Cart

default logo

Most Popular Article - IJAEB

[<<< GO BACK ][ IJAEB ]

Title: Genetic Analysis of Yield and Yield Contributing Traits in Bread Wheat
Abstract :

Ten wheat genotypes were crossed in diallel manner excluding reciprocals. The crosses along with parents were analysed for combining ability and significant variation was found amongst genotypes for various yield and yield contributing traits. ANOVA revealed that mean square for general combining ability was significant for all the traits studied except for spike length. Mean square for SCA was also non significant for spike length while for all other characters it was significant. Out of total 45 crosses 5, 8, 4, 7, 8, 3, 3, 11, 11, 13, 8 and 11 crosses showed significant SCA effects in desirable direction for days to 75% heading, days to maturity, flag leaf area, number of productive tillers per plant, plant height, spike length, number of spikelets/spike, number of grains/ spike, 1000 grain weight, biological yield/plant, grain yield/plant and harvest index, respectively. Two cross combinations viz., HD 2967 × NIAW 1594 and KFA/2*KACHU × WH 1187 were identified as good crosses due to them having higher per se performance and significant SCA effects for three yield and yield contributing traits so these crosses presents an opportunity for commercial exploitation either in form of hybrid varieties or as base material for selection of potential homozygous lines from transgressive segregants for improvement of yield levels of bread wheat.

Title: Stability Index Based on Weighted Average of Absolute Scores of AMMI and Yield of Wheat Genotypes Evaluated Under Restricted Irrigated Conditions for Peninsular Zone
Abstract :

Highly significant effects of environment (E), G×E interaction and genotypes (G) were observed by AMMI analysis during 2018-19 and 2019-20 study years for wheat genotypes evaluated at major locations of Peninsular zone of the country. WAASB measure observed suitability of HI 1605, HI 8805 & HI 8802 genotypes. Superiority index while weighting 0.65 and 0.35 for yield & stability found MACS 6695, HI 1605 & NIAW 3170 as of stable performance with high yield. PRVG and MHPRVG measures observed suitability of NIAW 3170, MACS 6695 & MACS 6696 wheat genotypes. Moreover, the average yield of genotypes ranked NIAW 3170, MACS 6695 & MACS 6696 as of order of choice. SI expressed only negative values of correlations most of other stability measures except of MHPRVG, PRVG, yield. WAASB measure exhibited direct relationships with other measures analogous of negative values with MASV, SI, MHPRVG, PRVG, yield. Analytic measures MHPRVG & PRVG had only positive values with SI, and yield remaining stability measures maintained negative values. MP1358, NIDW1149 & NIAW3170 would be suitable genotypes as per WAASB measure during second year of study. Superiority index found MP1358, NIAW3170 & MACS4087 as of stable performance with high yield. PRVG and MHPRVG measures observed suitability of MP1358, HI1605 & MACS4087 wheat genotypes. More over the average yield of genotypes ranked MP1358, MACS4087 & HI1605 as of order of choice. SI expressed mostly negative values other measures except of weak direct relation with MASV1, MASV along with strong with yield, MHPRVG & PRVG measures. WAASB measure exhibited direct relationships with other measures and indirect with only MASV1& SI.

Highlights

  • Stability measure WAASB based on all significant interaction principal components observed suitability of wheat genotypes associated with lower values of measure.
  • Superiority index provided variable weighting mechanism between stability and yield of genotypes under multi environment trials. Assigning 0.65 and 0.35 weights to yield & stability respectively selected wheat genotypes of stable performance with high yield.
  • Recent analytic measures of stability PRVG and MHPRVG measures expressed strong association with superiority index.
Title: In silico analysis of the germin like protein multigene family members of tomato with predicted oxalate oxidase activity
Abstract :

Germins and germin like proteins (GLPs) have been reported as plant glycoproteins belonging to the superfamily. They have been documented to possess enzymatic activities leading to the generation of H2O2, a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hence, members of the GLP family have been proposed to play major role in plant disease resistance through ROS-mediated signaling. Interestingly, the functional characterization of GLP(s) in terms of their suitability as a key player in plant disease resistance has remained under-explored in case of tomato (Solanumlycopersicum L.). In the present study, 15 tomato GLPs, predicted to have oxalate oxidase activity, have been investigated in silico. Deduced multiple amino acid sequence alignment-based clustering of these proteins was carried out to classify them into 3 sub-families. All the proteins were found to contain the conserved amino acid stretches, representing the BoxA, B and C, and an inter-motif region of variable length. It was observed through homology modeling and structural alignment that the active sites of all except 3 of these proteins have Mn2+ bound at the active site involving the three conserved histidine and one conserved glutamate residue(s). The active site architecture was analyzed with a comparative view in order to examine the metal binding capacity of tomato GLPs. Thus the present work makes a platform for further genetic, molecular biological and functional genomics studies in the field of tomato GLPs, the possible key players for conferring biotic and/or abiotic stress tolerance, in future.

Title: Enhancement of Growth and Yield Parameters of Wheat Variety AAI-W6 by an Organic Farm Isolate of Plant Growth Promoting Erwinia Species (KP226572)
Abstract :

Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) play an important role in agricultural production and soil fertility. Wheat is a highly consumed cereal food crop of the world population and sustainable wheat productivity achieved by the application of bacterium in combination with NPK is promising. In the present study bacterial isolate (PR6) from soil of organic farm was included. The isolate (PR6) was screened for its morphological, biochemical and plant growth promoting characteristics, sequenced by 16S rDNA method and submitted to NCBI for the confirmation of strain identification. Further, the inoculation effect of the bacterial isolate in combination with NPK on growth and yield parameters of wheat var. AAI-W6 were analysed. The isolate (PR6) was identified as Erwinia sp. with NCBI Accession No. KP226572. The organism possessed multiple plant growth promoting (MPGP) traits such as production of ammonia, siderophore, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ACC Deaminase (ACCD) and showed phosphate solubilization activity. The organism was found tolerant to 10% salt, wide range of pH 5- 9, higher levels of trace elements and heavy metals and possessed resistant to multiple antibiotics. Inoculation of wheat variety AAI-W6 with the Erwinia species showed significant increase in seed germination and enhancement in elongation of root and shoot compared to untreated control. The combined application of PGPB (Erwinia sp.) along with NPK treatments showed similar significant results in all growth and yield parameters of wheat. This study is the first report on the beneficial effects of organic farm isolated Erwinia-NPK treatment combinations on sustainable wheat productivity.

Title: Non-linear optimization model for border irrigation system for wheat crop (Triticum aestivum)
Abstract :

Nonlinear optimization design models were developed for field conditions to design and manage border irrigation system using Lewis-Kostiakov infiltration equation. The design criterion used in the models was the depth of irrigation and basic infiltration rate of the soil. The objective function of the nonlinear model was constructed on the basis of a relationship between net returns and water application efficiency. The design variables of the models were the inflow rate, length of run, cutoff time, number of borders per set and number of sets. The nonlinear model gives a better representation of the design parameters and is more flexible because it permits easy changes in the objective function.

Title: Soil risk assessment of heavy metal contamination near Oil Refinery area, Northeastern India
Abstract :

The present paper aims to maps Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb concentration and assess the hazard in the soils of surrounding agricultural fields affected by oil refinery drainage of Digboi refinery of Tinsukia district, Assam using statistics, geostatistics and GIS techniques. The amounts of Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb were determined from 97 samples collected within the contaminated area. Among the heavy metals studied, the mean concentration of Pb was high. The greatest and the smallest standard deviation were observed in the Ni (44.1) and pH (0.47), respectively. Analysis of the isotropic variogram indicated that the Cr and Cd semivariograms were well described with the circular model, with the distance of spatial dependence being 1240 and 1022 m, respectively, while the Pb and Ni were well describe with Gaussain model, with the distance of spatial dependence being 1930 and 2321 m, respectively. The ordinary kriging maps of Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb showed that high concentrations of heavy metals were located in the low lying area. Indicator kriged probability maps of soil Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb were prepared based on the concentrations to exceed the respective Food and Agriculture Organization maximum permissible limit (MPL) value of 100, 3, 30 and 50 mg kg−1, respectively. It was seen that whole studied area had a higher than 0.99% probability to exceed the MPL value of Pb. About 10% area of the study site was having higher concentration than MPL value of Cd and Ni concentrated at the centre and north-west corner of the study area, respectively.

Title: Response of baramasi lemon to various post-harvest treatments
Abstract :

Baramasi lemon is an attractive fruit for its unique flavor and acidity. Harvesting period of winter crop of Baramasi lemon coincides with the cooler part of the year and there is low consumption of lemon fruits during winters, which leads to the glut in the market. Baramasi lemons are sensitive to chilling injury and it is difficult to store in the commercial cold stores. So, there is a need to enhance the shelf-life of Baramasi lemon fruits at ambient conditions. Keeping this in view, an experiment was conducted during 2014 to study the effect of chemicals and modified atmosphere packaging on the storage life and quality of Baramasi lemon fruits. Mature green Baramasi lemon fruits of uniform size and colour were harvested and treated with gibberellic acid (25, 50 &75 ppm), boric acid (1, 2 and 3%) and sodium benzoate (2, 3 and 4%) and packed in low density polyethylene (LDPE) bags. Fruit were analyzed for various physico-chemical characteristics after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of storage. Results revealed that minimum spoilage and total soluble solids (TSS) and maximum physiological weight loss reduction, palatability rating, acidity were recorded in gibberellic acid @ 75 ppm + LDPE packaging during the entire storage period. It can be concluded that gibberellic acid @ 75 ppm along with LDPE packaging was found to be most effective in extending the post-harvest life of Baramasi lemon fruits at ambient conditions for 60 days.

Title: Molecular modeling and docking approach to predict the potential interacting partners of AtMAPK3P with the members of bZIP transcription factor family in Arabidopsis
Abstract :

Protein-protein interaction plays key role in predicting the protein function of target protein thus the identification of PPIs is of primary importance. The  in vitro  and  in vivo  methods have their own limitations, thus  in silico  methods which include structure-based approaches were developed. In this research work, we endeavor to identify the downstream interaction partners of (AtMAPK3P) in Arabidopsis thaliana using the docking approach. The results of our study revealed that out of 73 bZIP members of Arabidopsis thaliana 47 members are showing interaction with AtMAPK3P. Elucidation of protein interaction networks also contributes greatly to the analysis of signal transduction pathways. Recent developments along with the results obtained essentially enhance our knowledge of the MAPK interacting protein network and provide a valuable research resource for developing a nearly important link between pathogen-activated MAPK signaling pathways and downstream transcriptional programming.

Title: Qualities of lemongrass (Cymbopogan citratus) essential oil at different drying conditions
Abstract :

Cymbopogon citratus is widely used in nutraceutical industries due to its strong lemony odor for its high content of the aldehyde citral and small quantities of geraniol, geranyl acetate and monoterpene olefins. Present studies were conducted to estimate the essential oil at different drying condition viz., sun-drying, shade-drying and oven-drying and analyzed for physicochemical properties (acid value, saponification value and iodine value). The maximum essential oil (3.05%) recovered in oven drying method while, the minimum saponification value (142.59 mgKOH/g) was recorded in sun drying method, however, the minimum acid value (4.14 mgKOH/g) and iodine value (114.31gI 2/100g) were recorded in shade drying method. The essential oils were analyzed by GC/MS instruments and identified eleven different components. Among the components identified, geranial (citral-a), neral (citral-b), caryophellene and limonene were found major components in the lemongrass essential oils.

Title: Identification of prediction model on population build up of Singhiella pallida Singh on Piper betle L. for timely intervention
Abstract :

Whitefly Singhiella pallida Singh is an important pest of betelvine, Piper betle L. infesting the crop throughout the year. The temperature played a crucial role in the population build up of the pest. The moderate temperature falling between 16°C to 20°C was found very much conducive for pest population development. However, relative humidity had a little role in population build up of the pest as compared to temperature. In contrary, rainfall was found detrimental to it. Prajneshu growth model was found to be most suitable non-linear growth model for prediction of the pest population build up. The 48th standard week was identified as the optimum time for intervention through insecticidal application as a prophylactic measures to check the peak pest population; supposed to be attained at the 52nd standard week as evidenced from pattern of population growth.

Title: Verticillium lecani (Zimm.): A potential entomopathogenic fungus
Abstract :

Development of insect resistance and risk to the environment due to indiscriminate use of conventional chemical pesticides for insect pest management favored the introduction of one of the new alternatives as biological control. Entomopathogenic fungi are one of the most versatile biological control agents for sustainable management. The most considerable fungal species are Metarhizium spp., Beauveria spp., Nomuraea rileyi, Verticillium lecanii and Hirsutella spp. Out of these fungi, V, lecanii are opportunistic and widely distributed ascomycete fungi that has the ability to cause mycosis in a number of insects of orders Homoptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. V. lecanii are easy to mass produce, store and are effective over a wide range of temperatures and humidity levels. It also provides a rapid kill at optimum doses and the fungus has been recently commercialized as a microbial agent for pest management. It has the additional features to produce extracelullar enzymes, such as chitinases which helps in promoting host colonization. It also shows compatibility with commonly used agrochemicals such as insecticides or fungicides and other biocontrol agents. Because of these numerous advantages, it can be considered as a potential biocontrol agent’s in integrated pest management.

Title: In vitro multiplication of madhunashini (Gymnema sylvestre Retz.)
Abstract :

Study was conducted for the in vitro multiplication of madhunashini by using immature seeds as explants. Immature seeds were cultured directly on to media containing different concentrations and combinations of auxin and cytokinin. Germination of seeds into plantlets was observed in the media containing cytokinins, however, the seeds cultured on media containing auxins at the expense of plantlet formation produced callus. Cent per cent of the explants responded when inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media containing Benzylaminopurine (BAP - 1.0 mg l-1), Kinetin (Kn - 0.5 mg l-1, 1.0 mg l-1 and 2.0 mg l-1) and BAP + Kn (1.0+1.0 mg l-1). Height of plantlet (19.74 mm) was significantly higher in MS media supplemented with BAP 0.5 mg l-1. Maximum number of leaves (3.12) were produced on MS media supplemented with Kn 2.0 mg l-1. Nodal explants obtained from in vitro seedlings when cultured on the media containing cytokinins induced proliferation of shoots. Number of shoots (5.50) produced and length of shoot (18.53 mm) was found to be maximum at lower concentrations of BAP 1.0 mg l-1 and Kn 0.5 mg l-1. Leaves from in vitro seedlings when used as explants and cultured on media with cytokinins did not show any response.

Title: Progeny analysis of transgenic rice variety transformed with Glyoxalase I gene
Abstract :

Salinity is one of the major yields limiting factor that limit the worldwide productivity and distribution of cereal crops and the development of genetically engineered plants with enhanced tolerance to salt presents an important tool to increase the productivity. We introduced glyI (glyoxalase I) gene from Brassica Juncea into rice variety PR116 through particle bombardment for salt tolerance. Integration and expression analysis in T0 and T1 generations were confirmed through Polymerase chain reaction and in vitro screening for salt tolerance. In this study we confirmed the integration and expression of gene (glyI) in next two generation (T2, T3) through Polymerase Chain Reaction and methylglyoxal experiment. Expression of glyoxalase I gene was induced by different concentrations of methylglyoxal treatment and most of the transgenic lines were highly tolerant to methylglyoxal and showed high chlorophyll content after 72 h of treatment.

Title: Testing of catchment module of integrated reservoir-based canal irrigation model for kangsabati irrigation project
Abstract :

Bhadra, (2007) developed Integrated reservoir based canal irrigation model (IRCIM). It consist of catchment, reservoir, crop water demand modules. In this study, IRCIM was applied on Kangsabati irrigation project, West Bengal, India for period of 1998 to 2003. Runoff was predicted using two techniques namely, Distributed SCS Curve Number (CN) with Muskingum routing and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Backpropogation techniques available in catchment module. Distributed SCS CN method requires subbasin information, land cover characteristics, overland and channel information and daily rainfall on subbasin, whereas ANN method requires daily rainfall and runoff values. Catchment module was calibrated and validated using performance criteria modelling efficiency (ME) and coefficient of residual mass (CRM). ANN technique of runoff prediction involves extensive training of the network, where the unpredictable correlation of rainfall and runoff is also been taken into consideration which is not possible for conceptual model such as SCS CN method. Thus, results showed that for Kangsabati reservoir catchment, runoff values, predicted using ANN result in better match with observed runoff values compared to semi-distributed conceptual SCS CN method.

Title: Germination profile of babul (Acacia Nilotica) under different salinity conditions
Abstract :

Babul (Acacia nilotica) is an important multipurpose, leguminous tree species, grown widely under agroforestry systems in India, Middle-East Asia, and Africa. It is an important source of fodder, fuel, timber, gum and medicines. The salinity tolerance ability of Babul in 15 provenances (Sagar, Jabalpur, Raipur, Nagpur, Akola, Khandwa, Ujjain, Shajapur, Bhopal, Guna, Jhansi, Bharatpur, Jaipur, Rewari, Karnal) were investigated using petri dishes and poly bags. The solutions of different compound like sodium chloride, sodium bi-cardonate, calcium chioride, magnesium sulphate and calcium sulphate was prepared with five level of salinity concentration, which have electrical conductivity of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 dSm-1, respectively. Among the five doses of salinity, the highest does EC 15 dSm-1 was found most deleterious to the seed germination of Babul in all the provenances. Out of 15, ten provenances had more than 50% reduction in germination at EC 9.0 dSm-1. Akola, Khandawa, Guna and Jaipur provenances were least affected by the increased level of salinity under both the test i.e., petri dishes and poly bags and hence these provenances may be called as most tolerant to salinity.

Title: Development and optimization of pyrolysis unit for producing charcoal
Abstract :

The Developed system is designed to produce the charcoal from biomass samples like Jatropha seed husk, Melia Dubia and Prosopis juliflora. The technology adopted is hybrid by combining both direct and indirect method of heating the biomass based on pyrolysis. The temperature is in the range of 300 °C to 500 °C. In results of the proximate analysis showed the fixed carbon content is increased in this pyrolysis unit charcoal whereas biomass sample and existing pyrolysis unit charcoal showed lower fixed carbon content. The charcoal yield efficiency is 34.84% whereas in conventional method of charcoal making the charcoal yield efficiency is about 20%. The mass and energy closure were found to be 72.72% and 80.30%.

Title: Risk analysis of profenofos on tomato in poly house and open fields and risk mitigation methods for removal of profenofos residues from tomato for food safety.
Abstract :

Profenofos is a broad spectrum foliar insecticide and acaricide with contact and systemic action, widely used on tomato in India for the management of sap sucking insects and mites. Profenofos is not registered for use in India on tomato, and hence Maximum Residue Limits are not available as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India. However, use of profenofos in poly house and open fields is very common, and hence profenofos residues are found in market samples. A research project was taken to study dissipation pattern of profenophos 50% EC in both open fields and poly houses, when applied twice @ 500 g a.i. ha-1, first spray at fruit initiation followed by second spray at 10 days interval as per the farmers practice. Profenofos residues were quantified through regular sampling till the residues are below determination level (BDL) of 0.05 mg kg-1 following the validated QuEChERS method. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of profenofos was performed on GC-FPD and GC-MSMS (TQD). Initial deposits of 3.25 mg kg-1 were detected in tomato samples collected from poly house, which dissipated to BDL by 15th day with half-life of 2.43 days. In open fields, deposits of 1.51 mg kg-1 dissipated to BDL by 7th day with half-life of 1.55 days, indicates that dissipation is slow in poly house compared to open fields due to various factors, and in both situations initial deposits are lower than the MRL (10 mg kg-1) of Codex Alimentarius Commission hence a pre-harvest interval of 1 day is recommended. MRL of 7 mg kg-1 in poly house tomato and 3 mg kg-1 in open field tomato is recommended based on the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) calculator and chronic hazard exposure assessment taking into consideration of average body weight, national per capita tomato consumption and acceptable daily intake (ADI) of profenofos. Among various decontamination methods tested, veggy wash found to be very effective in removing profenofos residues to an extent of 75.84% which can be recommended as risk mitigation method for food safety, followed by 4% acetic acid solution (71.22%) and tap water wash was least effective (37.60%) in removing profenofos residues from tomato.

Title: Kinetics of mitrogen mineralization in sewage amended soil
Abstract :

A laboratory experiment was carried out at, Jaunpur (25°18’ N, 83°03’ S) to study the kinetics of N mineralization in sewage amended soils. Four different agricultural fields viz., A, B, C and D which has been receiving sewage for irrigation since last five or more years were selected for study. The three replicate of each treatment were incubated at room temperature (25°C) for 7 weeks. The soils were brought to field capacity by addition of distilled water. The subsamples (10g) were withdrawn from each sample after every week interval and extracted immediately with 100 ml of 2 M KC1 solution and N was determined. The fitness of the model for mineralization study was tested by least square method and the mineralization rate constant (K) and half-life (t1/2) were calculated from fitted model. It was observed that, the highest mineralized N (121.20 mg/kg) was observed in soil receiving sewage continuously while lowest in N mineralized 112.80 mg/kg was observed in soil receiving less amount of sewage. Estimated mineralization rate content ‘K’ in four soils was 0.44, 0.38, 0.10 and 0.43 and correlation coefficient were 0.99, 0.98, 0.99 and 0.99, respectively. The study revealed that, nitrogen mineralization was increased with increasing period of incubation with rapid increase during 2-4 weeks of incubation. First order model of kinetics was best suited for nitrogen mineralization in sewage amended soil under study.

Title: Nutrient Management in Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) in India
Abstract :

In India finger millet is mostly cultivated in resource poor soils of tropics and sub-tropics. Synchronizing nutrient supply with crop demand is essential to maximize yield and fertilizer use efficiency. It has been found that incorporation of N fertilizer during seeding stage increased yield as compared to broadcasting of fertilizer. The continuous application of inorganic N fertilizer reduced the soil organic carbon level. The foliar application of 2% urea produced higher grain and straw yield. Application of fertilizer P @ 125% recommended dose of phosphorus (RDP) with recommended N, K and FYM in different fertility soils recorded higher grain and straw yield. Nutrient management for targeting production and sustainability, integrated nutrient management (INM) will be the most suitable option. Application of 100% NPK along with FYM @ 10 t ha-1 recorded significantly higher grain and straw yield and enriched the soil organic carbon. Application of farmyard manure (FYM) alone or in a combination with chemical fertilizers contributed to higher amounts of carbon inputs and build up a higher soil organic carbon pool in rain fed groundnut–finger millet rotation in alfisol of semi-arid region. Cropping system approach either sequential or intercropping with legume was found beneficial. Treating seeds with Azospirillum brasilense (N fixing bacterium) and Aspergillus awamori (P Solubilizing fungus) @ 25 g kg-1 seed of finger millet found to be beneficial. Soil test crop response (STCR) need to be considered for supplying nutrients more precisely with a target yield output. In the present paper, the available literature on different options of nutrients application to finger millet for sustainable productivity is reviewed.

Title: Use of proximal hypocotyl segment for high-through put  transgenic development of tomato
Abstract :

Achieving high-throughput and efficientregenerationare the top priorities of any Agrobacterium mediated plant transformation experiments to develop large numbers of in vitrotransformants. The type of explant plays a critical role in shoot regeneration efficiency. In the present investigation, an attempt was made tostudy the effect of various segments of hypocotyl and abaxial/adaxial orientation of cotyledon explants on regeneration efficiency in tomato.A plant transformation vector,pGRNAi-harboringdsRNAexpressing constructstargeted totwo genes of Helicoverpaarmigera,serine proteaseand chymotrypsinindependently wereused totransformtomato.Of the three segments of hypocotylsobtained from 12 day old seedlings, the proximal (closest to shoot apex) segment hadyielded highest regeneration (28.65%)compared to the middle (11.86%)and the distal segments (11.20%).In cotyledon explants,those incubated with their abaxial surface in contact with media exhibited highest regeneration (20.83%) compared to adaxially placed cotyledon explants. However, of the two-explant types, hypocotyls had higher regeneration compared to cotyledons. The molecular characterization of putative transformants through PCR and Southern blot analysis revealed the presence of the transgene. Thus, these results will aid in obtaining high-throughput regeneration in transformation of tomato in particular and other crops in general.

Title: Polymerase chain reaction based detection of banana bunchy top virus using coat protein based primers
Abstract :

Banana Bunchy Top virus (BBTV) is a virus seriously affecting banana cultivation. Primers were designed for the amplification of coat protein gene for the diagnosis of BBTV in the commonly grown banana cultivars of Kerala, India, viz., Red Banana (AAA), Palayankodan (AAB), Dwarf Cavendish (AAA), Motta Poovan (AAB) and Ney Poovan (AB). PCR detection using these primers at an early stage can aid in disease free planting material production.

Title: Biology of the papaya mealybug, paracoccus marginatus williams and granara de willink (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae)
Abstract :

The mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink completed 11generation in a year, 8 during March to October and 3 during November to February. The female and male nymphs completed development in 12.02 ± 4.44 to 17.92± 3.49 and 17.2 ± 3.00 to 21.25± 3.12 days respectively at during March to October, 21.59 ± 3.32 to 22.60 ± 4.49 and 22.81± 3.41 to 30.77 ± 2.38 days respectively during winter. The male and female ratio ranged from 1:1.20 to 1:3.41. Maximum oviposition period, minimum fecundity and maximum incubation period are 9 to 18, 108-154 and 9 days respectively in winter. Their mode of reproduction is entirely sexually. Life cycle is completed in 41 (maximum) and 27 (minimum) days during December- January and May respectively.

Title: Biochemical Characterization and Molecular Fingerprinting of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria
Abstract :

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a heterogeneous group of bacteria that can be found in the rhizosphere, which can improve the extent or quality of plant growth directly or indirectly. However, screening strategies for selecting the best rhizobacteria strain for rhizosphere competence with other microbial species in the plant rhizosphere will require more comprehensive knowledge. In the present investigation nine different strains were tested for their PGPR properties by using RFLP analysis on 16S rRNA gene or amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). 16 S rDNA amplification was done and restriction profiling was done using two endonucleases i.e. msp1 and taq1. Depending upon banding pattern of all the nine strains dendrogram was created using NTsys software. A clear-cut difference was seen in genetic diversity among the strains. Pseudomonas was found to be the most effective strain among all. Depending upon the outcome we can conclude that ARDRA can be an effective tool for analyzing the genetic diversity among different bacteria and PGPR starin e.g. Pseudomonas, Bacillus can be used as a potent biofertilizer.

Title: Biolistic transformation of cry 1Ac gene in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)
Abstract :

Among different explants, cotyledon showed highest regeneration and number of buds per explant on all media combinations. However, highest regeneration potential was observed on MS fortified with 3.0 mgl-1 BAP (80.36%), but number of buds per explant were highest (21.76) on MS media supplemented with 2.5 mgl-1 BAP+ 1.0 mgl-1 Kin. Plant regeneration of cotyledons was completely checked with a selection pressure of 15ppm to 25ppm hygromycin for untranformed explants. But the selection efficacy of transformed tissue was 19.56% with 20ppm and 66.66% with 15 ppm hygromycin. GUS gene was expressed in 76.92% bombarded explants with 2 to 7 GUS spots per explant confirming the presence of transformed tissue. GUS gene was also visualized in 66.66% regenerated shoots from bombarded tissue. PCR analysis of putative transgenic eggplant plants with the specific primers confirmed the presence of Cry1Ac gene with 1.2 KB product size (falling between 1KB and 2KB bands of 10KB DNA ladder) in two of the four plants.

Title: Seroprevalence of brucellosis in buffaloes in North India
Abstract :

Brucellosis is an infectious disease characterized by abortion and infertility in several mammalian species including buffaloes, and is one of the most important zoonosis worldwide. The objective of present study was to establish the seroprevalence of brucellosis in buffaloes in North India and to know the exact causal species of Brucella organism. A total of 160 serum samples were analyzed. The seroprevalence of Brucellosis was 4.38% and 7.50% by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT), respectively. Seroprevalence was zero by both RBPT and STAT in organized dairy farm while in unorganized sector, 5.04 and 8.63% by RBPT and STAT, respectively. Age-wise seroprevalence was higher in 4.5 to 6 years old buffaloes than younger. Area-wise seroprevalence was higher in Satwari block of study area. On screening of 20 milk samples from serological positive and doubtful buffaloes by milk ring test, five samples were positive (25%). On isolation of from samples, only one sample yielded Brucella abortus. The results showed that younger buffaloes were less infected than adults. Prevalence of Brucellosis was higher in Satwari block of Jammu province compared to other study area. The presence of Brucellosis in bovine may pose a significant economic loss to the farmer and a public health hazard to the general population.

Title: Molecular detection and genetic characterisation of fumonisin producing fusarium isolates from rice cultivars
Abstract :

Fusarium species mainly produce fumonisins group of mycotoxins which are classified as Group 2B human carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). In poor storage conditions, Fusarium species producing fumonisins can infect rice or paddy (Oryza sativa L.) which is the highest produced and consumed staple food in India. A rapid molecular method using primer Fum5F and Fum6R detected 85% fumonisin producers among 28 Fusarium isolates from Indian rice cultivars. Genetic variability of the isolates was studied by PCR based RAPD assay using 13 random primers. A total of 169 polymorphic bands were obtained by 13 markers with an average polymorphism information content (PIC) of 0.665 and overall polymorphism of 88%. Primer 3B showed a polymorphism of 96% with PIC value of 0.66 and it amplified 26 scorable fragments hence may be useful for the analysis of genetic variation among Fusarium isolates. Four strains (F47, F90, F92 and F96) in which fum gene wasn’t amplified by Fum5F and Fum6R and supposed to be non producer of fumonisin have been consistently placed in one separate group by RAPD primers. Genetic variation of toxic Fusarium in rice from India is less studied. RAPD proved to be a suitable tool for depicting Polymorphism among the isolates. The high genetic variability among the Fusarium isolates used in the current study is a matter of concern considering the importance of Rice in India.

Title: Influence of ethylene inhibitor on shoot organogenesis and regeneration in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid)
Abstract :
Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone (phytohormone) that play an important role on in vitro shoot morphogenesis in many plant species. The aim of the present investigation was to critically analyse the role of an ethylene inhibitor i.e. silver nitrate (AgNO3) on shoot organogenesis in sugarcanecvs.CoJ 83 and CoH 119. Different concentrations of silver nitrate were tested in the medium: 1 mgl-1, 3 mgl-1, 5 mgl-1 and 10 mgl-1. Genotypic dependence was observed between cvs. CoJ 83 and CoH 119 with different concentrations of AgNO3 tested in the medium. Among the varying concentrations (1–10 mgl-1) of silver nitrate tested, percentage of leaf roll segments responding were improved giving highest number of shoots per explant on MS medium + Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA; 5 mgl-1) + Kinetin (Kin; 0.5 mgl-1) + AgNO3 (3 mgl-1) in cv. CoJ 83 and on MS medium + NAA (5.5 mgl-1) + Kin (0.5 mgl-1) + AgNO3 (5 mg-1). The number of shoots formed per explant increased to two-fold and the shoot length was also increased as compared to control. Data recorded on the number of roots and root length also showed a significant increase over the control in both the varieties.
Title: Phosphate solubilizing efficiency of Mycopesticides
Abstract :

In the present investigation, plant growth promoting activities of mycopesticides (beneficial mycopesticides or biological control fungi) viz. Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, Beauveria and Metarhizium were assessed. Their efficacy for the growth enhancement of Groundnut was investigated through laboratory as well as by pot studies. Results of In vitro studies have shown their higher potential of P-solubilization these fungi. In the experiment, two native cultures and five fungal isolates (procured from MTCC) were used. P solubilization ability of the test mycopesticides have shown good solubilization zones by the PlA isolate on PKVK agar. Not only this, TvA and ThM has also shown good P solubilizing zone on PKVK medium - supplemented with rose bengal dye. In liquid culture medium, ThM showed the highest P solubilizing ability (309.33 µμg/ ml). HPLC analysis was carried out to determine the presence of organic acids in the culture supernatant of promising cultures. TvM showed presence of pyruvic acid, formic acid, orotic acid, citric acid and butyric acid. Efficacy of mycopesticides in pots study as PGP has revealed seed treatment as the best one, but recommended fertilizer was found significantly superior than all mycopesticides treatments. Amongst mycopesticides, Trichoderma spp. proved to be the best followed by Paecilomyces. Beauveria in most cases remained at par with Paecilomyces but was inferior to Trichoderma. Metarhizium was better than control but was inferior to other fungal treatments. Efforts clearly indicated that mycopesticides can significantly enhance groundnut growth and production as a plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF) proving their dual ability.

Title: Detection of genetic diversity in Lathyrus sativus L. using RAPD marker system
Abstract :

Lathyrus sativus L. (Grasspea) is a protein rich pulse crop. Enough information about genetic diversity of Lathyrus germplasm is needed to improve this crop. Molecular characterization is one of the tools to identify the hidden genetic diversity. The present study was undertaken to reveal the genetic diversity in a set of 20 grasspea genotypes using RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) marker system. For the 15 primers, various efficiency parameters that include Polymorphism Information Content (PIC), Marker Index (MI), Resolving Power (RP) and Diversity Index (DI) were studied. Finally Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and dendrogram was perfomed to find out the genetic diversity among the germplasm. The screened RAPD markers will facilitate further studies in population genetics and utilization of this crop.

Title: In vitro evaluation of plant growth regulators on tissue culture bioassay produced by Pseudomonas species
Abstract :

Fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. is emerging as largest and potentially most promising group of PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) that are involved in plant growth enhancement. Plant growth regulators viz., auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins help in plant growth and development. In present study, fluorescent Pseudomonas strains isolated from rhizospheric soil from temperate fruit zone of Himachal Pradesh were investigated for plant growth regulator production i.e. auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins in nutrient broth. All the strains tested produced plant growth regulators in concentrations auxins (1.83-21μg/ml), gibberellins (116.1-485.8μg/ml) and cytokinins (45.4-295.4μg/ml). Two strains (An-1-kul and An-13-kul) were selected on the basis of over all PGPR activities for production of growth regulators. Molecular characterization of best selected Pseudomonas strains were done by 16S-rRNA technique. Plant growth regulators produced by best isolates were further studied to observe their effect on growth of callus formation, shoot formation of broccoli and root elongation of cabbage

Title: An in vitro and ex vivo Study on Antioxidant Activity of Coriander Seeds
Abstract :

The antioxidant activity of extracts of different polarity from seeds of Local variety of Coriandrum sativum was assessed via both in vitro and ex vivo models. Results indicate that hexane extract of coriander exhibited no appreciable effects at either of the concentrations in all the three in vitro free radical scavenging models i.e. hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical and nitric oxide radical. Instead, it showed pro-oxidant activity at higher concentrations. Whereas methanol: hexane extracts of coriander were found to be ineffective in quenching hydroxyl radical but revealed only moderate activity in quenching superoxide radical (EC50=711.81 μg/ml) and nitric oxide radical (EC50=569.02 μg/ml). Only methanolic extract of Local variety offered strong antioxidant activity in a concentration-dependent manner for the same three free radicals with EC50 of 18.33 µg/ml, 553.50 µg/ml and 179.53 µg/ml respectively. Even in vitro linoleic acid peroxidation model proved methanolic extract of coriander (80% inhibition till 48 h) to be far better than standard antioxidant ascorbic acid (70% inhibition till 12 h). EC50 and SC50 for ex vivo linoleic acid peroxidation of rat liver homogenate and erythrocytes were recorded as 383.10 µg/ml and 166.78 µg/ml respectively. The methanolic extract of Local variety was further evaluated for its protective effect on osmotic fragility and antioxidant enzymes of erythrocytes at various time intervals (24-96 h). The decrease in% hemolysis and protection of activities of antioxidant enzymes even for 96 h of incubation in test groups supplemented with coriander proved indubitably, the effectiveness of methanolic coriander extract in alleviating protective mechanisms.

