines the level of socio-economic development and environmental degradation in an area. It has been one of the most important subjects of study for social scientists including geographers. The identity of any region is known by its people who lived with its territories. The word ‘Population’ invariably brings to one’s mind varied images, problems and solutions. The present study is an attempt to assess the changing pattern of population growth of Thalisain block. The information are taken from different sources of secondary data and the main source of data for analysis is from the censes hand book and Garhwal Gazetters. Thalisain development block of Pauri district is the area of interest and is extended from 29o54’30” to 30o10’0” N and 78o54’0” to 79o13’30” E, measuring 35km in length and 49km in width. The area is completely rural and covers 584.km2.

Title: In-Service Training at Elementary School Level: Impact on Classroom Practices
Abstract :Teacher Education includes both pre-service and in-service training to the teachers (Trainees). Here, in the present study, in-service training for teacher at elementary education level has been taken for research to explore any Changes in Classroom Practices of Elementary Schools as a result of such training. Both multi-stage and incidental sampling techniques were followed for selection of sample. As the objective of the study was to assess effectiveness/ impact of in-service training for elementary school teacher, the classroom teaching processes were observed through a Classroom Observation Schedule from 90 (ninety) classes of both trained and un-trained teachers working in elementary schools. The analysis was made through simple percentage calculation on the activities of the teachers and critical ratios (CR) were calculated to find the significance of the difference between two percentages obtained from classes of trained (56 classes) and un-trained (34 classes) teachers. The results depict that in-service training has significant positive effects, in favour of trained teachers, on the skills of introducing the lesson, skills of teachers for presenting the lesson in the classroom teaching; explain the lesson by giving suitable example, skill of explanation in the classroom with demonstration, asking question and students participation for seeking more elaboration on the lesson taught.
Title: The Use of Geogebra Software as a Tool to Understand the Concept of Limit at the Under Graduate Level
Abstract :

In education, information and communication technologies (ICT) provide a modern learning environment in which students can build their own knowledge. In ICT, there is a lot of space for visualisation and experimentation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether instruction with Geogebra has impact on students’ achievements regarding their conceptual and procedural knowledge on the concept of limit. For this research study the investigators adopted a quantitative approach, using a true experimental design with a pre-test, post-test control group. It was observed that the suggested exercises aided students at the undergraduate level in grasping the principle of limit.

Title: Effect of one year Face to Face B. Ed. Programme on Professional Commitment
Abstract :
The study investigated the effect of one year face to face B.Ed. programme on the professional commitment of the teacher interns in relation to type of institutions, academic streams and university system. The sample constituted of 1257 teacher interns belonging to science and humanities streams drawn from fifteen education Colleges from two universities i.e.Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar and Panjab University Chandigarh were selected from government-aided and self-financed.The effect of execution of B.Ed. programme on the professional commitment of the teacher interns was studied with the help of a pre-test, post-test experimental design with 2×2×2 factorial design taking gain scores of professional commitment as dependent variable.
Title: Operational Land Holdings in India: Trend and Inequality Analysis (1995 – 2011)
Abstract :

As India is often termed as an agrarian economy and land is the fundamental means of production, therefore, it is of immense importance to study land distribution patterns, for better agricultural planning. A lot of research work has been done to study the after effects of land reforms, inequality in land distribution etc.The paper tries to look at various aspects of (growth in total number and area, inequality in the distribution) individually owned operational land holdings in India for a period spanning from 1995 to 2011. To look at change in individually owned operational land holdings (growth rate in terms of both total number and area under different size class) in India, for the above mentioned period. The paper analyses state wise the change in individually owned operational land holdings (growth rate in terms of both total number and area under different size class) for the above mentioned period, showcases level of inequality in individually owned operational land holdings (in terms of number and area) in India comparing 1995 to 2011, examines level of inequality in individually owned operational land holdings (in terms of number and area) for all states comparing 1995 to 2011.Various statistical, graphical and cartographical (ArcGIS) techniques have been used to analyse the data of Agriculture Census of 1995 and 2011, provided by Ministry of Agriculture, GOI. An attempt has been made to interpret the results precisely and specifically for different regions or states according to their policies, social climate etc. Comparisons between 1995 (20th century) and 2011 (21st century) is what makes the study of immense importance.

Title: Exploration of Opinionnaire of Subject Experts for Effectiveness of IT- Enabled Instructional Package in Science for X Class Students
Abstract :
ICT endows with a wide range of aids to solve problems and  ccomplishing tasks. ICT is  now a significant element of the basic content of each of the disciplines that students study  at the school level. In addition, ICT provides generic “productivity tools” that cut across all of the disciplines that students study. It is a dynamic field, growing rapidly in breadth and depth. Basic hardware capabilities of ICT, such as computer speed, computer storage 
capacity, telecommunications bandwidth, and the installed base are all growing rapidly. The next 15-20 years will likely bring us increases in computer speed, memory capacity, and telecommunications bandwidth by a factor of 1,000 or more. These hardware improvements, along with continued progress in software, will have aprofound impact on the societies of  our world.While moving on the same trail, the investigators have developed anIT-Enabled Instructional Package in science for class X. In this context, an effort has been made to assess the opinion of subject experts for effectiveness of IT-Enabled Instructional Package (ITEIP) in science (Biology) for X class students. In the present study, an opinion scale wasdeveloped to obtain the ratings of subject experts on variousstatements regarding validity of IT-Enabled Instructional Package. The opinion scale was given to subject experts individually from various educational institutions of North India. The results of the study revealed that most of the experts favored the effectiveness of IT-Enabled Instructional Package (ITEIP).The analysis disclosedthe fact that it is highly useful for teachers as well as studentsand modify of the role of teachers as facilitator. It is determined that the inclusion of ITEIP in routine classroom achingishelpful in increasing the achievement level of students at own pace in motivating and fascinating way in today competitive education system. 
 
Title: The Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction on Science Achievement of Secondary School Students
Abstract :

The present study examines the effectiveness of computer assisted instruction in terms of the achievement in science at secondary level. The study is experimental in nature and observing the difference between the effectiveness of CAI and traditional method of teaching. The sample constitute of 280 students of 9th class matched on intelligence, drawn from two U.P BOARD affiliated schools (co ed) of Meerut city using cluster random sampling technique. Selected students were divided into two groups namely experimental and control group randomly. The experimental group was taught the topics ‘Force’ and ‘Motion’ through computer assisted instruction and the control group was taught the same topics through traditional method. After teaching, a self-developed achievement test was conducted for all students and the answers were evaluated and tabulated group wise. Data were analyzed by using Mean, S.D and t-test. The findings of the study indicate that experimental group performed better than the control group in respect to achievement. Comparing the achievement of male and female students taught through CAI method, no significant difference was found.

Title: Different Aspects of Emerging Trends of Indian Education
Abstract :

Our country India belongs to a third world country. So in a country like India education has to play a crucial role in social transformation, social change, and national development. But for that we have to accept the current trends and development as well as new innovations in education. The present area in Indian education is very significant and crucial both in terms of quantity and quality. The existing political, social and economic structures have their impact on education as they give rise to educational problems. On the other hand new educational policies and technological advancement and development has posed new challenges and encountered with new problems in re-orientation and re-organization of education at all levels.

Title: Changing Paradigms of Open and Distance Learning System with Blended Learning: Indian National Education Policy, 2020
Abstract :

Purpose: The Open and Distance Learning (ODL) system has been integrating technology to reach the students since the inception of technology. The efforts to integrate technology in the education sector have always been to bring about quality enhancements and outreach of education to learners at a distance. The ODL system in the context of India has grown from past six decades leading to the changing paradigms with the integration of technology with respect to pedagogy and the use of technology in it. The ODL system has benefitted India in contributing to increase the Gross Enrolment Ratio of the country. Thus, the present research intends to study the evolution of distance education from merely technology mediated to the blended learning approach; the potential of blended learning in leveraging the teaching-learning process; and the role of the new National Education Policy (NEP, 2020) of India has laid emphasis on the promotion and implementation of blended learning in the Indian higher education institutions. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study employs document analysis to study how the evolution of distance education took place; and the role of the National Education Policy (2020) in leveraging blended learning in the Indian higher education Institutions. Findings: The 21st century world of ever developing science and technology requires a robust and upgraded educational system to cope with the advancements and challenges. This study finds blended learning as a mode of teaching-learning that can be relied for teaching-learning process. Further, the paper observes how the various factors that include the technological and pedagogical advancements of ODL system which includes online and blended learning, National Education Policy (2020), and the COVID-19 pandemic have a mixed impact in promoting and implementation blended learning in the Indian higher education institutions. Originality/Value: This paper is an original work that reviews and discusses the changing paradigms of ODL from correspondence education to online and blended learning. And, highlights the major thrust areas of blended learning in Indian new National Education Policy (NEP 2020), through which India foresees to achieve sustainability in the education system through ODL, as it thrusts largely for blended learning.

