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TI - Volume 5 - Issue 1

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Title: Postpartum endometritis in dairy cows: current status of diagnosis, therapy and prevention
Abstract :

Clinical (CE) and subclinical endometritis (SCE) occur a few or several weeks postpartum in dairy cows. Immunosuppression, microbial proliferation and disruption of endometrial lining of the uterus are risk for the development of metritis which can be associated with increased likelihood of development of endometritis. Diagnostic approaches for CE have utilized the vaginoscopic presence of pus in the vaginal lumen as the common diagnostic criterion although currently Metricheck and ultrasonography are preferred procedures. The identification of pathologic numbers of microbes in the uterus appears difficult unless the samples are collected using specialized instruments. Inflammatory changes in the endometrium (of CE affected cows) can be identified with high accuracy in histologic sections of the endometrial biopsy specimens or hysteroscopy however, such approaches are limited to specialized cases only. Cows with SCE evidence a cervico-vaginal discharge without pathogenomic properties (pus and or altered consistency) and thus the diagnosis of SCE continues to be presumptive in cows with lowered fertility. Ultrasonography and uterine cytology on swabs or fluids collected from uterus have been considered accurate for the diagnosis of SCE.

Title: Bovine Haematic Mummification New Observations-Report of Two Cases in HF Crossbred Cows in Mekelle
Abstract :

A five year old HF X local crossbred cow, in her first lactation, was reported by the owner to have overshot her gestation by nearly a month, without showing any signs of udder development and approaching parturition. Clinical examination revealed the presence of fetal head just anterior to the pelvic brim. Attempts to stimulate fetal movements by digital pressure on the eye orbits failed to produce any response. The rest of the uterus appeared as an enlarged structure containing a doughy mass. Fetal fluids and placentomes were not palpable. A tentative diagnosis of fetal mummification was made with a strong probability of an anomalous fetus. Caesarean section was resorted to, through a left ventro-lateral incision. After removal of one fetus in anterior presentation, it immediately became apparent that another fetus of similar size was present in posterior presentation. Both fetuses were tightly covered by leathery fetal membranes and a brownish colored, thick, viscous material. The uterine cavity was cleaned with mild antiseptic solution, before closure of the uterine incision. The abdominal incision was closed routinely. The animal had uneventful recovery and skin structures were removed on day 9. The other animal was a seven year old HF x local cross, brought to the clinic for threatened abortion, with partly necrosed membranes hanging from the vulva. Vaginal examination revealed the presence of a small fetus, tightly surrounded by fetal membranes in the vagina, which was easily removed. The external os was firmly closed and did not admit even one finger. A detailed examination of the fetus confirmed the existence of haematic mummification. This paper records some new features of the condition, so far not reported, in bovine fetal mummification.

Title: Prognostic tests for uterine torsion affected buffaloes
Abstract :

Twenty-five female buffaloes suffering from uterine torsion were presented to the clinic of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics, CVAS, Bikaner for treatment. Three times blood samples were obtained from 25 buffaloes with uterine torsion (at the time of presentation of the animal, 1 h and 24 h after fetal delivery) and 5 healthy buffaloes to investigate the relationship between concentrations of SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase), SGPT (serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase), Bilirubin, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). The aim of this study was to investigate related alterations in these blood constituents. There were significant (P < 0.01) increases in SGOT, SGPT, Bilirubin, serum creatinine and BUN in the affected buffaloes, possibly due to high uterine tissue damage. It may be inferred that torsion may lead to imbalance in biochemical profiles that affect the proper functioning of the uterine musculature. Buffaloes subjected to uterine torsion are associated with hepatic and renal dysfunction. In conclusion, concentration of above parameters can be used as a prognostic indicator for the occurrence of uterine torsion in buffaloes.

Title: A retrospective study on incidence of dystocia in cattle and buffaloes at referral center
Abstract :

A retrospective study on the incidence of bovine dystocia between October, 2012 to September, 2013 was screened. A high incidence of maternal cause of dystocia was found in both cows (78.89%) and buffaloes (80.33%). Maldisposition of fetus was the commonest cause of fetal dystocia in both cows (16.67%) and buffaloes (18.03%). Imperfect dilatation of cervix (50%) was the major cause of maternal dystocia in cattle while uterine torsion (55.74%) in buffaloes. Other causes of dystocia with low incidence include narrow pelvis, fetal emphysema and fetal monster.

Title: Ectopic Kidney and Lymph Nodes and Intra-abdominal Testicular Structure in a Freemartin Holstein Friesian Calf
Abstract :

Freemartinism in a 3.5 months-old Holstein Friesian calf was investigated. External examination of the animal revealed the presence of two vulvar openings ventral to the anus. The urine is voided from the lower aperture. Transrectal palpation and ultrasonography revealed an ectopic left kidney in the caudal abdomen. At autopsy, an ectopic left kidney, right unilateral cryptorchidism, left testicular aplasia and intra-abdominal edema were the main findings observed. Histopathologically, narrowing of the seminiferous tubules and degenerative changes of the sertoli cells were recorded. This is the first report of testicular cryptorchidism and aplasia and ectopic kidney in free martin calf.

Title: Characterization and immunolocalization of HBP, FA-1 and TIMP-2 like proteins in cattle bull semen: HBP modification in vitro capacitated spermatozoa
Abstract :

Characterization and localization of HBP, FA-1 and TIMP-2 like proteins in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of cattle bulls was carried out by immunoblotting and immunofluoresence. Anti-HBP, anti-TIMP-2 and anti-FA-1 reacted with 55, 48, 45, 42, 35, 30, 24, 18, 16 kDa; 65, 45, 24, 16 kDa and 55, 48, 16 kDa sperm proteins on immunoblots. Immunofluoresence indicated that HBP/ TIMP-2 are localized mainly on acrosomal cap, whereas, FA-1 predominantly on post acrosomal cap. Among the bulls, positive for 60, 45, 16 kDa FA-1 like proteins in sperm extracts and 11/ 16 kDa in SP; 7, 8, 6 and 7 bulls also showed higher rate of in vitro AR. Number of bulls positive for 65, 24 kDa-TIMP-2 and with higher rate of AR was more as compared to other anti-TIMP-2 reactive sperm/ SP proteins. Therefore, 60, 45 and 16 kDA-FA-1, 65 and 24 kDa-TIMP-2 like proteins may serve as indicators of higher rate of in vitro AR vis a vis fertility of cattle bulls. Immunoblotting of capacitated and uncapacitated spermatozoa with anti-HBP suggested that removal of 55, 48, 45, 40, 37 and 30 kDa HBP from in vitro acrosome reacted cattle bull spermatozoa allowed heparin to mediate in vitro AR and an increase in intensity of 110, 90 kDa and exposure of 65, 60, 26 and 16 kDa HBP after AR may be important for binding of sperm to ovum, penetration and fertilization.