Title: Inheritance of resistance in indica rice cultivar HUR 4-3 against bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae)
Abstract :

The mode of inheritance of resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strain BXO1 and BX043 wild type of bacterial leaf blight disease of rice was studied in six generations of crosses of cultivars HUR 4-3 into PB-1460. The resistance cultivars PB-1460 showed 4.54% disease severity, while susceptible cultivar HUR 4-3 showed 53.01% disease severity against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) of resistance cultivar was 65.61 which are significantly less than the susceptible cultivar 649.90. The F1 plants were observed to be resistant with an average disease severity 08.87% and AUDPC 110.26. The F2 populations were classified in to four distinct classes on their genotypic ratio of 9:3:3:1 and phenotypically these populations were grouped in two distinct classes resistant and susceptible with their ratio of 13:3, respectively. However, B1 and B2 populations were classified in to two distinct classes as resistant (Resistant/ moderately resistant) and susceptible (moderately susceptible/ susceptible) in the ratio of genotypic 1:1:1:1 and 1:1 and phenotypically 1:1 and 1:0, respectively. The disease resistance occurs in the population is mainly due to cumulative effects of dominant and recessive two resistant genes i.e., Xa21 and xa13. Chi-square analysis of the population was confirm the inheritance of resistance with their value are 1.24 and 0.66 indicating that the observed data are in line with expected ratio and follow Mendelian pattern of inheritance of resistance to bacterial leaf blight in B1 and B2 generations and modification in the Mendelian ratio of inheritance in the F2 populations, it showed inhibitory gene action i.e., 13:3 that means dominant gene have cumulative effect of recessive gene.

Title: Adaptability Measures for Wheat Genotypes Evaluated under Northern Hills Zone of Country for Irrigated Timely Sown Conditions
Abstract :

Wheat genotypes were evaluated under multi environment trials for Northern Hills Zone of India to study the adaptability performance. Genotypes HS612, HS507 and HPW430 were of high yield and better adaptability by analytic measures of adaptability based on BLUP values during 2015-16. Two interaction principal components, accounted for 89.9 % of total GxE interaction sum of squares in biplot analysis. HPW428, HS613, VL2020, VL2024 had specific adaptations to Almora and Malan while HS616, HPW423, HPW430, VL2021, HPW426 expressed for Shimla and Khudwani locations. Wheat genotypes HS612, HS507 and HPW430 were cited by analytic measures as per BLUE values. HPW429, HS613, VL2020, VL2024 had specific adaptations to Almora and Malan while HS616, HS618, HPW425, HPW426, HPW430, VL2023, VL2021, HPW426 observed for Shimla and Khudwani. Second year (2017-18) had seen high yield and better adaptability of HS631, HS632, VL2030, VL2025 genotypes as per BLUP values. Biplot analysis expressed specific adaptations of HPW429, HS613, VL2020, VL2024 to Almora and Malan locations. BLUE values based measures showed high yield and better adaptability of HS631, HS632, VL2030, VL2025 genotypes. Biplot analysis while utilizing 79.5 % of total GxE interaction sum of squares exhibited specific adaptations of HPW446, VL907, HS632, VL2025, VL2030 to Almora and Shimla. Stratification of wheat genotypes as per BLUP values was more efficient than that by BLUE. Biplot analysis exhibited more of GxE interactions sum of squares by first two significant principal components based on BLUP as compared to BLUE values.

Title: Effect of Fertilizer Levels, FYM and Bioinoculants on Soil Properties in Inceptisol of Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted during Rabi seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11 at the Agricultural Research Farm, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (U.P.) to study the effect of fertilizer levels, FYM and bioinoculants and their interaction effect on soil properties. The treatments consisted four levels of recommended dose of fertilizer (0, 50, 75 and 100% NPK), two levels of farmyard manure (0, 10 t ha-1) and four inoculation [no inoculation, PGPR (Azotobactor chroococum W5 + Azospirillum brasilence Cd+ Pseudomonas fluorescens BHU PSB06 + Bacillus megaterium BHU PSB14), VAM (vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza) and PGPR+VAM]. The experiment was replicated thrice in a split plot design. The results revealed that the application of different treatments did not affect the pH, EC and bulk density decreased, water holding capacity, organic carbon and CEC significantly improved after harvest of wheat. The dehydrogenase, phosphatase enzyme activity and soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and available N, P and K and microbial population of soil after the harvest of wheat were improved significantly due to the integration of inorganic fertilizers with FYM and bioinoculants. Positive impact of biological and organic manure application have been recorded with an additional advantage of the reduction of chemical fertilizer use.

Title: Characteristics of spray dried dahi powder with maltodextrin as an adjunct
Abstract :

This study investigated the effect of adding as a complementary drying aid of maltodextrin (MD) on spray drying of dahi powder. Dahi powders were prepared by curd adding with maltodextrin (MD) drying aid at 5%, 7.5%, 10, and 12.5% level before spray drying by maintaining with outlet air temperature and blower speed being 70oC and 2200 rpm, respectively. The survival rate of lactobacilli during spray drying of dahi powder were investigated such as 0.62% shows maximum at 7.5% maltodextrin (MD) drying aid. Tests were conducted to evaluate the powder properties relevant to physical, chemical and reconstituted properties of the spry dried dahi powder. Results showed addition of 7.5% maltodextrin (MD) aid could significantly increases the product yield for the spry drying process of dahi powder and the consumer acceptable also. At the same time values of lightness, wet ability, water solubility index, viscosity, bulk density, dispersibility and total solids increases with increasing the maltodextrin (MD) aid. Moisture content, acidity and hygroscopicity decreases with increasing maltodextrin (MD) aid in spry dried dahi powder but the values of pH and acidity remain constant during spry drying process by increasing maltodextrin (MD) aid. The flavour of reconstituted dahi samples improves as the maltodextrin content increases may be due to more acetaldehyde retention in the samples. Addition of maltodextrin (MD) aid also improves the sensory properties and overall acceptability of reconstituted spry dried dahi powder.

Title: Evaluation of different Substrates for Mass Multiplication of Pseudomonas fluorescens in two Incubation Temperature
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out to different organic substrate for develop simple, cheap and effective method to suitable mass multiplication of biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens. Different organic substrates were treated by sterilizated method such as hot water, steam and chemical treatment at two incubation temperature separately. 200 g of each substrate was filled in polythene bag and 48 h KMB slant culture of P. fluorescens cell suspension of concentration of 108 cfu/ml was pipetted into the each bag. The observations were recorded on 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, and 35 th DAI. One gram of substrate from each bag was used for assessment of difference in growth of P. fluorescens and data regarding number of colony forming units (cfu) of bioagent per gram of each substrate. After 35 DAI, found that significantly higher population in FYM followed by vermi compost and gram straw at both temperature (20-25°C) and (35-40°C) irrespective of three sterilization methods taken in the study and also observed that overall growth of isolate of P. fluorescens was maximum in steam followed by hot water and least in chemical method of sterilization. As far as method of sterilization was concerned, the trend was similar as in cooler and room temperature. In all, cooler temperature (20-25°C) supported the mass multiplication over the room temperature (35-40°C).

Title: Response of land configurations, IW/CPE ratios and integrated nutrient supply systems on growth function, yield and water use efficiency of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. PDR-14)
Abstract :

Field experiments were conducted during two consecutive years of 2010-11 and 2011-12 at Agronomy Research Farm of NDUA&T, Faizabad (UP.) India to study the response of land configurations, IW/CPE ratios and integrated supply systems on growth function, yield and nutrient study of french bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under indo-gangetic eastern plains zone of Uttar Pradesh. Significant increase was observed for plant height, number of branches and dry matter accumulation per plant at 60 and 90 days after sowing and at harvest under 1.0 IW/CPE moisture regime nourished with 75% RDF through chemical fertilizers + 25% N through biocompost at raised bed configuration. Higher growth attributes resulted maximum yield and yield attributes of French bean with sowing at raised beds, application of 75% RDF+25% N through biocompost and IW/CPE ratio of 1.0 as compared to rest of the treatments. Increasing moisture regimes decreased the water use efficiency and it was highest under sowing on raised beds, moisture regime at 0.6 IW/CPE ratio and 75 % RDF through chemical fertilizers + 25 % N through biocompost nutrient supply system. Higher yields of French bean was obtained with treatment combinations of sowing on raised beds, moisture regime at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio and 75 % RDF through chemical fertilizers + 25 % N through biocompost and it was most remunerative and sustainable under Indo-gangetic plains of UP.

Title: Nutrient Release Pattern of Different Boron Fractions in Maize Growing Sandy Loam Soils
Abstract :

An understanding of soil boron occurring in various forms and their release behaviour in soils needs to be examined extensively in major soil series. A laboratory incubation study was conducted to study the release pattern of boron fractions under maize growing sandy loam B deficit soils with different levels of B as 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg ha-1 were replicated thrice in a completely randomized design. The soils were incubated at field capacity for a month (30 days) period and destructive sampling was done at intervals viz., 0, 7, 15, 21 and 30 days after incubation. B fractions viz., specifically adsorbed, oxide bound, organically bound and residual B in soil were determined. The results revealed that with applied boron, the non-specifically adsorbed B fraction was higher next to residual form when compared to other forms of boron. Applied B converted to soluble form and attained peak values at 21 days after incubation in the treatment with application of 2 kg B ha-1 and thereafter a decrease was noted. Irrespective of location, the plant available form of B includes non- specifically adsorbed B fraction which was considerably higher (1.03 and 1.0 mg kg-1 mg kg-1) on 21st day after incubation (contributed towards 0.02 and 0.01% of total B) which coincides with the high demand for B by maize crop during vegetative phase. The data’s also revealed that the contribution of residual boron to total boron was the highest among the B fractions.

Title: Cloning, Phylogenetic Analysis and Expression of Recombinant LipL41, Loa22 and LipL21 Proteins from Leptospira interrogans
Abstract :

Leptospirosis, a worldwide anthropozoonosis infection with multisystemic involvement, is emerging in North India. These days, focus is to develop recombinant outer membrane protein-based diagnostic tests. In this study, three genes lipL41 (1088 bp), loa22 (608bp) and lipL21 (581bp) of Leptospira interrogans were cloned and sequenced. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that loa22 and lipL21gene sequences of L. interrogans serovars Grippotyphosa and Canicola respectively were conserved in nature but lipL41 gene sequence of L. interrogans serovars Grippotyphosa showed variation in nucleotide sequence which contributes to serovar evolution within species. For protein expression truncated lipL41 (1028 bp), loa22 (548bp) and lipL21 (472bp) genes were amplified, cloned and expressed in prokaryotic expression system and His-tagged ~45kDa (lipL41 gene), ~28kDa (loa22 gene) and ~17kDa (lipL21 gene) proteins were purified by nickel-nitriloacetic acid (Ni-NTA) affinity chromatography. Purified proteins were confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting. For immunological characterization, total four doses of recombinant proteins were injected subcutaneously into Swiss-albino mice at 50µg quantity along with Freund’s adjuvant and after 21 days immunogenicity of expressed proteins was tested by blotting using mice raised serum.

Title: Morpho-physiological Basis of Waterlogging Tolerance in Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]
Abstract :

Global climate change predictions suggest new scenarios with large arid areas and extreme climatologic events. Thus, it is essential to understand how plants respond to different abiotic stresses in order to improve crop performance. A pot experiment was carried in a net house in four replicates of normal (no waterlogging) and waterlogging stress. Excess soil moisture stress was imposed at 21 days after sowing by placing the pots of each genotype in water-filled troughs for 7 and 14 days. The data revealed that the genotypes ICPB 2039 and KPBR 80-2-1 were showed significant superiority during 7 and 14 days waterlogging stress and during recovery for survival percentage. However, during 7 days waterlogging stress genotype KPBR 80-2-1 was superior for plant height and chlorophyll content, ICPH 2431 for root length, ICPL 20128 for leaf area, JBP 110-B for relative water content and JKM 7 for total dry matter production. When the waterlogging duration exceeded 14 days the genotypes showed the highest plant height and relative water content by ICPL 87051, root length and total dry matter production by JKM 7, leaf area by ICPH 2431 and chlorophyll content by C 11 under waterlogged conditions.

Title: Agrobacterium Mediated Transformation in Rice:A Novel Approach to Produce Agronomically Superior Transgenics
Abstract :

Rice the most important staple grain with second highest worldwide production has offered a great potential for biotechnological advances, categorized broadly in areas like transgenics, structural and functional genomics and marker-assisted breeding to provide with vital breakthroughs to achieve improvements in both quality and quantity in a sustainable manner. The ever increasing demand, increasing anthropogenic activities has posed a challenge to boost the production of rice. To cope of with this alarming situation, the advent of genetic engineering has been utilized to remove natural barriers through gene transfer/exchange. Since then, sequences from various sources like bacteria, viruses and eukaryotic systems were used to develop transgenic crop varieties. Gene transfer techniques like direct DNA transfer through particle bombardment, polyethylene glycol or electroporation and indirectly mediated by Agrobacterium are increasingly applied. Unfortunately, DNA delivered by direct methods is often integrated into the genome as rearranged or multiple copies, presumably as a result of which the expression pattern of the gene of interest is often aberrant or unstable. In contrast to this, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system offers higher transformation efficiency with discrete, unrearranged segments of DNA being inserted at fairly low copy number. Achievements, to date, through Agrobacterium-mediated transfer have surpassed all previous expectations and with the development of this successful technique for genetic improvement the future is even more promising.

Title: Genetic variability, Heritability, Genetic Advance and Correlation Coefficient for Vegetative and Floral Characters of Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii)
Abstract :

The study was conducted on genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and correlation coefficient for vegetative and floral characters of gerbera during April 2011 to March 2012. Nine varieties namely, Rionegro, Manizales, Galileo, Marinila, Palmira, Figaro, Teresa, Pia and Tecala were selected for their evaluation. The range of variation was high for a number of flowers per sq. m per year followed by number of ray florets and plant spread. Highest phenotypic and genotypic variances were observed for a number of flowers per sq. m per year. The estimates of phenotypic coefficient of variation were higher than genotypic coefficient of variation for all the traits. Maximum phenotypic coefficient of variation and heritability was observed for vase life. Genotypic coefficient of variance showed a range of variation from 2.58 to 32.01 for diameter of neck and vase life, respectively. However, the maximum genetic advance was observed in the number of flowers per sq. m per year. The high heritability was associated with high genetic advance percentage of the mean for vase life indicating the possible role of additive gene action. The magnitude of genotypic correlation was higher than their corresponding phenotypic correlation for most of the traits, indicating a strong inherent linkage between various traits under study. At genotypic level, number of leaves per plant exhibited positive significant correlation with diameter of flower and number of flowers per sq. m per year but highly significant and positive correlation with a number of flowers per sq. m per year at phenotypic level.

Title: Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur Nutrition on Nitrogen assimilating Enzymes in Soybean Roots and Nodules
Abstract :
Soybean is an important legume crop with high protein content, but deficient in sulphur (S) containing amino acids viz methionine and cysteine. Soybean protein quality can be improved by nutrient fertilization. Present studies report the effect of nitrogen (N) and S nutrition on nodulation, activities of ammonia assimilating enzymes and biochemical parameters in soybean roots and nodules. Nitrogen as urea @ 31.25 kg ha-1 and sulphur as gypsum @ 20 kg ha-1 alone significantly increased nodule number, fresh and dry weight per nodule, root length and nodular hemoglobin content whereas total soluble proteins, free amino acids, glucose and sucrose content did not vary significantly in nodules and roots. Treatment of N or S significantly increased glutamate dehydrogenase activity in cytosol and bacterial fractions from 70 to 90 days after sowing whereas aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate synthase, glutamine synthetase and alanine aminotransferase activities showed non-significant variations in roots at different stages of development under the influence of N or S alone or their combination. Results suggested that N and S could improve nodulation and vegetative growth in soybean, but ammonia assimilating enzyme activities in roots/nodules did not vary significantly.
Title: Effect of Bulky Manures and Fermented Liquid Organics on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Uptake and Economics of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris  L) Under Rainfed Condition
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted to study the “Effect of bulky organic manures and fermented liquid organics on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and economics of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) under rainfed condition” at Organic Farming Research Centre, Zonal Agricultural and Horticultural Research Station (ZAHRS), Navile, Shivamogga, during Kharif 2018-19. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with ten treatments comprising of different bulky organic manures (FYM and Vermicompost) and fermented liquid organic manures (Beejamrutha, Jeevamruta, Panchagavya and Cow urine) were replicated thrice. Experimental results revealed that, significantly higher growth, yield attributes, economics and nutrient uptake with good shelf-life and protein content of the French bean were found in the treatment which received Beejamrutha (seed treatment) + Jeevamrutha  (soil application @ 500 L ha-1) + 100% RDN through vermicompost + Foliar spray of Panchagavya @ 3% (T6) and were on par with application of Beejamrutha (seed treatment) + Jeevamrutha (soil application @ 500 L ha-1) + 50% RDN through FYM + 50% RDN through vermicompost + Foliar spray of Panchagavya @ 3% (T7) and Beejamrutha (seed treatment) + Jeevamrutha (soil application @ 500 L ha-1) + 100% RDN through FYM + Foliar spray of Panchagavya @ 3% (T5). Simillar trend of higher benefit cost ratio was also recorded in the same set of treatment combination. This study indicated that combined application of bulky and fermented liquid organic manures in seed treatments, soil application and foliar spray performed better in organic French bean production at best benefit ratio cost.

Title: Mental Health of Farmers – Need of the Hour
Abstract :

Farmers are presently facing tough times. Farming is hard physical labour from morning to evening. Managing a farm can lead to monetary stress, anxiety, depression, financial ruin, marital strife, and addiction. The mental health message should reach not only to the farmers but also to the bankers, extension workers, counsellors and veterinarians. Farmers face a number of challenges when it comes to their mental health. Farming can create stress that can seriously impact the farmer’s well being. Some of the behavioural signs due to stress in farming are loss of interest in social activities, poor concentration, confusion, forgetfulness, indecision, impatience in relationships, irritability, and withdrawal from society. Some of the physical symptoms are poor or disturbed sleep, weight loss or gain, changes in appetite, stomach upset, headache, and chest pain. In farms and rural areas issues of mental health are often ignored. The present is not an easy time to be in agriculture. Low commodity prices and mounting input costs are resulting in poor returns from farming. This has led to mental stress amongst farmers, which when unaddressed can lead to serious consequences in the farming community. Farmers and their families facing high levels of stress get into depression and even nourish suicidal thoughts. In rural areas, there is a paucity of mental health professionals who are culturally competent to serve farmers. In times of great stress, farmers need someone to talk to and get advice from. It can make all the difference in sorting out during troubled situations. Extension workers and advisors should understand the mental well being of farmers. Social activities must be encouraged and avenues for entertainment must be created in rural areas for farmers to get away from farm stress.

Title: Growth, yield components and yield of hybrid rice as influenced by nitrogen levels and time of Homo-Brassinolide application
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted on hybrid rice during the kharif season of 2011 at the farm of Palli Siksha Bhavana (Institute of Agriculture), Visva Bharati, Sriniketan, West Bengal to study the effect of nitrogen and homo-brassionlide on growth and productivity of hybrid rice. The experiment was laid out in FRBD with five levels of nitrogen viz. N0, N60, N120, N180 and 240 kg ha-1 and three levels spraying of homo-brassionlide viz. active tillering (AT), active tillering +panicle initiation (PI) and active tillering +panicle initiation + flowering (FL). The results showed that hybrid rice responded well to fertilizer application. Application of 180 kg N improved all the growth attributes such as plant height, number of tillers m-2 and dry matter accumulation and increased the yield attributes like number of panicles m-2, panicle length, number of grains panicle-1, percentage of filled grain and test weight that ultimately led to high crop productivity. The spray of homo-brassinolide has a significant effect on plant height, number of tillers m-2 and dry matter accumulation and increased the yield attributes like number of panicles m-2, panicle length, number of grains panicle-1, percentage of filled grain and test weight that ultimately led to high crop productivity. Among the spraying, thrice spraying of homo-brassinolide i.e. at AT+PI + FL recorded significantly higher yield parameters and yield as compared to AT, MT+PI. The study advocated cultivating hybrid rice 180 kg N with for its high productivity.

Title: Morphological Abnormality among Hardened Shoots of Banana cv. Rajapuri (AAB) after in vitro Multiplication with TDZ and BAP from Excised Shoot Tips
Abstract :

To compare the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and thidiazuron (TDZ) on morphological abnormal plants or per-cent variant plantlets during secondary hardening period. Shoot tips of Musa spp. were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations (2.0 and 5.0 mg/L) of BAP and (0.2 and 0.3 mg/L) of TDZ and NAA 0.2 mg/L. Wherever, TDZ is present in the medium some morphological dwarf plants were observed. The maximum plant height (16.17 cm) and number of leaves (4.20) was in T2. Where, the maximum shoot diameter (4.97 mm), number of primary roots (4.53) and length of longest root (11.17 cm) was in T1. TDZ at 0.2 mg/L it increases the morphological abnormal plants like dwarf plants (20.00%). In conclusion BAP at 5.0 mg/L, TDZ at 0.2 mg/L and NAA at 0.2 mg/L and BAP at 2.0 mg/L, TDZ at 0.2 mg/L and NAA at 0.2 mg/L were assumed to be the most suitable for commercial micropropagation system with low frequency of abnormal shoot production for local banana cultivars.

Title: Seroprevalence Studies of Brucellosis at Organized and Unorganized Cattle Farms in North India
Abstract :

Brucellosis is a worldwide contagious and zoonotic bacterial infectious disease caused by Brucella. The aim of present study was therefore to establish the seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in North India and to know the exact causal species of Brucella organism. A total of 160 serum samples were analyzed. The seroprevalence of Brucellosis was 1.88 per cent and 3.13 per cent by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT), respectively. Seroprevalence was zero by both RBPT and STAT in organized dairy farm while in unorganized sector, 2.16 and 3.65 per cent by RBPT and STAT, respectively. Age-wise seroprevalence was higher in 4.5 to 6 years old cows than younger. Area-wise seroprevalence was higher in Satwari block of study area. On screening of 10 milk samples from serological positive and doubtful cows by milk ring test, two sample were positive (20%). On isolation of from samples, only one sample yielded Brucella abortus. The results showed that younger cattle were less infected than adults. Prevalence of Brucellosis was higher in Satwari block of Jammu province compared to other study area. The presence of Brucellosis in bovine may pose a significant economic loss to the farmer and a public health hazard to the general population.

Title: Nutrient composition, uptake by weeds and rice under different crop establishment and weed management practices
Abstract :

Field study was conducted during the kharif, 2011 at Agronomy Research Farm, Central Research Station, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar to assess the nutrient concentration and uptake by weeds and crops under different crop establishment methods. Weedy check recorded highest nutrient content of weeds. Weedy check plot recorded the maximum N, P and K content of 0.83, 0.13 and 1.3% respectively. The removal of N,P and K (82.45,13.42 and 127.74 kg ha-1 ) was the highest in the same treatment and the lowest nutrient uptake by conoweeding N,P and K was 0.73 , 0.13 and 1.25% and removal of N,P and K (kg ha-1) was 17.34, 3.11 and 29.44 respectively. The nutrient content of grain and straw of rice in conoweeding was maximum recording N, P and K of grain are 1.33, 0.37 and 1.26% respectively. The corresponding values for straw were 0.44, 0.10 and 1.82% respectively. The weedy check recorded the lower values of N, P and K content as compared with weed control treatments. Nutrient uptake of rice crop showed that maximum uptake of nutrient was recorded in SRI (62.72 and 25.13 kg ha-1 of N, 17.06 and 5.26 kg ha-1 of P and 13.04 and 101.11 kg h-1a of K in grain and straw respectively) it was followed by transplanting, drum seeding and line sowing. Minimum depletion of 47.34 kg of N, 11.18 kg ha-1 of P and 67.54 kg ha-1 of K was observed in weedy check taking the total values of grain and straw. The highest benefit: cost ratio were recorded in the SRI supplemented with conoweeder.

Title: Screening of Weed Competitive Cultivars of Summer Green-gram in Lateritic Soil of West Bengal
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted in two consecutive summer seasons of 2008 and 2009 at the Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, West Bengal to screen out the weed competitive Green-gram cultivars. Experimental plots were infested with grassy, broadleaved and sedge weeds. Digitaria sanguinalis among grasses, Croton bonplandianum among broad leaved and Cyperus rotundus among sedges were most predominant throughout crop season. Losses in seed yield of green-gram due to weed infestation ranged from 7 to 37%. Among the cultivars, the plots of ‘WBM 34-1-1’, ‘WBM 04-5’ and ‘PDM 54’ registered lower number as well as dry weight of grasses, broadleaved, sedges and total weeds at 45 days after sowing (DAS) under both weedy and one hand weeding situations. These cultivars also recorded higher values of yield attributes and seed yields. Yield components viz. number of pods/plant, seeds/pod, test weight as well as seed yield were significantly reduced in weedy situation, compared with one hand weeding at 30 DAS in all the cultivars excepting ‘PDM 54’ and ‘WBM 04-5’, where no significant reduction due to weed competition was recorded, indicating higher weed competitive abilities of both the cultivars. The cultivars ‘WBM 34-1-1’, ‘WBM 04-5’ and ‘PDM 54’ appeared to be promising towards suppressing weeds and producing higher seed yields in lateritic soil of West Bengal.

Title: In vitro Plant Regeneration from Seedlings-derived Explants of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
Abstract :

Tomato is one of the most important vegetable crops in India. In vitro tissue culture of tomato could serve as an important means for its improvement through genetic transformation. To improve the regeneration capacity of tomato, the effect on plant regeneration of donor plant type, basal medium, and plant growth regulators were evaluated using explants derived from the cotyledon, hypocotyl, leaf and petioles. Cotyledon and hypocotyl excised from 10-15 days old and leaf and petiole excised from 25-30 days were optimal explants. Explants were cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog) basal medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of BA-IAA, BA-NAA, Kn-IAA and Kn-NAA. The highest regeneration efficiency was obtained on MS basal medium containing combinations of BA-IAA and Kn-IAA. The best response in terms of the percentage of shoot regeneration (77%) was obtained from petiole explant cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l Kn + 1.0 mg/l IAA. Successful rooting was achieved by placing the shoots onto MS basal medium supplemented with 0.20 mg/l NAA. The combination of sand: soil (1:1) was the best for plant acclimatization as 90% of the plants survived and became established.

Title: Standardization of Propagation through cuttings in Salacia fruticosa Heyne ex Lawson: A Medicinal Plant Endemic to Western Ghats
Abstract :

Salacia fruticosa Heyne ex Lawson, one of the red listed medicinal plants belonging to the family Celastraceae which is categorised as threatened by IUCN due to unsustainable and indiscriminate harvesting for commercial purposes. Traditional propagation techniques cannot cater to large scale planting stock production of this valuable species due to poor fruit set and seed germination hence the vegetative propagation has to be resorted to meet the planting stock requirement. Present investigation was carried out at Kerala Forest Research Institute to standardize the vegetative propagation protocol of S. fruticosa through stem cuttings with growth regulators in different season. Semi-hard wood and hardwood cuttings were collected in three seasons (January-April, May-August and September- December) and treated with Indole Butyric Acid and Naphthalene Acetic Acid in different concentrations. Rooting response was measured after two weeks in the mist chamber. The adventitious rhizogenesis of S. fruticosa stem cuttings was influenced by type of cutting, season of collection, type of growth regulator and its concentration. Semi hardwood leafy cuttings, treated with 3000 mg/l of IBA during January – April was the successful method for vegetative propagation (80% rooting) to produce the planting stock. Significant increase in number of new leaves, root length also recorded for the same treatment. Hence, we recommend the same treatment combination for the large scale planting production in S. Fruticosa.

Title: Spatial and Temporal Variations of SO2, NOx, PM10 and TSPM Concentration in Ambient Air of Jalna City, India
Abstract :

The ambient air quality monitoring data of Jalna City, India for SO2, NOx, PM10 and TSPM at two sites (residential and industrial) and over a one year period are presented within this paper. The diurnal and seasonal variation in concentrations of SO2, NOx, PM10 and TSPM has been analyzed. It has been observed that all pollutants showed higher concentration during daytime as compared to night. The seasonal cycle at both the sites generally showed for SO2, PM10 and TSPM higher concentrations during the winter season. At both the sites no distinct seasonal cycle could be detected for NOx. The annual mean concentrations recorded for SO2, NOx, PM10 and TSPM were 4.93µg/m3, 26.68µg/m3, 61.85µg/m3 and 166.11µg/m3 at residential site and 6.44µg/m3, 64.64µg/m3, 126.82µg/m3 and 306.27µg/m3 at industrial site. The annual mean concentrations of all four pollutants measured at residential site were found within the permissible limits of Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) whereas annual PM10 concentration at residential and industrial site violated the prescribed standard.

Title: Response of Different Plant Growth Regulators on Fruit Yield of Brinjal
Abstract :

The experiment was conducted at Instructional cum Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Biswanath College of Agriculture (AAU) Biswanath Chariali, Sonitpur district of Assam during 2014-15 in order to study the response of plant growth regulators on physiogical and fruit yield of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) cv. JC -1. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design with ten treatments replicated three times. The details of treatment comprised of GA3 (25, 50 and 100 ppm), IAA (25, 50 and 100 ppm), NAA (25, 50 and 100 ppm) and control (distilled water). During the period of investigation the growth regulators showed significant response on physiological and yield attributing characters of brinjal. The result revealed that the maximum leaf area index (2.82) was recorded under GA3 at100 ppm (T3) while GA3 at 50 ppm (T2) recorded the highest (802.40 g) total dry weight per plant at harvest. However, the highest leaf chlorophyll content index (44.50) was recorded under treatment with NAA at 50 ppm (T8). Foliar application GA3 at 50 ppm (T2) exhibited significantly higher total number of flower per plant (38.49), number of fruit per plant (18.56) and fruit yield (1.58 kg plant-1 and 377.00 q ha-1). It may be concluded from the experiments that GA3 proved to be the best in improving the physiological and yield attributing parameters in brinjal.

Title: Economics of Value Added Products of Maize in Chhattisgarh
Abstract :

This research study was mainly done on the process of various types of value-added products prepared from maize and the cost and return of value-added products made from maize by street vendors and established vendors. To find out the constraints in marketing of value added products of maize and suggest suitable measures to overcome them. The study was conducted in Raipur city of Chhattisgarh state. In which the Raipur city different sample was collect in randomly way. Out of the more than 50 established vendors, total 10 vendors were selected. Street vendors only select the corn related food vendors and collect the sample data from 20 street food vendors was selected out of all vendors. The primary data was collected through pre-tested structured interview schedule. Simple average and percentage methods was used for analyzing the data.

Title: Heterosis studies in diallel crosses of maize for yield and yield attributing traits in maize (Zea mays L.) over locations
Abstract :

A study was undertaken to estimate the heterotic, heterobeltiotic and standard heterotic effects of 11 characters of 45 maize hybrids developed by ten parents in maize during rabi, 2011-12 over three locations viz., College Farm, Rajendranagar (Hyderabad), Agricultural Research Station, Karimnagar and Agricultural Research Station, Kampasagar, Nalgonda District, T.S. The pooled analysis of variance (Diallel) revealed significant differences among locations and genotypes for all the characters studied. The crosses exhibited significant differences, indicating varying performance of cross combinations. The parent vs crosses which indicates average heterosis, for all the traits, thus considerable amount of average heterosis was reflected in hybrids. Negative standard heterosis was observed for days to 50 per cent tasseling, days to 50 per cent silking and days to maturity due to earliness in three hybrids over checks DHM-117 and 900 M Gold were BML-2782 X BML-5233-5, CM-211 X BML-5233-5 and BML-2486 X BML-2. Five crosses viz. BML-15 X BML-2910, BML-7 X BML-3044, CM-211 X BML-7, BML-6 X BML-2 and BML-2782 X BML-6 were identified as potential hybrids with more than 12% standard heterosis for grain yield over better yielding commercial hybrid check DHM-117. Testing of these hybrids in all India coordinated trials across the different states of the country may result in identification of better hybrids in the near future for commercial exploitation.

Title: Integrated Farming Systems for Sustainable Agriculture in Raigad District of Maharashtra
Abstract :

An integrated farming system comprises the crop production, livestock, horticulture crops and fisheries etc. The status of these combinations depends on the prevailing modal of these systems in a particular area. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the existing major integrated farming systems with internal cost adjustment, return, income and employment in the farming systems. The present study was conducted in Raigad district of Maharashtra during year 2015-16. A total sample of 120 households was selected. Out of seven farming systems six systems were found livestock based systems, viz; FS-I: Crops + Vegetable, FS-II: Crops + Dairy, FS-III: Crops + Poultry, FS-IV: Crops + Vegetable + Dairy, FS-V: Crops + Poultry + Dairy, FS-VI: Crops + Vegetable + Goat and FSVII: Crops + Vegetable + Orchard + Dairy. The total cost of farming system was minimum in FS-I and highest in FS-V. On per farm basis employment generated was minimum in FS-I (267.76 man days) and maximum in FS-V (758.82 man days).

Title: Agrobiodiversity, Composition and Functional Characteristics of Homegardens in Bhimtal Block of Nainital District, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract :

Present investigation was carried out to access the agrobiodiversity, composition and functional characteristics of homegardens in bhimtal block of Nainital district, Uttarakhand during 2011-12. The study was carried out in three villages diversified in respect to elevation and agroecological situations viz., Amritpur (520 mts) at low hill, Jeolikote (1219 mts) at mid hill and Ghorakhal (2000 mts) at high hill in Bhimtal block of district Nainital. In these villages a total of 22 respondents of different economic status in each village with a total of 66 respondents were selected and interrogated for the information related to the study. It was found that 80.30 per cent household practicing homegardening and the tree species, fruit tree species (Malus domestica, Citrus sinensis, Psidium guajava), sacred groves species (Ficus roxburghii, Tamarindus indica, Aegle marmelos), timber, fuel wood and fodder tree species (Grevia optiva, Toona ciliata, Mangifera indica, Citrus aurentifolia) were contributed as 33.33, 38.09, 11.90 and 40.74 per cent respectively.