Title: CSR Activities and its Impact on Socioeconomic Upliftment: An Integrated Review
Abstract :

Earning more and more profits is a natural phenomenon of every business unit. The first and foremost goal of any business enterprise is to maximize the returns with minimal investment. Parallel to it the enterprises have social obligations to fulfill as they draw maximum resources from the society itself. CSR has become one of the catchphrases of new millennium across the world and the corporate as well as government must take care of it. Today, Government has also come as an initiative to control those business activities which makes a harmful effect on the society. The government suggested time to time to the business units that the corporate should enact a framework related to CSR i.e. its areas, investment, activities etc. and include them in the vision, mission and strategic planning. The present study is a critical analysis of various reviews based on the studies related to CSR activities and its various impacts on society. The nature of data used for this is purely secondary in nature and the library research type is being used. The study has shown that over the last years an increasing number of companies worldwide started promoting their business through CSR strategies because the customers, the public and the investors expect them to act sustainable and responsible. The government also suggests to the business units that the corporate should enact a framework related to CSR and include them in their vision, mission and strategic planning. CSR initiatives, if being implemented by all the corporations for rural development will have a positive impact in overall development of the society and their business.

Title: Food Security and Agricultural Production in West Bengal
Abstract :

The article deals with the issue of food security in West Bengal. West Bengal is one of the major food producing states, especially rice. The state has attained an impressive growth in agriculture due to some radical policies. Yet, news of starvation and hunger and death in some parts of West Bengal is frequently reported. The present article is a contribution to the formulation of policies and adoption of measures to eliminate hunger, starvation and to provide food security to the people of the state.

Title: Self-esteem, anxiety and family climate for school going boys and girls in Haryana state
Abstract :

Many researches are being conducted in the area of parenting, self esteem, Anxiety and the impacts of Family Climate. For people of all ages, the development of full human potential is enhanced through self-esteem. Self Esteem is the perception of one’s own intrinsic worth, based on thoughts, beliefs, and life experiences. Anxiety whereas can be defined as overwhelming sense of apprehension or fearfulness- Marked by physiological signs, sometimes referred to as autonomic signs. The present study “A study of Self-Esteem, Anxiety and Family Climate for School Going Boys and Girls in Haryana State” tries to find out comparison between boys and girls for three variables i.e. Self-Esteem, Anxiety and Family Climate. The Sample of 150 students of grades six to ten was chosen because the children grow up in the way their parents brought them up. The results of the study show that Boys and Girls significantly differ for Anxiety and Expectation (A subscale of Family Climate Scale). All the other variables of the study have shown insignificant results.

Title: Consumer Psychology and Memory Recall Effect: An Analytical Study on Comparative Advertising
Abstract :

Advertising is all about competing with brands and proving its superiority over other brands. Competition through comparison is a creative form of advertising profession and offers leading edge for a brand, adds to its value, and positions it as a unique brand in the product category. It is advertising and especially the comparative advertising that makes a detergent whiter, a soft drink stronger and a toothpaste healthier than just the rival brands. Comparative advertising has its genesis in a way that it compares two brands and highlights only the most powerful features of one brand over the other. The entire communication process remains favourable for the advertised brand and leaves rival brand in poor light without stating its worth. The purpose of this study is to test its hypothesis whether consumers recall comparative advertisements better than regular forms of advertisements. It also explores the factors responsible for the memory effects of comparative advertisements. The study is based on a survey indicating the growing acceptance among the consumers to be more receptive towards comparative advertisements and why brands are claiming to be better, safer and cheaper than their competitors. Results evince that the design of comparative advertising that includes the content and manner of presentation greatly charms the consumers and affects their buying behaviour. The study also shows that advertisements which have a greater number of cues are easier to recall than those with lesser cues.

Title: Barriers to Sustainable Industry Institute Partnership and Remedial Measures
Abstract :

The agenda for a robust IIP (Industry Institute Partnership) is well laid out by experts from both Industry and Academia with innumerable benefits for the stakeholders.For the Institute, a few benefits may be an improved curricula, specialized industrial training and projects for UG/PG students,consultancy/R&D, revenue generation and placements. For the industry, the benefits may be the availability of full-fledged engineers to take up challenging tasks in the industry, need based training for its employees and enhancement of business to name a few. Though the agenda is clear, the challenge seems to lie in the implementation phase of a specific program or project, where many pitfalls/bottlenecks pose a threat to the success of the program. An attempt has been made in this paper to highlight a few barriers to effective implementation of plans/ strategies like resource constraints, human factors, factors external to both the partnering organizations etc. The paper will also discuss the remedial measures to be meticulously carried out for removing these bottlenecks for realizing the objectives of a program/project.

Title: Re-Engineering Academic Planning and Quality Assurance for Improving Integrated Science Education in Nigeria
Abstract :

The development of science and technology is expectedly one of the ultimate goals of every responsible government. It remains the aspiration towards which all science programmes worldwide are geared. Though, the extent to which the target is approached differs from country to country and is a function of several variables including academic planning. The aim of this paper is to examine the challenges of academic planning for effective teaching and learning for science education. All in all, the paper x-rays the role of science education towards ensuring sustainable development and the need to strengthen all the mechanism of integrated science education through proper academic planning.

Title: Programme Evaluation of Post Graduate Certificate in Endodontics Programme of Indira Gandhi National Open University: A Learner’s Perspective
Abstract :

Programme Evaluation is a very important aspect of Open and Distance Learning (ODL)institutions. Programme evaluation is considered an essential part for quality assurance. This paper focuses on the programme evaluation study of Post Graduate Certificate in Endodontics (PGCE) programme offered bySchool of Health Sciences of Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi, India. Dental education with passage of time has achieved greater salience in the present times. The programme evaluation of study Post Graduate Certificate in Endodontics programme of Indira Gandhi National Open University was conducted as a felt need to analyze the academic, and operational aspects of this unique programme and for further policy making related to suchdental programmes. Mixed method was used to collect data from learners. Both primary data and secondary data was collected and analyzed. The findings showed that the self-learning material (SLMs) of PGCE were found to be of a high quality. Learners agreed that the face-to-face academic counseling for practical work through the study centres located in reputed dentalcolleges had to be a mandatory requirement. The need for recognition of the programme by the statutory body ie Dental Council of India was also considered the‘most important’’ factor for their enrolment in such a programme. It was felt by the participants that the PGCE programme through openand distance learning (ODL) provided an opportunity for dentist to upgrade their knowledge and skills while continuing to pursue their practice. The participation of learners in the PGCE programme them more confident in handling endodontic cases.

Title: Effect of Students’ Feedback and Teaching Experience on Teacher Effectiveness of Secondary School Teachers
Abstract :
The present study was aimed at finding the Effect of Students’ Feedback and Teaching Experience on Teacher Effectiveness of Secondary School Teachers. This study was experimental in nature. Sample was comprised of 102 Secondary School Teachers teaching in different five schools of Gurgaon city and students taught by them. In the Experimental group after taking students appraisal data of teacher effectiveness feedback was given to the teachers by the researcher. This Students’ feedback was comparative and non comparative, overall and dimension wise. It also included suggestions elicited from the students on important aspects of their teaching. The present study revealed that Feedback information provided to teachers was found to be effective in terms of Teacher Effectiveness of the 
teachers, But Teacher Effectiveness was independent of Teaching xperience of Teachers and the interactional effect of Teaching Experience of Teachers with Students’ Feedback, when Pre-Teacher Effectiveness was taken as co-variate.
Title: Turnaround strategies for classroom and school management in Ekiti State, Nigeria
Abstract :

Education has been seen as an indispensable process of cognitive, affective and psychomotor development. However, there have been a drastic fall in the standard of education in Ekiti state known as “fountain of knowledge” and Nigeria at large. The way and manner in which the school as well as the classrooms are being managed determines the quality of students produced in the school system. This exploratory paper therefore examines the trends in the finance of education sector as well as the strategies for turning around classrooms and school management in Ekiti state. Some recommendations were made which include democratizing decision making in the school by involving staff and students in decisions concerning them in the schools, prevention of social conflict by being cordial with leaders of the school community.

Title: Walking Under the Ladder will Only Knock the Carpenter Off His Perch! Are Superstitions Mindless?
Abstract :

Superstitions are an inevitable product of associative learning, which manifest in endless ways and have been impacting human behaviour in spheres such as health, business, education and sports etc. Superstitions benefit individuals in the form of a coping strategy or as a defense mechanism; but are only healthy if used in moderation. Superstitions have been termed as an irrational belief, a flawed perception and still persist despite the level of technological advancements taking place. Mindfulness as a means to enhance perception is an intervention that is gaining popularity and recognition in the field of psychology. The purpose of this paper is to establish a link between superstitions and mindlessness, in order to propose mindfulness as an intervention in a formal educational setting to combat superstitions.