Title: Molecular Characterization among Susceptible and Resistant Ridge Gourd Cultivars to Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita through ISSR Markers
Abstract :

The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita is the main nematode pest with host range more than 3000 plant species causes vast damage worldwide. The knowledge of genetic diversity in a crop species is essential for its improvement. Microsatellite sequences are especially suited to distinguish closely related genotypes in crop like ridge gourd. Several susceptible and resistant ridge gourd cultivars to root-knot nematode were identified on the basis of artificial screening and the present investigation was under taken for purity discrimination and characterize of these cultivars at molecular level taking ISSR markers. Standardized reported procedure was followed in order to conduct the experiment. The phylogenetic tree constructed by UPGMA method generated two main clusters i.e., cluster-I and cluster - II. The cluster I was further sub-divided into sub-cluster IA and IB. The cluster I consisted of three varieties (Aneeta, Aarti and BSS-1009), while cluster II consisted of two varieties (Harsha and Priya). Sub-cluster IA consisted of one variety (Aneeta), while Sub-cluster IB consisted of two varieties (Aarti and BSS-1009). Polymorphic per cent ranges from 13.16 per cent (between BSS-1009 and Aneeta ) to 43.18 per cent (between Aarti and Harsha). This study showed that ISSR markers produced specific DNA fragments for the identification of ridge gourd varieties. The knowledge acquired through this investigation may play a pivotal role in the application of molecular markers in ridge gourd improvement programmes.

Title: Diversity, Distribution and Varietal Preference of Fruit Fly, Bactrocera spp. in Mango Ecosystem
Abstract :

Mango is the second major fruit crop cultivated in India, it is known as “King of fruits” owing to delicious quality of fruit with richness in vitamins and minerals and has a socio economic significance in international market. It is attacked by many insects and mite pests; the yield and quality aspects of the mango are highly inflicted by fruit flies and make it unmarketable and inconsumable. The varied agro climatic conditions prevailed in tropical and subtropical regions makes them to spread all over the country. The documented information in a particular area on the population dynamics of fruit flies is essential to take preventive measures and to implement suitable management strategies. Keeping this in mind, the experiment on its species diversity, distribution pattern with its varietal preference of fruit flies in mango ecosystem was undertaken by using methyl eugenol based parapheromone traps during 2017-18 at Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Tiruchirappalli. The major diversity of species registered in mango ecosystem is viz., Bactrocera caryeae (Kapoor), B.dorsalis (Hendel) and B.correcta (Bezzi). The activity of fruit fly is maximum in the month of August and September with the mean catch ranges from 27.00 to 57.00 flies/trap/week. The poor activity of fruit flies in mango orchards was registered in the month of November to February with the least trapped population of < 3.0 flies/trap/week. Considering the varietal preference, the prevalence of B.correcta both in rumani and PKM 1 varieties is comparatively less when compared with the B.dorsalis and B.caryeae. The correlation analysis results revealed that, the fruit fly incidence is positively correlated with maximum, minimum temperature and negatively correlated with morning, evening relative humidity (RH) and rainfall.

Title: Neolamarkia cadamba – A Potential Tree Species for Domestication through Agroforestry System
Abstract :

Agroforestry is the management and integration of trees, crops and/or livestock on the same plot of land and can be an integral component of productive agriculture for higher economic returns. With the ever increasing population during past decades, the land resources for cultivation are shrinking. This situation calls for the adoption of ‘Agroforestry systems’ which is not only an efficient land management but also has promising role in maintaining environmental balance. In India, farmers’ are lacking in information on choosing the combination or compatibility of agricultural crops and tree species for different agroforestry systems under various agro-ecological zones. The benefits of successful agroforestry systems have an economic, environmental and social dimension. It is important to bring out a technology package on successful and viable agroforestry systems suitable for different agro-ecological zones for socioeconomic upliftment of rural farming community. The fast growing, multipurpose and indigenous trees, which could combine very well with annual crops and provide maximum economic returns in the short period of time is preferred under agroforestry systems. Neolamarkia cadamba is one such tree having fast growth in nature and highly suitable for agroforestry systems for higher economic returns. N. cadamba is a species having various end uses for pulp, ply and most preferred for pencil making. Though many phyto-chemicals and pharmacological compounds have been identified from this tree species, the species has not been domesticated so far under agroforestry systems. A detailed review on the status of this species including nursery techniques, agroforestry system establishment, etc. is presented in this paper.

Title: Incidence and Severity of Early Blight of Tomato in Peshawar, Mardan and Malakand Divisions and Variability Amongst the Isolates of Alternaria solani Jones and Mart
Abstract :
An extensive survey for incidence and severity of early blight of tomato was conducted in Peshawar, Mardan and Malakand Divisions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province after flower formation and fruit setting during 2012. The survey points were 3-5 km apart from one another. At each location fields were assessed in “X” shaped pattern. A high incidence of the disease (40%) was recorded at Jahangira District Nowshera, whereas the lowest disease incidence 4.9% was recorded at Taru Jaba in Peshawar Division. In Mardan Division high incidence of the disease was recorded at Galadher 38.6% in District Mardan whereas the lowest at Jalbai 3.3% in Distrct Swabi. A similar disease incidence was found at  Osaki and Nasafa locations in District Dir (L). Conversely, high incidence of the disease was recorded in Ghalegai (20%) in District Swat Malakand Division. In terms of the disease severity Jahangira (8.66%) in District Nowshera was the most severely infested area closely followed by Basher Mian Kaly (7.98%) and Shabqadar (7.66%). In general, isolates collected from Peshawar and Mardan Divisions were more virulent than those collected from Malakand Division by exhibiting rapid growth on PDA medium as well as producing high number of spore’s ml-1. Isolates collected from Shabqadar measured 33 mm in diameter with 28000 spore ml-1 and proved virulent by producing high disease severity (27.6%). Conversely, isolates collected from Talash (Malakand Division) showed minimum growth (22 mm) with least number of spores ml-1 and disease severity of 16.44% only. Regression analysis showed a simple linear relationship between growth parameters and virulence and as expected virulence increased with increase in colony diameter and spore concentration of the pathogen. Results are indicative of segregation in population structure of the pathogen and may correlate with the different environmental conditions prevalent in the central part of the province
Title: Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance In Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicon Mill.)
Abstract :

In the present study an attempt has been made to germplasm evaluation in 39 diverse genotypes of tomato at Vegetable Research Farm, Rewa (Madhya Pradesh) during the Rabi session of 2011. Analysis of variance showed significant variation among the genotypes for all evaluated traits. Number of fruits plant-1 showed the highest genotypic and phenotypic variance (1282.0 and 1287.6) whereas test weight showed the lowest (0.03 and 0.08). High genotypic variance was observed for most of the characters indicating more contribution of genetic components for the total variation. Genotypic coefficients of variations (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were highest for average fruit weight (48.85 and 48.87), number of seeds fruit-1 (44.54 and 45.29) whereas the lowest were recorded for days to 50% fruit setting (1.984 and 2.81). Higher GCV and PVC were recorded for most of the characters indicating higher magnitude of variability for these characters. The highest heritability (broad senses) estimates were observed for average fruit weight (99.92) number of secondary branches (99.65%), while the lowest was for the test weight (45.29%). Highest genetic advance as per cent of mean was recorded for average fruit weight (100.59%) and lowest for days to 50% fruit setting (2.89). The exploration of genetic variability in the available germplasm is a prerequisite in a breeding programme for effective selection of superior genotype of tomato.

Title: Contents IJAEB Vol 13 Issue 1 March 2020
Abstract :
Title: Pesticides Use Pattern and Handling Practices among Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Growing Farmers of Parsa District of Nepal
Abstract :

Pesticide is one of the major inputs for commercial vegetable farming in Nepal. The study examined pesticides use pattern and farmers’ knowledge, perception, awareness about pesticides and the handling practices. The study is based on survey data consisting of 150 samples collected randomly from Parsa district of Nepal. The results show that 54.7% of the cucumber farmers used pesticides as control measure of insect and fungus in Parsa district. Out of which insecticides was found to be applied more i.e.68% followed by the fungicides i.e. 22.33% of total application volume sprayed. Regarding toxicity level farmers were found to use Moderately Hazardous Pesticides (II). The research identified that farmers do 2 times spray as mandatory frequency of application however, nearly half of farmers were found to spray pesticide four to five times. Regarding their knowledge 53% of farmers found to read label on pesticide bottle/packages. More than half (57%) of the farmers has found to receive Integrated Pest Management (IPM) training but only 7% practiced alternative pest control measures. Regarding the disposal only 6% found to bury the empty bottles, packages after use and others throw the containers anywhere. The results show that, in Nepal, pesticide was mostly applied for the vegetable farming. If area under vegetable farming increases by 1% the probability of the pesticide application by household is increased by the 22%.

Title: Yield Attributes, Yield, Competitive Ability and Economics of Summer Maize-Legume Intercropping System
Abstract :

Maize (Zea mays L.), the queen of cereals, is planted with wide spacing and so it offers the scope of intercropping. Considering the benefits of cereal-legume association, an experiment on maize-legume intercropping system was conducted during summer season of 2018 at Bagusala Farm of M. S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Gajapati district, Odisha. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design and the treatments were comprised of ten cropping systems, namely, T1: sole maize, T2: sole green gram (Vigna radiata L.), T3: sole groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), T4: sole black gram (Vigna mungo L.), T5: maize + greengram (2:1), T6: maize + groundnut (2:1), T7: maize + blackgram (2:1), T8: maize + greengram (2:2), T9: maize + groundnut (2:2) and T10 maize +black gram (2:2). Paired row sowing of hybrid maize was done with a spacing of 80 cm/30 cm × 25 cm in sole maize. Pure stand of legumes i.e. green gram, groundnut and black gram were sown with 30 cm × 10 cm spacing. As per the treatments, single and double row of intercrops were taken in between two pairs of maize. The result indicated that intercropped legumes improved the yield components of maize and offered some bonus yield. The maximum maize grain yield (5669 kgha-1) was noted with sole maize, however, maize equivalent yield of 7609kg ha-1 was recorded with maize + groundnut (2:2) and it was followed by maize + black gram with 2:2 ratio (6902 kg ha-1). In expression of the competition functions, maize + groundnut (2:2) recorded the highest values of area time equivalent ratio (1.70), relative yield total (1.47) and monetary advantage (` 42002 kg ha-1). The intercropping combination of maize + groundnut (2:2) recorded the highest net return (` 47954 ha-1), with a benefit-cost ratio of 1.00, but by the treatment maize + black gram with 2:2 ratio registered greater B:C ratio (1.11) with net return of ` 45499 ha-1.

Title: Effect of Drip Fertigation on the Productivity of Hybrid Rice
Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted at Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute (TRRI), Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Aduthurai to standardize lateral spacing, plant row spacing, fertilizer levels and source of fertilizers on the productivity of hybrid rice under drip irrigation. The experiment was conducted in strip plot design with replicated thrice. Main plot treatments were two lateral spacing (80 and 100 cm) with two plant row spacing (uniform row spacing and modified row spacing). In 80 cm lateral spacing, uniform row spacing of 20 × 10 cm and modified row spacing of 7.5 × 20 × 25 × 20 × 7.5 cm were adopted. In case of 100 cm lateral spacing, uniform row spacing of 20 × 10 cm and modified row spacing of 7.5 × 15×15×25×15×15×7.5cm were adopted. In sub plots, combination of two fertilizer levels (75 and 100% RDF) and two sources of fertilizers (common fertilizers – urea, single super phosphate and muriate of potash and water soluble fertilizers – urea, mono ammonium phosphate and sulphate of potash) were used for fertigation. Short duration hybrid CORH 3 was used.
Results revealed that lateral spacing at 80 cm with modified row spacing (7.5 × 20 × 25 × 20 × 7.5 cm) produced significantly taller plants (76.1 cm), more number of leaves per hill (74.9/hill) and tillers population (625 per m2), higher root growth parameters at maximum tillering stage viz., root length (18.5 cm), root volume (13.1cc) and root dry weight (6.2g), higher yield attributes like productive tillers (453/m2), number of filled grains per panicle(124.9) and higher grain yield of 5055 kg/ha than lateral spacing of 100 cm with modified row spacing. Fertigation with different levels and sources of fertilizers revealed that application of 100 % recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) as water soluble fertilizer produced significantly higher growth, yield parameters and grain yield of 4230 kg/ha over 75% RDF. However, it was comparable with 100 % RDF as conventional fertilizers.
Title: Screening of Bhendi Accessions (Abelmoschus esculenthus [L.] Moench) against the Fruit Borer, Earias spp. (Noctuidae; Lepidoptera)
Abstract :

The study on screening of bhendi accessions against fruit borer (Earias spp.) infestation was conducted by evaluating 55 numbers of IC entries with 6 different varieties/hybrids as a local standard check to assess their performance in naturally infested field conditions in augmented block design with three replications. The identified resources of accessions further subjected to the artificial screening to cross verify their reaction against the incidence of sucking insect pests, viz., leaf hopper (Amrasca biguttula biguttula) and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). Out of 55 IC accessions screened, the entries viz., IC 27821-A, IC 42531, IC 22237-C, IC 42485-B, IC 43743, IC 43746-D, IC 45728 and IC 45804 were found to be the best tolerant sources for the management of fruit borer, Earias spp. with the cross resistance to leaf hopper and whitefly. The results on the artificial screening indicated that the identified tolerant sources were registered the minimum leaf hopper index (<3.5) and whitefly population (<2.0/leaf) when compared with the susceptible checks like Arka anamika, Parbhani kranti, Punjab 8 and Punjab padmini. The tolerance nature of the identified entries by recording < 30 per cent fruit damage with the trichome density of > 80/cm2 is in tune with the tolerant checks i.e., CO 4 and Arka abhay. Hence, the present investigation conclude that, these identified 8 accessions can be utilized in further breeding programmes to develop varieties/hybrids resistant to major insect pests of bhendi with good phenological traits.

Title: Quality and Quantity Improvement of Citrus: Role of Plant Growth Regulators
Abstract :

Citrus is one of the most important fruit tree species in the world, as the fruits are a valuable source of nutrients, vitamins and other antioxidant compounds. The citrus productivity depends on various factors, among these the plant growth regulators holds a prime position. The use of plant growth regulators has become an important component in the field of citriculture because of the wide range of potential roles they play in increasing the productivity of crop per unit area. The plant growth regulating compounds actively regulate the growth and development by regulation of the endogenous processes and there exogenous applications have been exploited for modifying the growth response. Plant growth regulators have been used in citrus fruit production for influencing flowering, fruit set and fruit drop and play a major role in fruit growth and abscission. These regulators have also been used to influence fruit quality factors like peel quality and colour, fruit size, juice quality and to improve total soluble solids in different citrus species. This review may serve as a complete treatise on the possible roles of growth promoting substances on the physiological processes of citrus plant.

Title: Molecular characterization of bacterial leaf blight resistant near isogenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.) using RAPD and SSR markers
Abstract :

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is nutritionally, one of the most important cereal crops. Rice production is mostly reduced due to different biotic stresses. Bacterial leaf blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae bacteria, is one of the major biotic destructive diseases throughout the world. This disease affects the rice production because it reduces the photosynthesis by causing leaf wilting. The preferred strategy for disease management is through varietal resistance because it is not fully controlled by any chemical treatments. Gene pyramiding is the most effective strategy; in which, pyramided lines with three to four different bacterial leaf blight resistance genes have been developed in the genetic background of popular rice cultivars by using marker-assisted selection. The present study was carried out with an aim to study the molecular characterization of 30 rice genotypes for BLB resistance using RAPD and SSR markers. Overall results on the basis of clustering pattern of SSR and RAPD pooled data analysis revealed genetic similarity between some of the pyramided lines with their respective recurrent parent. Some of the SSR markers are very informative and can be useful for marker-assisted selection.

Title: GGE Biplot Based Stability Analysis of Durum Wheat Genotypes Using Statistical Package GGEBiplotGUI
Abstract :

The investigation was aimed to identify stable genotypes of durum wheat which can perform consistently under multiple environments. The experiment was conducted in Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi 2015-16. In the present investigation seven released varieties of durum wheat were evaluated on four environments (timely vs late sown, irrigated vs drought) in randomized block design with three replications. Grain yield data was collected from randomly selected five plants of each genotype and used to carry out GGE biplot analysis using the R software and GGEBiplotGUI package. Analysis of variance revealed significant genetic variability among the genotypes. Significant variability was also observed due to both environment and GEI. The four environments were grouped into three major groups. Both irrigated environments were grouped together and were more alike for genotypic comparisons. Genotype WHD 948 was the most stable genotype in all the environments.

Title: Applications of Environment Biotechnology in Aquaculture-Review
Abstract :

This paper explains all the chances of environmental biotechnology techniques useful in aquaculture and reviews its various areas together. Biotechnology has played a vital role in boosting production in the aquaculture sector. Considering the number of issues which deteriorate the ecological conditions in an aquaculture system, the field of environmental biotechnology has shown new possibilities to enhance the terms. Since the environment turns to be a vital segment in the survival of aquatic flora and fauna its day by day deterioration via pollution and toxic substances are need to be checked. The distinct role of environmental biotechnology within the sector of aquaculture emphasized finding the opportunities to contribute with new solutions and directions in remediating the contaminated environments, minimizing future waste release and creating pollution prevention alternatives.

Title: Effect of Irrigation Regimes and Staggered Transplanting on Growth and Yield of Summer Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in South Odisha
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Farm, Bagusala, M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha during summer season, 2018-19. The soil of experimental field was sandy clay loam in texture, slightly acidic in reaction (pH 6.4) low in available nitrogen (208 kg/ha) and high in both phosphorus (139 kg/ha) and potassium (390 kg/ha). The field experiment was laid out in split-plot design with three replications and 12 treatments combination. The treatments were comprised of three water regimes assigned in main plot (Continuous ponding, continuous soil saturation and saturation after hair crack) and four transplanting dates in sub plots (Transplanting on 23rd and 31st January, 6th and 13th February). The experimental results revealed that irrigation treatments failed to exhibit significant effect on growth parameters like plant height, tillers/clump, LAI, dry matter production and CGR until the peak crop growing period up to 60 DAT excepting plant height at 60 DAT. Crop growth parameters except LAI were significantly influenced by irrigation regimes at harvest. Irrigation regimes had the remarkably effect of grain yield and WUE but it had no significant effect on straw yield. Irrigation with continuous ponding produced the highest grain yield (4.57 t/ha) which was at par with continuous soil saturation (4.30 t/ha). The WUE was significantly increased with saturation after hair (49.62 kg/ha/cm). Dates of transplanting significantly reflected all the crop growth parameters throughout the crop growing period. Transplanting on 23rd January significantly recorded the highest grain yield (4.72 t/ha) and maximum straw yield was obtained in 31st January (7.99 t/ha) being at par with 23rd January (7.63 t/ha). Significantly the highest WUE was obtained in transplanting date of 23rd January (47.09 kg/ha/cm).

Title: Growth, Productivity and Quality of Bt and non-Bt Cotton Hybrids (Gossypium hirsutum L.) as Influenced by Environment
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of environments (timely sown and late sown) on crop phenology development, yield and fibre development of Bt and non-Bt cotton hybrids viz., G cot hy 8 BG II (Bt), G cot hy12 (non-Bt), NCS 145 BG II (Bt), DHH 263 (non-Bt), Ankur 3028 BG II (Bt) and LHH 144 (non-Bt) commonly grown in different ecological zones of the country. Results revealed that timely sown crop produced significantly higher seed cotton yield (14.80 q/ha) than the late sown crop (8.00 q/ha) due to petite crop canopy, lesser number of sympods, bolls and lower boll weight per plant. The maximum seed cotton yield was recorded with Ankur 3028 BG II (14.72 q/ha) which was significantly superior to all other Bt as well as non-Bt cotton hybrids. Further, LHH 144 (12.94 q/ha) and G cot hy 8 BG II (12.88 q/ha) recorded significant edge over rest of the hybrids. Among the rest of the hybrids, G cot hy 12 (10.81 q/ha), DHH 263 (9.09 q/ha) and NCS 145 BG II (7.99 q/ha) followed significantly diminishing order in seed cotton yield. The higher yield in Ankur 3028 BG II, LHH 144 and G cot hy 8 BG II was mainly attributed to higher sympods, boll number and boll weight per plant. The fibre length was also significantly more in timely sown crop as compared to late sown crop. Among the hybrids, Ankur 3028 BG II registered significantly more fibre length than rest of the hybrids.

Title: Morphometric Analysis and Prioritization of Sub Watersheds of Umar Nala Watershed, Madhya Pradesh Using Geospatial Technique
Abstract :

Morphometric analysis and thereby prioritization of watersheds have gained significant importance in land and water resources management. In this study an attempt has been made to prioritize sub-watersheds based on morphometric analysis using geospatial techniques in Umar Nala watershed of Narsinghpur district, of Madhya Pradesh. Morphometric parameters, considered for the present study are stream frequency (Sf), drainage density (Dd), texture ratio (T), elongation ratio (Re), circulatory ratio (Rc), form factor (Rf), bifurcation ratio (Rb) and relief ratio (Rh). These parameters were estimated for each sub-watershed then ranks were assigned for prioritization of sub-watersheds on the basis of value/relationship to arrive at a computed value for final ranking of the sub-watersheds. On the basis of morphometric parameters determined in GIS environment and then applying standard formulae prioritization among seventeen sub watersheds of Umar Nala, sub watershed no 10 is on top priority among seventeen sub watersheds for further soil and water conservations measures to be taken in the watershed.

Title: Growth, Productivity, Nutrient uptake and Economics of Hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) as Influenced by Precision Nutrient Management
Abstract :

The field experiment was carried out at the farmer’s field in Chella Kamarpara village, Chella G.P, Chella Mouza of Illambazar Block, Birbhum, West Bengal which is situated at 23o 37.374’ latitude and 87o37.170’E longitudes with an average altitude of 58.9 m above mean sea level under sub-humid, sub-tropical belt under the prevailing climatic conditions of West Bengal during the Kharif season of 2013. The experiment consisted of the five levels of nutrient management i.e., N1: State recommendation (150:75:75), N2: Nutrient expert (NE) recommendation (120:34:51), N3: Farmers practices (80:40:40), and N4: Basal application of 50:75:75 with split N application on basis of LCC (leaf colour chart), N5:control and two level of varieties viz. V1: Sona and V2: Rajkumar, the total number of treatment combinations are ten, which were replicated thrice and was laid out in factorial randomized block design (FRBD). To evaluate the effect of nutrient management on the growth, productivity and economics of hybrid maize cultivation. Nutrient management has played an important role in achieving sustainability of grain production. The chemical fertilizer consumption coupled with their limited production, fertilizer cost, soil health and pollution have given rise to interest in precision nutrient management tools. It was the found that the Growth, productivity, nutrient uptake and economics of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) as influenced by precision nutrient management which was significantly affected by different level of nutrient management and varieties. Whereas, LCC based application of fertilizer gave better result than all other treatment but it was also statistically at par with Nutrient expert based recommendation.

Title: Physical and biochemical changes in guava (Psidium Guajava L.) during various stages of fruit growth and development
Abstract :

Physiological and biochemical changes during fruit growth, development and maturity of eleven genotypes of guava fruit were studied at 30, 60, 90, 105, 120 and 127 days after fruit set (DAFS). Fruit weight, length and diameter of guava fruit increased continuously from the initial stage of fruit development till maturity and ripening in all the genotypes. The increases in fruit weight and diameter were comparatively more between 30 to 60 DAFS and 90 to 127 DAFS than 60 to 90 DAFS where the increase in fruit weight and diameter was slow in most of the genotypes. However, RCG-1, RCG-2 and RCG-3 showed the continued rapid increase in fruit weight upto 120 days and thereafter the rate of increase was quite slow. A gradual increase in total soluble solids (TSS) was observed in all the genotypes throughout development and ripening stage of the fruits. However, the amount of total titratable acidity increased steadily in the beginning upto 105 days after fruit set in most of the genotypes except RCG-1, RCG-2 and RCG-3 which showed upto 90 days only and afterwards there was a continuous reduction till ripening. The fruits showed continuous and progressive increase in TSS: acid ratio from 30 DAFS till maturity and ripening in all the genotypes except RCG-11, RCGH-1 and RCGH-7 that showed from 60 DAFS. Based on the present findings, days taken from flowering to harvest maturity (>105 days), TSS (>9.50%) and TSS: acid ratio (>15.00) were some of the parameters for judging the maturity indices of genotypes like RCG-1, RCG-2 and RCG-3. Similarly, days taken from flowering to harvest maturity (>110 days), TSS (>10.50%), TSS: acid ratio (>21.00) and fruit skin colour (whitish green) for RCGH-1 were some of the parameters for judging the maturity indices. Whereas, other genotypes were also exhibited the variation for days taken from flowering to harvest maturity (>120 days), skin colours, TSS (9.20-11.00%) and TSS: acid ratio (13.50-23.50.

Title: Management of Nutritional and Climatic factors for Silkworm Rearing in West Bengal: A Review
Abstract :

The development and reproduction of insects are greatly influenced by a variety of nutritional and climatic factors. These factors may exert their effects on insects either directly or indirectly. Under natural conditions organisms are subjected to a combination of nutritional and climatic factors, and it is this combination that ultimately determines the distribution and abundance of a species. Frequently the effect of one facto modifies the normal response of an organism to another factor. For example climatic factor light, by inducing diapauses may make an insect unresponsive or unaffected by temperature fluctuations. Major silk producing insect Bombyx mori L is also not an exception. Bombyx mori L is a domesticated and delicate insect. Improper maintenance of nutritional and climatic factors affect the genotypic expression in the form of phenotypic output of silkworm crop such as cocoon weight, shell weight, and cocoon shell ratio. Besides it is not easy to manage silkworm rearing in West Bengal due to prevalence of high temperature and high humidity most of the time during the silkworm rearing. These climatic factors also influence the various nutritional factors. As per example humidity in the rearing room may affect the types of leaf fed to silkworm larvae in different instars. The present review paper discuss in details about the role of various nutritional and climatic factors on growth and development of silkworm and it also indicates future strategies to be taken for the management various climatic and nutritional factors for successful cocoon crop in West Bengal.

Title: Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Yield and Economics in Summer Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. saccharata)
Abstract :

The field experiment was carreied out at Research Farm, Bagusala, M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management during summer, 2018. The soil was sandy loam in texture, slightly acidic in reaction ( pH 6.8 ) and low in available N (158.83 kg /ha) and P2O5 (10.82 kg /ha) and medium in available K2O (147.67 kg/ha). The randomized complete block design was adopted with three replications for testing 8 treatments. They were consisted of 100% recommended dose of fertilizer ( DF) @ 120-60-60 kg of N-P2O5-K2O /ha), 100% RDF + bio fertilizer consortia (Azotobactor + Azosporillum + phosphobacter) @15 kg/ha, 50 % recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) through farm yard manure (FYM) + 50 % RDF + bio fertilizer consortia (BFC) @15 kg/ha, 50 % RDN through vermi compost (VC) + 50% RDF + BFC @15 kg/ha, 75 % RDF + 25 % RDN through FYM, 75 % RDF + 25 % RDN through VC, 75 % RDF + 25 % RDN through FYM + BFC @15 kg/ha and 75 % RDF + 25 % RDN through VC + BFC @15 kg/ha. The yield attributes such as number of cobs/plant, cob length, cob girth and cob weight along with green cob and forage yield were remarkably influenced by integrated nutrient management treatments. Application of 75 % RDF + 25 % RDN (VC) + BFC @15 kg/ha recorded the highest yield attributes and green cob (12.01 t/ha) and fodder (` 16.52 t/ha) yield. It was followed by 100 % RDF + BFC @15 kg/ha producing the green cob and forage yield of 11.67 and 16.17 t/ha, respectively. The maximum net return (Rs. 164206/ ha) and benefit cost ratio (1.92) was obtained with integration of 100 % RFD (120-60-60 kg of N, P2O5 and K2O /ha) and BFC (Azotobactobacter + Azosporillum + posphobacter) @15 kg/ha.

Title: Assessment of Groundwater Potential Zones of Tons Basin Using Spatial Data
Abstract :

The Tons basin is the subbasin of the river Ganga having its geographical extent of 80°18’ to 83°20’ east longitude and 23°58’ to 25°17’ north latitudes of the country. The major river in this sub-basin. Tons is the longest tributary of Yamuna river. Total basin area in Madhya Pradesh is 11974 km². Total land put to use for agriculture purpose in Tons basin is 8460 km². State of Madhya Pradesh has varied hydrogeological characteristics due to which ground water potential differs from place to place. An attempt has been made to delineate the groundwater potential zone of the Tons basin using spatial data. For delineation of groundwater potential zones, thematic maps of different governing themes of groundwater potential zone such as geology, drainage, drainage density, Land use/Land cover, slope, soil texture have been created to their relative importance. A multicriteria decision analysis technique i.e., Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) technique have been used for the probable weightage of different governing themes. Weighted index overlay analysis tool in ArcGIS 10.3 have been used for the creation for groundwater potential zone. The resultant map demonstrates possible groundwater potential zone of the Tons basin under three categories such as Good groundwater potential, moderate groundwater potential and poor groundwater potential. From the study it was concluded that, delineation of groundwater potential zones helpful for the information of groundwater prospective zone, extraction and development of groundwater and better planning and management.

Title: Chronic toxic effect of Acenapthene on diverse microalgaes and cyanobacteria: Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck, Desmodesmus subspicatus Chodat and Scytonema sp.
Abstract :

There is an increasing need to describe the growth characteristics of algae exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) because of occurrence of PAHs in lakes is known to deleteriously affect the growth of microorganisms. This study explored the chronic effect of different doses of three ring structure polycyclic hydrocarbon Acenapthene on the growth of two microalgal species and one cyanobacterial species. C. vulgaris, D. subspicatus and Scytonema sp. cultivated in the medium with different concentration of PAH and its affect was investigated during increasing 4, 8, 12 and 16 Days of exposure. The growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Desmodesmus subspicatus and Scytonema sp. was adversely affected by Acenapthene. The results indicated that the increased concentration of Acenapthene negatively impacted on chlorophyll content, carotenoids, phycobilliproteins, carbohydrate, amino acids, proteins, nitrate reductase, succinate dehydrogenase and glutamate synthetase except phenol . However, the raise in Phenol content was observed during the incubation period. Moreover, a high significance correlation (F>0.05) existed between different metabolites, pigments and enzymes which was statistically confirmed by Two Way Analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Title: Quality assessment of probiotic weaning mix from fermented cereal-legume blends
Abstract :

Weaning mix was developed from underutilized crops of Uttarakhand (finger millet, barnyard millet, black soybean, amaranth grain). Malting and fermentation were adopted as ways of improving cereal protein quality and decreasing anti-nutritional property and probiotic weaning mix was produced using probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum. Box-benkhen design of response surface methodology was used to design the experiments design for three variables with three levels [blend ratio (cereals : legume:: 50:50, 60:40, 70:30), fermentation time (12 h, 24 h, 36 h), inoculums concentration (1%, 3%, 5%] and four responses (protein, tannin, water absorption capacity, water absorption index). The probiotic fermentation resulted in favourable changes in nutritionl profile of weaning mix resulting 48.2% increase in protein and 92.3% decrease in tannin content. The optimized set of independent variables (cereals (FM+BM): legume: 70:30 fermented for 25 h with 2.9% inoculum concentration) obtained after statistical analysis, was used to develop final probiotic weaning mix.

Title: Gene Expression Study of Arachis Hypogaea L.
Abstract :

Arachis hypogaea L. (The peanut) is an important oilseed crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This species belongs to the subfamily Fabaceae and family Leguminosae. Different parts of the plant such as leaves and seeds are used for many purposes in India. Next-generation sequencing technology (NGS) such as RNA-seq has provided a powerful approach for analyzing the Transcriptome accurately and cheaply. This study is focus on gene expression study of RNA-seq of Arachis hypogaea L. (The peanut); Three SRA files of BioProject ID 243319 downloaded from NCBI database and genome of Arabidopsis thaliana was considered as reference genome for gene expression study. Data analysis carried out with many Bioinformatics tools such as TopHat2, Cufflinks, Cuffmerge, Cuffcompare and Cuffdiff. CummeRbund tool was used to manage, visualize and integrate all of the data produced by a Cuffdiff tool for gene expression analysis. These data reported in the current study will serve as a valuable genetic resource of the Arachis hypogaea L..

Title: Correlation and association of characters in Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) from Kerala part of Peninsular India
Abstract :

Selection of appropriate genotypes based on characters that show good genetic strength is a very important tool in crop improvement since selection could not be carried out based on all characters. Study of interrelationship and association of characters is essential to identify the variables which show maximum relationship with others. Correlation analysis was carried out presently in the case of 12 morphometric characters in vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) so as to study the relationship between them. The present study revealed varying degrees of interrelationship between the morphometric characters studied. Character association was also studied so as to group the characters based on gene sharing and to identify the lead characters that could be used in further breeding programmes. Plant height showed the highest factor loading followed by leaf breadth, root length, leaves per tiller and fresh root weight showing their higher contribution towards the variability of the population and their usability in breeding programmes as lead characters.

Title: Influence of Weed Management Practices on Weed Control Efficiency, Yield and Economics in Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. saccharata)
Abstract :

The field experiment was conducted in sandy loam soil at Research Farm, M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Bagusala village, Paralakhemundi, Odisha, India during summer season of 2018. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications and eight treatments. The herbicidal treatmentrs of pre emergence (PE) application of either pendimethalin @ 0.75kg/ha, oxyfluorfen @ 50 g/ha and metribuzin @ 0.3 kg/ha at 1 day after sowing (DAS) or the same herbicides supplimented with straw mulching (SM) @ 6 t/ha at 30 DAS were compared with intercultivation twice at 20 and 40 DAS and unweeded control.Experimental results revealed that weed mangement treatments significantly influenced the yield attributes and yield of sweet corn along with improvement in weed control efficiency. Pre emergence application of either metribuzin @ 0.30 kg/ha or pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg /ha at 1 DAS in combination with SM @ 6.0 t/ha at 30 DAS remarkbly enhanced the yield attributes such as number of cobs/plant, cob length, cob girth and cob weight. The green cob (11.78 t /ha) and forage (14.55 t/ha) yield were the highest with metribuzin @ 0.30 kg/ha as PE at 1 DAS + SM @ 6 t/ha at 30 DAS. It was followed by pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg /ha as PE at 1 DAS + SM @ 6 t/ha at 30 DAS producing the green cob and forage yield of 11.21 and 14.22 t/ha, respectively. The reduction in yield was to the tune of 35.10% due to uninterrupted growth of weeds. The maximum gross return (` 250150 /ha), net return (` 181635 /ha) and B:C ratio (2.65) were obtained with PE application of metribuzin @ 0.30 k g/ha at 1 DAS + SM @ 6 t/ha at 30 DAS. It was followed by pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg /ha as PE at 1 DAS + SM @ 6 t/ha at 30 DAS registering the gross and net return of ` 238420/ ha and ` 169605 /ha, respectively.