Title: Spiritual Education: An Innovative Approach to Manifestation of Perfection
Abstract :

Without clear vision of destination, as the target shooting is not easier, the perfection in a human life is not possible without perfect system of education, and that’s why by providing a room to spiritualism in our journey of imparting/receiving education, a ray towards path breaking way of perfection is a need of the hour.

Title: A Study of Interest Factor of Secondary School Students About
Abstract :

Education has a great role in individual’s process of growth and development. Man as a total is equal to reorganized and reconstructed life experiences of him. It is impossible to imagine life status at this time without science. Science learning is indispensable part of school curriculum. And without practicability values science is a fiction. In science learning students’ participation is must. Generally it has come to observation that science learning requires scientific attitude. It becomes interesting when it ensures students participation. This study aims to know the interest of secondary school going students about science subject. Researcher used survey method of research in this study. Random sampling technique was used in this study.GSS School Kothi rural and GSS school Ghumarwin urban Bilaspur HP were selected for study.Thirty two students (Boys) and Thirty two students (Girls) each were taken as sample from each school.The total size of the sample was one hundred and twenty eight. The researcher used a self developed scale. Questionnaire developed carries fifty one questions which are to be rated on five point scale like strongly agree, agree ,neutral, disagree and strongly disagree. Data was analyzed with t-test for comparison and percentage was caluculated.Results show that students are actively interested in science subjects. They consider it most important for their life. They show an interest to science related articles. They differ in interest for science subject with respect to rural and urban background.

Title: Job Satisfaction of School Teachers in Relation to their Gender and Mode of Appointment
Abstract :

No one can deny the fact the teachers are the ‘nation builders.’ They have the potential to determine the destiny of any nation or society. It is, therefore desired that teachers must be equipped with all those knowledge, skills and values which will help them to deliver their best to the society. In the past many recommendations have been made by various committees or commissions, from time to time, to improve the quality of teaching and thus, of education. Unfortunately, no major change has been noticed so far. It is a hard fact that with the passage of time the quality education has been decreasing day by day, particularly in public sector.

Title: Socio Religio Culture During Qutb Shahs
Abstract :

The Qutb Shahi dynasty has been considered a “Composite “ of Hindu Muslim religio- social culture.The Qutb Shahi Society were heterogeneous consisting of the people from different lands, religions & sects. They never tried to impose their faith on others. Instead they allowed complete freedom to the people of other religions & sect. Equal opportunities were made available to their subjects in all matters of the State. Even the top positions of the administration were occupied by nobles belonging to different religions & sects.

Title: Role of Information and Communication Technology in Teaching Learning Process
Abstract :

Information and communication technologies (ICT) have become commonplace entities in all aspects of life. Across the past twenty years the use of ICT has fundamentally changed the practices and procedures of nearly all forms of endeavors within business and governance. Within education ICT has begun to have a presence but the impact has not been as extensive as in other fields. Education is a very socially oriented activity and quality education has traditionally been associated with strong teachers having high degree of personal contact with learners. The use of ICT in education lends itself to more student centered learning setting and often this creates some tensions for some teachers and students. But with the world moving rapidly into digital media and information, the role of ICT in education is becoming more and more important and this important and this importance will continue to grow and develop in the 21st century .

Title: Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Self-Concept of OBC Students at Different Level of Socio-Economic Status
Abstract :

The present investigation is an attempt to study the influence of Emotional Intelligence on self-concept of OBC students of secondary level with respect to their socio-economic status. Emotional Intelligence is a human being ability to control and manage their emotion accurately. A sample 471 OBC students of secondary level of Meerut Zone (U.P) was selected to collect the data. Mangal Emotional intelligence inventory and self-concept measure was used as research tool. Ex-post-facto method was used for the present study. As a result it was found that there is significant difference between self-concept high and low Emotional Intelligence group of OBC students and significant result obtained at different level of socio-economic status.

Title: Impact of COVID-19 on Indian Education System
Abstract :
Indian education system is still not mature at both the urban and rural area. Midday meal is the program organized to attract the students to get education. Under these circumstances government imposed nation wise lockdown on March 25th, 2020 to combat COVID-19, has made severe impact on the education system. India has the world’s second largest school system, after China. According to UNESCO, 63 million teachers were affected in 165 countries. A total of 1.3 billion learners around the world were not able to attend schools or universities, and approximately 320 million learners are affected in India alone. It has changed the traditional education system to the educational technologies model in which teaching and assessments are conducted online. Both the positive and negative impacts of COVID-19 on Indian Education system are observed. This paper aims to identify the difficulties and challenges faced by teachers during online teaching and the impact of COVID pandemic on Indian education system. Also, various concerns related to online education are illustrated and suggestions for government, stakeholders, and teachers are also given.
Title: Awareness of teacher about the maintenance of equipment of D.H.H. (deaf and hard hearing)in primary education
Abstract :

Education is the backbone of the country and only those country will progress which will contribute maximum to the benefit of it. Primary education is the grass root level of any educational system. It is the foundation of the higher education. The educational policies of independent India were based on those principles and were committed towards the achievement of universal elementary education. It stressed on the need of inclusion of disabled children in the educational system to achieve the goal of “education for all”. The implementation of the Act signifies a shifting from the belief that children with disabilities should be educated in segregated special school to the belief that children should be included.The present study mainly involved through survey method. The Data were collected through Allahabad district. The sample were selected from random process through inclusive school of 40 male teachers and 50 female teachers. Data will analyzed by using parametric techniques. The result showed that commitment of Government i.e. Education all is not being sufficient translated into action, that assures inclusive education for all.

Title: Illiteracy Flagging India
Abstract :

India shares the highest proportion with more than one third of the world’s illiterates along with one fourth illiterate population at the national level. Illiteracy is one of the important factors which negatively affect the socio-economic development of society. The illiterate population is isolated and excluded from mainstream society. The present paper is an attempt to analyze the pattern of illiteracy across the Indian states. The study is based on secondary data extracted from the Census of India 2011- applying the diagram and mapping to present status of illiteracy at a regional level. The analysis of the pattern of illiteracy reveals that illiteracy is the highest among rural females while it is lowest for urban males. The gap between male –female illiteracy indicates that there is heterogeneity in rural females and homogeneity in urban males. Moreover, there is a regional imbalance in educational as well as in empowerment efforts.

Title: Dyscalculia: Its Types, Symptoms, Causal Factors, and Remedial Programmes
Abstract :

The term dyscalculia comes from Greek and Latin which means “Counting badly”. The prefix “dys” comes from Greek means “badly” “calculia” comes from the Latin “calculare”, which means “to count” the word “calculare ” comes from “calculus” (the diminutive of “calx”, which means stone), Which means “pebbles” or one of the Counters on an abacus.Dyscalculia is a learning disorder that involved math. Those who are diagnosed with the disorder can either have problems of understanding the meaning of numbers, their qualities difficulty using mathematical symbols and concepts, and inability to apply mathematical principles to solve problems. People with developmental dyscalculia show signs of the disability from a young age a condition that causes the same symptoms later in life.Although math learning difficult occur in children with low IQ. Dyscalculia occurs in people across the whole IQ range. Dyscalculia is possibly caused by a miscommunication in brain involving the language and visual processing centers. Some believe that Dyscalculia is inherited while other think environmental toxins like lead paint can cause the learning disorders. Those who suffer from dyscalculia cannot understand the meaning of numbers and their quantities. Simple mathematical skills like knowing how to add, subject, multiply, or divide are difficult.Those who suffer from these learning disorders are usually skilled in reading and writing. They excel in the creative arts; they are unable to grasp the simplest of mathematical concepts. Usually dyscalculia is diagnosed when the sufferer is school age.

Title: Women Empowerment And Hindu Literature
Abstract :

Women Empowerment is a social issue more than a legal issue. Change in the existing mind set of society is the need of the hour. Need of women empowerment is needed due to the demand for natural justice and as a tool for nation building. In a democratic country like ours the protection of human rights and natural justice form an integral part of the constitution. The issue of women empowerment is very complex and multidimensional. Empowering women means to create an environment where women can freely exercise their rights both within and outside home and equal partners along with men. Literature plays an important role in the development of society. Hindu literature has been occupying the prominent position for the last many centuries. Society always tries to mould itself according to the literature which is taught to the society.

Title: Cooperative Learning: An Innovative Strategy to Classroom Instruction
Abstract :

Innovation and reform are the two key factors in the development and progress of any education system and its practices and processes. New strategies of teaching and learning are being thought and practiced as most important inputs to bring about qualitative improvement in the education. Cooperative learning is one such approach which makes the students to learn as group to maximize their own and each others’ learning. The focus of this strategy is on inter- personal exchange of opinions, intellectual challenge, critical thinking, higher level reasoning-the skills which are highly valued in the age of globalization. It is being increasingly felt that thinking process of students is being suppressed by competitive learning environment prevalent in schools. The cut throat competition encourages negative interdependence. The school curriculum has to aim at not only enabling learners to acquire knowledge. The development of intrinsic values and emotional intelligence of learners are equally important. The cooperative learning helps in all round development of personality if applied systematically.