Title: Energetics of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) Cultivation as Influenced by Integrated Nutrient Management
Abstract :

Finger millets ((Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) is one of the important small millets cultivated in India under subsistence farming in drylands. Though it is low demanding crop energy involvement is there in profitable raising of finger millet. Increase in energy use in agriculture production at a faster rate in India because of mechanization and enhancing chemical usage. To study the energy use in finger millet cultivation, a field trail was conducted at Bagusala Farm of M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications and ten treatments. The treatment comprises of T1: control, T2: FYM @ 4 t ha-1,T3: FYM @ 8 t ha-1, T4: 100% RDF (40:20:20 kg ha-1 of N: P2O5: K2O), T5: 50% RDF + 4 t FYM, T6, 75% RDF + 2 t FYM, T7: FYM 4 t ha-1 + Azospirillum@ 5 kg ha-1, T8: FYM 8 t ha-1 + Azospirillum@ 5 kg ha-1, T9: 50% RDF + 4 t FYM + Azospirillum@ 5 kg ha-1 and T10: 75% RDF + 2 t FYM + Azospirillum@ 5 kg ha-1. The results revealed that all the energy parameters except energy productivity were significantly influenced by different treatments. The highest maximum energy input, gross energy output, net energy and energy intensity in term of economics were recorded maximum with application of 100% RDF and maximum energy use efficiency and energy productivity was noticed with application of FYM 8 t ha-1 + Azospirillum.

Title: Effect of Bensulfuron-Methyl+Pretilachlor and Other Herbicides on Mixed Weed Flora of Wet Season Transplanted Rice
Abstract :

Field experiments were conducted during the wet season of 2012 and 2013 at farmer’s field of village Binuria, Sriniketan, Birbhum, West Bengal, India with rice variety ‘Swarna’ (MTU 7029) to study the effect of bensulfuron-methyl + pretilachlor and other herbicides on growth of different weed species and productivity of transplanted rice. Twelve treatments in the experiment were assigned in a randomized block design with three replications. Results revealed that rice was infested with three categories of weeds viz. grasses, broadleaved and sedges. Cynodon dactylon and Paspalum distichum among the grasses; Fimbristylis miliacea, among the sedges and Ludwigia parviflora and Commelina nudiflora among the broadleaved weeds were predominant throughout the cropping period. Bensulfuron-methyl 0.6%+ pretilachlor 6% at 60+600 g ha-1applied at 3 DAT completely controlled the grasses, broadleaved and sedges at 30 and 60 DAT except Cynodon dactylon and Paspalum distichum. However, the density, as well as dry weight of both the species were significantly reduced. Metsulfuron methyl + chlorimuron-ethyl (Almix) + azimsulfuron at 4+35 g ha-1 at 15 DAT was also quite effective in controlling broad spectrum weeds. Lower values of weed density, total weed dry weight and higher values of herbicide efficiency index and yield of rice were registered with application of bensulfuron-methyl 0.6%+ pretilachlor 6% at 60 + 600 g ha-1 at 3 DAT followed by metsulfuron methyl + chlorimuron-ethyl (Almix) + azimsulfuron at 4+35 g ha-1 at 15 DAT. Weed infestation resulted in grain yield reduction of rice to the tune of 40% Application of bensulfuron-methyl 0.6%+ pretilachlor 6% at 60+600 g ha-1 at 3 DAT or metsulfuron methyl + chlorimuron-ethyl (Almix) + azimsulfuron at 4 + 35 g ha-1 at 15 DAT appeared to be the most promising for managing mixed weed flora and obtaining higher yield of transplanted rice in the lateritic belt of West Bengal, India.

Title: Kriging Approach for Estimating Deficient Micronutrients in the Soil: A Case Study
Abstract :

Soil surveying, testing and mapping are important operations for knowing availability of nutrients and micronutrients in the soil and their optimum use for agricultural operation. The main objective of present study was to estimate the content of deficient micronutrients namely Zn, B and Fe in the soil of Kashi Vidyapeeth block of Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh, (India) at different locations by using test results of sampled soils. The Kriging interpolation method (Krige, 1951) was used for preparing the maps to show spatial distribution of deficient micronutrients. The method can be used for recommending judicious applications of micronutrients for sustainable soil management.

Title: Bioremediation potential of Comamonas acidovorans MTCC 3364 for the removal of sulfonated di-azo dye Reactive Black B
Abstract :

Azo dyes are a chief class of synthetic colorants, which are released by the majority of the textile industries. The effluents of dyes disrupt the ecosystem so removal of these dyes is major concerned by using cost-competitive and eco-friendly method. The present study was aimed to study the decolorization efficiency of the textile azo dyes by Comamonas acidovorans MTCC 3364 and optimize the environmental condition for maximum decolorization and degradation of Reactive Black B (RBB) dye. Optimization of various environmental parameters like pH and temperature was studied in which maximum decolorization was obtained at 37°C, pH 7.0 under static condition within 24 hours. The addition of co-substrates lactose and yeast extract increased the rate of decolorization. The bacterial strain was able to decolorize high concentration of RBB dye (1 g l-1) up to 8th cycle. Vanillin was added as a redox mediator which showed the highest rate of decolorization (1.062 mg l-1 h-1) and thiourea was added as an inhibitor, which showed highest inhibition (0.246 mg l-1 h-1). Incubation of dye with a non-growing (free) cells and dead cells resulted in removal of dye from the buffer, indicating the biosorption and adsorption mechanism. Immobilization cell studies revealed that activated immobilized cell preparations decolorized RBB dye up to 10 cycles showing remarkable operational stability. The degradation analysis of RBB was further confirmed by HPTLC and FTIR techniques.

Title: Production of Exopolysaccharide (EPS) and its Application by New Fungal Isolates SGMP1 and SGMP2
Abstract :

Exopolysaccharide producing fungal cultures were screened from the soil samples collected from New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Dist. Anand, Gujarat (India). The isolates designated as SGMP1 and SGMP2 were found to be significant producers of exopolysaccharide (EPS). The present study shows optimization, characterization and certain applications of EPS produced by selected isolates. The isolates SGMP1 and SGMP2 showed a maximum production of EPS 20.5 ± 0.85 g/l and 7.5 ± 0.4 g/l respectively with supplementation of 2% glucose and starch. Yeast extract was used as a nitrogen source at a concentration of 2% (w/v). The maximum production of EPS 7.5 g/l was obtained for SGMP2.The FTIR analysis of EPS showed the presence of polysaccharides, carboxylic acids and lactone. The fungal EPS showed antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The EPS produced by the fungal isolate showed 99 % flocculating activity and could also act as an emulsifier. Furthermore, the fungal isolates SGMP1 and SGMP2 were able to remove Al+3 and Fe+3 up to the 600 mg/l concentration which suffices the role of EPS in bioremediation of heavy metals.

Title: Changes in fruit colour of Dusehari mangoes during ethephon induced ripening
Abstract :

The effect of ethephon on colour changes of Dusehari mango (Mangifera indica) fruits during ripening was examined. Physiological mature fruits were given post harvest dip of ethephon solution @ 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm for five minutes. Treated fruits were packed in CFB boxes placed at ambient conditions for ripening. Fruit peel and pulp colour was determined after 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h after ripening treatments using Hunter Lab scale. Results revealed that all ethephon treatments enhanced colour development as compared to control. The luminosity of peel increased with increase in concentration of ethephon as well as with ripening period. The greenness of peel as reflected by ‘a’ values decreased with ripening treatments and period. However ‘a’ value for pulp increased with development of redness of tissue. The fruit peel developed yellowish colour with ethephon treatments as evidenced by increase in values of ‘b’. The effect of ethephon on colour changes at higher doses (800 ppm and 1000 ppm) was non-significant after 120 h of ripening period.

Title: Development of Circular Flumes for Low Discharges Using Critical Flow Concept
Abstract :

In the water scarce situation, measurement of flow in open channel reduce the pressure on water resources and promotes the better utilization of water. The present study aimed at developing critical flow circular flume with rectangular centre contraction. The circular flume was designed by placing rectangular block in a U- shaped channel. Six flumes were fabricated with different contractions and throat lengths (30%, 40% and 50% contractions and 15 cm and 30 cm throat lengths). Water surface profiles were collected for four discharges (6, 9, 12 and 15 Lps). Critical depths were computed and located on the water surface profiles. The study revealed that the critical flow conditions occurred at 15, 12 Lps in all six flumes. At low discharges and low contractions critical flow conditions not occurred in the throat. The head discharge equations were derived the computed discharges are compared with the actual discharges. The highest deviation observed in case of Flume -1 (-8.344%). 90 % of the errors are within the range of ± 5%.

Title: Yield Analysis of Oilseed Crops under Front Line Demonstration Programmes in Medium and High Land Farming Situations of Birbhum District
Abstract :

The present study is based on the analysis of yield obtained from the Front Line Demonstration Programmes (as Demonstration is one of the most time-tested method in Extension Education) on Oilseed Crops (viz. Sesame, Rapeseed and Mustard and Linseed) organized by the Rathindra KVK in Medium and High Land Farming Situations of Birbhum District and comparative yield analysis over the Birbhum District Average and the West Bengal State Average. The study revealed that the FLD Programme on Sesame; Rapeseed and Mustard and Linseed produced an average yield higher than the Birbhum District Average and also higher than the State Average consistently over the years (as mentioned in the Paper) with the one and only exception in the Rabi Season of 2017-18, when the State Average Yield of Rapeseed and Mustard was higher than the Average yield achieved in the Rathindra KVK FLD Progtramme. The Study also pointed out another important fact that the Birbhum District average yield of Sesame; Rapeseed and Mustard and Linseed were consistently and significantly lower than the state Average with only bright and positive exception in the case of Linseed (the Birbhum District Average Yield of Linseed was higher than that of the state average in both the years of 2016-17 and 2017-18) showing a huge un-tapped potential for production of Linseed in the District. The study further showed us that the positive yield gap achieved by the FLD Programme on Sesame, Rapeseed and Mustard and Linseed over Birbhum District Average Yield and at same time over the West Bengal State Average Yield was consistently and significantly higher in the specified time period with the only exception in the Rabi Season of 2017-18, when the State Average Yield of Rapeseed and Mustard was slightly higher (by 0.25 q / ha) over the average yield obtained from Rathindra KVK FLD Programme.

Title: Standardization of Organic Manure and Bio-inoculants for Production of Improved Planting Material of Tea
Abstract :

Tea is one of the important plantation crops of India as well as West Bengal, contributes considerably in national economy and earns foreign exchange. During 2014-15, total production of tea in India was 1233.14 m kg, out of which only 100 m kg were organic tea. Mainly due to importers demand of organic tea, there is urgent need to enhance organic production of tea crop. Indiscriminate use of inorganic agricultural inputs-fertilizers, weedicides, pesticide and fungicides and lesser use of organic matters deplete soil health, residues remain beyond MRL in processed tea, ultimately reduction in export. Tea Board provides 55% subsidy for organic tea production. For organic cultivation of tea, the planting materials should also be organically produced in nursery, which is very scanty for perennial crops in general and plantation crops in particular. With this background, the present investigation was carried out at instructional farm of the department of Plantation Crops and Processing, UBKV, Pundibari, with the objective to standardize the organic manures and bio-inoculants for production of improved planting materials of tea, The experiment was conducted from 2013 to 2015 and laid out in completely randomized block design. The planting materials of tea chosen to standardize organic manures and bio-inoculants were TS-462 and TV 26. From the study it can be inferred that, the treatment T6-vermicompost 50 g/sleeve and bio fertilizers mixture 10 g (Azotobacter + Azospirillium + PSB + Trichoderma + VAM @2.0 g each)/sleeve observed to be the best when compared to other treatments and control.

Title: Temporal variation of rainfall trends in parambikulam aliyar sub basin, Tamil Nadu
Abstract :

Identification of temporal variation of rainfall trends provides useful information for sustainable planning and management of water resources in a river basin particularly during flood and drought periods. The present study was conducted to determine trends in the annual and seasonal total rainfall over Parambikulam Aliyar sub basin of Tamil Nadu using 30 years (1982-2012) monthly rainfall data at eight rain-gauge stations. The procedure is based on the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test for the trend and the nonparametric Sen’s method for the magnitude of the trend. The maximum increase in rainfall was found at Chinnakallar with an annual rainfall of 90.51 mm/year and the maximum reduction in rainfall of -8.60 mm/year was found at Topslip during South West monsoon. Significant positive trend were observed at Weaverly station during North East monsoon rainfall series and significant negative trend has been noticed in the South West monsoon of Topslip.

Title: Molecular study of Pigeonpea [Cajanuscajan (L.) Mill sp.]Genotypes for Fusariumwilt using RAPD markers
Abstract :

The molecular study of seventeen genotypes of pigeonpea using 20 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers has been reported. A total of 179 loci were scored corresponding to an average of 8.95 loci per primer with 123 bands showing polymorphism (65.42%).Very low level of polymorphism in cultivated pigeonpeagermplasm had been earlier reported which was corroborated by many pigeonpea workers indicating the normal genetic base existing in this crop (Odenyet al. 2007). The average number of polymorphic loci obtained per primer (Assay Efficiency Index) was found to be 6.15. Jaccard’s similarity coefficient ranged from 0.52 to 0.77 and the marker index value for pooled RAPD was found to be 11.65. A dendrogram constructed based on the UPGMA clustering method revealed two major clusters. Cluster-I comprised of 5 cultivars whichwas further differentiated into two sub-clusters. The cluster-II included remaining twelve cultivars. Genotypes that are susceptible to fusariumwilt of pigeonpeaviz., GT-1, GT-100, GT-101, GT-102 and BANAS were closely related and they formed one cluster. It also revealed that genotypes viz., AGT-2 and AVPP-1 were closely related and formed one cluster whereas viz., T-15-15, LRG-41, C-11, BDN-2 and ICPL-87 were closely related and formed another cluster. The dendogram showed that genotypes that are resistant to fusarium wilt of pigeonpeaviz., BSMR-853, WRGE-119, ICPL-87119, ICPL-84060 and ICP-8863 were related genotypes and they formed another cluster. The study reiterated that RAPD can be efficiently used for discriminating resistant and susceptible pigeonpea genotypes.

Title: Impact of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Phosphorus Application on Forage Yield and Quality of Berseem in West Bengal
Abstract :

Phosphorus availability is increased through the use of phosphate solubilizing bacteria for enhancing the forage yield and improving the quality of berseem fodder. A field experiment was conducted in the fodder farm of West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Belgachia during rabi, season 2013-14. The crop was sown with inoculated (I1) and un-inoculated (I0) seeds of berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum  L.) of variety warden and was given phosphorus fertilizer at the levels 40 (P1), 60 (P2), 80 (P3) and 100 (P4) kg P2O5 ha-1 in the form of SSP in RCBD with three replications in plots of net size 6 m X 2 m. PSB inoculation significantly increases green forage and dry matter yield by increasing plant height, no. of branches, leaf-stem ratio, etc. All the quality traits except ash content and dry matter percentage were significantly affected by PSB inoculation. Higher green forage yield (320.4 qt ha-1), dry matter yield (39.2 qt ha-1), crude protein yield (7.89 qt ha-1), crude protein percentage (19.28%), ethyl extract (3.32%) and nitrogen free extract (41.75%) were recorded from the plots inoculated with PSB. Application of phosphorus fertilizers significantly influenced the green forage and dry matter yield of berseem, leaf-stem ratio, etc. though plant height and no. of branches were not-significant. All the quality parameters i.e. CP, CF, EE, NFE, except ash percentage were significantly influenced by phosphorus application. Best results were obtained with 80 kg P2O5 ha-1 in all the cases. Regarding interaction effect, higher yields of better quality green forage of berseem were obtained in I1P3 i.e. inoculation with PSB with phosphorus application of 80 kg P2O5 ha-1.

Title: Geomorphometric analysis of a hilly watershed in north east India
Abstract :

Morphometric analysis of a hilly watershed was carried out using GIS. The drainage map generated from the Survey of India toposheets was used for morphometric analysis of the watershed in terms of stream order, stream length, bifurcation ratio, relief ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, drainage texture, form factor, circulatory ratio, elongation ratio, infiltration number and ruggedness number. The Um Shipra watershed is a fifth order watershed having dendritic drainage pattern with high drainage density (6.22 km.km-2). The logarithmic plot of the stream length versus stream order showed a linear relationship indicating the watershed has developed over a homogeneous rock material. The mean bifurcation ratio of 1.71 indicated absence of strong structural control on the drainage pattern and that the watershed was structurally less disturbed. The number of streams belonging to the order I, II, III, IV and V were found to be 327, 147, 78, 45 and 46 respectively. Lower values of form factor (0.19), circularity ratio (0.29) and elongation ratio (0.49) suggested that the watershed has elongated shape with lower peak flows for longer duration. The ruggedness number having relatively higher value implied that the area has rugged topography which is prone to soil erosion. Higher values of stream frequency and drainage density indicated that the watershed has high runoff potential despite having lower peak flow creating a good scope for surface water resource development. The results obtained can serve as a useful input for developing soil and water resources conservation and management plan on a watershed basis.

Title: An Efficient Regeneration and Genetic Transformation Protocol of Coleus forskohlii using Biolistic Gun
Abstract :

An efficient selection and plant regeneration protocol for biolistic gun transformation using leaf derived callus of Coleus forskohlii has been developed. Highest regeneration frequency 90% with 50 shoots per callus clump was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with benzylaminopurine (BAP) 2.0 mg L-1 + naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) 0.5 mg L-1 The rate of shoot multiplication was increased with each subculture. Rhizogenesis was obtained on the same media composition. The in vitro raised plants were established successfully in sand and cocopeat (1:1). Callus of C. forskohlii was bombarded using biolistic gun with pABC plasmid DNA which contains β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and Arabidopsis thaliana white brown complex homologs (AtWBC19) as selectable marker gene. Kanamycin in the shoot induction medium was compared qualitatively and quantitatively for its efficiency as a selection agent for the selection and regeneration of transgenic plants after biolistic gun transformation. Kanamycin levels at or above 50mg L-1 completely inhibited growth of untransformed shoots. The integration of selectable marker gene GUS and AtWBC 19 into the genome of transgenic plants was confirmed using isoenzymatic GUS assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) respectively. These results pave the way for the transformation of Coleus forskohlii with desirable genes.

Title: Study of Keratinolytic Activity of Thermophilic and Alkaliphilic Actinomycetes: Saccharomonospora Viridis SJ-21
Abstract :

Keratins are insoluble proteins from feathers, wool, silk, collagens, elastin, horn, hair and nail. They are not easily degraded by common proteolytic enzymes like trypsin, pepsin and papain.The resistant property of these compounds are due to their disulphide bonds, hydrogen bonds, salt linkages and cross linkages and hydrophobic interactions. Actinomycetes are known to digest keratins by synthesizing specific class of extracellular enzymes called alkaline thermo stable proteases which degrade keratin into small peptides that can be utilized by cell. Alkaline protease producing thermophilic actinomycete strain was screened from hot water spring of Tulsishyam Gujarat and was identified as Saccharomonospora viridis SJ-21 on the basis of colony characters, biochemical activity, spore nature, growth patterns and pigmentation and 16 S r RNA sequencing.The partially purified protease of Saccharomonospora viridis SJ-21 and the isolate itself were employed to check feather degradation. The feathers were degraded successfully within 72h at 45ºC. The degraded samples were analyzed for release of various amino acids by HPLC- Fluorescence with post column Derivatization. The aminoacids released were tyrosine, phenylalanine, leucine, valine, cysteine, arginine, methionine, etc. S. viridis SJ-21 is found having a significant keratinolytic activity and may serve dual purpose for degradation of poultry waste and production of amino acid rich feed supplement. The protein rich, concentrated feather meal can also be used for organic farming as semi-slow release, nitrogen fertilizer.

Title: Study of HFE Gene Mutation at C282Y and H63D Locus with Special Reference to Thalassemia Patients
Abstract :
Hemochromatosis disorder of iron metabolism leads to excess iron levels in body which is extremely toxic to all cells of the body and can cause serious and irreversible
damages. Clinical complications of hemochromatosis include cirrhosis of the liver, congestive cardiac failure and cardiac arrhythmias, endocrine pancreatic disease. Hemochromatosis is classified as Primary and secondary hemochromatosis. One of the type of primary hemochromatosis is type I also refereed as hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) and is a autosomal recessive disorder of iron metabolism. Three recurrent mutations in hemochromatosis gene (HFE) : C282Y, H63D and S65C are known for hereditary hemochromatosis. C282Y is considered the most relevant mutation responsible for hemochromatosis. In secondary or acquired hemochromatosis, reasons for excess iron accumulation are repeated blood transfusions or enhanced iron absorption produced by thalassemia or both, if thalassemic patients are having mutations in HFE gene repeated blood transfusions may aggravate the condition hence, it is important to screen the thalassemic patients for HFE gene mutations.
Title: Characterization of mungbean genotypes against mungbean yellow mosaic virus and cercospora leaf spot diseases under north east plain zone
Abstract :

Mungbean is an important legume crop due to its short behavior, nutritious and green mannuring nature. But it is highly affected by several diseases and other factors, which reduces the yield and seed quality. Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) and Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) are the major disease of mungbean. Therefore, the present study was conducted to characterize the 34 genotypes of mungbean against MYMV and CLS disease during Kharif 2012 under two different date of sowing. The present study indicated that the none of the genotype was found immune, resistant to MYMV and CLS, whereas five genotypes namely DMS 03-17-2, IPM 2K-14-9, P 1131, DMS 02-11-4 and IPM 99-1-6 were found with moderately resistant reaction. These genotypes may be added in breeding program for improvement of mungbean.

Title: Leaching behavior of Kresoxim-Methyl and Acid Metabolite in normal and sludge amended inceptisol soil
Abstract :

Kresoxim-methyl, a strobilurin fungicide, is a broad spectrum, foliar fungicide. Leaching studies conducted with kresoxim methyl and acid metabolite separately revealed that in column soil >90% of the kresoxim methyl undergo hydrolysis and changed into acid metabolite. Acid metabolite showed more leaching potential than the parent molecule. Residues moved to the lower soil depth with increasing amount of rainfall. Increasing the organic matter content of the soil by sludge amendment (5%) reduced the leaching potential of both the compounds. With the same amount of rainfall, leaching was found to be more under discontinuous flow than continuous flow treatment.

Title: Management of Phytophthora capsici Infection in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) using New Generation Fungicides and Biopesticide
Abstract :

A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different new generation fungicides and biopesticide against Phytophthora capsici in black pepper. Five commercial fungicides and a biopesticide were tested and natural infection due to P. capsici was recorded. Disease indexing was done by visual observation on leaf blight, spike infection, leaf shedding and yellowing of vines. Among the different fungicides, spraying and drenching with Fenamidone 10WDG + Mancozeb 50WDG @ 0.2% was found to be the most effective with 12.4% disease intensity. It was followed by Copper hydroxide 77 WP @ 0.2% with 17.8% disease intensity. Dimethomorph 9WP + Mancozeb 60WP and Cymoxanil 8WP + Mancozeb 64WP were also effective against Phytophthora infection and found better than the existing practice of spraying Bordeaux mixture and drenching Copper oxy chloride. Soil application of talc based formulation of PGPM mix @ 50 g/vine and foliar spray at 2% concentration also resulted in considerable reduction in the severity of Phytophthora infection in black pepper.

Title: Under saline stress plant growth promoting bacteria affect growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant activities in paddy.
Abstract :
Inoculation of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) was found to be more promising to induce growth of paddy plants under lower and moderate salinity levels. PGPB protects the plants from salinity injury by increasing biomass content, photosynthetic activity and antioxidant enzymes acid phosphatase and glutathione reductase. This study also states that PGPB helps in decrement of lipid peroxidation, plays an important role in regulation of growth for positive adaptation of plants to salt stress. However with increase in soil salinity the glutathione reductase activity decreased in non-inoculated plants. The present study shows that inoculation of paddy (Oryza sativa) with root associated bacteria could provide salt tolerant ability to paddy plants as these isolates also remain associated with root and root is the plant part affected first by salinity, so it serve as a useful tool for alleviating salinity stress.
Title: Outbreak of Rice Blast on the Coastal Region of South-Eastern India
Abstract :

Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea is turn to be one of the most severe pathogen under change in climatic condition in coastal region of South-Eastern India. Severity of the pathogen was not overwhelming previously. An investigation was carried out in several villages of different districts of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha under the RAWEP programme of Centurion University of Technology and Management with compared to meteorological data support from IMD, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. Different meteorological factors consider under this study were maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), relative humidity maximum (RH max), relative humidity minimum (RH min), rainfall (RF). Among the three cultivated rice varieties, Pooja and Samba mahsuri (BPT-5204) are the most susceptible blast varieties (5.71% and 4.85%) compared to Swarna (MTU 7029) with a disease incidence level of 1.23%. Outcome of this investigation also revealed that the most crucial two (Tmax and RH max) factors directly involved for the emergence of the disease compared to previous year 2015-16 and 2016-17. The peak disease infestation was observed in the month of October and November with PDI of 27.33 % and 26 %. Farmers based prolonged survey report and our observation concluded with the fact that Tricyclazole 75% WP (trade name – BAAN/ Indofils) and 40% EC formulation of Isoprothiolane (trade name – Fujione / Rallis India Limited) are the two sequential most effective fungicides compared to different market based available fungicides and showed best efficacy against neck, collar and leaf blasts. Weather parameters as well as complex adaptability of the pathogenic nature (showing resistant against different fungicides) turned this Ascomycota member to a severe one.

Title: Molecular Genetic Analysis of TH and COMT Gene Polymorphism in Mentally Retarded Patients
Abstract :

Mental retardation is a variable and heterogeneous manifestation of central nervous system dysfunction characterized by significant sub average intellectual functioning.In India the incidence of mental retardation is reported to be 2-3% of these 30% cases of severe mental retardation are genetically determined due to many reasons viz- chromosomal aberrations, X linked and subtelometric abnormalities and mutations in genes associated with nervous system function viz- TH ,COMT, MTHFR, PPP1R1B, MECP2. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene is located on chromosome number 11 and is coding for rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine. Changes in TH gene expression or function influence the process or behavior modulated by dopamine, any mutation in TH gene modulate dopamine and its function. Catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) gene is located on chromosome number 22 and plays an important role in the metabolism of neurotransmitters. Low levels of COMT expression leads to mental retardation.The present study was carried out to study polymorphism in TH and COMT and its possible association with mental retardation. The detection technique includes isolation of DNA from peripheral blood of the mentally retarded patients of Surat and Anand regions of Gujarat state. DNA was isolated by standard phenol: chloroform method. PCR-RFLP was used for detection of polymorphism. Analysis of TH and COMT gene polymorphism in mentally retarded patients revealed that most observed genotype in normal as well as in mentally retarded patients is TT and HH for TH and COMT loci respectively.

Title: Host Range, Life Aspects and Mode of Damage of Brinjal Shoot and Fruit Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee) on Brinjal: A Review
Abstract :

Brinjal (Eggplant) Solanum melongena Linnaeus is the most important vegetable of hot and humid climates. A wide range of essential biochemicals and minerals belongs to brinjal. It is a fairly good source of iron, calcium, phosphorous, potassium and vitamin B group. Brinjal Shoot and Fruit Borer Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee is the major infectious insect causing a great damage to plants. BSFB generally depends on brinjal but it may infest other solanaceous field crops and may be on wild hosts. The insect has been reported a number of crops such as S. tuberosum (potato), S. lycopersicum and some other Solanaceous crops. The damage by this borer starts at seedling stage and continues till the last harvest of fruits. Egg-laying occurs during night and incubation period ranges from 3-8 days depending of environmental conditions. Larval period completes in 12-22 days depending upon environmental situations and passes through five instars. Full grown larvae pupate into the soil or under plant debris and dropped dead shoots. Adult of BSFB is a whitish moth which hides during day time and activates from dusk to perform various activities like mating oviposition. Larvae bore into fruits and shoots and in younger plants, caterpillars drill into midrib of large leaves. At the time of maturity, damage of the insect on fruits causes a serious loss in yield.

Title: Field evaluation of fungicides against Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cif., causing purple blotch of onion (Allium cepaL.)
Abstract :

Field evaluation of several fungicides including new molecules was undertaken for the management of purple blotch disease of onion caused by Alternaria porri(Ellis) Cif. The experiments were conducted during kharif of 2012 and 2013 using susceptible variety Arka Nikethan.Cymoxanil 8% + Mancozeb 64% WP @ 2500 ppm and Mancozeb 70% WP @ 2500 ppm were effective in reducing the disease severity by 54.86 and 52.88 % over untreated control. However, Mancozeb 70% WP and Cymoxanil 8% + Mancozeb 64% WP recorded the maximum yield of 39.71 and 37.06 t/ha and obtained benefit cost ratio of 33.85 and 20.67. Thus these two fungicides can be recommended for the effective and economical management of the disease

Title: Morphological Variation and Genetic Diversity in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Using Agro-morphic Traits
Abstract :

The objective of the study was to assess the morphological variation and genetic divergence among carnation accessions based on agro-morphic traits. Analysis of variance indicated significant difference among the genotypes for different agro-morphological traits. The cultivar Rebra had maximum plant height, stem length, leaf pair per stem while earlier bud appearance was found in cultivar Tabor. Maximum days took to bud appearance exhibited by cultivar Niva. The minimum days taken to bud opening were observed in Irene and maximum days took to bud opening found in cv. Baltico. The maximum flower duration was recorded in cv. Irene and the minimum flower duration exhibited by cv. Kazhrela. Cultivar Rebra produced larger flower while, cv. Jureno gave smaller flower. On the basis of D2 analysis, the 25 genotypes could be grouped into 3 clusters. Cluster II accommodated highest number of 11 genotypes, followed by, cluster I with having 10 genotypes and cluster III contained 4 genotypes only. The maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster III and I followed by, cluster III and II) and minimum inter-cluster distance showed between cluster II and I. As far as the cluster means are concerned, genotypes consisted in cluster II had highest mean value of plant height, stem length, flower duration and flower diameter while some genotypes showed higher mean value for the characters like earlier bud emergence in cluster II and cluster I. Therefore, a hybridization programme may be initiated involving the genotypes belonging to diverse clusters with high mean for almost all the component characters.

Title: Urban Rooftop Area Assessment for Estimation of Rooftop Rainwater-Harvesting Potential
Abstract :

Rooftop water conservation is a promising technique for sustainable water resource management especially in urban areas. The tedious available roof top area estimation can be made easy with advances in geospatial technologies. The present study taken up to develop the roofing layer to estimate potential rooftop area from high resolution satellite imagery (1 m) i.e., Google earth Pro in GIS environment. The roof surfaces are considered as the micro catchments and GIS is employed to calculate the area of various types of roofs and their potential for planning of water harvest. The results are validated for errors in digitization by ground-truthing against 112 household systems through manual measurement. It is also attempted to identify the type of the roof to know the quality of the harvested water. The annual rainfall was analyzed to quantify the potential of the rainwater harvesting. The results of this study will demonstrate the Application capability of Google Earth Pro and GIS in estimating rainwater harvesting potential to tackle the prevailing water shortage. The estimated total roofing area is 818565.53 sq. m. The results of the study revealed the huge potential of 71.154 cubic meter with 1 mm of uniform distribution of rainwater over the roof tops.

Title: Performance Evaluation of Tubular Maize Sheller under Frontline Demonstration
Abstract :

The study was conducted to assess the performance of tubular maize sheller under Frontline Demonstration programme during 2016-2019 under Kohima district of Nagaland. Maize sheller developed by CIAE was compared to farmers practice of bare hand maize shelling using the finger tips and thumb pressing. The demonstrated result revealed that the performance level of tubular maize sheller (31.36 kg/hr) was double that of farmers practice (13.11kg/hr) in a given time which had increased the shelling capacity by 140%. Shelling efficiency under demonstration remain as high as 99.69%. The average cost of operation per quintal in tubular maize sheller was found to be ` 171.58 over farmers practice (` 423.70) which saved the operation cost of farmers by 60 %. The farmers attitude towards the demonstrated tool was also noted and it was observed that 100% were in agreement that no special training was required for handling the tool, it avoided injury to fingers during use, reduced drudgery and that the tool to be women friendly. It also revealed that majority were in agreement that it saves time and energy (98.66), avoids irritation of eyes, nose mouth during shelling (98%) followed by convenient to use and operate (97.33%). It was also suggested that 4% percent of the farmers were in agreement to the statement that the tool requires modification.

Title: Influence of Storage Temperature on Chemical and Microbial Quality of Carotene Rich Pumpkin Powder
Abstract :

Attempts were made to store the carotene rich pumpkin powder at 30 + 2°C & 62+5% RH and 7 + 1°C & 80+5% RH in aluminum laminated flexible pouch for the period of 180 days. The shelf life was determined on the basis chemical and microbiological analysis of stored powder at an interval of every 15 days. As the storage period was increased from 0 to 180 days, the carotene retention was found to decrease. More carotene could be retained (82.95%) when pumpkin powder was stored at 7°C as compared to 52.28% retention at 30°C when the stored for 180 days. Standard plate count of pumpkin powder stored at 7°C was found to be only 440 cfu / g at the end of 180 days of storage. Similarly, yeast and mold count observed at the end of 180 days storage was only 7 cfu/g. Coliform was found to be absent throughout storage. Pumpkin powder was found to be more stable upto only 75 days, if stored at 30°C. However, it can be safely stored for almost 180 days, if stored at 7°C.

Title: Comparative analysis of Polyphenol Oxidase, Catalase and Lycopene production in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.
Abstract :

Antioxidant activity of tomato has been extensively studied but only in context of Lycopene. This study relates the activity of antioxidant enzymes (Polyphenol Oxidase and Catalase) along with Lycopene in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill at different growth stages of (Seedling, Flowering and Fruiting). Polyphenol Oxidase, Catalase (both partially purified) and Lycopene were estimated spectrophotometrically and presence of Lycopene was further confirmed through Thin Layer and High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography. Polyphenol Oxidase and Catalase could be partially purified with 2.61 (22.55% yield) and 2.11 (62.3% yield) fold purification respectively via ammonium sulphate precipitation respectively. Antioxidant enzymes showed maximum production at the seedling stage (Polyphenol Oxidases: 197.12U/ml and Catalase: 0.037U/ml) where Lycopene production was least; while Lycopene production was maximum in the fruiting stage (259.49mg/kg of fresh weigh) where enzyme activities were negligible. HPTLC analysis also supported the above findings. Linear Regression analysis of Lycopene, PPO and CAT were performed in which r (correlation coefficient) value for Lycopene and PPO was -0.9279108012 and for Lycopene and CAT was -0.7316992009; which indicated strong negative correlation between Lycopene and both the enzymes. It can be concluded that Antioxidant enzymes play their share at young stages while Lycopene at mature stage in antioxidant network of tomato.

Title: Genetic diversity and molecular analysis among cotton genotypes by EST-SSR markers.
Abstract :

Objective of this research work is to utilize EST- SSR markers for fibre quality traits to generate genetic diversity between tetraploid (Gossypium hirsutum) and diploid (Gossypium herbaceum and Gossypium arboreum) cotton species at molecular level. Twenty four (24) genotypes of cotton and thirty five (35) EST SSR primers for different fibre quality traits (fibre length, Lint percentage, Boll weight and fibre strength) were taken for this study. Almost all primers reveals amplification in both diploid and tetraploid cotton species which indicates that flanking primer sequences are conserved in both genomes of cotton. Thirty one (31) EST SSR primers generate good and enormous amplicon and produced a total of four hundred seventy eight (478) sharp, similar and variable bands in all genotypes. Average number of bands amplified by each primer was 15.419. Statistical analysis for EST SSR data was conducted using software programme NTSYS pc version 2.02e and GeneAlEx. The genetic distance (GD) among the all genotypes of cotton were also analyzed and it is ranged from 0.05 to 0.71 which indicates significant diversity between all the genotypes of both tetraploid and diploid cotton species. The average observed mean heterozygosity was 0.60 and observed mean percentage of polymorphic loci was 60%.

Title: Evaluation of Matrix Effect of Chilli, Cabbage and Bitter Gourd in Multiclass Multi-pesticide Residue Analysis Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
Abstract :

Matrix effect of twenty three (23) multi-class pesticides in three different vegetables (Bitter gourd, Chilli, Cabbage) was evaluated using modified QuEChERS [Quick (Qu), Easy (E), Cheap (Ch), Effective (E), Rugged (R) and Safe (S)] coupled with GC-MS analysis. Validation parameters (linearity, LOD, LOQ, accuracy and precision) were determined for multi-residue analysis. The Horwitz ratio was used to explain for intra-laboratory precision. The matrix effect (% ME) for each pesticide in each vegetable was assessed based on the study of slope ratio of linearity curves obtained from solvent and respective vegetable matrix. Most of the compounds had positive matrix effect and cabbage was found to be the least sensitive matrix compared to others. Recovery study was carried out fortifying pesticide mixture prepared from both pure solvent and matrix. The values of recovery percentages were satisfactory when calculated with matrix matched standard mixture (79% to 108%), with an acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD) (<20%). The results of the present study truly revealed the influence of matrix in pesticide residue estimation.

Title: Temperature dependent electrical conductivities of ginger paste during ohmic heating
Abstract :

Ohmic heating is now regarded as highly attractive advanced technique for food processing wherein electric current is passed through the liquid particulates foods with primary purpose of heating them. The success of ohmic heating depends on the rate of heat generation in the system, the electrical conductivity of the food, method by which the food flows through the system and composition of the food. In this study, the ginger paste at different salt treatment (0-2% w/w) was heated in a laboratory scale ohmic heater by applying voltage gradients (5–13 V/cm). The temperature dependent electrical conductivity was obtained at different time interval of 0, 5 and 10 minute at different temperatures (30-60˚C). Bubbling was observed above 70˚C especially at high voltage gradients. The electrical conductivity measured in terms of point and bulk electrical conductivity. Point electrical conductivity was greater than bulk electrical conductivity. The point and bulk electrical conductivity values were in the range of 4.41 to 6.63 and 3.75 to 5.87 mS/cm respectively.

Title: Effect of iron and zinc on growth, flowering and bulb yield in lilium
Abstract :

Lilium is a bulbous plant having non-tunicate bulbs. They are popular throughout the world for their exotic colours and fragrance, making them ideal cut flowers. A trial was conducted to study the effect of foliar spray of iron and zinc in form of sulphate to see their effect on growth, flowering and bulb yield attributes in lilium. Bulbs of lilium cv. Tresor were planted under polyhouse condition and different combinations of iron sulphate and zinc sulphate at 0.2% and 0.4% were applied as foliar spray at 30 and 45 days after planting. Experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with 3 replications. Foliar application of FeSO4 0.2% promoted length of flower stalk and diameter of 1st flower, while its higher dose (FeSO4 at 0.4%) increased the number of buds plant-1 and weight of bulbs plant-1. Foliar treatment of ZnSO4 at 0.4% significantly enhanced the number of bulblets plant-1, number of scales bulb-1, diameter of 1st flower and diameter of bulb. Different treatment combinations of iron sulphate and zinc sulphate also affected various characters like number of leaves plant-1, diameter of stem, days to colour show and days to opening of 1st bud.

Title: Biological removal of synthetic textile dye Reactive Red M5B by isolated white rot fungal culture AGYP-1 under optimized culture conditions
Abstract :

The contamination of soil and water by dye containing effluents is the major and most important environmental problem. The removal of 10 different synthetic textile dyes using white rot fungal isolate AGYP-1 was investigated. The screening of decolorization using solid and liquid media demonstrated an effective removal of Reactive Red M5B by the isolate. Laccase and MnP were found to be major enzymes involved in the decolorization. The dye decolorization efficiency of the isolate was further improved by optimizing various physico-chemical parameters. The isolate was capable to decolorize 100 mg l-1 dye at pH 5.0 and 30oC under shaking condition. The supplementation of maltose (20 g l-1) and gelatine (2.5 g l-1) improved the decolorization rate by 1.6 times along with 10.28 and 18.66 times higher production of laccase and MnP. A significant decolorization of 500 mg l-1 of the dye was achieved by the isolate AGYP-1. The degradation of Reactive Red M5B was confirmed by Uv-visible spectrophotometric and HPTLC analysis. This suggests the potential application of the isolate AGYP-1 for the treatment of dye containing industrial effluents.

Title: Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis G-1 in suppression of stem rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii and growth promotion of groundnut
Abstract :

A total of seven biocontrol agents with known antifungal activity against other soilborne fungal pathogens were screened for their antagonistic potential against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc, the causal agent of stem rot disease of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by dual culture assay. Among the various biocontrol agents tested Bacillus subtilis strain G-1 was the most effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of S. rolfsii and recorded an inhibition of 28%. Groundnut seeds when treated with B. subtilis G-1 showed significant increases in root length, shoot length and seedling vigour. A talc-based powder formulation of the highly effective strain, B. subtilis G-1, was developed and its efficacy in controlling groundnut stem rot was determined under greenhouse conditions. The results indicated that seed treatment with the powder formulation of B. subtilis G-1 alone effectively reduced the incidence of stem rot and increased the pod yield; but combined application through seed and soil increased the efficacy. Seed treatment and soil application with B. subtilis G-1 reduced the stem rot incidence from 80 per cent (with non-bacterized seeds) to 5 per cent. When the treated seeds were sown in soil, the antagonist moved to the rhizosphere and multiplied well in it. These results suggest that B. subtilis G-1 is an effective bioagent against stem rot of groundnut. Further studies are required to assess its efficacy in controlling stem rot of groundnut under field conditions.

Title: Study of genetic variation among soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merrill] accessions in CID values
Abstract :

A set of 91 diverse soybean accessions were analysed for 10 morphological traits with special reference to water use efficiency using carbon isotope discrimination (CID) technique. The coefficient of variation for CID values was found to be 3.36%. There is negative correlation between Δ13C values (CID values) and WUE. The genotypes which registered lower values of Δ13C are more water efficient than the genotypes with higher Δ13C values. The range of Δ13C values observed in this experiment are slightly lower than that reported in sugar beet (Δ13C 17.66‰ to 22.96‰), (Rajabi et al., 2009). Genotype UPSL309 has highest CID value (22.91‰) indicating low WUE and genotype DS9813 has lowest CID value (19.95 ‰) with high WUE. In present study randomly classified genotypes as high WUE (CID less than 20.5 ‰), medium WUE (CID between 20.6 to 22.4 ‰) and low WUE (CID above 22.5 ‰). There were 7 genotypes which were found to show high WUE, and 13 exhibited low WUE whereas, rests of the 71 genotypes were medium in WUE.

Title: Effect of Weather Parameters on Seed Production of Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var botrytis L.)
Abstract :
The study on the effect of weather parameters on cauliflower seed production was conducted at three locations viz; Nauni, Saproon and Kandaghat during rabi season of 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 in Solan district of Himachal Pradesh. The location Nauni was warmest, followed by Kandaghat and Saproon. Significant variations in seed yield and yield contributing characters of cauliflower were observed due to execution of different weather conditions. The minimum number of days to initiation of seed stalk, flower initiation, 50 per cent flowering, and seed set in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var botrytis L.) were observed at Nauni, followed by Kandaghat and Saproon. Number of pods per plant and number of seeds per pod were found highest at Saproon (1055.2pods/plant; 18.4seeds/pod) which is coolest location as compared to other two. The maximum seed yield (239.6 kg/ha) was obtained from this location. Nauni and Kandaghat showed reduced seed yield compared to that obtained from Saproon. The lowest seed yield (174.0 kg/ha) was recorded at Nauni. The forenoon humidity during October to December exhibited significant and positive correlation with seed yield. During January to March minimum temperature showed significant and positive correlation with seed yield during April to June.
Title: Seed and oil quality characteristics of some castor (Ricinus Communis L.) inbred lines
Abstract :

Castor (Ricinus communis L) is an important non-edible oilseed crop with diversified industrial usage. India is dominating in the production and productivity of castor. Thirteen inbred lines were studied for seed physical characteristics, oil quality, as well as fatty acid profile. Among the inbred studied, the maximum weight of 100 seed was 34.2 g, in JC-26, and maximum oil content was 51.3% in SKI-333. One hundred seed wt showed a positive correlation with % of kernel (r=0.472*) and seed oil content has positive correlation with kernel oil content (r=0.803**). Important oil characteristics for industrial use like specific gravity (g/cc) varied from 0.954 to 0.958 while the viscosity (cp) ranged from 604 to 626. The free Fatty acid as oleic acid was ranging between 4.33 to 6.02%. Among the fatty acid, the ricinolic acid was ranging from 83.93 to 87.02%, the minimum value was in 48-1 while the maximum value of ricinolic acid was recorded in DCS-9 inbred.

Title: Effect of Crude Oil Spillage on Chemical Properties of Soils of Moran and Duliajan Oil Fields of Assam
Abstract :

Crude oil spillage is a regular phenomenon in the oil drilling sites and due to raining and flooding the spilled oil spread to the nearby cultivated field causing soil pollution and considerable reduction in the crop yield. Therefore, present investigation aimed to study the effect of crude oil spillage on chemical properties of soils of two major oil fields in Assam, India viz. MFN oil field, Moran and Kathalguri, HYR, Duliajan oil field. Five soil samples were collected in triplicates at an interval of 50 m from three directions (E, W& S) from the spilled areas upto 200 m horizontally and one sample from each direction was collected from adjacent unpolluted areas i.e. beyond 200 m as control. Standard analytical procedures were followed to determine soil pH, EC, organic carbon, total petroleum hydrocarbon, available nutrients, and exchangeable elements. Results revealed pH of the soils remarkably dropped towards spillage point making the soil strongly acidic in nature whereas the organic carbon content increased near the point of spillage in both oil fields. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was recorded maximum at spillage point in both Moran and Duliajan oil fields and was negligible beyond 200m. The available N and P2O5 were low near the spillage point and substantially increased with distance. Conversely, available K2O, exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ significantly increased near the spilled point.

Title: Seasonal variations in peel colour in relation to fruit development of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.)
Abstract :

The studies on seasonal variations in peel colour of grapefruit cv. Star Ruby were carried out in order to explain the relationship between fruit growth and colour development. The fruit diameter of the grapefruit increased from 90 days after fruit set to the maturity of fruit. The seasonal variation in fruit diameter was recorded 12.83% during fruit development. The increase in a* coordinate, which represented the gradual loss of greenness, continued until mid-November at 210 DAFS. Calorimetric coordinate b* values always remained positive and increased until the fruit maturity and showed yellow tinge. The hue angle values decreased continuously from start of sampling to the harvest of fruit with appearance of pinkish-yellow tone. Seasonal variation in the hue angle was recorded 26.80%. The negative correlation was observed between hue angle and the fruit development with the advancement of fruit maturity. However, studies have reported positive correlation was recorded between colour space values (L*, a*, b* and C*) with fruit development. The maximum seasonal variation was noted in colour parameter a* (CV = 189.99%) and minimum seasonal variation was noted in L* (CV = 9.42%).

Title: Growth and Instability Analysis of Area, Production and Productivity of Paddy in Kerala, with Special Reference to “The Kerala Conservation of Paddy Land and Wetland Act, 2008.”
Abstract :

Rice is the staple food of Keralites. Kerala climate is well suited for wetland paddy cultivation. However, the paddy land in Kerala is decreasing over years. The Kerala conservation of paddy land and wetland Act, 2008 made a slight change in this decadal decreasing trend. In this study, Bai-Perron test identified a structural break in area, production and productivity during 2007-08 and 2009-10, which could be associated to the conservation act. The compound annual growth rate for area and production was found to be negative. The growth in area diminished before and after the break, but the diminishing rate was less after the break (-2.52%) than the period before the break date (-4.40%). So, as in the case of production. Productivity showed a positive growth rate for the overall period. Instability in production was high after the break date, whereas, instability in area remained almost same for both before and after the break dates. Exponential growth model was used for forecasting. The forecasted area and production up to 2030 showed a declining trend. The forecasted results on area showed that there will be a decline of around 36,444 ha in another 12 years. Similarly, the production will also come down to 3,70,795 t.

Title: Optimal design of flow rate in drip irrigation system to enhance the tomato cultivation
Abstract :

Tomato is the second most important vegetable crop next to potato. As far as conservation of soil and water is concerned, drip irrigation offers the most practical and effective alternative to regular surface irrigation among all the irrigation technique known today in the world. Researchers throughout the world are kin to obtain the optimal flow rate through drip irrigation for overall development of crop. In this study, attempt has been made to analysis the growth rate and yield of tomato plant at various flow rate of drip irrigation, and to determine the effect of fertigation through drip irrigation on growth and yield of tomato. In this study “Samartha F1 hybrid” variety of tomato seed was selected and cultivated over the farm size of 6×5 m2. The selected farm area was divided into two sections i.e. fertigation section and non-fertigation section. Three rows having ten plants in each row was transplanted in both sections. Growth of tomato plants in term of height and canopy was measured and compared with different flow rates. The average increment in the height of tomato plants at flow rate of 2 L/hr, 4 L/hr and 8 L/hr were estimated as 68%, 60% and 52% respectively. Yield of tomato in terms of fruits was estimated for three different flow rates of 2 L/hr, 4 L/hr and 8 L/hr. The yield of tomato is optimal when drip irrigation with 2 litres per second has been used for irrigating the farm land. Significant effect of fertigation through drip irrigation has been found on growth and yield of tomato plants.

Title: An overview and assessment of two wetlands in Eastern Thailand: Kung krabaen bay and welu wetlands in chanthaburi province
Abstract :

Climate change as occasioned by environmental degradation has led to innovative thought on how to preserve natural resources while also deriving benefits. Mangrove destruction, saline water intrusion, decline in fish stock and reduced livelihoods were factors that led to the establishment of Kung Krabaen Bay development study centre and the Welu wetland both in Chanthaburi province. The two wetlands provide important benefits to the people that live around it as well as tourists. Through the absorption and processing of wastes, these wetlands help maintain environmental quality and safety while also maintaining a biological balance of carbon IV oxide and other green house gases. Shrimp farm waste is treated in Kung Krabaen bay. A synthesis of Provisioning, Regulating, Cultural and Supportive benefits of the two wetlands is presented. Management regime involves integrated approach (Kung Krabaen Bay) and a co-management approach (Welu wetland). Direct and indirect drivers of change are analysed with management capacity to effectively manage these drivers being examined. The rational use of the resources provided by wetlands is a key factor in their conservation. Recovery from overexploitation may take time but these wetlands are showing resilience and there is need to improve management regimes via international cooperation.

Title: Soil Nutrient Status of Gosani Block Under Gajapati District, Odisha
Abstract :

The present investigation was led during the year 2018-19 at Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Gajapati, Odisha with intend to consider supplement status of various village of Gosani square. The examples were gathered from various homesteads and towns of Gosani square. At that point test investigated according to standard strategy for surveying pH, EC, OC, and significant supplements like accessible nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium with micronutrients like zinc, copper, manganese and iron status of soils. The pH of soils changed from 6.13 to 6.44 and EC shifted from 0.06 to 0.34 dS/m. The natural carbon content in ranch soils was shifted from 0.35 to 0.55%. The accessible nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium ran from 125 to 250 and 31 to 41 and 185 to 542 kg/ha individually. The accessible zinc, copper, manganese and iron went from 1.08 to 2.92, 0.90 to 3.06, 9.96 to 27.90 and 17.02 to 74.14 mg/kg individually. The outcomes demonstrate that result were somewhat acidic in response, non-saline and low in natural carbon. The results were low to medium in accessible nitrogen and high in accessible phosphorous and medium to high in accessible potassium. The micronutrient status like accessible zinc was low to satisfactory and accessible copper, manganese; iron were sufficient sum found in soils. The outcomes presume that decent use of supplements required for fruitful harvest creation and advancement of vegetable in various villages under Gosani Block.

Title: Studies on Induction of Somaclonal Variation in Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and Validation of Mutant Using Molecular Markers
Abstract :

Sugarcane is a perennial grass of the family Poaceae, primarily cultivated for its juice from which sugar is processed. Sugarcane yields are declining due to varietal degeneration and susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses. Smut of sugarcane is one of them, the disease can cause significant losses in cane tonnage and juice quality. As development of superior sugarcane varieties through conventional hybridization program is time consuming and has the problem of transfer of undesirable characters/traits into the newly developed hybrids/variety. In this connection, attempts were made to introduce genetic variability in sugarcane by in vitro culture techniques and mutation breeding. Induction of somaclonal variation is one of them which is described as the genetic variability present among cultured cells, plants derived from such cells or progeny of such plants. The treatment, MS medium supplemented with 3 mgl-1 2,4-D found most suitable for callus induction and multiplication. The callus on application of EMS become pinkish brown in colour, shoot regeneration from callus cells was high in MS medium supplemented with 3 mgl-1 BAP gave dark gray or brown and sticky callus. Molecular analysis of somaclonal mutants showed by primers polymorphism of DNA bands on validating with molecular markers viz. RAPD and ISSR markers gave 100 per cent polymorphism by two RAPD primers named OPA-01 and OPA-02 showed that out of 17 DNA samples of mutants considered, all were showing variations but one DNA sample was showing similarity with mother plant. The present investigation reports the study induction of somaclonal variation in Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and validation of mutant using molecular markers in variety Co261.

Title: Effect of precooling and chemical preservatives on post harvest longevity of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) florets
Abstract :

Investigations were carried out to study the effect of precooling and preservative chemicals on post harvest longevity of the florets of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) cv. Prajwal. The effect of precooling of tuberose florets in combination with four chemical treatments were studied and observations were recorded based on quality parameters like freshness of the florets, colour retention, physiological loss in weight and days to fifty per cent wilting. Pre-cooling of flower buds was found to improve the longevity (shelf life) of flower buds. Soaking of florets in 4 % Boric acid solution for two hours and air drying them before packing increased the shelf life up to six days.

Title: Study of Root and Stem Rot Pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) in Different Culture Media, Host Range and Effect of Weather Parameters on Disease Incidence
Abstract :

Root and stem rot of cowpea caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important problems for farmers among the coastal regions of Odisha. Keeping this in view, the behavioural study of the pathogen was done by studying its growth pattern in different culture media and host medium. Among five different media, Potato dextrose agar (90.00 mm) was found to support the maximum radial growth followed by Sabouraud’s dextrose agar medium (87.90 mm), Potato dextrose rose Bengal agar (82.40 mm), Oat meal agar (76.60 mm) and Malt extract agar (70.98 mm). In study of meteorological parameters in relation to disease development the maximum incidence was recorded in October at a maximum temperature of 32.7oC, minimum temperature 22.9 oC accompanied by night RH 92% and day RH 64%. However, weather parameters under study did not yield any significant effect on disease development. However, the soil factors like sandy loam textured soil and acidic to neutral PH contributed towards this soil borne disease. Among host range studies, Rhizoctonia solani isolated from cowpea could infect rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), chilli (Capsicum annum), brinjal (Solanum melongena), field pea (Pisum sativum), cucumber (Cucumissataivus), bengalgram (Cicer arietinum), arhar (Cajanus cajan), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and groundnut (Arachis hypogea) in addition to its own host.

Title: Exploitation of heterosis and combining ability for earliness and vegetative traits in ridge gourd [luffa acutangula (roxb.)L.]
Abstract :

Eight parental lines and 28 F1 hybrids of ridge gourd obtained from half-diallel were studied to investigate the extent of combining ability and heterosis for earliness and vegetative characters. Appreciable heterosis in desirable direction was found over better parent and check parent for the characters viz. days to first female flower, node number to first female flower, vine length (m), number of primary branches and days taken to Ist fruit harvesting. Crosses PCPGR 7256 X PRG 142, PRG 117 X PRG 142, PRG 117 X PRG 131, PRG 117 X PRG 132 and PRG 117 X PRG 120 were found promising for earliness. Crosses PCPGR 7256 X PRG 117, PCPGR 7256 X PRG 131 and PRG 132 X PRG 120 were recorded promising for vegetative traits. Regarding general combining ability the parents PRG 117 and PRG 142 found best for earliness and for vegetative growth PRG 131 stood in top. The crosses PRG 131 X PRG 132 and PCPGR 7256 X PRG 142 showed highest specific combining ability for earliness and both the crosses PCPGR 7256 X PRG 117 and PRG 132 X PRG 120 found best for different vegetative traits.

Title: Measurement of employment, unemployment and underemployment of agricultural labour in tarai regions of Uttaranchal State and Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :

In rural areas, both unemployment and underemployment exist side by side, the distinction between them is by no means sharp. The various sophistications and refinements brought about in the concepts and measurement of employment and unemployment, have not fully succeeded even in properly quantifying the above problems. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt has been made to measures the unemployment and under employment of agricultural labour in Tarai regions of uttaranchal state and Uttar Pradesh according to time and income criterion. In each state one district was selected randomly viz. Sidharth Nagar in Uttar Pradesh and U.S. Nagar in Uttaranchal state. From each of these two selected district, the Birdpur block in Sidharth Nagar district and Rudrapur block in U.S. Nagar district was selected randomly. The study is based on the 55 households in Birdpur block and 66 households in Rudrapur block. Thus, total sample consists of 121 agricultural labour households. The study pertained to the year 1999-2000. In order to achieve the objective simple averages and percentages were used. The findings of the study reveals that the unemployment and under employment measured by time and income criteria for agricultural labour household as well as agricultural labour was higher in Uttar Pradesh as compared to Uttaranchal state. It is, therefore, suggested that more avenues of employment must be provided at the village level, including provision of loans for the purchase of inputs, cross bred cattle, and land distribution among agricultural labourers.

Title: Arsenic distribution in environment and its bioremediation: A review
Abstract :

Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring toxic metalloid which is introduced into the environment through natural geochemical processes and several anthropogenic actions. Since it is a carcinogen, there is an urgent need to efficiently remove As from contaminated soil and water. This review elaborates the chemistry and environmental distribution of As along with several bioremediation approaches to alleviate As pollution.

Title: Micronutrient Analysis by Ion Chromatography and AAS, Pasting Properties, and Shelf-life Study of Sugar Free Biscuit Inriched with Fenugreek Seed Powder and Natural Sweetener Stevia
Abstract :

The colour of sugar free biscuit was recorded by hunter colour flex and the L*, a*, b*, value was 46.40, 12, 20.29, respectively. Developed sugar free biscuit was rich in calcium and magnesium and their concentration were observed 294.8mg/100g and 451.5mg/100g respectively by ion chromatography. Atomic absorption spectroscopy of developed sugar free biscuits was also performed for mineral analysis and reported that it contains iron (1.93mg/100g), copper (0.065mg/100g), and zinc (0.325 mg/100g). Fortified sugar free biscuits was also analysed by rapid visco analyser for pasting properties of starch, gelatin ionization of starch. The shelf-life of sugar free biscuit was lower at 37oC than at 10oC and 25oC. The HMF (Hydroxy Methyl Furfural) concentration which indicates the mallard reaction at a higher temperature and with increasing days of storage, the HMF concentration was also increased. The HMF increased to 6.1, 6.3, 6.5 μmol/100g at 10, 25, 37oC respectively after 30 days from 5.1 mol/100g which was the HMF value initially. The TBA (Thiobarbituric acid) also increased the most at 30 days storage at 10 oC as compared to 25 oC and 37oC, TBA value was 0.254, 0.265 and 0.286 respectively. The same result was seen in moisture content 5.1, 5.25., 5. 5% at 10 oC, 25 oC, 37 oC respectively from 4% of moisture initially content. The Microbiological studies concluded that the product was safe with no yeast and mould growth and coliform was also not detected. Only total plate count after 30 days was found 3×10 CFU/ml. The product was found safe for consumption even after 30 days of storage.

Title: Over view of Septoria Diseases on Different Crops and its Management
Abstract :

Septoria is one of the major emerging pathogen of diverse plant families and has been reported from all over the world. It is the one of the major foliar disease which infects total shoot system and growing stage of plants (mostly Solanaceaceous crops). However, important fungal disease such as Septoria leaf spot caused by the fungal pathogen Septoria lycopersici is well known and not only restricted in Solanaceae. This fungal pathogen spreads rapidly and effected in any stage of development which ultimately causes quick defoliation and weakening of infecting part, rendering them unable to bear fruit tends to maturity. At the initial stage of infection symptoms appear as circular and angular lesions most commonly found on the older, lower leaves of the plant. The lesions contain pycnidia in the centre of spot in leaves to identify the pathogen of this region. This pycnidia are fruiting body of the fungus. When the lesions are more numerous often the leaves turn yellow, then brown shrivel up and eventually drooping of plant altogether, this fungal spores spread to healthy leaves by windblown, rain splashes, through irrigated water, mechanical transmission and through the activities of insects such as aphids, beetles etc. Septoria become more severe during warm, wet, humid periods and develops within four to five days from the date of transmission. In favorable time Septoria infects various cultivated and non cultivated crops but with the coming of unfavorable condition it retains in plant debris or body of secondary host round the season.

Title: Genetic diversity studies in rice (Oryza Sativa L.) using microsatellite markers
Abstract :

The objective of present study was to evaluate the genetic polymorphism and identification of diverse parents among the 76 rice accessions using simple sequences repeat (SSR) markers. The accessions showed significant phenotypic variation for all the characters analyzed. The SSR Markers were highly polymorphic across all accessions and altogether 79 alleles were detected. The overall Polymorphic information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.26 to 0.65 with an average of 2.82 per locus indicting high level of genetic variation. The cluster analysis showed the rice germplasm accessions grouped in to two major groups and 14 subgroups. The pair-wise genetic dissimilarity co-efficient indicated that the highest dissimilarity was obtained between cultivar B.3688-TB and IR.67017-1(0.1935) followed by cultivar Badi Kodi and Changhat (0.3333). These grmplasms were showing wide genetic divergence among the constituent in it and may be directly utilized in hybridization programme for improvement of yield related traits. The markers RM 413, RM 481, RM 206 and RM 20 produced a maximum of four alleles. These microsatellite markers could serve as a powerful tool in selecting genetically diverse germplasm accessions, to execute efficient selection in highly segregating generations.

Title: Bioindicator Emerged as a Potential Environmental Marker
Abstract :

In the era of modern science and new technology, mankind is adopting new and novel approaches to deal with the problems. The high population density and urbanization has changed our environment to a polluted one. Its not easy to deal with this problem with complex and costly equipment. Bioindicators are playing a major role in reducing the pollution and to check it timely without any environmental hazard. Bioindicators are the living organism which facilitate in reduction of the environmental pollution. They directly or indirectly determine the amount of pollutants and contaminants present in our ecosystem. They rapidly react to their surrounding environment and give us early warning. These can be used for indexing the health of the ecosystem as well as balancing the ecosystem without any disturbance in food chain. Biomonitoring is one of the promising and cost-effective methods as compared to other techniques. More researches are highly needed to explore the hidden characteristics and many more new species which will help us to build a better and safe environment.

Title: Effect of moisture regimes and pesticides of different biodegradability on transformation of different forms of inorganic and organic N in a dominant soil series of West Bengal
Abstract :

A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the effect of pesticides of different biodegradability on changes in inorganic and organic forms of N in soil maintained under two different moisture regimes. Results revealed that irrespective of pesticides and N treatment, comparatively higher amount of available N is recorded in waterlogged then the soil kept at 60% MHC. Addition of pesticides at lower dose affects the transformation process of organic N in soil. Irrespective of pesticide treatment, in general, hydrolysable NH4+ -N decreased but on the other hand amino acid N increased in soil. Again, the intensity of decrease or increase is more in waterlogged than the soil maintained under 60% of the MHC.

Title: Evaluation of suitable antagonists in the management of early blight of tomato cultivar CO-3
Abstract :

Early blight of tomato is one of the most destructive diseases caused by Alternaria solani causing considerable loss to quality and quantity of fruits. To avoid chemical fungicides in the management of this menace, soil borne rhizospheric organisms were isolated and evaluated against the pathogen. Different antagonists i.e Aspergillus sp. Trichoderma sp. Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. were used against most virulent isolates of A. solani under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Maximum in vitro inhibition of mycelial growth of Alternaria solani was observed in case of Trichoderma sp. (87.69%) followed by Aspergillus sp. (84.23%) as compared to control. Under glass house conditions Trichoderma sp. exhibited a similar efficacy with a percent disease control ranging from 82.6-91.3.

Title: Yield sustainability and chemical fertilizer economy through IPNS in capsicum (Capsicum Annum L. Var. grossum) under dry temperate condition of Himachal Pradesh
Abstract :

A field experiment to evaluate the effect of five organic sources of plant nutrients and three fertility levels on productivity and economics of tomato was conducted during Kharif seasons of 2006 and 2007 under dry temperate region of HAREC, Kukumseri (L&S), Himachal Pradesh. Among organic sources, application of FYM @ 5 t/ha has recorded the higher values for all yield attributes except No. of branches/plant and was followed by FYM @ 2.5 t/ha + Azotobacter. However both these treatments were significantly at par with each other in recording significantly more No. of branches/plant, higher yield and productivity. Significantly higher economic efficiency of Rs. 1567.6 was achieved with the application of FYM @ 2.5 t/ha + Azotobacter and was followed by FYM @ 5 t/ha (1567.6 Rs./ha/day). Increase in the level of NPK has significant influence on yield, productivity and economic efficiency. Significantly higher values of different yield attributes were recorded with the application of 150% NPK which was reflected in getting significantly higher capsicum yield (190.0 q/ha) and productivity (1.04 q/ha/day) with greater economic efficiency of 1766.7 Rs./ha/day.

Title: Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Vegetative and Propagule Characters in Gladiolus and Induction of Homeotic Mutants
Abstract :

Uniform and healthy corms of eight gladiolus varieties ( Yellow Golden, Nathan Red, White Friendship, American Beauty, Red Majesty, Purple Flora and Algarve) were irradiated with different doses (0, 25, 40, 55 and 70 Gy) of gamma rays from 60Co source and planted under open field condition in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with factorial concept. Each treatment was replicated thrice.Plants treated with higher doses (55 Gy and 70 Gy) showed deleterious effect of ionising radiations although at lowest dose (25 Gy) plants were not affected much. Plant height was reduced after irradiation as compare to untreated plants and was recorded minimum at highest doses. Number of shoots per plant was slightly increased at 25 Gy treatment (1.62) in vM2 as compare to untreated plants (1.42). Significant effect of gamma irradiation on corm and cormel characters was noticed. Maximum number of corms per plant was recorded in plants treated with 25 Gy and minimum at 70 Gy. Among all the varieties Nathan Red had maximum number (1.75, 1.97) and weight (73.29gm, 79.33gm) of corms per plant in vM1 as well as vM2 generation. Number of cormels per plant was also reduced with the increase in gamma rays dose. Maximum number of cormels per plant (227.83) was recorded in the interaction of Algarve variety with 25 Gy gamma ray dose in vM2. Homeotic mutants were isolated from all the varieties at 55 and 70 Gy except American Beauty and Red Majesty variety.

Title: Dry Matter Production in Eucalyptus Clones
Abstract :

Eucalypts are among the most widely cultivated forest trees in the world under a range of different climates for products that include pulp, paper fuel wood and solid wood products such as poles, furniture and construction timber. Productivity and profitability of plantations of Eucalyptus have been revolutionized with the development of genetically improved, fast growing and high yielding Clonal planting stock of Eucalypts. Eucalypts Clonal planting has been said to have advantages which includes quick provision of benefits associates with fast growth, short rotation for production of pulp wood (of around 70 MT ha-1 in 6 years) ready marketing and easy establishment and less maintenance needs. Clonal planting one among the approach for management of water and nutrients compared to the other conventional strategies. Studies relating to Clonal difference and evaluation for dry matter production will help for better water and nutrient use efficiency to overcome productivity loss due to deficit rainfall and optimum utilization of available natural resources for higher wood production. The present study was carried out to test the hypothesis that there exists a Clonal variation in dry matter production and the present study gives an insight in to Clonal variation in with reference to dry matter production of above ground and below ground biomass.

Title: Interrelationship between fruit quality and pre-harvest calcium chloride treatment on peach Cv. ‘Shan-I-Punjab’
Abstract :

The effectiveness of pre-harvest calcium, chloride on post-harvest life and quality of peach fruits were studied. Calcium chloride viz. 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% was sprayed to peach plants at pit hardening stage, 10 and 20 days after pit hardening. Peach fruits harvested at physiological mature stage were sorted, washed, air dried and packed in CFB boxes before placing in cold store (temperature 0-10 and RH 85-90%). Changes in PLW, fruit firmness, sensory quality, pulp: stone, total sugars, total phenolics and calcium content were studied. Calcium chloride @ 1.5% (three sprays) resulted in minimum PLW, total sugars and maximum fruit firmness, sensory quality score, pulp: stone, total phenolics and calcium content during the stipulated storage period.

Title: Comparative evaluation of IPM module and farmer’s practices in Mungbean, Vigna Radiata (L.) Wilczek against major insect pests
Abstract :

Results indicated that IPM module proved comparatively economical against major insect pests of mungbean over farmer’s practices. The results revealed that, IPM module i.e., Mungbean with seed treatment of Imidacloprid 600 FS (5ml kg-1) followed by one spray of NSKE (5%) at 30 days after sowing (DAS) and chemical insecticide Triazophos 40 EC 0.04 per cent of the crop, were effective in reducing the incidence of White fly, MYMV, Jassids and Thrips and gave higher grain yield than farmer’s practices. Present study indicates that IPM is definitely better over non-IPM practices under different pest population numbers. IPM implies the rational integration of various methods of insect pests control to suppress the pest population below ETL. Therefore, farmers should be made aware of its benefits and motivated to critically analyze and make decisions regarding pest management practices.

Title: An Assessment of Critical Loads of Acid Deposition in Kanpur Region, India
Abstract :

The present load of sulphur (161.1 Eq ha-1 yr-1), nitrogen(49.9 Eq ha-1 yr-1) and ammonium (176.8 Eq ha-1 yr-1) were calculated from wet and dry deposition from Kanpur region consisting of seven sampling sites located at IIT, Vikas Nagar, Panki, Arya Nagar, Rama Devi, Gola Ghat and Phoolbagh for the year 2014-2016. The values for critical load of sulphur and nitrogen for soil with respect to Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus) were calculated. The methodology involved the Steady State Mass Balance (SSMB) method. The values of actual acidity calculated were also compared with the RAINS-Asia model and was found to be lower for this area.