Title: A Study of Values of Secondary School Students in Relation to Their Socio-Economic Status and Modernization
Abstract :

The future of any nation depends on its children. Values play an important role in shaping the character and personality of the children. The present study attempts to study the values of secondary school students in relation to their socio-economic status and modernization. The main purpose of the study is to compare the values of secondary school boys and girls, rural and urban students and government and non-government secondary school students. In this study normative survey method was employed. All secondary school students of district Haridwar constituted the population of the study. Two- stage random sampling technique was used to select a total number of 320 secondary school students from the government and non-government secondary schools of district Haridwar. Mean, S.D., ‘t’ test were used for the statistical analysis. The findings revealed that all the secondary school students had average level of values. They preferred social values most while religious value was least preferred by the students. Secondary school boys had higher religious, aesthetic, hedonistic, power, family prestige and health values while secondary school girls had higher economic value. Secondary school students of rural and urban area were found to differ significantly in religious, social, economic, hedonistic, power, family prestige and health values. There was found a significant difference in the hedonistic, family prestige and health values of government and non-government secondary school students

Title: Evaluation of Distance Learning Pedagogy
Abstract :

Quality of education has been an area of interest among many. Educational institutions aim at improving their quality of education. One way of improving quality is through gap analysis. This study has been attempted to ascertain the quality of education provided to Distance Education students. An analysis of students expectations based on 5 dimensions has been conducted. The study found that students of Distance education are satisfied with their contact classes and the quality of self-instructional material provided. Some areas where gaps were found included internal and external assessment.

Title: Applicability and Usability of RFID Technology in Library
Abstract :

Technology makes all kind of business functions perform better. To survive in a highly competitive business environment, companies should resign their structure by new technologies. On the other hand, sectors which are not so competitive like public library services, need to use new technologies to serve better. One of new technology applications that has been used in various sectors for 2000 years, is RFID technology. In this context, it was investigated whether RFID technology was useful for library services with a case study in a concept of qualitative research method. It is thought to be useful and pioneer for library services to develop their function system with RFID technology.

Title: A Comparative Study of Teaching Effectiveness and Adjustment to Teaching Profession of Govt. and Privately Managed Secondary School Teachers
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to compare teaching effectiveness and adjustment to teaching profession of Government and privately managed secondary school teachers. A sample of one hundred and fifty secondary school teachers were randomly selected by the researcher. Seventy five privately managed school teachers and seventy five government managed secondary school teachers of ninth and tenth standard classes were selected from Mathura District of Utter pradesh.This study shows that a significant difference exists between teaching effectiveness of Government and private school secondary teachers.

Title: Higher Education in India: Challenges and Government’s Initiatives
Abstract :

Higher Education stands as one of the pillars of success of any nation. So it becomes necessary to understand the pros and cons of Higher Education system of any country. Therefore, the present paper purports to finding out the specific challenges which is evident in the Higher Education system of India and Government’s initiatives to fight the existing challenges. Secondary data was used to infer the current scenario of Higher Education in India. It was found that the contribution of National Knowledge Commission (NKC), University Grants Commission (UGC), Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) is enormous in addressing various aspects of Higher Education in India. In spite of many efforts by the Govt. of India to harness the education system, there is a huge gap between the policies initiated and their implementation which is demanding innovate approaches and models to ensure quality education.

Title: Determinants of School Education of Scheduled Tribes in Eastern Uttar Pradesh with Special Reference to their Socio-economic Status
Abstract :
Educational development plays a vital role for the socio-economic betterment of the weaker sections of the society. Tribes residing in eastern Uttar Pradesh are still very poor in education in spite of the Government’s commitments to improve their backward status through special constitutional provision. Present article analyzes the determinants of school education of Scheduled Tribes with special reference to their socio-economic status as major determinant and explores possible strategies for improvement of different ST communities in Deoria, Ballia, Ghazipur, Varanasi and Sonbhadra district of U.P. Most of the husband or wife (55.9%) in ST families are primary to 10+2 educated or illiterate (31.4%) and, 12.2% of families are still not sending their children to school. Poor socio-economic status due to several contributing factors is the biggest hurdle in getting higher education in tribes. Most of them are either poor (73.4%) or lower middle (24%) socio-economic grade even 96.8% poor in Sonbhadra, most of them earn their livelihood from irregular mostly agriculture labour (83.82%), only 2.4% has farming resulting poor yield of their small inadequate land with traditional manner of farming. Poor percentage of children studying in residential school, school away from easy approach, lack of convenience, less availability of time, poor school facilities and student friendly environment, poor parental attitude and support are other determinants resulting poor educational outcome in children. Poor personal hygiene among children also predisposes them to discrimination in school environment. Corrective measures against identified determinants needs further strengthening to improve overall status of tribes.
Title: Education and Social Capital
Abstract :

The relationship between education and social capital has been of great interest to the researchers over years, including, economists, sociologists, political scientists and educationists. The aim of this paper is to gain an understanding of the relationship between social capital and education. This paper starts with the theoretical perspectives on social capital and education, especially in the views of Pierre Bourdieu, James Colemen and Robert D. Putnam. The second section tries to explain the effect of social capital on education and the last section looks at the way education affects social capital. The paper suggests that the governments may fulfil the necessary condition of providing education but it will be less effective without sufficient social capital.x

Title: Parental and Teachers’ Anxiety regarding Actual Learning through Online Teaching-Learning among School Children during COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown
Abstract :

The purpose of this study was to examine parental and teachers’ anxiety regarding actual learning getting transacted through online teaching-learning mode among school children during COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic brought about an immediate closedown of schools. In effect, it was not closedown; rather, it was digitalization of education. Conventional school teaching was changed into online platform. School education was not stopped but it continued with the help of different technology in online or distance education forms. However, there have been apprehensions among parents and teachers alike regarding how much the school children are actually learning through this novel online teaching learning mode. To examine this aspect, the study was conducted with parents and teachers as participants. The sample was identified using the snowball method for selecting the respondents, and focussed interview method was used for data collection. Data was analysed using thematic grouping of responses. A total 53 respondents were selected of which 25 respondents were teachers and 28 respondents were parents from Himachal Pradesh, India. In-depth interview was held telephonically after developing rapport, and fixing up interview time. Both parents and teachers reported that sudden transfer of school education to home created problems for both teachers as well as parents. Teachers were expected to teach using online mode and learn technology for teaching-learning on the job. Parents of school children were expected to take up the role of a teacher at home, provide internet network, provide devices for online education from home and learn their usage. All the teachers and parents reported concern regarding the school children’s actual learning through the online teaching-learning process. It was reported that in this crucial time, where teachers had not been able to teach in actual classroom set-up, and parents were involved in teaching children as suggested by teachers in the online class, some of the parents reported that they felt incompetent to teach their child; especially the older children. A few parents also reported that teaching children and doing their own job in work from home mode resulted at times into a lot of stress for themselves. Both parents and teachers reported feeling anxiety and concern about students’ actual learning. This paper concludes with suggestions to improve actual learning among school children and methods to reduce parental and teachers’ anxiety.

Title: Contents
Abstract :

Contents

Title: MSc Human Computer Interaction [HCI]: the Domain Beyond Traditional Green Web Systems–Indian Educational Context
Abstract :

Human Computer Interaction is a field that is concerned generally with Human Centric System and is concerned generally with making interface which has usability or user friendliness. Human Computer Interaction means interaction or affiliation with human or people with computer or machine. More clearly Human Computer Interaction is allows user to effectively and efficiently accomplish the task for which it was design and one that uses rate positively on opinion or emotional scale. Human Computer Interaction restricted on computer but it can be wider than that. Today it is actually nothing but the planning, designing and development of computer devices and system which are much more intelligent and interactive and known as pulse of human being. This paper is talks about so many aspect of Human Computer Interaction including need and possibilities of proposed MSc- Human Computer Interaction in Indian context.

Title: Mathematical Skills of Students with and without Learning Disabilities: An analysis
Abstract :

In classroom teaching a teacher comes across several learning problems faced by students. Popularly referred to as ‘Learning Disability’, point towards those individuals who face problems relating to reading, writing, spelling and mathematics. It is a disorder which may occur in one or more of the processes of speech, language, reading, spelling, writing or mathematics. These problems faced by individuals can also adversely affect other skills like social skills etc. Mathematical Skills, the master of all skills, is the conceptual understanding of different mathematical relations and functions. If one has knowledge to use and apply mathematical skills in one’s daily life, one would enjoy every phase and action of life. But if otherwise, then one will suffer in every activity of life and possibly will result in mathematical learning disability or ‘Dsycalculia’. Amid discrepancies between actual and expected performance of the child, dishearten them to compete in the competitive world. As they do not get proper attention towards their abilities, their hidden handicap tends to increase.