Title: Biochemical Investigation on Antioxidative and Antinutritional Characters of Yellow Seeded Brassica Genotypes for Quality Assessment
Abstract :

Yellow seeded Brassica is one of the most important oilseed crop cultivated in many parts of the world. The oil is consumed predominantly as edible oil and the defatted meal cake is utilized as animal/poultry feed. In the present study, intact seeds and defatted meal of 12 yellow-seeded Brassica genotypes evaluated for the presence of anti-oxidative and anti-nutritive factors. The maximum phenolic, ortho-dihydroxy phenols, flavonoid contents observed for Bio 39(16.946 mg/g), Bio 30(2.38 mg/g) and Bio 39(8.282 mg/g) respectively. The crude fibre, phytic acid and glucosinolate contents were found to be minimum in Bio 21 (6.95%), Bio 2 (3.632%) and Bio 38 (54.324 µmole/g) respectively. Vitamin C content was maximum in Bio 36 and Bio 3. The α-tocopherol content was observed to be maximum Bio 2 (61.875 mg/100g). The total antioxidant activity varied from 5.95 mg AAE/g in Bio 28 to 14.395 mg AAE/g in Bio 39. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed to be maximum in Bio 30 and reducing power was found to be maximum in Bio 21(0.867 ± 0.023). The present findings may be utilized for determining the quality status to ascertain their potential for development of better cultivar.

Title: Nonparametric Measures of Stability Analysis Compared as Per BLUP & BLUE of Wheat Genotypes for Central Zone of Country
Abstract :
Stability for wheat genotypes had been compared in Central Zone of the country as per the BLUP and BLUE of yield values. Measures based on ranks of BLUP for 2015-16 i.e. Sis identified G1, G5, G7, G6. Corrected yield measures CSi s pointed towards G1, G2, G5, G6. Values of NPi (s) identified G1, G2, G7. Overall similarity among non-parametric measures tested by Kendall’s coefficient of concordance. Positive correlations of Sis, CSis & NPi
(s) observed with other measures. Biplot analysis exhibited cluster of CVwith CCV, Si1, Si2, Si4, Si5, Si7 , Si3, Si6, NPi(2), NPi(3) & NPi(4). Based on BLUE’s of genotypes, Sis found G1, G7,G4, G5 while CSis identified G5, G4, G2 as opposed to G7, G1, G4 genotypes as by values NPi(s). Positiveand negative correlations exhibited by Sis, CSis & NPi(s) with the measures. Biplot analysis observed large cluster comprised of Yield with GAI, NPi(2), NPi(3), NPi(4), Si1, Si2, Si4Si3, Si5, Si6 measures. Second year of study(2017-18) as per BLUP’s seen, Sis settled for G8, G7, G2 genotypes. While NPi(s) settled for G1, G2, G8, G5. Negative correlations of yield had been observed with MR, CV, Med, NPi(2), NPi(3), NPi(4) while positive with GAI, CMR, CSi6. Measure CV expressed affinity with NPi(2), NPi(3) & NPi(4), SD, Si3, Si6, Si1, Si2, Si4, Si5,Si7 in Biplot analysis.. Measures Sis as per BLUE’s pointed towards G2, G5,G8, G7 whereas CSis settled for G6, G8, G7. . Wheat genotypes G8, G2, G7, G5 favoured by least values of NPi(s). Positive correlation Sis,CSis & NPi(s) with others. Large cluster of CCV, CSD, NPi(1), Si1, Si2, Si4, CSi1, CSi2, CSi3, CSi4, CSi5, CSi6, CSi7 and Z1measures.
Title: Molecular Characterization of Different Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) Cultivars Growing under Mid Hill Conditions of Himachal Pradesh
Abstract :

Genetic similarity of fifteen strawberry cultivars was assessed using RAPD and ISSR molecular markers. The DNA of the fifteen strawberry cultivars were extracted and amplified by PCR with RAPD and ISSR primers. The DNA Fragments were separated in agarose gel for RAPD and in polyacrylamide gel for ISSR markers. The genetic similarity matrix was estimated by Jaccard coefficient. Studied cultivars were found to be coherent into two groups. RAPD markers projected more coherence with origin and genealogy of the cultivars. ISSR markers projected more similarity between ‘Chandler’ and ‘Shasta’ whereas as per RAPD marker ‘Chandler’ and ‘Sweet Charlie’ were more closely related. In molecular assessment Elyana cultivar was found to be marked cultivars as it shows long flowering duration, higher yield and bigger fruits and can be used as a potential genotype to breed cultivars among the locally adapted cultivars.

Title: Evaluation of Castor Stems Residue for Cellulose and Lignin Content
Abstract :

Castor is an important crop of arid and semi-arid regions of the country. The castor cultivation in India is increasing year after year. In India, Gujarat and Rajasthan are two major states producing more than 80% of total castor production. The castor seeds are crushed or expelled to get castor oil, which is further used to make many important derivatives for industrial purposes. Castor being more remunerative crop to farmers of arid and semi arid region and the adoption of castor cultivation has improved the livelihood of farmers. Due to non-perishable nature of castor seeds, sometimes farmers store castor for long times growing seasons without any reduction in marketable quality of castor seeds. Cellulose is the major component of castor plant and the paper is composed of cellulose fibers. Paper and pulp industry has found suitability of use of sugarcane bagasse as raw material for paper production. Castor GCH-7 hybrid plants attained an average height of 100-110 cm with 25-30 branches. The diameter of main spike branch and sub-spike branches were ranged between 3.0-5.0 cm and 2.0 to 3.0 cm, respectively. The cellulose content was observed to 45.7%. The present study showed that the cellulose content in castor stem was remarkably higher than the other agro waste, therefore have potential to be used in paper industry, which was around 11% more than sugarcane bagasse, 25% more than rice straw and 50% more than wheat straw. In the present study, the lignin content was found 17.2%. The present study showed that the lignin content in castor stem was less than the other agro waste used in paper industry, which was around 30% less than sugarcane bagasse, 40% less than rice straw while 7% more than wheat straw. The ash content of castor samples was observed to 2.3%.

Title: Impact of Front Line Demonstrations on the Yield and Economics of Black Gram in Rabi Rice Fallows in Krishna District of Andhra Pradesh
Abstract :

In the year 2016-17 Cluster front line demonstrations (CFLDs) were organised in 40 Ha, in 2017-18 in 50 Ha and in 2018-19 it was done in 50 hectares. All the critical inputs were provided to the farmers free of cost. In Andhra Pradesh, the average yield of black gram was 8.0 qt./Ha and average yield of Krishna district was 10.3 qt/Ha, a potential pulse producing district in the state and the potential yield is 15 qt/Ha. Extension activities viz., training programmes, method demonstrations, field visits and group discussion were organised to create awareness on the latest technologies and skill component involved. The average data for all three years indicate that in the demonstrated plots the average yield was 14.3 qt/ha compared to 12.8 qt/ha in the farmers practice fields. The cost of cultivation was also reduced in the demonstrated plots (` 23110.00 per hectare) compared to farmers practice pots (` 28900) indicating a reduction, resulted in improving the net income of the farmers in the demonstration plots. There is a increase in the net income in demonstrated plots to the tune of ` 11965.00 per hectare and the cost benefit ratio was also greatly improved from 2 to 3 in the demonstrated plots.

Title: Calibration and Validation of CERES-Wheat Model in North Eastern Plain Zone (NEPZ) of India
Abstract :

The crop growth model DSSAT (Decision Support Systems for Agrotechnology Transfer) used to simulate the weather parameters impacts on crop growth and yield. The experiment was conducted on Wheat crop in North Eastern Plain Zone of India. The main objective of the study was to evaluate wheat phenological stages and yield in major wheat growing zone of India. Among the parameters of the crop Yield and Days of flowering has been used for calibration and validation purpose. For the study CERES - Wheat model was used for the calibration and validation. Different data sets were used for the calibration and validation of the model. Methods of deviation statistics like Index of Agreement (d), RMSE and NRMSE are used to measure the efficiency of the model. For Yield it shows (d), RMSE and NRMSE values 0.961,199.25 and 5.17 respectively and for Days of flowering it shows (d), (RMSE) and NRMSE values are 0.970, 4.37 and 4.35 respectively. Study results shows that model is adequate to simulate the effects of climate change on wheat yield in North Eastern Plain Zone of India that are free from all pests. The model may also be used to improve and evaluate the current practices of wheat growth management to enhance wheat production.

Title: Extent of Adoption of Sweet Corn Cultivation in South Eastern Ghat Zone of Odisha
Abstract :

Sweet corn is becoming very popular in different parts of the country. The present study was conducted during 2019-20 in two blocks of Malkangiri district comprising 120 numbers of farmers from four adopted villages of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Malkangiri in South Eastern Ghat Zone of Odisha. In previous years (2017-18 and 2018-19) KVK, Malkangiri has conducted FLD programmes on sweet corn cultivation by providing the critical inputs with support of production technologies. Conducting front line demonstrations on farmer’s field help to identify potential of the sweet corn in specific area as well as it helps in improving the economic and social status of the farmers. The ex-post facto research design was used for the study. Majority of the respondents (83.3%) were found to possess medium to high level of adoption behavior regarding different recommended package and practices about sweet corn cultivation. It means that the respondents were more energetic, progressive and adopting the sweet corn as cash crop keeping the market demand in mind and practicing the technologies for better production and higher net return. The study revealed that socio- economic variable like education, extension contact, communication material used and holding size were the pertinent variables exhibiting influence towards adoption behaviour of the respondents. Different extension agencies like KVK, ATMA, NGO’s of the district need to provide more technical support to the farmers for increase in area and production of sweet corn.

Title: Studies on the Effect of Different Types of Feeding on the Commercial Characters of Mulberry Silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) in West Bengal: A Review
Abstract :

The silkworm Bombyx mori is essentially monophagous and survives solely on the mulberry leaves (Morus spp.). Mulberry is a highly heterozygous and vegetatively propagated species that is prone to prolonged juvenile period. Since the quality of silk production is directly proportional to the quality of leaves used as the exclusive feed for these worms, leaf quality is of utmost importance in sericulture. The quality of leaves is reported to depend upon age of leaf on the shoot, succulency and nutrient content. The nutrient contents of mulberry leaves are known to vary according to the season, variety, age, type of harvesting. In addition, feeding with mixed varieties leaves and feeding frequencies are also known to influence the health of the silk worms. The present review paper discusses in details about the effects of different types of feeding on the commercial characteristics of mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori L) in West Bengal.

Title: Characterization of Walnut (Juglans Regia L.) Genotypes in Ladakh Region of India
Abstract :
Ladakh region includes Leh and Kargil districts of Jammu and Kashmir in India. The region is cold and arid limiting the growing of fruit crops. The study aims to characterize walnut diversity in the region which would be resourceful in the near future for various purposes and boost up walnut cultivation. Four genotypes are selected from various walnut growing areas of Ladakh viz. G1 from Skara, G2 from Nurla, G3 from Temisgam and G4 from Dhomkhar. It was evident that majority of the genotypes exhibited intermediate tree vigour with spreading nature of growth habit, glabrous shoot pubescence and leaf and rachis pubescence, strong shell seal and shell strength with good nut diameter and nut length, satisfactory kernel flavor, well filled kernel and easy removal of kernel halves. Leaflet shape observed was elliptic, leaflet margin was entire, green leaf and rachis colour, brown shoot colour, complete shell integrity and kernel plumpness was moderate in all the four genotypes. The branching habit was dense in genotypes G3 and G4, intermediate in G1 and intermediate to dense in G2. In general, the highest value of leaf length and kernel percentage was recorded in G2. G3 exhibited the maximum width of leaf, number of leaflets, inshell nut weight and kernel weight. The nut shape was broad to ovate in G2 and G3, while G1 was broad ovate and G4 was broad elliptic in shape. The shell texture of G2 and G4 was medium while G3 was medium to rough and G1 was rough. The shell colour of G1 was light, medium in G2, light to medium in G3 and medium to dark in G4. The shell thickness recorded the maximum in G4. The kernel colour was light in G2 and G4, while extra light and light to amber was observed in G1and
G3 respectively.
Title: Influence of different types of Strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculation and Phosphorus Fertilizer Rates on Nitrogen Uptake Efficiency and N2 Fixation of Soybean (Glycine max L. (Merrill)) in Ethiopia
Abstract :

Soybean production in western Ethiopia particularly at Bako has remained low, partly due to soil nutrient depletion and degradation, which is considered serious threats to agricultural productivity and food security. This study was conducted to assess the effect of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains and phosphorus rates on nitrogen uptake efficiency, N2 fixation of soybean, seed yield, yield components, yield and quality to enhance soybean production and yeild. Treatments included factorial combinations of four Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains with un-inoculated, (Soybean murodk, Soybean 12 and Soybean MAR-1495) and four phosphorus levels (0, 23, 46 and 69 kg P2O5 ha-1) which were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Interaction of Phosphorus and Bradyrhizobium inoculation, revealed that application of 69 kg P2O5 ha-1 with Soybean 12 inoculation significantly resulted enhanced leaf area (64.2 cm2), and above ground biomass (8241 kg ha-1), whereas Soybean MAR-1495 strain inoculation produced highest harvest index (48.77% plant-1). Among all treatments, combined application of Soybean 12 along with 46 kg of P2O5 ha-1 gave better performance of soybean with highest seed yield. While, phosphorus rates at 46 and 69 kg P2O5 ha-1 with Soybean 12 inoculation resulted in maximum leaf area index of 0.157 plant-1. Hence, 46 kg P2O5 ha-1 phosphorus rate with Soybean 12 inoculation was found to be economical and superior in yield.

Title: Effect of Bulky Manures and Fermented Liquid Organics on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Uptake and Economics of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) Under Rainfed Condition
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted to study the “Effect of bulky organic manures and fermented liquid organics on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and economics of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) under rainfed condition” at Organic Farming Research Centre, Zonal Agricultural and Horticultural Research Station (ZAHRS), Navile, Shivamogga, during Kharif 2018-19. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with ten treatments comprising of different bulky organic manures (FYM and Vermicompost) and fermented liquid organic manures (Beejamrutha, Jeevamruta, Panchagavya and Cow urine) were replicated thrice. Experimental results revealed that, significantly higher growth, yield attributes, economics and nutrient uptake with good shelf life and protein content of the French bean were found in the treatment which received Beejamrutha (seed treatment) + Jeevamrutha (soil application @ 500 L ha-1) + 100 % RDN through vermicompost + Foliar spray of Panchagavya @ 3 % (T6) and were on par with application of Beejamrutha (seed treatment) + Jeevamrutha (soil application @ 500 L ha-1) + 50 % RDN through FYM + 50 % RDN through vermicompost + Foliar spray of Panchagavya @ 3 % (T7) and Beejamrutha (seed treatment) + Jeevamrutha (soil application @ 500 L ha-1) + 100 % RDN through FYM + Foliar spray of Panchagavya @ 3 % (T5). Simillar trend of higher benefit cost ratio was also recorded in the same set of treatment combination. This study indicated that combined application of bulky and fermented liquid organic manures in seed treatments, soil application and foliar spray performed better in organic French bean production at best benefit ratio cost.

Title: Time Series Modeling for Trend Analysis and Forecasting Wheat Production of India
Abstract :

Wheat is one of the most important staple food grains of human for centuries. It has a special place in the Indian  economy because of its significance in food security, trade and industry. This study made an attempt to model and forecast the production of wheat in India by using annual time series data from 1961-2013. Parametric regression, exponential smoothing and Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models were employed and compared for finding out an appropriate econometric model to capture the trend of wheat production of the country. The best fitted model was selected based on the performance of several goodness of fit criteria viz. Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Squared Error (MSE), Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Schwarz’s Bayesian Information Criterion (SBC) and R-squared values. The assumptions of ‘Independence’ and ‘Normality’ of error terms were examined by using the ‘Run-test’ and ‘Shapiro-Wilk test’ respectively. This study found ARIMA (1,1,0) as most appropriate to model the wheat production of India. The forecasted value by using this model was obtained as 100.271 million tones (MT) by 2017-18.

Title: Impact of Plant Growth Regulators and Nutrient Consortium on Growth, Superoxide Dismutase, Na+/K+ ratio and Yield of Blackgram under Salinity Stress
Abstract :

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of plant growth regulators like jasmonic acid (50 μM), brassinolide (0.5 ppm), salicylic acid (100 ppm), ascorbic acid (100 ppm), gibberellic acid (10 ppm), benzyl amino purine (5 ppm) and nutrient consortium (K2SO4 - 0.5% + FeSO4 - 0.5%) + Borax - 0.3%) and 1% TNAU pulse wonder on blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) variety TNAU Blackgram CO 6 under salinity condition. The salinity was imposed by 125 mM NaCl concentration in pot culture. Plant growth regulators and nutrient consortium were used as foliar spray at 20 and 40 days after sowing except jasmonic acid, which used as seed soaking. Under salinity stress, root volume, leaf area, specific leaf weight, net assimilation rate and yield were significantly reduced compared to normal condition. Among the treatments, brassinolide showed its supremacy on higher leaf area (149.13 cm2 plant-1), specific leaf weight (0.41 mg cm-2) and super oxide dismutase activity (325 Units mg-1 protein) followed by salicylic acid and TNAU pulse wonder. However highest root volume of 3.5 cc was recorded by TNAU pulse wonder. Salicylic acid registered highest net assimilation rate of 0.398 mg cm-2 d-1 followed by brassinolide (0.396 mg cm-2 d-1). The minimum Na+/K+ ratio (0.325) was observed in brassinolide followed by salicylic acid (0.355) which is on par with nutrient mixture (0.357) and TNAU pulse wonder (0.362). Among the plant growth regulators and nutrients, brassinolide recorded the maximum grain yield of 8.85 g plant-1 followed the salicylic acid (8.72 g) which is on par with TNAU Pulse Wonder (8.60 g).

Title: Influence of Plant Population and NPSB Blended Fertilizer Rates on Yield Parameters and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Bako, Ethiopia
Abstract :

Maize (Zea mays L.) is ranked number one in total production among food grains and is inevitable in achieving food security in Ethiopia. In spite of good agro-climatic conditions and soils, maize productivity is constrained by a number of problems; optimum plant population and nutrient management are the most critical among many others. Hence, this field experiment was carried out in split plot design distributing three levels of plant population 53,333 plants/ha, 66,666 plants/ha, and 76923 plants/ha in the main plots and five levels of NPSB fertilizer rates 0,100,150,200 and 250 kg/ha in sub-plots comparing with NP recommended rates in the research area. The two main effects, the plant population and NPSB rate did not change cob length, number of row cob-1 and harvest index. The analysis of variance showed the interaction of plant population and NPSB rates influenced number of kernels cob-1, thousand kernel weight, number of cobs per plot and above ground biomass. Highest number of cob plot-1 was recorded from the plot with 66,666 plants ha-1 and highest biological yield 28299 kg/ha was harvested from the plot with standard check. The highest grain yield was obtained from 150 kg/ha with the plant population of 66666 plants/ha (60 cm × 25 cm). From the research it was concluded that the yield of maize was significantly affected by fertilizer rates and plant population, the combination of 66,666 plant/ha and 150 kg/ha of NPSB fertilizer rate was found to be superior and economically viable for maze production in the study area and similar agro ecologies.

Title: Contents VOL. 13, NO. 2, JUNE 2020
Abstract :
Title: Performance Assessment of Newly Improved High Yielding Wheat Varieties in the Irrigated Farming Situations of Birbhum District, West Bengal
Abstract :

Wheat is one of the potential crops in Birbhum District from a platter of crops having utility in a crop diversification programme. As crop diversification is one of the major thrust areas of the Rathindra Krishi Vigyan Kendra, the Kendra has taken up the crop diversification programme with newly improved High Yielding (HY) wheat varieties through its Front Line Demonstration (FLD) Programmes for the last couple of years. In Birbhum the average yield of Wheat stood at 2950.20 kg. / ha in 2015-16. This figure shows that there is a lot of scope in improvement in productivity as concerned. So, the main objectives of these demonstration programmes of the Rathindra Krishi Vigyan Kendra were to show the farmers the modern methods of wheat cultivation using resource conservatory technologies thus increasing the production, productivity, net returns and B: C ratio. The results from the FLD Programmes showed us that the highest ever yield was achieved by the newly improved HYV HD – 2824 in the year of 2014-15 with an average yield of 4056.00 kgs. / ha with an yield increase of 21.92 per cent over the local check variety Sonalika (yield – 3330.00 kgs. / ha) and with a B : C Ratio of 2.32. However, the highest yield increase over the local Check Variety Sonalika, Net Income and as well as B: C Ratio were highest in the case of Variety PBW – 343 with a Yield increase of 27.50 per cent, an average Net Income of ` 32,049.00 / ha and B: C Ratio of 2.39 in the year of 2016-17. The studies conducted on the performances of the FLDs organized by the Rathindra Krishi Vigyan Kendra on newly improved Wheat Varieties safely point out that HD – 2824 and PBW – 343 are the two HYVs of Wheat which can meet up the growing demands of Wheat Varieties with improved yield and as well as increased income potential for irrigated situations of Birbhum District.

Title: Impact of Non Timber Forest Produces (NTFPs) on Food and Livelihood Security: An Economic Study of Tribal Economy in Dang’s District of Gujarat, India
Abstract :

The present study attempted to assess the contribution of NTFPs to income and employment by ensuring food and livelihood security for the tribal economy in Dang’s district of Gujarat. This indicates that most employment (42.51%) was generated by the wage sector followed by NTFPs collection (31.67%) and livestock rearing (15.85%) respectively. About 42 species of NTFPs were found to be collected and utilized for various purposes such as food, medicines, and raw materials for making implements and also as a source of income. It suggested that alternate sources of income to the villagers to improve their socio-economic conditions as well as increasing the income level and employment opportunities by effective collection and selling of Non-Timber Forest Products.

Title: Arduino-Based Milk Quality Monitoring System
Abstract :
The current generation has seen a significant rise in milk demand, which has increased the number of milk centers in various regions. Milk is the most important source of nutrition for children, pregnant women, and adults. Milk of the highest quality is dense and free of contaminants. A few adulterants are added
to milk to sustain milk income and increase yield. Since farmers supply so much of the milk, there’s a fair chance they’ll get the information wrong if they don’t know what they’re doing. The consistency of milk can be harmed by these adulterants. Adulteration of milk has been a major social problem in recent years. Consumption of tainted milk can result in serious health problems. Milk adulteration must be detected, and milk consistency must be ensured. Various types of sensors, such as pH sensors, gas sensors, and temperature sensors, may be used to detect milk adulteration. This implementation is designed to make the process more apparent to all people who deposit milk. The Arduino controller is used in this framework. The entire milk analyzer system is regulated by this Arduino. Controllers are connected to a variety of sensors. This is an easy-to-use method.
Title: Method Validation for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Tomato with GC-MS/MS (TQD) for Food Safety Testing
Abstract :

Pesticide residues analysis in fruits and fresh vegetables is a challenge for food safety as the gap between pesticide sprays and harvests is very less in vegetables. A multi residue method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of 64 pesticides (insecticides, fungicides and herbicides) using QuEChERS extraction method and GC-MS/MS (Triple Quadrupole) for analysis. Eight different concentrations of certified reference materials from 0.05 ppm to 0.30 ppm were injected in GC-MS/MS with MRM method, in six replications, and R2 ranged from 0.990-0.999 with RSD of 0.55 to 11.24. The sample preparation approach is through adoption of QuEChERS method, untreated control tomato samples were fortified with mixture of pesticides at 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mg/kg, each is five replications, and the recovery of pesticides is in the range of 80-95%, and hence method can be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of 64 pesticides in/on tomato for monitoring studies.

Title: Chemical and Non-chemical Method of Weed Management in Blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) in North Eastern Zone of Tamil Nadu
Abstract :

Pulse crops are grown in different cropping systems as a sole crop, catch crop, mixed crop, intercrop and sequential crop in different cropping systems followed by farmers. The crops are facing weed infestation during its entire life cycle from seed to seed. The weed management in appropriate time will increase the yield. In the present study, the dominant weeds species like Echinochloa colona, Cyperus rotundus, Commelina benghalensis and Phyllanthus spp. were observed. Among the treatment methods, application of both pre emergence (pendimethalin @ 1 kg a.i ha-1) at 3 DAS (days after sowing) + post emergence (Quizalofop-p- ethyl @ 50 g .i ha-1) at 25 DAS recorded the minimum weed density and shown weed control efficiency of 97.32 per cent at 45 DAS and 97.94 per cent at 60 DAS with seed yield of 1004.1 kg ha-1. The non chemical method like sugarcane trash mulching decreased the weed density but the complete weed control efficiency was not observed. The herbicidal treatments significantly reduced the weed biomass compared to weedy check.

Title: Mass Transfer Kinetics during Osmotic Dehydration of Pineapple Samples Coated with Pectin
Abstract :

The effect of process conditions on the mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of coated pineapples was studied. Pineapple samples were coated with 0.5 to 5.0% (w/v) pectin solution prior to osmotic dehydration in sucrose solution. The time of dipping in the coating solution was kept at 60 and 120 s followed by oven drying time of 10 and 40 min to solidify the coating. Water loss, solid gain, performance ratio and weight reduction were measured during osmotic dehydration of both coated and uncoated samples. Water loss of coated samples was more than the uncoated samples in coating solution of 0.5 to 3% concentration whereas solid gain of coated samples was less than the uncoated samples at all the concentrations of coating solution. Increase in drying time led to decrease in both water loss and solid gain. PR values increased as the concentration of coating agent increased from 0.5 to 1% and further increase in the concentration above 1% resulted in decreased PR. The highest value of performance ratio of 5.89 was observed in samples dipped in coating solution of 1% concentration for 120 s followed by oven drying for 40 min.

Title: Dissipation Studies of Metribuzin in Alfisol Soils and its Terminal Residues in Potato Tubers
Abstract :

A field investigation was conducted to determine dissipation behaviour in soil and terminal residues of metribuzin in potato crop applied at half the recommended dose (0.25 kg. ha-1), recommended dose (0.50 kg. ha-1) and double the recommended dose (1.00 kg. ha-1). Soil samples at different time intervals after herbicide spray and potato tuber samples at the maturity of crop were collected, processed and subjected to metribuzin residue analysis by a validated gas chromatography method with an accepted recovery of above 80%. In all herbicide treatments, more than 90% of applied herbicide in soil dissipated within 45 days after herbicide application. Metribuzin residues in potato tubers at the time of harvest were below detectable levels. This indicated that the metribuzin did not leave any residues in potato tuber at any of the applied doses. From the study, it may be concluded that pre emergence application of metribuzin in potato for weed management could be considered safe, as its residues were below the prescribed MRL (0.05 mg. kg-1).

Title: Drying Behavior and Mathematical Modelling of Bottle Gourd
Abstract :

Bottle Gourd slabs of 10×10×3 mm, 10×10×5 mm and 10×10×7 mm were dehydrated by fluidized bed drying technique with a sample size of 100 g at air temperature of 50, 60 and 70oC at air velocity of 10m/s. The drying rate is high for the slabs of 10×10×3mm at 70oC. Moisture diffusivity of bottle gourd slabs dried under fluidized bed drying conditions was found in the range of 1.03 × 10-09 to 6.18 × 10-09 m2/s water activity varied from 0.318 to 0.393 for fluidized bed dryer. The product of fluidized bed dryer at 70oC (10×10×3mm) has best quality in terms of water activity. The experimental data was fitted to page model other than the mathematical models available in the literature. The fluidized bed dried product for 10×10×5 mm slab at 60ËšC was of best quality in terms of color.

Title: Extent and Correlates of Knowledge of Farmers regarding Scientific Potato Production Technologies in Himachal Pradesh
Abstract :

The productivity of potato in hilly state of Himachal Pradesh is far below than the national average. Major reason is low adoption rate of improved varieties and technologies due to lack of knowledge. Present study was conducted in Shimla, Mandi and Kangra district of HP during year 2011-12 to find out the extent of knowledge of potato farmers about scientific potato production technology and knowledge gap in relation to different package of practices for potato cultivation. A total of 90 respondents, (30 from each district) constituted the sample of the present study. Data was collected by interview method using structured interview schedule and subjected to appropriate statistical analysis. The findings revealed that a majority of the respondents (78.8%) had medium to low knowledge level about scientific potato production technology. Maximum knowledge gap was found in practices like weed management (73.3%) followed by seed treatment before storage (70%) and insect-pest management (68.8%). Majority of farmers were having knowledge about improved varieties, method of fertilizer application, row to row and plant to plant spacing and planting operations. Socio-personal-economic variables like education, land holding and annual income were significantly and positively correlated with knowledge level of farmers.

Title: Distribution and Availability of Sulphur in some Terai Soils under Subtropical Zone of Eastern India
Abstract :

A study was conducted in some terai soils under subtropical zone of Eastern India considering some soil series and some benchmark sites to evaluate distribution of available sulphur status and important soil attributes on sulphur availability. The total S content was found to vary widely from 191.18 to 530.40 mg kg-1 with an average of 309.21 mg kg-1. The percentage contribution of organic S, sulphate S, adsorbed S, heat soluble S and water soluble S varied from 29.62 to 85.02, 7.85 to 9.94, 0.23 to 9.82, 5.97 to 17.59 and 1.77 to 6.80 per cent to total sulphur in soil samples. Available S was significantly and positively correlated to organic carbon, total N, clay and silt+clay, oxalate-Fe, CBD-Fe and only negative correlated with pH (r = -0.02). Organic S exhibited significant and positive correlations with sulphate, water soluble S, heat soluble S and adsorbed S and played major role in sulphur availability. Significantly positive correlations of sulphate S with water soluble (r = 0.80**), heat soluble (r = 0.70**) and adsorbed S (r = 0.46**) and organic form of S (r = 70**) were found. A significantly positive correlation was observed between water soluble and heat soluble S. Among the soil properties, organic carbon, total N, silt+ clay, CBD-extractable Al and Fe influenced mostly on variability of available S in these soils.

Title: Arsenic Contamination in Ground Water at Deoghar (Jharkhand)
Abstract :

Arsenic contamination in ground water is one of the major natural calamities of the world to the mankind. In the present study, altogether 20 water samples from 20 different tube wells of the house hold of Deoghar town were collected and analyzed on the spot with the help of arsenic test kit (color comparison method, [semi quantitative]). Final confirmation was made using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The lowest average value 0.444 ppm was recorded in the south part and the highest average value 1.2 pm was recorded in the north part of the Deoghar town.

Title: Variability and Path Coefficient Studies for Yield and Yield Related Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Abstract :

The twenty four genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L.) were evaluated for genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation and path coefficient analysis considering seventeen quantitative traits. The analysis of variance showed that genotypes differed significantly for all the seventeen traits studied and it is clear from the investigation that the traits like spikelet/panicle, sterile spikelet/panicle, grain weight/panicle exhibiting highest values of phenotypic and genotypic coefficient variation, heritability and genetic advance. Correlation and path analysis study revealed that the traits viz., days to maturity, plant height, effective tillers/plant and spikelet fertility percent demonstrated greater positive direct effect and significant positive correlation with grain yield/plant indicating the usefulness of these trait in selection for enhancing the grain yield.

Title: Study of in vitro selection and plant regeneration of Indica rice tolerant to iron
Abstract :

Iron tolerant callus lines of Indica rice Vars. Khandagiri and Jagannath has been achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l Kinetin, 3.0 mg/l 2,4-D, 12 mM Fe. Somatic embryos derived from both tolerant non-tolerant calluses are germinated on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.25 mg/l 1-napthalen-eacetic acid (NAA) and 12 mM Fe within four weeks of subculture. The growth parameters like fresh and dry weight of callus, growth tolerance index, enzyme activity (Catalase and Peroxidase) and biochemical markers were used as indicators of iron tolerance. Measurements as early as two weeks after the beginning of the treatments did not yield consistent results. However, the growth tolerance index in the four weeks after the beginning of treatments yielded significant differences among non-tolerant and tolerant calluses. The enzyme activity is enhanced in the tolerant calluses than non-tolerant one. The in vitro raised plantlets derived from tolerant callus lines are grown in vitro in the presence of BA, NAA and 12 mM iron. The tolerant plantlets are established in the pots with iron-rich soil. This study will help to develop iron tolerant rice plants for breeding program.

Title: Decomposition Bt Cotton Residues affecting Soil microbial activity under varied Soils
Abstract :

The effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton residues on soil microbiological activity was investigated. Greenhouse study was carried out during the 2011 wet season (March to August) at Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University. It was experimented on three different soil orders that included entisol, inceptisol and alfisol. Bt cotton (var.NCS-138) and its non-transgenic isoline (var.NCS-138) were grown until maturity along with one control treatment. Microbial population count, Dehydrogenage activity and Microbial Biomass Carbon (MBC) were estimated following standard protocols. The decomposition of cotton crop residues resulted increased micro-flora populations and microbial biomass carbon (MBC). When residue was retained, non- Bt cotton showed higher populations of micro-flora as well as MBC that of Bt-cotton. Results from the study revealed that a significant reduction (7.5%) of the dehydrogenase activity was there in case of Bt-cotton. The interaction effect between soil type and varieties was found to be non significant for the soil micro-flora populations for different sampling stages throughout the incorporation period.These results suggest that Bt-transgenic cotton tissues have no apparent effect on soil microbial activity.

Title: Effect of intensity of pruning on yield and fruit quality of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L) cv. UMRAN
Abstract :

A study was conducted at Regional Research Station, Bathinda to determine the effect of different pruning intensities on yield and fruit quality of ber cv. Umran. The secondary branches of ber trees were pruned at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 bud levels and control i.e., no pruning. The fruit yield decreased with the increase in intensity of pruning. The maximum fruit weight and fruit size in terms of fruit length and fruit breadth was obtained in trees pruned at 8th bud level followed by the trees pruned at 10th level and minimum in the trees kept under control. The pulp percentage and pulp stone ratio was maximum in the fruit of the trees pruned at 8th bud level. TSS content was maximum in the fruits pruned at 8th bud levels followed by 10th and 12th bud levels and minimum under control. The acid content of the fruits was also not influenced by pruning intensities.

Title: Groundwater Potential Zoning in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhand Using Remote Sensing and GIS
Abstract :

This study was conducted in Tikamgarh district of Bundelkhand, Madhya Pradesh, India to spatially delineate the groundwater potential zones using the integrated RS-GIS and MIF techniques. To do so, eight major biophysical and environmental factors like drainage density, geomorphology, geology, lineament density, land use/land cover, rainfall, slope and soil were considered. All the factors and their features have been assigned weights according to their relative importance and their normalized weights were calculated using the multi influence factor technique. Groundwater potential zoning map has been prepared through weighted overlay model in GIS environment after integrating all the thematic layers. The entire district has been classified into five different groundwater potential zones –Very Good, Good, Moderate, Poor and Very Poor depending on the likelihood of availability of ground water. Greater portion of the study area (40.60%) fall within the poor potentiality zone. About 3.10% and 11.54% of the total area fall under the very good and good potential zone respectively. 38.60% of the total area comes under the moderately potentiality zone. Only 6.16% of the total area fall under the very low potential zone. It shows that the applied technique produces considerably reliable results for this study which may facilitate the decision makers to formulate an effective plan for the study area.