Title: Integration of Information and Communication Technology in School Curriculum
Abstract :

The diffusion of technology resources in education may widen the horizon of the learning domains. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been credited as a kind of building block which appears to be basic in laying foundations for a modern society in which the criteria of lifelong learning and adjustment are fulfilled. For developing nations, ICT has proved dynamic enough in increasing the access of education and also in improving the quality and relevance of education for the common mass. ICT resources help students in undergoing reasoning, creativity & problem solving and there exists a positive correlation between the ICT supported academics learning and critical thinking skills. ICT oriented curricula must be augmented by appropriate cognizance at ethical, legal and social level of technology use also as there may be unwanted attempts of plagiarism and software piracy. The formal education system is undergoing a radical change from lecture oriented & teacher centred trend to interactive learning and student centred pattern. ICT inclusion in school system boosts the effectiveness of teachers and improves learning on the part of students and the student achievement is also enhanced when ICT is used in some structured and planned way in formal teaching-learning. On ground level there are some obstacles, from both the teachers and learners perspectives, which stand as barriers in ICT inclusion in the school system.

Title: Influence of Parental Attention on the Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students of Expatriate Parents
Abstract :

The study was conducted to find out the influence of parental attention on academic achievement of students of expatriate parents. The sample for the study was collected from various schools of Malabar region in the state of Kerala. Sample consists of 600 secondary school students whose fathers are working abroad of which 312 are boys and 288 are girls. A self made tool was used to measure the parental attention and the score of annual examination was taken as the indicator of academic achievement. Students were classified into three groups based on the parental attention they get; namely high attention group, average attention group and low attention group. A comparison of percentage of achievement was done further. The study revealed that there is no significant relation between the academic achievement and parental attention among the secondary school students who are under the care and control of their mothers than that of their fathers.

Title: Digital Literacy of School Students in India: A Study
Abstract :
Today, digital technologies such as laptops, tablets, smartphones, internet, web 2.0, and social media are a common good. These devices cater to fulfill the needs of learners of every age, but still the digital world is one with its own set of rules and risks. Therefore, digital literacy has become the prerequisite skills to survive in this digital world. Digital literacy is the ability to understand, use, and interact with technology, media, and digital resources in real-world situations. The importance of digital literacy motivated the researchers to identify the current status of digital literacy of the secondary school students having varied digital education experiences. To conduct the study the sample of 540 secondary school students were selected through multistage sampling. For data collection researchers developed and standardized ‘Digital Literacy Assessment Test’ (DLAT). The assessment was conducted in online mode. The results revealed that majority of the students performed at good level of digital literacy while none of them performed exceptionally well. Also, students with average digital education experiences performed moderate in their digital literacy under four
different dimensions. Moreover, the study revealed interesting outcome in case of digital literacy of different gender and class. The obtained results are further used to provide some useful suggestions for the school to enhance the digital literacy skills of the students.
Title: Global Land Deals and its Impact
Abstract :

Over the past decade, there has been a massive increase in large-scale land deals, often from public lands to the hands of foreign or domestic investors. Popularly referred to as ‘global land grab’, new land acquisitions are challenging the nature of both governance and government. It is inferred that ‘the state’ is often invoked as a key player in land grabbing but states never operate with one voice; rather we need to unbundle the state, to see government and governance as processes, people and relationships. To develop this approach, focus is on territory, sovereignty, authority and subjects not as static objects but as relationships in place, property, power and production. Understanding the dynamic nature of these relationships is critical for the highly variable form and content of large-scale land deals in different settings around the world.

Title: The Potential of Tourism as a Poverty Reduction Strategy in Rwanda
Abstract :

The relationship between tourism and poverty reduction has been emphasized by the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and, it is a topic for the global economic agenda. Yet, for over three decades, tourism has been assumed to have the capacity to ensure effective development in developing countries. But, until now evidences on positive contribution of tourism on aspect such as poverty reduction in developing countries, particularly at local level, are patchy. Tourism has therefore been under criticism in recent years, as it seems to be failing to demonstrate its potential as a tool for poverty reduction and overall development. Due to the lack of research into how exactly the benefits received by the poor from tourism (if any) contribute to improving their livelihoods, this study saw the need to deepen the understanding on the potential of tourism as a poverty reduction strategy in Rwanda. Hopefully, systematic research in this regard will contribute to put this sector firmly on future anti-poverty agendas. Essentially, the paper investigates the role of tourism in improving the lives of communities around Volcanoes National Park in Kinigi sector. A framework used in the study area is the Rogerson’s Tourism–Poverty Model. The reason for using this model is to make a comparative analysis of Rogerson’s tourism-poverty elements vis-a-vis tourism in KINIGI Sector around VOLCANOES national Park. These elements include inter alia: education and training, empowerment, enterprise development, corporate social investment, creation of employment opportunities and others. Among others, it was found out that tourism is capable of creating a substantial number of jobs for local people.

Title: Shaping Teachers Personality Through Community-Based Program
Abstract :

The Impact of a teacher’s personality on the tender minds and hearts of any individual is everlasting. A good teacher has the capacity to mould a child’s personality tremendously. Earlier, the concept of a person being born as a teacher was prevalent but with the vast amount of knowledge, large number of teachers are required to meet the purpose of training a huge number of students. Hence efforts have been made since long time to develop good teachers in each and every country as per the requirement. Still the process of refinement of teacher’s personality is going on. Teachers and students have to live in the community, hence community based programmes are considered to greatly influence some traits of the personality of teachers. Leadership, passion, pragmatism, patience, dedication, risk taking, sense of humour, flexibility & creativity, respect for others, high energy level, communication skill, organising capacity are the traits considered to be influenced by community-based programmes.

Title: Role of Parental Attention on the Academic Achievement of Rural and Urban Secondary School Students of Expatriate Parents
Abstract :

The purpose of the study was to find out the role of parental attention on academic achievement of students of expatriate parents. The study particularly deals with the role of parental attention on academic achievement of rural and urban students separately. The sample for the study was collected from various schools of Malabar region in the state of Kerala. Sample consists of 600 secondary school students whose fathers are working abroad of which 300 are rural students and 300 are urban students. A self made tool was used to measure the parental attention and the score of annual examination was taken as the indicator of academic achievement. Mean standard deviation and t-test was used for analyzing data. Students were classified into three groups based on the parental attention they get; namely high attention group, average attention group and low attention group. A comparison of percentage of achievement was done further. The study revealed that there is a significant relation between the academic achievement and parental attention among the secondary school students of expatriate parents in urban area where as it revealed that there is no significant relation between the academic achievement and parental attention among the secondary school students of expatriate parents in rural area.

Title: Education for Human Revolution
Abstract :

This paper attempts an understanding of the idea of education as developed in the writings of the three presidents of Soka Gakkai International and further dwells upon its relation with the concept of human revolution. The philosophy of education as encountered in these thought leaders and spiritual agents of change has much to do with basic processes of creating value in life and inspiring a chain of such meaningful actions which result in what has been called- the human revolution.

Title: A Study of Adjustment of Visually Impaired and Normal Students in Relation to Their Parental Behaviour
Abstract :

Adjustment is a process by which a living organism maintains a balance between needs and circumstances that affects the satisfaction of these needs. The aim of the study is to find out the level of adjustment of visually impaired and normal students and to compare it on the basis of parental behavior and to find out the interactional affect of types of students and parental behavior on the basis of adjustment. Normative Survey method was applied. 200 visually impaired students and 200 normal students were randomly selected from 10 Secondary and Higher Secondary Schools of Dehradun and Haridwar districts of Uttarakhand. ANNOVA Statistical technique was applied for data analysis. After interpretation of data it was found that normal students, have better Emotional, Social, Educational and Total Adjustment as compared to visually impaired students where as parental behavior does not significantly affect the adjustment of visually impaired and normal students. Types of students and parental behavior when joint together, are found insignificant in all the above mentioned dimensions of adjustment of visually impaired and normal students. It is suggested to Parents, Teachers, Curricula Makers, Counselors, Students, Society and Government that these all should be aware of the findings of the study and should maintain a favourable atmosphere by providing special facilities for visually impaired students so that they may increase their adjustment level and may feel the sense of security. It is our duty to bring these students into the main stream of the society so that they may feel the sense of security.

Title: Consumer Society in India: Some Reflections
Abstract :

In the current phase of globalization and changing economic scenario in India, it appears that the increase in money flow in the market is an artificial creation. The government also keeps on pumping money to save the industrialists. The ordinary people in any part of the world find it difficult; however, to comprehend the intricacies of the economics. However, with increase in salaries and easy availability of loans, they keep on purchasing the items which are of no use to them. This paper is an attempt to bring back the attention to the neo-marxist, critical theorists and post-modernist critiques of emerging market society in the world. An attempt is made to relate the theories to the current situations in India where the government claims the highest growth ratio but the Human Development Index and other indexes show the bitter truths of rising inequality, poverty and skewed development.