Title: Perchlorate Uptake and its Effect on Physiological, Biochemical and Growth Parameters of Eucalyptusplant under Ammonium Perchlorate Stress
Abstract :

Perchlorate is a significant environmental pollutant affecting public health. When entered in ecosystem it is highly toxic. Present investigation focused on the influence of perchlorate on physiological and biochemical parameters of Eucalyptus citriodora and also its accumulation in plant tissue and depletion from soil. Eucalyptus plants were treated with varying concentration of ammonium perchlorate from 1000ppm, 2000ppm, 5000ppm and 10000 ppm. Perchlorate inside the plant tissue and in soil was quantified at regular intervals. Amount of perchlorate inside plant tissue observed to increase with number of days after treatment and is proportional to concentration of perchlorate in soil. Morphological characters like shoot length, root length, number of leaf were observed to decrease with increasing concentration of perchlorate. The present study revealed decrease in chlorophyll and reducing sugar content in leaf tissue under varying concentration of perchlorate and is indirectly proportional to amount of perchlorate. While total protein, proline, and phenol content showed a gradual increase with increase in concentration of perchlorate and in different experimental set up, suggesting increase in non-enzymatic stress parameters with increased level of toxicity. An increased activity of peroxidase enzyme was observed with increased dose of ammonium perchlorate. It can be concluded that perchlorate related influence on plant are both qualitative and quantitative and depends upon its concentration and duration of exposure.

Title: Design and Development of Aonla Pricking Machine
Abstract :

Aonla has the hallowed position in Ayurveda. Aonla is native to India and also grows at tropical and subtropical region like India, Pakistan Sri Lanka and Uzbekistan. In India Uttar Pradesh has the highest area under cultivation and production of Aonla. Area under Aonla orchard in Pratapgarh district of Uttar Pradesh is about 13000 hectares (Nitin Kumar et al.). Aonla is mostly used in making murabba, pickles and candy etc. Traditional method for making Aonla murabba is hygienic because for making murabba, Aonla has to be pricked first and that pricking method of Aonla is drudgery prone and most of the workers are injured by hand pricking method Also it takes too much time for pricking (Ganvir et al.). Till now Aonla is pricked by hand and power operated machine. Hand pricking of Aonla causes injury to the hands of the farm women and is a tiresome and slow process with low output capacity whereas the power operated machines are very costly and out of reach of medium and small farmers. Thus, to overcome these problems and keeping in mind the benefits of small and medium farmers a low cost, pedal operated aonla pricking machine suitable for farm women has been developed in the Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, SHUATS, Allahabad. This machine is paddle operated with an output capacity of 3-3.5 q/h. No injury is caused to the farm women operating the machine. However the machinen can be operated both by farm women as well as men farmers. Hopper of machine is containing 66 no. of Aonla at a time. Floor area used by this machine is 80 × 80 cm. Pricking needles, sieve plate and fruit plate used in this machine is made of stainless steel because of corrosion. Needles used in this machine are of 2 inches. 756 no. of needles are used in this machine. Maximum depth of pricking in Aonla is 7mm and max.dia of needle is 8mm. This machine is efficient for small and medium farmers

Title: Analysis of Heterosis on Morphological and Qualitative Traits in Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicon Mill) for Salinity Tolerance.
Abstract :

The present study was carried out for the assessment of heterotic performance of 44 hybrids and their parents including check under saline ecosystem at Vegetable Research Form, NDUAT Kumarganj Faizabad U.P. These F1s were produced by using Line x tester mating design. The crosses, which displayed superiority over better parent and standard variety for total yield per plants, also exhibited significant heterosis for some/most of the major component traits. The most worthy common crosses selected on the basis of per se performance, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for different traits in both environments were Bilahi-2 x H-86 and Himlata x H-86 for total yield; MM x H-88 and KS-60 x H-24 for number of fruits plant-1 in E2, MM x H-86 and MM x H-88 for average fruit weight in E1 and EC 168282 x H-24 in E2 for length of fruits; Himlata x H-88 in both experiment and NDT-2 x H-88 in E2 for diameter of fruits and Himlata x H-86 in E1 and NDT-2 x H-86 in E2 for early yield plant-1. However, for agronomical traits, Bilahi-2xH-86 in both environments for plant height as well as number of primary branches plant-1 was observed as voluble cross combination. Promising hybrid identified for the characters important to processing and quality point of view, were MM x H-88 in both environments for total soluble solids; EC 2291-2 x H-88 in both environments for Ascorbic acid content and EC 7343 x H-24 in E1 and Bilahi-2 x H-88 in E2 for pericarp thickness. However, none of the crosses were common for titrable acidity in both the environments in relation to above three parameters i.e. per se performance, standard heterosis and heterobeltiosis.

Title: Adult Plant Resistance of Wheat Entries to Black Rust Race 40-A
Abstract :

Genetic resistance is the most efficient, economical and environmental friendly approach against black rust of wheat. Although, evolution of new physiological races/pathotypes which can overcome the response of current resistant cultivar has engender to focus on evaluation of large number of wheat germplasms, breeding materials, cultivars for their reaction to black rust. Field based assessment for adult plant resistance in promising fifty entries against predominant pathotype 40-A of black rust revealed that forty eight entries showed resistance with lower AUDPC value in the range of 0 to 240 as compared to highly susceptible check varieties i.e. Lok 1 and Agra Local which showed AUDPC value of 1305 and 2000, respectively. But, amongst the forty eight resistant entries, forty entries showed durable resistance due to slower development of disease under high disease pressure which could be due to the presence of effective adult plant resistance Sr genes. Result of correlation coefficient between CI with both the disease parameters i.e. AUDPC (r=99**) and FRS (r=98**) also showed highly significant positive association.

Title: Zinc biofortification and agronomic indices of pearl millet under semi-arid region
Abstract :

Zinc deficiency is a global challenge and improving the grain Zn concentration of cereal crops is a high-priority research area. An investigation was conducted in 2011-12 to study the effects of nitrogen (N) and zinc (Zn) fertilizer on zinc biofortification in pearl millet. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design (factorial), with four nitrogen rates (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg N/ha) and three rates of zinc (0, 5 and 10 kg Zn/ha) with three replication. The grain yield significantly increased 47.65% from 0 to 60 kg N/ha and 31.47 % from 0 to 10 kg Zn/ha. Nitrogen and zinc significantly interact and recorded highest zinc content (26.1 mg/kg) with 20 kg N with 5 kg Zn/ha. The agronomic efficiency, partial factor productivity and apparent recovery efficiency (nitrogen and zinc) diminished as nitrogen and zinc rates increased. An interaction was recorded with nitrogen and zinc fertilizer for partial factor productivity (nitrogen) with 20 kg N with 10 kg Zn/ha and for apparent recovery efficiency (Zn) with 20 kg N with 5 kg Zn/ha.

Title: Studies on the Effect of Phosphorus Levels on Yield Attributes and Yield of Groundnut in South Odisha Condition
Abstract :

Proper basal application of phosphorus has a tremendous influence on the kernel yield, pod yield and other yield contributing characteristics. In view of this, an experiment was conducted during summer season (February to June) of 2018 at Bagusala Farm (23o39’ N latitude, 87o42’ E longitude) of M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha to find out the effect of various phosphorus levels on yield attributes and yield of groundnut. Seven levels of basal application of phosphorus rates, namely, 0 (control), 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 kg P ha-1 were tested in randomized complete block design (RCBD) design with four replications. The experiment revealed that the basal application of P2O5 at the rate of 100 kg ha-1 registered superior performance in expression of yield attributes like number of pods per plant, number of kernels per plant, kernel weight per plant and yield of groundnut. It may be concluded that to obtain higher productivity of groundnut during summer season in sandy loam soils of south Odisha, basal application of P2O5 @ 100 kg ha-1 is recommended.

Title: Performance of Traditional Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Varieties under System of Rice Intensification during Kharif Season in South Odisha Conditions
Abstract :

A field experiment was carried out at the Bagusala Farm, of M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha during the kharif season of 2018. Four traditional rice varieties namely, V1, Red rice (kondo dano), V2, Manipuri black rice, V3, Balami and V4, Dudheshwar were taken into consideration and the treatments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. The traditional rice variety Dudheshwar got highest values of growth attributing characteristics, yield attributes and yield of rice. The highest grain yield (6560.25 kg ha-1) and straw yield (10632 kg ha-1) were achieved by treatment V4-Dudheshwar. In terms of net return and benefit: cost ratio, the variety Manipuri black rice is resulted in higher profitability as compared to other traditional rice varieties.

Title: Optimal Size of Fish Pond for Socio-Economical Development of Cachar (Assam)
Abstract :

Aquaculture is one of the main sources of livelihood of the state of Assam in the northeast of India. In this study, Cachar district of Assam has been selected to study and assess the impact of various sizes of fish farm on the economic condition of farmers. The study was conducted in the villages of 5 blocks namely Borjalenga, Tapang, Narsingpur, Sonai and Palonghat with an objective to suggest optimum size of the pond and analyze the production rate of different type of fish farm. The data was collected from around 169 farmers by the principle of participatory rural appraisal a method used by non- governmental organizations. Most of the farmers are not much educated and most of them lived below poverty line. The number of medium size ponds (0.5 to 1 hectare), and small farm ponds (between 0.3 to 0.5 hectare) are highest followed by very small (less than 0.3 hectare) and then large size ponds (more than 1 hectare). In the study area, both excavated and embankment type pond exist. The results indicate that even with possession of small and medium size fish farms, better annual production rate of fish can be achieved by better management practices. 83% of all fish farms in Cachar district are very small, small or medium size fish farms. Only 17% of the farms are of large size. The annual production is remarkably good for small and medium size farms. The results indicate that small and medium farm sizes have better annual production rate than other farms. Thus, small to medium farms are economically more viable for the Cachar district.

Title: Evaluation of Secondary Metabolites in Wheat Grain (Triticum Sp.) Grown in Humid South Eastern Plain Zone of Rajasthan (India)
Abstract :

Cereal crops such as wheat, rice and barley underpin the staple diet for human consumption, globally. In India, wheat is qualitatively a major source of macromolecule, energy and fiber for human community nutrition since long time hence, preferably used as a staple food grain for society and also used as major source of fodder for animal feeding. The health benefits of whole grains are linked to the existence of secondary bioactive metabolites including phenolic acids, flavonoids and phytosterols. Flavonoids have the properties like anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiallergic, antithrombotic, antiviral and anticarcinogenic activities. Quercetin is one with an average of daily consumption of 25 mg to 40 mg. Kaempferol used as an antioxidant. Quantification data revealed that the total flavonoid content (free + bound) was observed highest and lowest in durum genotypes of HD 4728 (1.75 mg/gdw) and Raj 6560 (0.92 mg/gdw), respectively and in aestivum genotypes Raj 4037 (1.38 mg/gdw) and HI 1544 (0.72 mg/gdw) gave similar trend. Regular daily intakes of whole grain products are associated with reduced risk of several diseases. The objective of this study was identification and characterization of secondary metabolites i.e. flavonoids in Triticum sp.

Title: An Overview on Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and its Genetic Diversity
Abstract :
Flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) is an annual, self-pollinated species with a genome size of ~ 370 Mb. Flax provides raw materials for food, medicine and textiles and hence it has been of great importance to human culture and development. Linseed oil is well-known for its health benefits mainly attributed to its high content of omega-3 alpha linolenic acid (55-57%). Consumption of grounded seeds adds nutritional benefits because flax seeds are also a rich source of lignans, having anticancer properties. India contributes
to almost 20% of world’s linseed production and governs linseed production among the Asian countries whereas, the scenario is just reverse in case of fibre flax. In the last decade, the fibre industry has devoted some effort to develop high-value products from linseed stems with applications in the pulp, technical fibre and biofuel industries. Therefore, understanding its genetic diversity is important for the continued improvement of this crop and as well as for its utilization as a truly dual purpose crop. Diversity analysis based on morphology alone has a significant limitation in the fact that it is highly influenced by the environment, to overcome this problem; molecular characterization can play an important role. However, systematic studies regarding the genetic diversity of flax in India are meagre. Hence, in-depth studies based on both morphological and molecular markers will help in better conceiving the genetic diversity
of flax germplasm
Title: Mechanical properties of onion seeds (Allium cepa variety aggregatum L.) under compression loading
Abstract :

Some mechanical properties of onion seeds were investigated in this study. These properties are often required for the design of transportation, storage and grading/sorting machines and other post harvest machines for onion seeds. The seeds were compressed along three mutually perpendicular axes and the properties studied were initial rupture force, rupture force, deformation at rupture and energy consumed at rupture. The ranges of moisture content investigated were 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15% (db), respectively. The tests were carried out at a deformation rate of 70% strain energy. Onion seeds were compressed along major axes (length), intermediate axes (Breadth) and minor axes (thickness), respectively. Physical properties like dimensions, geometric mean diameter, sphericity and mass were also evaluated. It was observed from the results that rupture force, Peak force and energy consumed at rupture decreased with increase in moisture content and the deformation at rupture increased with increase moisture content.

Title: A Study on Content Analysis of ICT Enabled Web Portal (Krishinet)
Abstract :

This research evaluates a web-based ICT enabled portal (Krishinet) on the basis of practical application of farmers in the study area. In this study we use quantitative approach for analysis. It includes three major parts, first content inventory, in this the entire content of the portal was catalogued, second content audit, in this quantitative method was used and it was found that 37.14 percent respondents felt that the content of the Krishinet portal was good, followed by 32.50 percent respondents felt that the portal was of average quality and only 30.36 percent respondents felt that the portal was of poor quality and the third part was content mapping, in which linear type of content mapping was done in which head content of single segment was presented in coloured rectangular boxes and subhead segment were presented in different coloured boxes with links to each other.

Title: Influence of different protected cultivation structures on water requirements of winter vegetables
Abstract :

Protected cultivation structures provide favourable environment for crop growth thereby achieving greater yield and high quality produce. Green house, polyhouse, shade net house & low tunnels are different types of protected cultivation structures, which are commonly adopted for crop cultivation. During extreme cold in winter season (November-February) vegetables can be grown under green house structure. Accurate irrigation scheduling in protected cultivation structures is one of the important factors in achieving high yields and avoiding loss of quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of protected cultivation structures (Poly house, shade net house and shadow hall) on temperature, relative humidity and water requirement of vegetable crops (Tomato, Cucumber, Capsicum, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Broccoli & Brinjal) with drip irrigation system grown during winter season (November-February). FAO-56 Penman Monteith approach was used to estimate the reference crop evapotranspiration under different kind of protected cultivation structures with different vegetable crops. Study shows that vegetable production in winter for sub humid region reduces due to fall in temperature below optimum level. Green house structure offers a solar energy saver and enhances temperature inside the structures. Daily average reference crop evapotranspiration value was found to be minimum for shadow hall (1.2-2.9 mm day-1) followed by polyhouse (1.3-3.2 mm day-1), shadenet house (1.4-3.7 mm day-1) and open field (2.0-4.9 mm day-1) condition. The total water requirement of drip irrigated vegetable crops in protected cultivation structure is reduced by about 35.6 %, 35.2 % and 25.5 % respectively under shadow hall, poly house and shade net house in comparison to open field cultivation.

Title: Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Productivity, Nutrient Uptake and Economics of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn)
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2018 at Bagusala Farm, of M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha to study the effect of integrated nutrient management in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) on yield attributes, productivity and nutrient uptake under south Odisha conditions. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with ten treatments and replicated thrice. The treatment combinations are T1, control,T2, FYM @ 4 t ha-1, T3 FYM @ 8 t ha-1, T4, 100% RDF (40:20:20 - N: P2O5: K2O kg ha-1), T5, 50% RDF + 4 t FYM, T6, 75% RDF + 2 t FYM, T7, FYM 4 t ha-1+ Azospirillum @ 5 kg ha-1, T8, FYM 8 t ha-1 + Azospirillum @ 5 kg ha-1, T9, 50% RDF + 4 t FYM + Azospirillum @ 5 kg ha-1, T10, 75% RDF + 2 t FYM + Azospirillum @ 5 kg ha-1. Application of 100% RDF resulted in the highest yield components like number of effective tillers m-2, number of grains ear head-1, number of fingers ear head-1, test weight and length of fingers which remained statistically at par with the application of chemical fertilizers along with the FYM and Azospirillum (T10). The highest grain yield, straw yield and biological yield were achieved from the treatment with 100% RDF which was followed by application of 75% RDF + 2 t FYM + Azospirillum (T10) and 75% RDF + 2 t FYM (T6). However, the lowest values yield attributes and yields were recorded in control (no nutrients). Total nutrient (NPK) uptake by finger millet differed and it was found that application of 100% RDF recorded significantly higher nutrient uptake than other treatments. The lowest uptake of N, P and K was recorded in absolute control treatment.

Title: Brassinosteroids Application Responses in Fruit Crops – A Review
Abstract :

Brassinsteroids (BRs) are a class of novel plant hormones gaining importance as potential allies of agricultural development worldwide. Research findings on influences of exogenous BRs application on various aspects of growth and development like vegetative growth, flowering, fruit set, fruit growth, ripening, storage, and tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses in fruit plants’ have been reviewed and discussed. The molecular or biochemical aspects of BRs responses to modulate growth and productivity by activating or withholding enzymatic reaction of different biochemical pathways of fruit plants have been elaborated. BRs are involved in ripening and fruit quality development of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits; as per reports of many researchers, they improve fruit color, phenolics, anti-oxidant activities and post-harvest life of many fruits. Fruit cracking in litchi has been found to be significantly reduced due to BRs application. This group of plant hormones possess the capacity to negate genetoxicity and pesticidal residues in many horticultural crops; it reflects the extension of their uses in producing consumer-friendly fruits through BRs application. One of the biggest advantages of BRs application is controlling favorable plant responses under abiotic and biotic stresses; plants have been reported to manage these stresses through modifications in various gene expressions and physiological processes under the influence of the BRs. The need for in-depth studies has been speculated for optimizing the concentration of BRs application together with the standardization of critical stages for harnessing the benefit of quality orchard productivity under varied growing conditions.

Title: Effectiveness of Different Mordants and Concentrations on the Dyeing Properties of Jackfruit (Atrocarpus heterophyllus) Bark on Silk
Abstract :

A study was carried out to assess the effect of different mordants and concentrations on the colouring characteristics of jackfruit bark dye on silk. Six types of mordants, viz. citric acid, alum, ferrous sulphate, aluminum sulphate, copper sulphate and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) were used, each at 1, 2 and 3% of weight of the fabric (o.w.f.). The material liquor ratio was maintained at 1:40. The Hunterlab colour scale was used to analyse the variations in colour and intensities. The results indicated that the maximum change in colour with respect to the undyed silk fabrics was for 2% alum treated samples with the ΔE* value of 27.08±0.29. However, the values were not significantly different from the samples treated with FeSO4 mordant at 2% and 3% levels, CuSO4 mordant at 2% level and alum at 3% level. The change in chroma (ΔC*) value was maximum for the alum (2%) mordant (24.44±0.2). The analysis on colour fastness with respect to washing, rubbing and sunlight also indicated that all mordants and concentrations used in the study excepting 1% alum offered adequate fastness characteristics. The unmordanted samples exhibited moderate fastness. In view of the colour fastness with respect to washing, rubbing and exposure to light, the jackfruit bark dye can be applied on silk with any of the selected mordants at 3% level.

Title: Constraints Faced by Orange Growers about Production and Marketing Orange
Abstract :

The oranges created in Amravati district possessed the biggest share of oranges within the Vidarbha orange market. The orange crop plays a vital role within the economy of the region. Among the fruit crops, orange crop covers about 45,226 ha area in Vidarbha. There is still a good potential toward bringing a lot of area below orange in Vidarbha region. The present paper analyses the information behaviour of orange growers concerning the production of the oranges. The various types of constraints confronted by the orange grower related to production of orange are rootstock availability, labour availability, manures and fertilizers, irrigation, plant protection, capital, availability of loan from co-operative society, technical information, use of growth regulator, supporting and constraints confronted by the orange grower related to marketing of orange are Grading, Transportation, Sale of produce, Packaging, Storage. The study was conducted in the purposively selected Amravati district of the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state. Five Panchayat Samities from Amravati district were hand-picked purposively covering ten villages from every Panchayat Samiti. Thus, a total of 50 villages and five orange growers from each selected village was selected 250 orange growers constituted the sample size for the present investigation. The main objective of the present paper is to analyze the constraints faced by orange growers in the Amravati District of Maharashtra. Study findings indicated that the orange growers were non-availability of rootstock, high cost of rootstock and fertilizers, uncertainty of electricity supply and difficulties in getting loan were major constraints faced by the farmers which are related to the production. Lack of transport facilities, non-establishment of processing units, and high cost of packing material and non-availability of storage facilities in nearby markets were the major constraints about marketing on orange.

Title: Profiling of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Jaunpuri Giant Raddish Rhizosphere
Abstract :Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to influence plant growth by various direct or indirect mechanisms. Jaunpuri Giant Newar variety of radish was selected to study the PGPR profiling due to its peculiar growth features.The analysis of PGPR was based on their plant growth promotion (PGP) attributes, requirement of carbon substrates, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and 16S rDNA homology. In search of efficient PGPR strains associated with radish cv. Jaunpuri Giant Newar rhizosphere, a total 115 isolates were randomly selected and screened for PGP attributes, out of which twenty isolates showing multifarious PGP traits were selected for detailed study. Metabolic characterization of representative strains revealed a large versatility with respect to carbon utilization. ARDRA revealed ten clusters composed of 1–5 strains. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the isolates were identiûed as Micrococcus luteus, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas sp., Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Leifsonia sp., P. aeruginosa, B. cereus, B. licheniformis, Nesterenkonia terrae. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report from India as far as systematic, genetic and functional diversity of PGPR in radish rhizosphere region is concerned. Additionally, the generated information may serve as a baseline data for developing effective bio-inoculants to improve plant growth and biotic stress management of radish in an eco-compatible manner. Highlights • A total of 115 isolates were obtained from rhizospheric region of Radish cv. Jaunpuri Giant Newar. • Among115, 20 isolates showing multiple PGP traits were characterized by BIOLOG, RFLP and ARDRA. • Representative isolates from each group resulted from ARDRA were identified by 16S rDNA sequence homology. • Most of the identified isolates were related to genera Bacillus followed by Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Agrobacterium, Micrococcus, Leifsonia and Nesterenkonia.
Title: Energy conversion study on cumbu napier CO-4
Abstract :
Agriculture has for several years formed the backbone of Indian economy, contributing approximating 30.2% of the gross domestic product employing over 77% of the population above 10 years of age (Surajit, 2012). Developing countries like India produce large quantities of agro-residues such as rice husks, bagasse, groundnut shells, co
Title: Effect of Sr2+ on Mitotic Activity and Chromosomal Behavior in Root Meristem of Allium cepa L.
Abstract :The effect of Strontium chloride ranging from 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm on the mitotic activity and chromosomal behavior in root meristem of Allium cepa for 24h, 48h and 72h was studied. Accumulation of Sr2+ in the root meristem reduced the root growth of Allium cepa which was determined using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer) using strontium lamp-68 at 460 nm.Concentrations higher than 20 ppm of Sr2+ applied for 24h were toxic for Allium cepa. The non-lethal concentrations of Sr2+ showed an inhibitory effect on cell division in root tips of Allium cepa and caused a decrease in their mitotic index values. All treatments changed the frequency of mitotic phases as compared with the control values. Sr2+ treatments produced a number of mitotic abnormalities in dividing cells in root tips of plants resulting from its action on the spindle apparatus such as C-metaphases, lagging chromosomes and multipolar anaphases and Binucleate. The induction of chromosomal stickiness and chromosomal aberrations such as bridges and breaks indicates its action on the chromosome. These abnormalities (chromosome breaks and chromosomal bridges at ana–telophases) indicate true clastogenic potential of the ions tested.
Title: Organic Pineapple Production Technology in Tripura – The lone AEZ for Fruits in North East India
Abstract :

Tripura is a land of high hills, hillocks, interspersed with rivers and valleys having moderately warm and humid climate, well distributed annual rainfall of 2500 mm. The terrain soil and climate of Tripura are ideally suited for rain-fed Horticulture. Tripura, being endowed with fertile soils, abundant moisture and sub-tropical climate offer immense scope for production of a wide variety of tropical and sub-tropical fruits. The climatic conditions of the state suitable for production of a large variety of horticultural crops chief among which include ‘Queen’ and ‘Kew’; varieties of Pineapple. Pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) is a monoecious, monocotyledonous, monocarpic and xerophytic herbaceous perennial plant and its perennial in nature is propitiated through suckers. ‘Queen’ and ‘Kew’ (‘Smooth Cayenne’) are the main cultivars grown in different parts of Tripura. Among the states of north east India Assam is leading in terms of area and production and Tripura is just behind the Assam both in terms of area and production. Tripura produces 178.45 thousand MT from 12.57 thousand ha area (Anonymous, 2017), which is India’s fifth leading state of in pineapple production and Tripura is also share 9.30 per cent of India’s total pineapple production. The variety ‘Queen’ being the most popular for fresh consumption and occupying the largest area. These varieties are well known in the rest of the country. These Fruit products are free of any chemical residue thus making the fruits of Tripura products of organic farming. Pineapple production for export market is a realistic for organic cultivation for small scale organic farmers. The positive effects of organic pineapple production by default in Tripura competing on the global export market for pineapple.

Title: Contents VOL. 12, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2019
Abstract :
Title: Contents VOL. 13, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2020
Abstract :
Title: Effect of Crop Geometry and Age of Seedlings on Productivity and Nutrient Uptake of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn)
Abstract :

Crop geometry is an important factor to achieve higher production by better utilization of resources and in turn higher production of photosynthates. The ideal crop geometry can assure healthy and uniform stand in the main field and ensure higher productivity. Proper age of seedlings has a tremendous influence on the tiller production, grain formation and other yield contributing characteristics. In view of the above, a field experiment was conducted during kharif season (June to October) of 2018 at Bagusala Farm (23o39’ N latitude, 87o42’ E longitude) of M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha to find out the effect of crop geometry and age of seedlings on yield attributing characters, yield and nutrient uptake of finger millet (cv. Vakula) in sandy loam soil. The experiment revealed that transplanting of 20 days old seedlings at 25 cm x 25 cm spacing registered superior performance in expression of yield attributes like effective tillers m-2, number of grain ear head-1, number of fingers ear head-1, test weight and length of the fingers; grain and straw yield and nutrient uptake. It may be concluded that to obtain higher productivity of finger millet during kharif season in sandy loam soils of south Odisha, 20 days old seedlings may be transplanted with a spacing of 25 cm × 25 cm.

Title: Screening of Endophytic Bacterial Isolates of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Roots for their Multiple Plant Growth Promoting Activities
Abstract :A total of eighteen endophytic bacterial isolates from tea roots were screened for their multiple plant growth promoting activities including indole acetic acid production (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, ammonia production and siderophore production. All the isolates subjected for characterization were IAA producers Production of IAA was found to be remarkable in ER7 (10.45 µg/ml), ER14 (11.80 µg/ml), ER15 (11.40 µg/ml) and ER17 (16.22µg/ml). Among the isolates, seven were siderophore producers, five were phosphate solubilizers and twelve were found to be ammonia producers. Proper implementation of these plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria will open a new area in organic tea cultivation.
Title: Application of Molecular Markers and their Utility in Genetic Studies of Floricultural Crops: A Review
Abstract :

Understanding the genetics of floricultural germplasm represents a value added component of managing collections. Molecular approaches collectively represent a potential goldmine of important information that can be applied to programmes of genetic improvement. The development and utilization of molecular markers for the exploitation and identification of plant genetic diversity is one of the most key developments in the field of molecular genetics studies. Molecular markers are popular tool, due to their stability, cost-effectiveness and ease of use for a variety of applications in the field of molecular genetics. To know the role of molecular markers in genetic studies of floricultural crops, a number of molecular marker techniques have been reviewed by many researchers in worldwide. However, all these reviews were meant for researchers with advanced knowledge of molecular markers and their utility in limited aspects under floricultural crops. This review presents an overview of different marker technologies and their variants with a comparative account of their characteristic features and applications especially diverse molecular techniques used in assessing plant genetic diversity, inter-relationship between the genotypes, genetic purity, DNA barcode, tagging of important genes, development of linkage maps, marker assisted selection and application of molecular markers in tissue culture of floricultural crops. Altogether, the characteristics and types of markers with their applications and some recent advancement in genetic studies of floricultural crops are discussed.

Title: Present Status of Renewable Energy Sources in Punjab
Abstract :
The present energy generating systems in developing countries depend largely on local resources: wood, straw, dung for burning, hydraulic power for water wheels and electric power generation and whatever fossil fuel supplies are locally available. A country’s energy requirements often are not fully met by these local resources and foreign-currency resources must be expended to import the needed fossil fuel. In most developing countries, the economic base and the majority of the population are still rural and machinery that requires energy (especially fossil fuel) is not heavily utilized. However, the lack of cheap and adequate energy often hampers rural development plans and retards improvement in the quality of rural life. As on March, 2007, the cumulative grid-interactive power-generating capacity from renewable energy sources was about 9372 MW (6315 MW – wind energy, 1905 MW – small hydro power, 1152 MW – bio power), contributing about 7% of the total installed power-generating capacity in the country. In addition to power generation, renewable energy is being used for a variety of other applications in the country such as cooking, heating domestic water, drying crops, heating in industrial process, and so on. Status of Renewable Energy Sources in Punjab as on March 31, 2012 was studied in details in the fields of biogas technology (1, 30,000 family size and 45 power generation plants), biomass power plants (42 projects of 375 MW capacity), 23 projects of solar energy (10 MW power generations and other applications of solar energy) and hydro power (56 projects of 72 MW capacity).
Title: In-silico Interaction Studies of Alternaria brassicae Toxin Destruxin B and Potential Partners of MAPK4 Cascade
Abstract :Alternaria blight is one of the important fungal diseases of Brassica plant which leads to major yield losses as well as deterioration in quality. Plant responds toward fungal attack through intricate signal transduction pathways involving MAPKs. In the present study an effort was taken to delineate the MAP kinase pathway involving MAPK4 through in-silico interaction studies. Here we have reported that destruxin B has strong interaction with Lys M receptor kinase and Lys M receptor and toxin interaction was differential with different host. Lys M receptor kinase showed strong interaction with MAPKKK19. Out of ten MAPKKs known four MAPKK viz. MAPKK3, MAPKK5, MAPKK8 and MAPKK9 showed good interaction with MAPK4. Among these four interacting MAPKKs, MAPKK9 showed best interaction with MAPKKK19. At the downstream of the cascade MAPK4 showed strong interaction with WRKY 25 and WRKY 40.The results of the present study clearly indicate the role of MAPK4 in plant defense against Alternaria blight.
Title: Evaluation of β-Carotene Content and Antioxidant Activity of Banana Peels and Banana Peel Extracted Insoluble Dietary Fibres
Abstract :

The present study explores the potential antioxidant activity and β-Carotene content of banana peel and banana peel extracted insoluble dietary fibres. Grand Nain cultivar of bananas was selected. Two stages of ripened banana peel powder mainly stage 3 and 4 were compared along with the extracted insoluble dietary fibre for their β-Carotene and antioxidant activity. β-Carotene content in stage 3 banana peel powder and banana peel extracted insoluble dietary fibre powder varied from 42.8 to 29.9 mg/100g and in stage 4 banana peel powder and banana peel extracted insoluble dietary fibre powder varied from 26.8 to 11.8 mg/100g respectively. Antioxidant activity varied from 61.41±1.46% to 61.08±9.46 in stage 3 banana peel powder and banana peel extracted insoluble dietary fibre powder respectively, whereas, in stage 4 banana peel powder and banana peel extracted insoluble dietary fibre powder it varied from 47.46±7.32% to 43.44±8.54% respectively.

Title: Effect of Mulching and Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment with Agro Chemicals on the Growth and Yield of Summer Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Under Limited Water Resources
Abstract :

Moisture stress is a limiting factor to achieve potential yield of summer sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) under limited water resources and mulching is one of the suitable measures to mitigate the problem. Further, pre-sowing soaking of seeds with chemicals can facilitate growth, physiological and metabolic activities and thus enhance crop productivity. An experiment was conducted at Bagusala Farm of MS Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi (23o39’ N latitude, 87o42’ E longitude) during summer season of 2018 to study the effect of mulching and pre-sowing seed treatment with agro chemicals on growth and productivity of summer sesame. The experimental soil was sandy loam in texture with a pH of 6.1, 0.73% organic carbon and 230, 32.1 and 346 kg ha-1 of available N, P and K, respectively. The experiment was laid out in Split Plot Design (SPD), with two factors, namely, mulching (main plot) and seed soaking with agro-chemicals (sub-plot). In main plot three treatments of mulching were taken, namely, M0, no mulching, M1, paddy straw mulching and M2, plastic mulching, however, four seed soaking treatments, viz., P1, water soaked, P2, 200 ppm potassium chloride (KCL), P3, 400 ppm potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) and P4, 400 ppm disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4) were considered in sub-plot. Thus 12 treatments combinations were replicated thrice in 4m × 3m plots. Sesame variety ‘Gauri’ performed well with plastic mulching as it recorded significantly better growth and higher yield than paddy straw mulching and no mulching. Among seed soaking treatments, it was noted that pre-sowing seed soaking with either of 400 ppm of Na2HPO4 or 400 ppm of KH2PO4 exhibited superiority to other treatments to obtain higher productivity. Moreover, plastic mulching and seed soaking with either of Na2HPO4 or KH2PO4 combination resulted in higher net return and benefit: cost ratio.

Title: Growth and Yield of Sweetcorn as Influenced by Zinc Fertilization
Abstract :

In order to investigate the effect of zinc nutrition on growth, yield, and quality parameters of sweetcorn, a field experiment comprising of nine treatments with three replications was carried out in Randomised Block Design during Kharif, season 2020 on sandy clay soils of Agricultural College Farm, Bapatla. The analysis of variance showed a significant effect of zinc application on growth and yield parameters. The detailed results of the study showed that among the various zinc fortification treatments, RDF + Zn EDTA @ 10 kg ha-1 (Soil) + Nano ZnO @ 250 ppm at 20 & 40 DAS (Foliar spray) registered superior plant growth characters like plant height at harvest (214.4 cm) leaf area index at harvest (2.94) and dry matter accumulation at harvest (9903 kg ha-1). The yield parameters like no. of seed rows per cob (16.84), no. of seeds per row (32.57), green cob yield (12,638 kg ha-1), and green fodder yield (19,674 kg ha-1) were maximum with RDF + Zn EDTA @ 10 kg ha-1 (Soil) + Nano ZnO @ 250 ppm at 20 & 40 DAS (Foliar spray) which was significantly superior over rest of the treatments whereas lower growth and yield was noticed with RDF alone.