Title: Teacher Education through ODL: Policy Initiatives
Abstract :
Education is a strong weapon through which we can change our world. This is Education which assists us to get our desired objectives set up by us due to our needs. Progressive development is our fundamental characteristics. Education guides us on a progressive and developmental ways. Thus, we can understand the importance of Education for our lives. India is enshrined as ‘Vishva Guru’ due to its perennial humane identity of Education and its profounder the Teachers give us all eternal pleasure. But this scenario becomes topsy-turvy after we got independence. There was only about 12% literacy in our country just after the independence. This was a challenging condition accepting which we made a provision as Article-45 in Indian Constitution through which we made target to achieve the universal literacy by 1960. Although a number of Commissions and Committees coming on front to reshape the futuristic Education of teachers in India but it fail to respond to the vulnerable system. Recently a number of agencies have been created to tap all the evils of TE system through conventional mode as well as through ODL. But the country is unable to reap out the best. Neither TEIs nor the education recipient at different levels come across the silver living of quality education in India. In 1993, Parekh Committee and in 1994 Lyngdoh Committee was organized to provide guidelines and evaluate the B.Ed. Distance Education Programme. Das Committee (1994) and Takwale Committee (1995) were also constituted to reevaluate to Distance B.Ed. Programme. These committees always try to maintain the quality of teachers. NCTE Norms and Regulation 2014 tries to maintain this. For maintaining the quality of teachers policy initiatives are always need to criticize.
Title: An Evaluation of the Relative Success of the Tourism Industry in Kinigi Sector, Rwanda
Abstract :

This paper investigates the Rwandan tourism industry in general and tourism enterprise in Kinigi sector in particular. It critically investigates the relative success of the tourism in Kinigi Sector. The aim of this study was to identify the participation level of local people and the poor in the tourism industry and investigate on local people’s perception of significance of tourism in improving their livelihood. Thus, the research seeks to know how local people in Kinigi Sector participate in tourism industry. The study is important because it attempts to raise the voices of the ‘rural poor in Rwanda (specifically from the case study area) who might have not yet enjoyed the full benefits of tourism. A collection of questionnaires, interviews, observations and documentation were used to generate data in the paper. In general, the study showed that as residents’ perception of the tourism role increases, their life satisfaction with various life conditions increases. Tourism development strategists need to consider the strength of this relationship, and focus on maintaining the residents’ highest life satisfaction derived from various tourism dimensions. This finding also reveals that tourism developers in Rwanda should know how residents perceive tourism impacts and how it affects their life satisfaction according to tourism development stages.

Title: Contents Vol. 11, No. 2, December 2020
Abstract :
Title: Teacher Efficacy of Secondary School Teachers in Relation to Their Teaching Competency
Abstract :

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between teacher efficacy and teaching competency of secondary school teachers. The study also examined the differences in teacher efficacy and teaching competency of secondary school teachers with respect to locale and gender. For this, 200 respondents from Gurdaspur city were selected. The results of the investigation revealed that no significant gender difference in scores of teacher efficacy and teaching competency. The study further revealed that there is significant difference in teacher efficacy and teaching competency of secondary school teachers with respect to locale. However negative relationship between teacher efficacy and teaching competency of secondary school teachers is found.

Title: Open Source Software Vis-à-Vis Cloud Computing: Healthy Requirement for Social Development: A Brief Case Study
Abstract :

Cloud Computing is one of the important computing platform in today’s age which is responsible for virtualization of several Information Technology product which including hardware, software, application, packages, utilities and operating systems. The developments of Information Technology rejuvenate by the application of Cloud Computing application and promotion. Practically Cloud Computing is a consortium based computing service, in which most of the cases, a service provider build all the facilities and provides services of software, hardware, and others to the remote based organization and institutions. This paper is briefly discuses about the Open Source Software dedicated to cloud platform creation and promotion in very simple manner.

Title: Factors Affecting the Academic Achievement of the Secondary School Students
Abstract :
Students’ academic performance is affected by several factors which include students’ learning skills, parental background, peer influence, teachers’ quality, learning infrastructure among others. The researcher in this research has used four factors – Parents attitude, Student’s attitude towards learning, Peers attitude and Teacher’s attitude. The research was conducted on the secondary school students of Mumbai and Thane. The survey conducted was validated and the study confirmed that none of the variables had significant relationship with the academic achievement of students. The results thus interpreted were that the factors did not necessarily affect the academic achievement of secondary school students. Further, the researcher correlated the factors, it was found that there was significant relationship between the factors where one factor increases the other factor too increased.
Title: Role of Pro-Polio Education, Attitude and Belief among Muslim Community and its Relation to Health Issues
Abstract :

Human beings are the most important resources. In order to develop the human resources, the pre-condition is to ensure their good health. Polio is a threat to it. The disease thrives primarily among the Muslim community. Human’s decision is guided by his /her attitude and belief. Comparison between different educational status groups of Muslim community people’s attitude towards polio was significant at 0.01 level, except that between the primary and secondary educated ones. The attitudinal difference between male and female Muslim community people towards polio was also significant at that statistical level. The female possess better attitude than their male counterpart. No definite relation was found between the educational level and belief in polio among the Muslim community people.

Title: Domestic Violence Against Women Amid Covid-19: A Study of Muslim Women Victims of Domestic Violence in Silchar Town
Abstract :
Domestic violence has been considered as a general wellbeing and common freedoms issue that principally influences ladies and youngsters around the world. A few nations including India have detailed a huge expansion in abusive behavior at home cases since the COVID-19-incited lockdowns and physical removing measures were executed. Present study aimed to understand the factors aggravating domestic violence among Muslim women in Silchar town and the approaches they adopted to resolve domestic violence issues. Silchar is a town of the state Assam. The qualitative design of the study adopted a case study method to collect data as per objectives. The present study conducted five case studies. Married women having a minimum three years of matrimonial relationship have been considered for the study and they have been selected using snowball sampling technique. Interview guide has been adopted as the primary source of data collection. During the collection of data, the interview as well as observation method was administered. The secondary sources of data used in the study are (i) journals, (ii) reports, (iii) websites and scholarly articles, (iv) research papers. The study found that dowry; interference of relatives; husband’s relation with other women; suspicious attitude of husband; infertility issues are the dominant factors of domestic violence among Muslim women which had effect on physical, mental, emotional health of the victim. Mutual discussion, support from external agencies, availing counselling sessions, consulting doctor, filing cases were some of the approaches adopted by the victims to resolve the issues related to domestic violence. In some cases such approaches yield positive results when some filed cases against the abusers in court.
Title: Contents Vol. 12, No. 01, April 2021
Abstract :
Title: Territorial Disputes in the South China Sea: Possible Solutions Ahead
Abstract :
South China sea is a strategic sub region of the Indo-Pacific which has significant economic and commercial importance. It is bordered by South East Asian countries which makes its location geo strategically significant. There are issues related to the territorial disputes by the stakeholders claiming the territorial sovereignty within the region and throughout the Indo-Pacific. In the recent years china has increased its efforts to assert its territorial claims over the sea by encroaching the Islands or creating new Islands. US claims that sovereignty in the area should be determined by UNCLOS as it is international water. The major obstacle in resolution of the issue is China’s insistence on conducting its diplomacy on a bilateral basis.
Arbitration mechanisms suggested by the International Tribunal for the law of the sea is also rejected by the China. Region’s increased militarisation has made the dispute more difficult to resolve. There is a need to initiate confidence building measures and dispute management mechanism with all the countries involved to prevent further escalation of problem.
Title: Analysing Learners Perception about Data Analysis on Microsoft Excel
Abstract :
Microsoft Excel has been considered as one of the important tools for data analysis. Curt fyre was the author who started with the foundational concepts, including basic calculations in excel. It is widely used by all sectors because of the two very important reasons like the convenience and cost associated with using MS Excel. The current study has been planned to aim to analyze the learners’ perception about data analysis on Microsoft excel. The descriptive study design has drawn a sample of 119 learners constituted of students, doctoral research scholars, academicians, corporate professionals who have attended a one-week training programme on research and data analytics on MS Excel organized by a central university of Assam in October 2020. Primary data has been collected using Google form when journals, scholarly articles, and websites are secondary data collection sources. The analysis has been done on MS Excel and presented through tables and charts. The results indicated that 43.7% of learners had poor practice knowledge on MS Excel before attending the sessions but after attending the session 47.9% of learners had gained good knowledge. 56.3% have not used excel software for analyzing data before but after attending the sessions all the 119 learners have expressed their interest in analyzing data on excel in the future. The study suggested that participants with basic knowledge of MS Excel can be provided with advanced training and that can also be introduced by the respective organizations for quality output in all sectors.
Title: Contents Vol. 10, No. 2, December 2019
Abstract :
Title: Vocational Education and NEP 2020
Abstract :

The Ministry of Human Resource Development of the Government of India has developed & organized a comprehensive National Education Policy for year 2020 (NEP 2020). Prior to the independence, “The British Empire” had total authority over the then Indian education. As one might expect, education programs such as Macaulay’s were designed to produce “Babus”, clerks and bureaucrats who would serve the masters, plain and simple. Following independence, the society underwent a series of transformations, policies were established, and all the reforms were implemented, but the desired impact was not achieved. The Government of India adopted the “2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (SD)” in year 2015, and the momentum has been building & rising since then. NEP 2020 is the conclusion of a lengthy and all-inclusive efforts. NEP 2020 is the blueprint of comprehensive planning. This article has covered the issues, essential characteristics, difficulties,solutions,aims,visions and some of its most important components. The essential element of policy and problems in regard with implementation has received the most attention. Other concerns have also been given due consideration. Overall, the government has taken a respectable and extremely welcomed step forward. It’s only with time will we come to know that how much net effective output has been achieved.

Title: Contents Vol. 12, No. 02, December 2021
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Title: Teaching Peace Education at Higher Education Level: Some Learner Centric Approaches
Abstract :

The history of mankind has witnessed the thousands of wars which have taken place in all periods destroying the peace of human minds and threatening the survival of mankind. Wars are born from the greed of power of some people or nations destroying the world peace. The best example of the present time is the crisis between Ukraine and Russia creating fear of another world war. The panacea of all these problems is imparting peace education and train young minds to realize the importance of peace. Since the contents of peace education are integrated with the different subjects like language and literature, social sciences, mathematics and sciences, etc., the pedagogy of peace education becomes very broad that includes various methods and approaches. Therefore, there is no single method to teach peace education, rather it can be taught through combining various methods in which the learners will not be simply passive listeners rather active participants. An attempt has been made in this paper to estimate some of the learner centric methods like Enquiry Method, Participatory Education, Experiential Learning, Reflective Learning, Collaborative and Cooperative Learning and Jurisprudential Teaching to teach peace education especially at higher education level.

Title: State Open Universities (SOUs) in India: An Evaluation
Abstract :
The paper seeks to evaluate the functioning of Pt. Sundarlal Sharma Open University, Bilaspur. The study is a part of an ICSSR sponsored project, “State Open Universities (SOUs) in India: An Evaluation”. Descriptive survey method has been used to conduct the study. Including the TOP University administrators, six programme coordinators; four regional directors; 30 study centre coordinators; 51 academic counselors; and 122 learners have been selected purposively as sample of the study. The tools like: Institutional profile for the University and the SCs; interview schedules for the Vice-chancellor, programme coordinators, director of the RCs, coordinators of the SCs, and academic counselors; and questionnaire for the learners have been developed for collecting data. The data have been analysed by using simple statistics like frequencies, percentage, and average scores. The results of the study emphasized that though there is definite growth in learner’s enrollment and revenue generation, the other aspect of providing quality education should not be neglected. The newly established University has completed its ten years, still it needs to understand the concept of distance learning; its philosophy; the organization of the Open University and its functioning at different levels; empowering the faculties, academic counselors, as well as the SCs; theories and models of development of materials (print and electronic); and providing support services to the learners. For this, a large scale interaction is needed with the established system of distance learning like IGNOU. Ultimately, care should be taken to ‘reach the unreached’ which is the slogan of distance education system and the social responsibility of the University should be realized.
Title: Personality, Religious Attitude and Social Conformity in the practice of Pind Daan: An overview
Abstract :
Pind daan has great significance amongst the followers of Hinduism in India and abroad. It is one of the most important forms of daan whereby the person performing the ritual offers homage to the deceased elders from the family. Research literature depicts that conformity to the social norms and affiliation to a specific religious group play important role in the inclination towards religious practices. The role of personality of an individual has also been found important in this regard. In this article, the researcher intends to explore the underlying psycho-social mechanisms behind the practice of the ritual. Various social, religious, and personality factors underlying the decision behind performing the pind daan ritual shall be tapped. The researcher further lays out few important questions which needs to be assessed empirically in the future
Title: Pathways to School Leadership: A study on school leadership practices in special schools of Kerala
Abstract :

The National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 reinstated the debate on the role of school leaders in ushering in school improvement. Research backs the statement strongly as ‘school leaders are only second to teachers in ascertaining student achievement’(Halász& Pont, 2007; Leithwood et al., 2020; Leithwood & Levin, 2010; Leithwood & Massey, 2010). Also, NEP (2020) focuses on developing inclusive education in the country. Hence, the role and responsibility of school leaders intensify as it needs to be explored in terms of inclusive educational prospects. The present qualitative study focuses on the case analysis of two schools in Trivandrum, Kerala catering to the children with special needs (CWSN) student clientele. Despite belonging to different boards of education, State and CBSE, respectively, it explores the dimensions of the progress made in special education and the challenges faced by the school principals and teachers in continuing their journey to school improvement. The paper contributes to the bleak literature on school leadership practices in the Indian context. It renders a contextualized understanding of the inclusive education development in Kerala; a state celebrated for its significant achievement in educational development, equity, and access(Kerala State Planning Board, 2019; KSPB, 2021; PIB, 2021).

Title: An Empirical Study on Students and Parents Perception for Online Learning
Abstract :

The study was conducted to know the perception of Students and Parents for learning online during the lockdown. To conduct the investigation a sample size of 200 respondents, comprising of 100 students and 100 Parents was considered. A structured questionnaire was sent online to students of different colleges of Mumbai and to Parents. Tools like Central tendency, Mean score, Non Parametric test like chi square were used in the current study. The analysis and findings of the study represents that student have a positive perception for online teaching. The virtual visits to the filed shown on technology makes learning interesting. However, the facts still remain that students want face to face learning which brings a personal touch. On the other hand, Parents are looking forwards for students to join the college for lectures. According to Parents Personal Grooming of students can take place only through Offline sessions. The Hypothesis test revealed that there is a significant difference between gender and the perception for online learning. And There is no significant difference between qualification and the understanding of concepts in online learning.

Title: Child-Rearing Practices of Single Mothers During Covid-19 Pandemic
Abstract :

Single parenthood equates persistent responsibility and fervor. The holistic phases of child management direct efficient guidance and careful time handling. Hence, this study explored the child-rearing practices of single mothers during the Covid-19 pandemic along with caretaking, connectedness, control and child behavior management and examined their encountered problems and identified their profile variables in terms of their age, monthly family income, highest educational attainment, religion and number of children. Participants were 73 single mothers of Villasis, Pangasinan. Results showed that majority of the single mothers in Villasis, Pangasinan are 18-34 years, Roman Catholic believers, high school graduate, having a monthly income of 11,690.00 and below with 1-2 children. Their child-rearing practices during Covid-19 pandemic are highly demonstrated. Their age, highest educational attainment, and religion of the respondents had an effect to the practices. As well, being alone and interrupted sleep have been the major problems being met. Notwithstanding, results suggested that various government agencies may offer job opportunities for single mothers that are suited to their conditions and educational attainment. Additionally, may conduct seminars and educational colloquia along child-rearing practices to give more valuable insights and additional understandings among single mothers in the Municipality.

Title: A Study of Online Education with Special Reference to Maharashtra
Abstract :

Education is one of the necessities of life today. It is the fundamental right of every citizen of the country to get quality education. Because the right carrier can be chosen only on the strength of good education system in which teachers can use the internet to teach student in any corner of the country on the world. Today, the epidemic Covid-19 is causing many problems in the world. Lockdowns and curfew have made it difficult to get an education outside at home. There are many benefits to learning online, but there are side effects. But it is not unreasonable to say that during the lockdown, the same education helped in the education of student. Apart from this, this teaching method is suitable for those who live far away as well as adult student who are self – disciplined. But it is more appropriate for children and adolescents to go to school and college in the traditional way. Using both these method of learning, the students can increase his knowledge and achieve success in life.

Title: Why School Education Matters During COVID Pandemic in India?
Abstract :

Education system is most disturbed due to COVID pandemic that led to school closure and paradigm shift from traditional to digital education. Hence, the educational achievement of students became crucial where the people live in a great promise of technology driven society. This review paper identified digital learning that deepens social inequity with long existing structural inequalities rather reducing equity gap in education since the issues of economic wherewithal determines whether to prefer digital education. It does not favour to everyone, the inequitable quality learning resulted in learning crisis of loss and dropout rate in the country. The learning crisis of loss affect future career and may accrue unhealthy labour force. Still no freedom from the risk of pandemic and increasing COVID induced poverty that poses new challenges to achieve sustainable development goals, hence, need an integrated model for the technology driven inclusive education in schools.

Title: Contents Vol. 13, No. 01, April 2022
Abstract :
Title: Conception and Misconception of Elementary School Teachers about Inclusion
Abstract :
The purpose of the study was to examine elementary level teachers’ beliefs on inclusion and a range of classroom practices that ongoing along with initiatives for inclusiveness. The study focuses on teachers’ experiences and practices used in classrooms, based on data collected from elementary school teachers and classroom observations. The major findings show that, a larger social domain, top-down decision forcing approach can affect teachers own cognitive congruence and their act towards accepting disabilities in classroom. Their belief of responsibilities towards these students are of a range of other stakeholders which significantly reflected in their classroom practices. Teachers clear indication of special schools for students with disabilities challenged the running axiom of “everyone” of inclusive practice in the study. Based on the findings the paper also outlines educational implications.
Title: Perception of Contextualisation in Teaching learning Process among Elementary Teachers in Bhopal: A Qualitative study
Abstract :
The present qualitative research was conducted to study the perception of Contextualisation in Teaching-Learning Process among Elementary Teachers in Bhopal. The main objectives of the study were to study the perception of Contextualisation in Teaching-Learning Process, advantages and challenges of Contextualisation in Teaching-Learning Process among elementary teachers. The sample of the study was 25 elementary teachers of Bhopal city. The results revealed that teachers have very less understanding of Contextualisation in Teaching- Learning Process. Though the teachers advocated the advantages of Contextualisation in Teaching-Learning Process, but also listed many challenges of Contextualisation in Teaching- Learning Process to be faced in the classroom. It was also recommended that training and professional development can help elementary teachers in adopting Contextualisation in Teaching-Learning Process in their classroom practices on a regular base.
Title: Internet of Things (IoT) in Enhancing Onsite and Online Educational Development—An Era for Digital Education Promotion
Abstract :
Educational systems are changing rapidly throughout the world and among the aspects latest technologies are widely changing. Today education not only meant for textbooks rather it is an interaction way of getting knowledge in a scientific knowledge and environmental systems. Technological systems has radically changed entire systems of education and teaching learning. Once only in offices of educational institutions being considered as main stakeholder in educational technologies and computing but gradually in other educational activities as well Educational Technologies being highly deputed and started in using. Today quality and quantity both can be managed significantly using ICT. Among the latest Information Technology components most important and emerging are Cloud Computing, Big Data,Internet of Things (IoT), Blockchain, Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), Edge Computing and even emerging components of Edge Computing. As far as Internet of Thing (IoT) is concerned it is lies on internet technologies and systems and deeply with connectivity to the physical devices and objects. Today IoT developer and designer are being engaged in developing IoT enable educational systems including teaching learning, educational management, research and training, and so on. Therefore in teaching-learning and other educational activities as well IoT and allied technologies being considered as worthy for students, teachers, officers and other stakeholders. This paper is on latest aspects on IoT in Educational Systems and management including foundation, applications and emergence. Paper also discussed about the issues and challenges related to the IoT applications in Digital Education promotion viz. onsite and online education.
Title: Learning Communities: Do they Improve Imposter Syndrome and Loneliness among Medical Students?
Abstract :

Past research has linked imposter syndrome (IS), isolation, and locus of control (LOC) together. Learning communities (LCs) are created to directly and effectively combat loneliness, feelings of isolation, and promote students’ wellbeing and success. We hypothesize: those who attend more LC events will score lower on IS scale and lower on social loneliness scale; that those who scored higher on IS and social loneliness are more likely to have an external LOC. To test our hypotheses, a survey was sent out to the Classes of 2021, 2022, 2023, and 2024 at Wayne State University School of Medicine, resulting in a sample size of 144 participants. The students’ responses were recorded and analyzed. The survey included questions from the following topics: gender, age, class, number of LC and non-LC events attended, IS, loneliness, and LOC. Surprisingly, it was found that there was not a significant correlation between the number of LC events attended and IS, loneliness, and LOC. There was a slight positive correlation between loneliness scores and the number of non-LC social events attended. Furthermore, there were correlations between IS, loneliness, and LOC. In summary, this study affirms connections between gender, IS, and external locus of control. Furthermore, our study fails to establish connections between IS and loneliness. Lastly, the study fails to demonstrate LCs’ ability to decrease feelings of loneliness and IS. Further studies on different types of LCs and how they contribute to the student body may shed some light on the gaps between LCs, IS, and loneliness. 

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Title: Post-Covid Teacher Education in India with Respect to Alternative Pedagogical Practices
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Higher Education, especially in the Post independent India, has been transforming in manifold ways. The post-colonial higher education has manifested growth in fundamental institutional set-up in new urban areas on one hand and, increased infrastructure, manpower and learning resources in existing institutions of higher learning on the other hand. The second wave of transformation in higher education was observed in the post-LPG era which has boosted professional education and IT-based revolution in the education sector. The most recent and third phase of transformation in higher education has been manifested in the post-Covid era through online technology and in the presence of the National Education Policy 2020. The present paper made here an attempt to look into the present status of the Post-Covid Educational world and its consequences a digital revolution in the education sector in general and teacher education in particular. Some of the popular online platforms which are being used for education and training purposes, some of the key institutions responsible for contributing to the plethora of educational resources, and digital devices are widely discussed in the coming sections of the paper.
Title: National Education Policy 2020: Escorting in a New Digital Era
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Circumstances changing with time give rise to new thinking and discovery. The Covid-19 pandemic has taught us that it is necessary to have alternative methods to run the country’s proceedings in a smooth manner even in difficult times. When traditional methods of education were disrupted during the pandemic, digital mode was adopted for quality education. Accordingly, the National Education Policy 2020 acknowledges the significance of digital technology in view of the potential risks and threats like Covid-19. Policy recommends suitable bodies, schemes, educational apps, digital infrastructure etc. in view of digital empowerment. In this regard, NEP 2020 advocates that digital platforms should be expanded to offer quality education for all. ICT based education has to be promoted in
the face of present and future challenges. The present paper describes the digital aspects of the National Education Policy 2020 and shows its significance in educational sector.
Title: Understanding the Dropout Crisis: Girls’ Education in India and The Impact of Girls’ Dropout on Education in India
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The article discusses a comprehensive set of strategies aimed at combating girls’ dropout rates in education, particularly in regions where socio-economic, cultural, and safety factors contribute to their disengagement from schooling. These strategies encompass financial incentives and scholarships to alleviate economic pressures, ensuring safe transportation, improve school infrastructure, and developing girl-friendly curricula. Teacher training and community engagement are key components to create inclusive and supportive learning environments. Additionally, health and nutrition support, flexible scheduling, legal protections against early marriage and child labor, and data-driven monitoring are essential elements. The abstract highlights the significance of partnerships and media campaigns in challenging stereotypes and underscores the importance of continuous support for girls’ education throughout their academic journey. Implementing these strategies collectively can help ensure equal access to quality education, empowering girls to overcome obstacles and reach their full potentia
Title: Growth of Buddhism in Cambodia
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Cambodia, (Kampuchea) is land of Buddhism. Cambodians ethnically and historically known as the Khmers. It covers the bottom of the Indochinese peninsula, having an area of 181, 0355 sq kms. Cambodia comparatively is a small country of South-East Asia, Cambodia has a population of 16 million, (16,133,484) of which the Khmers who comprise 94 percent from the majority. The other sizable ethnic groups are of Vietnamese and Chinese origins. According to the Samantapasadika, the commentary on Vinaya Pitaka, and a Sri Lankan chronicle Mahavamsa, after the third Buddhist Council which was held at Pataliputra (Modern Patna), India, in the third century B.C., under the presidentship of Thera Mahamoggaliputta Tissa, and was patronized by emperor Dhammasoka, sent a Buddhist mission headed by two monks, namely Sona and Uttara from Jambudipa (India) to Suvarnabhumi in order to propagate the Buddha’s teachings there. In ancient times Suvarnabhumi covered a large part of South-East Asia including Cambodia. Suvannabhumi covered modern Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, and some parts of Indonesia. Ancient inscriptions and various historical documents explain that in Cambodia Buddhism has existed in the country since the third century B.C., although practice of Buddhism (Mahayana and Theravada) changed according to the faith of the king. This paper is covering the Historical, Political and Social impact of Buddhism in Cambodia. This paper explains the introduction and growth of Buddhism in Cambodia.
Title: Impact of Fee-Reimbursement Scheme on the Quality of Higher Education in Telangana State
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The current study is carried out to know the impact of fee- reimbursement schemes on the quality of Higher education in Telangana state. This study is based on descriptive research that sought to explain the phenomena under investigation. The primary data is gathered from a sample of 300 students by administering a structured questionnaire specially designed for
the purpose. Statistical techniques like correlation coefficient and chi-square test were used to know the significant relationship between impact of fee-reimbursement scheme on higher education. It is observed from the study that student’s higher education is depending on their parental income and occupation. 48.57 percent of the respondents are strongly agreed that they are failed in the exams as preparing for government jobs and not attending regular class work due to fee-reimbursement and followed by 28.57 percent are studying for the sake of degree only. Majority of the respondents opined that the state government should continue fee reimbursement scheme to help the students who are below poverty line for continuing their further education.
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