Title: Development of Power Weeder for Line Sown Paddy Crop
Abstract :

Weed is the main menace in paddy cultivation and its eradication from the paddy field is difficult and time consuming process. Traditional method of hand weeding is time consuming and labour intensive. Another method of weed control, through chemical method by weedicides is simple and fast method but is restricted due to its adverse effects on both environment as well as human beings. To overcome this, mechanical method by self – propelled weeders can replace this constraint. A power weeder was designed and developed for upland paddy and is tested for its field performance. The machine depicted satisfactory performance for weeding at both 20 and 45 DAS and fuel efficient (0.63 to 0.7 lh-1) with weeding efficiency as 74.20% and 85.90% for weeding at 20 and 45 DAS respectively. The machine showed satisfactory result by less plant damages of 3.75 and 8.26% at 20 and 45 DAS respectively. The field efficiency of weeder at 45 DAS was 8.5% more than that of 20DAS.

Title: Impact of Covid – 19 on Food Purchasing, Eating Behaviors and Perceptions of Food Safety in Consumers of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh of India
Abstract :

Covid-19 brought a paradigm shift on food consumption, purchase, and eating behavior of consumers significantly as concerns over safety, health, and financial worries increased. As the world was fighting the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic, an online survey is conducted to understand its impact on food purchasing, eating behaviors, and perceptions of food safety among the middle class and upper-middle population in the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh of India during April and May 2020. Many of the respondents were from Telangana (46.52%) and Andhra Pradesh (38.58%), respectively while few were from other states and countries. 60.7% of respondents who participated in the survey were from the urban areas, while 20.1% were from rural areas and 17% from semi-urban areas. A significant change is observed in consumers’ purchase behavior during the Covid-19 pandemic. People preferred to shop less frequently, and 62% of respondents managed with existing goods. 69% of people maintained social distancing and wearing masks while purchasing foods. 74.3% went to stores less often for groceries purchase. The amount of packaged food consumption increased by 28%. Consumers became more cautious about health and altered their eating habits. 60% of respondents have agreed that their food habits have changed, and 52% of respondents reportedly consumed healthier foods compared to pre-covid days. 90% of survey populations finished home-cooked meals. 96% of respondents were aware of the Covid-19 threat and were taking precautionary measures. 86% of respondents sanitized the food produce bought from outside. There was panic among 53% of respondents about the safety of food available. 34% of respondents did not want to go back to their old eating habits until they get vaccinated against covid-19.

Highlights

  • Purchasing and eating habits have changed. People were shopping less in-person and consuming more home-cooked healthy meals while managing with existing stocks.
  • Consumer behavior changed rapidly throughout, for the crisis. Food consumption, and eating habits, have been significantly impacted due to concerns about hygiene, personal safety, food purchases, and consumption.
Title: Soil Test Based Fertilizer Recommendation of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulphur in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in an Alluvial Soil
Abstract :Soil test crop response correlation involving integrated plant nutrition system (STCR-IPNS) studies on nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) in wheat on an Inceptisol, New Delhi, India were carried out following Ramamoorthy’s ‘inductive cum targeted yield model’. After establishment of marked fertility gradient with respect to soil available N, P and S, four levels of fertilizer N, P, S and three levels of farmyard manure (FYM) were randomized in three fertility strips each having twenty four plots. Soil and plant analysis data were further used to compute basic parameters required for development of nutrient prescription equation. The nutrient requirement for producing one quintal of wheat grain yield was worked out as 2.26 kg of N, 0.40 kg of P and 0.54 kg of S.Soil available pool contributed 26.15, 50.06 and 52.55 % to total N, P and S uptake, respectively; contribution from applied fertilizer were 42.31, 25.12 and 46.39% and contribution from applied FYM were 27.95, 11.21 and 17.66% to total N, P and S uptake by wheat.Using basic data, fertilizer prescription equations and ready reckoner were developed for range of soil test values and desired yield targets for NPS alone and IPNS (NPS with FYM).
Title: Effect of Intercropping Summer Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) with Legumes on Yield Attributes and Productivity of Crops
Abstract :

Intercropping of Sunflower with Groundnut and Blackgram in different cropping patterns showing effects on yield attributes in sole crops and intercrops. In view of this a experiment was conducted during summer season (February to June) of 2018 at Bagusala Farm (23o39’ N latitude, 87o42’ E longitude) of M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi. Effect of intercropping summer sunflower with legumes on yield attributes and productivity. 9 treatments of sole, 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 ratios of sunflower1 crop with groundnut2 and blackgram3 were tested in RCBD design with three replications. The experiment revealed that superior performance in expression of yield attributes like significantly increased the yield attributes like Number of pods/capitulum per plant, Number of seeds per pods/capitulum, Number of seeds per plant, Seed weight per plant (g), 1000 seeds weight (g), Seed yield (kg/ha), Biological yield (kg/ha). It may be concluded that to obtain higher productivity of crops which are having higher productivity during summer season in sandy loam soils.

Title: Micropropagation Study of Jatropha curcas for Enhancing Shoot Induction Frequency
Abstract :Jatropha curcas, is an upcoming energy source, which promises to mitigate energy crisis and environmental pollution. Jatropha seeds (0.4-12 tons/ha/yr) contain oil (30-40%) which is non edible due to the toxins such as phorbol esters, trypsin inhibitors,lectins and phylates. Various combinations of auxins with cytokinins were used for regeneration study. The best shoot regeneration (80%) was observed in MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.125ppm) and BAP (1.5ppm). Root induction was successfully obtained in plane MS/MS with auxins. Acclimatization and hardening was quite successful with survival rate of 60%.
Title: Estimation of Phenotypic Coefficients of Variation (PCV), Genotypic Coefficients of Variation (GCV), Heritability and Genetic Gain for Yield and its Components in Rice Landraces of Odisha
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out to study genetic variability in sixty-four low land rice genotypes (including fifty-five landraces of Odisha) for twelve traits. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences among the genotypes for all the studied characteristics. Flag leaf area, effective tillers per plant, filled grains per panicle, 100-grain weight and harvest index had moderate to high phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficients of variation (GCV) estimates suggesting that these traits are under the influence of genetic control and less affected by the environment. In the present study, all the characters exhibited a high degree of heritability and among those flag leaf area, number of filled grains per panicle, 100-grain weight, harvest index and grain yield per plant had high genetic advance indicating the presence of additive gene effect and hence selection based on phenotypic performance for these traits would be effective. Filled grains per panicle and flag leaf area followed by 100-grain weight and harvest index are important characters having high heritability, genetic advance as well as high coefficient of variation which should be considered while selecting for high yield.

Title: Threatened Rodent Species of Arunachal Pradesh
Abstract :
The rodents are important animals in food chain and play an important role in the ecosystem. They also serve as prey for many important and endangered carnivorous and make up almost 40% of the mammalian species. They are essential part in the regeneration of forests. In Arunachal Pradesh, there are three types of forest i.e. tropical, subtropical and alpine experienced with
different climate. Such type of environment is favourable for multiplication of rats, squirrels and porcupines, even though, their population is decreasing day by day due to indiscriminate hunting. Most of the squirrels and porcupines are hunted for meat, furs, skin, teeth and quills. Field surveys were conducted in different districts of Arunachal Pradesh for the present review. The presence of squirrels and porcupines were observed by direct sighting with the help of binocular or by hearing calls. Information was also collected through interaction of local people and forest staffs. The major threats for rodents are consequences due to hunting for meat, shifting agriculture (Jhum), deforestation, human settlements and infrastructure development in forest areas. Many of the rodents have come under endangered species and some gone extinct in recent years. Keeping this view, the present review has been made to document the diversity of rodents in Arunachal Pradesh and to review their habitat and conservation. The article reports 10 threatened rodent species under 9 genera belonging to 3 families.
Title: CO2, CH4 and N2O production potential of paddy soil after biogas byproducts application under waterlogged condition
Abstract :The increase in the biofuel production has generated a lot of byproducts. These are rich in various plant nutrients. The laboratory incubation can provide an idea of their effects on soil and environment, and fertilizer applicability before field application. In the present study, two types of biogas byproducts were selected as biochar and digested liquid. Two concentrations of each was applied to the paddy soil (Regosol), and incubated under the submerged conditions. Biochar treated soil produced the highest methane and carbon dioxide than the untreated soil due to high carbon content. Digested liquid treated soil produced the lowest concentration of both gases even lower than the control. It may be because of toxic effects of ammonium-N on methanogens. Digested liquid treated soil produced the highest nitrous oxide; whereas difference was not significantly different for the control and biochar treated soil. However, cumulative production of each gas showed that production of nitrous oxide was negligible in each treated soil due to the waterlogged condition. As expected, each treated soil produced little nitrate under this experimental set up.
Title: Optimization of Spacing, doses of Vermi-compost and Foliar Application of Salicylic Acid on Growth, Flowering and Soil Health of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cv. “Guldasta”
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted during the year 2018-2019 to study the effect of spacing (50×50, 50×60 and 50×75), dose of vermi-compost (0, 5.0 and 10.0 ton/ha) and foliar application of salicylic acid (0, 100 and 200 ppm) on the growth, flowering and soil health of chrysanthemum. The experiment was laid out in a factorial randomized block design with twenty seven treatments and three replications. Significant improvement in growth and flowering characters was recorded with closer spacing (50×50 cm) except plant spread, number of flowers/plant, weight of individual flower, diameter of flower, shelf life and stalk length while, plants grown at wider spacing had maximum available NPK in post harvested soil. Gradual increases doses of vermicompost for 0 to 10.0 ton/ha significantly improved plant growth, flowering and yield attributing traits alongwith higher availability of NPK in post harvested soil. Among the foliar spray of salicylic acid, salicylic acid (100 ppm) significantly produced good plant growth and flower yield except induced early flowering and 50% flowering however, control showed maximum availability of NPK in post-harvested soil. Among the combined combinations, maximum flower yield/plant was recorded with treatment combination T26 (S3+VC2+SA1) and treatment combination T8 (S1+VC2+SA1) resulted in maximum flower yield/plot and flower yield/ha during course of study

Title: Effect of Different Form of Phosphorous Nutrition on Growth and Yield of Cauliflower (Brassica Olaracea Var. Botrytis L.)
Abstract :A field experiment was conducted at Naggar Farm of I.A.R.I., Regional Station Katrain, (Kullu Valley) H.P. during 2005-06 and 2006- 07 with cauliflower var. Pusa Snowball K-1. The experiment was laid out laid out in a randomized block design with 3 replications. There were ten treatments comprising of different sources of phosphorous. These were T-1 100% phosphorous ( Single Super Phosphate), T-2 100% Phosphorous (Rock Phosphate), T-3 50% phosphorous (Rock Phosphate) + Psolubiliser + Vascular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM), T-4 VAM, T-5 P solubiliser, T-6 100% Phosphorous (Rock Phosphate) + 15 t/ha Farm Yard Mannure, T-7 Liming + 50% phosphorous(Single Super Phosphate), T-8 15 t/ha Pine needle compost, T-9 15 t/ha Rice straw compost and T-10 control. The maximum curd yield were recorded with 50% P (R.P.) + P solubiliser + VAM (415.30 q/ha) followed by liming + 50% P (SSP 387.22 q/ha) and maximum growth were recorded with 50% P (R.P.) + P solubiliser + VAM 1339.73 cm2)followed by 100% P (R.P.) + 15t/ha FYM (1097.57 cm2).
Title: Optimization and Validation of LLE/HPLC-DAD Method to Determine the Residues of Selected PAHs in Surface Water
Abstract :A rapid precise and accurate method was optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of 6 PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthrene, anthracene and pyrene) in water by HPLC and their distribution in surface water (water from Yamuna river in Wazirabad and Okhla region and Aakulam lake, Kerala) were undertaken. The High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) separation of 6 PAHs was carried out by C-18 column with gradient elution of acetonitrile and water with diode-array detection (DAD). The method was optimized by using liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) with different solvent like hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate and extract cleaned by adsorption column cleanup using different adsorbent like silica gel, alumina and florisil. Among the three solvents used for LLE, dichloromethane gave maximum extraction efficiency (70.27- 91.09%). For the cleanup of water extract, a florisil column using 20:80 acetone:hexane as the eluting solvent gave recovery of 91.2- 97.2 µg and 8.9-9.6 µg at 100 µg and 10 µg of PAHs loaded in the column, respectively. The total method recovery using dichloromethane as the extracting solvent and 20:80 acetone: hexane as the eluting solvent for florisil column clean up varied from 71.02-89.74%. Limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantiûcation (LOQ), and correlation coefficients were found in the range of 0.1 to 1.5 ìg L-1, 0.5 to 4 ìg L-1 and 0.994 to 0.999, respectively. No residues of PAHs were detected in any of the water samples other than the Okhla water samples. The PAHs detected in Okhla water sample were phenanthrene (3.51 µg L-1) and fluoranthrene (4.61 µg L-1).
Title: Effect of Plant Biostimulants on Growth, Chlorophyll Content, Flower Drop and Fruit Set of Pomegranate Cv. Kandhari Kabuli
Abstract :
The experiment was laid out in the pomegranate experimental block of the Department of Fruit Science, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh. The experiment consisted of 19 treatments with three replications. The pomegranate trees under investigation were subjected to different concentrations of biostimulants viz. Vipul (TRIA) (5 ml/l, 10 ml/l, 15 ml/l), Spic cytozyme (1 ml/l, 2 ml/l, 4 ml/l), Homobrassinolides (Godrej Double) (0.5 ml/l, 1 ml/l, 1.5 ml/l),Biozyme Crop Plus (1 ml/l, 2 ml/l, 3 ml/l) and Vipul + Homobrassinolides (0.5 + 5 ml/l, 1 + 5 ml/l, 1.5 + 5 ml/l, 5 + 0.5 ml/l, 5 + 1 ml/l, 5 + 1.5 ml/l). The results revealed that the highest tree growth was recorded in trees treated with Spic cytozyme at 4 ml/l. The highest total chlorophyll content was observed with the application of Vipul 15ml/l, whereas the highest fruit set and minimum flower drop was recorded with the application of Vipul + Homobrassinolides (1.5 + 5 ml/l).
Title: Genetic variability, Heritability and Correlation Analysis in F2 Populations of Ratoon Upland Cotton Hybrids
Abstract :

The success of crop improvement programs depends on variability and heritability of desirable traits. An investigation was carried out to assess the extent of variability generated by hybridization to estimate the heritability and genetic advance as percent of mean and correlation analysis for seed cotton yield and yield component traits and fibre quality traits in F2 main crop and F2 ratoon crop generations of 32 novel upland cotton hybrids. The segregating population was evaluated for fifteen traits. It was found that the F2 main crop and F2 ratoon crop populations are superior to the parents and expressed highly significant differences for all the traits. The high phenotypic coefficient of variation and genotypic coefficient of variation were recorded for traits number of monopodial branches per plant, number of bolls per plant and seed cotton yield per plant. High heritability coupled with high genetic advances was recorded for traits number of monopodial branches per plant, number of bolls per plant, lint index, seed cotton yield per plant and fibre fineness. As results of the correlation analysis, seed cotton yield was significantly positively associated with days to first flowering, number of sympodial branches per plant, number of bolls per plant, boll weight, lint index, seed index, ginning out turn and fibre fineness. Results further revealed that F2 main crop and F2 ratoon crop generations with larger genetic potential, moderate to high heritability and positive association between yield and yield contributing traits and fibre quality traits could guide intensive selection for improvement in segregating populations.

Title: Review on Physiological Disorders of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Causes and Management Approach
Abstract :

Apart from insects, pests and diseases, physiological disorders are one of the major threats to fruit industry which cause economic losses worldwide. Many tropical and subtropical fruit crops (Mango, Banana, Citrus, Grape, Papaya, litchi, loquat etc.) are vulnerable to different physiological disorders like spongy tissue, chock throat, granulation, pink berries, bumpy fruits, fruit cracking and purple spot respectively. Adverse environmental conditions such as high or low temperature, moisture content, nutritional and hormonal imbalance, improper pollination or fertilization etc. cause abnormal external or internal conditions as well as abnormal growth pattern of fruits collectively known as physiological disorders. Most of the disorders associated with more than one factors like environment and nutrition but some disorders are mainly occur due to one factor only. So, there is need to understand the reason behind a particular cause and way to overcome it with a specific management approach. Among the nutritional disorders, the deficiencies of micronutrients (Zn, Bo, Mn etc.,) are more prevalent in Indian orchards rather than macronutrients. This review not only describes the cause of physiological disorders of fruit crops which lead to huge losses to fruit growers but also discusses the management practices to prevent it and retain the quality for higher market value.

Title: Influential Factors on Customer Satisfaction: Case of Branded Fast Food Outlet in Jammu City
Abstract :

The paper entitled “Influential Factors on Customer Satisfaction: Case of Branded Fast Food Outlet in Jammu City” was carried out in Jammu city of J&K (UT). The research adopted a convenience sampling technique to carry out the survey. The primary data was collected from 100 respondents by filling up the pre-tested schedule-cum-questionnaire. The major findings of the study show that the factors like hospitality, advertisement, and price of the food at the branded retail outlets influence the overall customer satisfaction.

Title: Chemical Control and Economics of Phomopsis Blight and Fruit Rot of Brinjal in the Eastern Ghat Highland Zone of Odisha
Abstract :
A field trial was conducted during 2011 and 2012 for management of phomopsis blight and fruit rot of brinjal caused by Phomopsis
vexans by seed treatment with carboxin 37.5 % + thiram 37.5 % (Vitavax power) @ 2 g/kg and foliar application of copper oxychloride (Blitox-50) @ 0.3 %.The disease and economic parameters as well as yield were compared with that of untreated farmers’ field. It was revealed that the plant protection chemicals increased the seed germination by 21.18 % and reduced seedling
mortality, seedling blight and fruit rot infection by 90.25, 74.51 and 65.9 %, respectively. The improved germination and reduced disease infections helped to sustain 40.28 % higher brinjal yield with a net higher return of Rs. 26513 per ha.
Title: Biotechnological Tools for Conservation of Bioresources
Abstract :The rate of loss of natural habitants including forest and bioresources are not only a serious but a complex issue due to several reasons viz. deforestation, agricultural land degradation, ignorance of people, escalating population density, immigration of people toward urban areas etc. On the other hand forest and bioresources offer a variety of habitants for plants, animals and microorganisms. Therefore, conservation and sustainable use of bioresources is the need of the hour. The preference of conservation methods and technologies depends upon the prevailing objective, conservation efforts, breeding methods, adoption and behaviour of the species in question as well as available resources including funds, infrastructure, trained personal, and technologies. The biotechnology implies an approach of creation, invention and innovation. Biotechnological tools can be used to improve and conserve agriculture, horticulture, animals, medicine and environment. In the present article, conservation of bioresources has been highlighted covering multifaceted tools of biotechnology viz. plant genetic resources, micropropagation, in vitro conservation, cryopreservation, tissue culture, molecular markers, somatic hybridization and genetic engineering.
Title: Yield and Yield Attributes of Groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) as Influenced by Organic Practices in Semi Arid Region
Abstract :
Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive kharif seasons of research farm of Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute, Durgapura, Jaipur to study the effect of organic practices on the yield and yield attributes of groundnut in semi arid region with the treatments comprised of T1-Farmer’s practices, T2- 7.5 t FYM +PSB+ PSM+ Bio-Pesticides, T3- T2 + Seed
treatment with PSB+ PSM+ Bio-pesticides, T4 – T3 + Foliar spray of pseudo-monas, T5 – T3 + Foliar spray of NSKE @ 5 %, T6 - T3 + Foliar spray of Panchagavya and T7-Absolute control, T8-100% RDF (15kg N+ 60 kg 2O5/ha). The results revealed that in treatment T5, application of farmyard manure (FYM) (7.5 t/ha) inoculated with microbes (bio fertilizers+bio-pesticides) 15 days before sowing (heapit) and seed treatment with bio fertilizers+bio-pesticides at the time of sowing gave significantly higher pod yield (2750 kg/ha) over absolute control (2151 kg/ha) and FYM without inoculated with microbes but at par with other treatments.
The same trend was also observed in B:C Ratio (3.66) with treatment T5 (T3 + Foliar spray of NSKE @ 5 %). The study indicated that the groundnut showed greater response to the application of organic practices (i.e., organic farming) under semi arid region.
Title: India’s Fight Against Agricultural and Medicinal Plants’ Biopiracy: Its Implications on Food Security, Traditional Rights and Knowledge Degradation
Abstract :

At present, about two-third of the Indian population relies on indigenous knowledge of biological resources and have conserved their knowledge and culture through their traditional lifestyles and local economies. More than 7500 species of plants are utilized for the traditional purposes in India. The economic value of traditional knowledge in the herbal medicine and pharmaceutical sector is estimated to reach around 5 trillion by 2020. Since Indian agriculture is highly rich in biodiversity, it becomes an easy prey of biopiracy in agriculture-based business corporations. Biopiracy term is generally used when multinational corporations or companies profit from the medicinal and agricultural uses of plants known to indigenous or native societies and fail to compensate those communities. Traditional Knowledge (TK) plays a key role in the preservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. There is a threat to the future of TK due to globalization of production systems and the distance between the holders of knowledge and its exploiters. Many cases have been registered in India where attempts have been made to steal the indigenous knowledge from India due to its easy access which affect food security, livelihood of indigenous people and even cause changes in consumers’ choice. Indian government challenged many patents in the last two decades by providing numerous research papers predating those patents and these patents were thus rejected. India is the pioneer country in the world to have set up an institutional mechanism – the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) – to protect its TK.

Title: Contents VOL. 12, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2019
Abstract :
Title: Screening of Rose Varieties Against Black Spot Disease and its Management in East Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh
Abstract :
Rose varieties were evaluated in field against Diplocarpon rosae, which causes of black spot disease of rose. Black spot resistance was visually evaluated for thirty seven rose varieties against D. rosae. Out of thirty seven varieties evaluated, none of the varieties were found immune, very highly resistant, highly resistant, resistant and moderately resistant. However, three
varieties namely Paradise, Shabnam and Pixie showed moderately susceptible in reaction. Whereas, eleven varieties viz., Angelica Renae, Atago, Folklore, Granada, Hot Cocoa, Mardigrass, Midas Touch, Mrinalini, Revival, Tipus Flame and Victor Hugo showed susceptible reaction. Twelve varieties viz. Baccardi, Claudia Ribond, Charles Mallerin, Crimson Lace, Dr. Pal, Impatient, Madam Dulbourde, Marcopolo, Melody, Rainbow End, Sonia and Sugandha were highly susceptible reaction at 75 per cent disease
severity. Whereas, eleven varieties namely Angelique, Christian Dior, Gemini, Gladiator, Golden Jubilee, Priyadarsini, Sand. Centenary, R. R. M. Roy, Sweet Promise, Unforgotten and Vale of Cloyd were highly susceptible reaction at 95 per cent disease severity. Further, five fungicides [three systemic fungicides namely Carbendazim, Hexaconazole (Contaf) and Ridomil MZ 72 WP and two contact fungicides viz. Blitox-50 and Mancozeb] were evaluated in vitro for the management of D. rosae. Hexaconazole (Contaf) was found to inhibit the mycelial growth of D. rosae significantly at a concentration of 200 and 250 ppm followed by Ridomil MZ 72 WP at same concentration.
Title: Phytoremediation for Defending Heavy Metal Stress in Weed Flora
Abstract :
Degradation of natural resources is perhaps one of the gravest lapses mankind has ever made in its journey of progress and development. Land, air and water resources are worst affected due to anthropogenic interventions. Heavy metal contamination is of special concern due to widespread reports emanating both from India and abroad about various diseases and disorders
observed both in human and livestock due to metal toxicity. The use of specially selected and engineered metal accumulating plants for environmental clean up is an emerging frontline technology called ‘Phytoremediation’ which describes a system wherein plants alone or in association with soil organisms can remove or transform contaminants into harmless and often valuable
forms. Excessive heavy metal accumulation can be toxic to most plants leading to reduction in seed germination, root growth and biomass production; inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis as well as disturbance in cellular metabolism and chromosome distortion. For studying the heavy metals load of sewage and sludge and their effect on crop quality in relation to non applied sites, solid sludge and leafy vegetable plants such as Amaranthus spp., Ipomoea spp, Basella spp. (Pui), Spinacia oleracea (Palak), were collected from seven STPs viz. Howrah, Garulia, Bhatpara, Nabadwip, Srirampur, Kona, Chandannager, and from the Periurban areas viz., Nadia/Chakdaha/Ektapur(N/C/E),Nadia/Chakdaha/Pumlia(N/C/P),Nadia/Chakdaha/Sikarpur(N/C/S), Nadia/ Chakdaha/Tatla(N/C/T). The results suggest that leafy vegetables like Amaranthus have more scavenging capacity for Cd and Pb, while Spinacia oleracea has more scavenging capacity for Cr. Therefore, if these plants are cultivated in sites abundant with
above heavy metals, these would scavenge the heavy metal toxicity from the soil.
Title: Bacteriological Quality of Frozen Desserts Available in Retail Markets of Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract :

Forty samples (10 kulfi, 10 branded ice cream, 10 softy ice cream and 10 ice milk) were subjected to standard plate count, coliform, salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus count. The mean standard plate count for kulfi, ice cream, softy and ice milk, were 3.723±0.125, 1.277±0.128, 4.277±0.112 and 5.667±1.410 respectively. The coliform and salmonella were negative in branded ice cream samples. A total of 7 samples of kulfi, ice milk and softy ice cream showed positive for staphylococcus aureus. Since the bacteriological quality of frozen dessert are poor in the study area, precautionary measures have to be taken in production as well as post-production period up to the consuming in order to prevent food poisoning.

Title: Growth and Productivity of Maize (Zea mays L.) as Influenced by Nitrogen Management Options
Abstract :

Precision nutrient management is the most advanced agronomic strategy for improving crop yields and managing soil and environmental quality. Considering the above, a field experiment was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm, Baghasala of Centurion University of Technology and Management during the rabi season of 2020-21 to find out the impact of nitrogen management options on growth and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.). The experiment was consisted of eight treatments, viz., T1: control, T2: 150% RDN, T3: 125% RDN, T4: 100% RDN, T5: 75% RDN, T6: 50% RDN, T7: LCC (25 Kg/ha N @basal, 45 Kg/ha N at 21 DAS, 45 Kg/ha N @ LCC<5 at 45 DAS) and T8: SPAD (75 Kg N/ha @basal, 20 Kg N/ha @SPAD<45 at 21 and 45 DAS). The treatments were laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The maximum values of growth attributes, namely, plant height, dry matter accumulation, leaf area index and crop growth rate and yield attributes, such as cob length, cob girth, grains per cob, test weight inclusive of grain yield (6.65 t/ha), straw yield (8.42 t/ha) were obtained with the application of 150% RDN. For expression of crop growth characters, yield attributes and yields application of 150% RDN proved its superiority and it was followed by 125% RDN and 100% RDN at different growth stages. The treatments with precision N management tools like Leaf Colour Chart (LCC) and SPAD meter also resulted in crop performance with close proximity to 150% RDN, 125% RDN and 100% RDN treatments

Title: Genetic Analysis of Sodicity Tolerance in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)
Abstract :
In order to estimate gene actions for sodicity tolerance, grain yield and its related traits in rice, six basic generations were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Inheritance of salinity tolerance was determined in a cross between two rice cultivars, “ASD 18” (P1) a susceptible cultivar and “TRY” (R) 2 (P2) a tolerant one. The parents, F1, F2 and backcross generations were studied under sodic environment. The parents, F1, F2 and backcross generations were studied under
sodicity conditions (Exchangeable Sodium Percentage 23). The data on 10 physio-morphological traits viz., days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, panicle length, spikelet fertility percentage, single plant yield, Na+: K+ ratio, proline content, chlorophyll a/b ratio and chlorophyll stability index were recorded. Generation means analysis of the data revealed that all these traits exhibit significant non-allelic interactions and suggest that complex epistatic interactions are more important in controlling sodicity tolerance traits. The simple additive dominance model was adequate to explain the inheritance of chlorophyll stability index. Due to the presence of greater non-additive gene effects, selection for almost all of the studied traits in this cross, especially in early generations, would be complex in conventional methods. Regarding the existence of additive and
non-additive effects in controlling traits in this cross, inter se mattings followed by pedigree method of breeding might prove useful in improving sodicity tolerance in rice.
Title: Uptake of NPK, Availability of NPK and Quality Parameters of Bt Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) as Influenced by Different Bio-fertilizers and In-situ Green Manuring under Irrigation
Abstract :
A field experiment was carried out during kharif season of 2009-2010 at the Agriculture College Farm, Raichur, Karnataka (India) to study the response of Bt cotton to different fertilizer levels, bio-fertilizers and in-situ green manuring under irrigation. With respect to uptake and availability of NPK, application of sunnhemp in-situ green manuring found significantly higher N (128.27 kg ha-1 and 206.43 kg ha-1, respectively), P (30.63 kg ha-1 and 38.43 kg ha-1, respectively) and K (142.33 kg ha-1 and 342.14 kg ha-1,
respectively) over no green manuring. Among different fertilizer levels and bio-fertilizers, 150 % recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) recorded significantly higher uptake and availability of N (132.46 kg ha-1 and 212.48 kg ha-1, respectively), P (32.44 kg ha-1 and 39.21 kg ha-1, respectively) and K (147.21 kg ha-1 and 353.29 kg ha-1, respectively). Significantly higher ginning percentage and lint index were observed with sunnhemp in-situ green manuring (35.81 and 4.99, respectively) over no green manuring. Mean fibre length of Bt cotton was not significantly influenced by both use of in-situ green manuring and combined use of inorganic nutrients and bio-fertilizers.
Title: Evaluation of Maize (Zea mays L.) Varieties for Moisture Stress Areas in Humbo District, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia
Abstract :

Maize is a priority crop to farmers because it is a staple food in many rural communities of the southern region. It is widely grown in the various parts of the southern region, from lowland to mid-highlands. On the other hand, moisture stress is one of the most critical production constraints of maize in low to intermediate agroecology. Thus, developing maize varieties tolerant to moisture is of paramount importance to sustain maize production in moisture areas. In this context, field experiments were conducted during 201617 croppings at Kindo Koyisha and Humbo to select adaptable maize varieties for moisture stress areas with reasonable grain yield. Treatments used in this study were eight maize varieties (BH546, BH547, Gibe II, MH130, Melkasa IV, MH140, Melkasa II, and Melkasa 6Q) and three local cultivars (Local red, Local mixed, and Local white) of the total of eleven maize genotypes were evaluated at two moisture-prone areas in southern Ethiopia. Treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Maize varieties exhibited different performances at two tested locations. The varieties had the relatively superior performance of Kindo Koyisha as compared to Humbo. The Humbo varieties MH140, MH130, BH546, and Melkasa IV, have yielded relatively higher grain than the rest of the areas. At the same time, the Kindo Koyisha maize varieties expressed relatively better performance concerning grain yield. It has been recorded that the varieties with superior performance with sounding grain yield were BH546, MH140, BH547, and MH130 in these locations. Based on this result, BH546, MH140, and MH130 could be used at both locations. Moreover, BH547 at Bale and Melkasa IV at Humbo also be used in respective locations for production.

Title: Comparison of Neuro-Fuzzy and Regression Models for Prediction of Outflow of on-farm Reservoir
Abstract :
Neuro-fuzzy and regression models predicting of outflow of an on farm reservoir of 300 m3 capacity, located at Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi site of India, were developed and validated using crop water requirement, evaporation losses and farm pond inflow data. The outflow predicted by these two models was compared with each other. It is raveled that Neuro-Fuzzy model predicted the outflow with high coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.98, model efficiency (E) of 0.97 and absolute average deviation (AAD) of 0.002. The regression model was found to be inferior with R2 = 0.940.78, E = 0.72 and AAD = 0.031. MATLAB software was used for development of Neuro-Fuzzy and regression model.
Title: GPS and Sensor Based Technologies in Variable Rate Fertilizer Application
Abstract :

With an average consumption of 165.8 kg per hectare, India stands as the third-largest producer and consumer of fertilizer in the world. Farmers practice traditional methods to apply fertilizers uniformly throughout the field. This uniform and constant rate application of fertilizer is inefficient and mostly leads to over-fertilizing certain areas and at the same time, under-fertilizing others, not meeting the actual nutrient demand. Variable-rate fertilizer application (VRFA) is the process of applying various rates of crop nutrients by synchronizing existing machinery with mechatronics according to the variability within any agricultural field. One such effort are to be made to develop VRFA systems to meet the soil and plant needs. A variable rate fertilizer application (VRFA) system based on a digital map was developed in Kharagpur and achieved an appreciable target application rate at selected grid points (Chandel et al., 2016). The system was effective, accurate and showed quick response to target application rates with a negligible time lag. The coefficient of variation at all the outlets was in the range of 11.7–15.0 percent. The system was able to meet the target fertilizer application rate with a variation of up to 15 percent for a grid resolution of 8×8 m. Another VRFA system was developed for controlling the amount of fertilizer that works by measuring the NDVI of crops using an optical sensor (Zhang et al. 2014). This type of VRFA system does not use prescription maps but relies on sensors to provide real-time crop detection. The coefficient of variation was ranging from 0.35 to 2.67 percent and elapsed a response time of less than 0.875 s. The system helps in maintaining desired application rate by making real-time adjustments with on-the-go monitoring. It is revealed that the use of VRFA system helped to improve input use efficiency and decrease the negative effect on the environment. Thus, it is a promising technology through which the performance of a unit area could be tracked, mapped and analyzed. Also, the farmer will be able to know the exact production of each part of the field.

Title: Farmyard Manure: A Boon for Integrated Nutrient Management
Abstract :
In the present review, farmyard manure is explained as a perfect source of nutrients for plant growth as well as for soil microbiota. It is one of the efficient and effective organic manures. It can provide organic matter to soil microbes as a source of carbon. An increase in microbial population leads to the degradation of pesticides and heavy metals to less harmful compounds. In addition to it, ions of harmful elements get adsorb on organic colloids and become immobile in soil. Application of farmyard manure not only increases the availability of nutrients in the soil but also improves the soil properties like soil structure, water holding capacity, bulk density, cation exchange capacity, etc. Studies revealed that farmyard manure is an excellent organic manure for sustaining good soil health along with achieving desired food production.
 
Highlights
  • Farmyard manure is an effective and efficient source of nutrients to soil microorganisms as well as to plants comparative to all other manures.
  • Farmyard manure plays an important role in the remediation of pesticides, herbicides, and heavy metals along with increasing nutrient supply in the soil.
  • Apart from improving nutrient content, farmyard manure also improves soil’s physical, chemical, and biological properties.
Title: Contents
Abstract :
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology-Contents
Title: Reaction of Banana Hybrids (Phase-II) for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita
Abstract :
Plant parasitic nematodes are one of the major biotic stresses affecting banana production. Breeding works carried out at the Department of Fruit crops, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), India. The potential diploids and hybrids developed were crossed with commercial triploids to develop primary tetraploids and improved diploids. The susceptible check cultivar used was
Rasthali (AAB), while the resistant reference cultivar used Pisang Lilin (AA). Banana suckers of uniform size and weight were collected, pared and planted in earthen part containing 5 kg sterilized pot mixture. Egg masses of M. incognita were picked from roots, allowed to hatch in a beaker of distilled water and the hatched juveniles (J2) were inoculated in the rhizosphere of the
hybrids by soil injection method @ 5,000 nematodes / pot. Same set of replicated banana hybrids were also maintained as uninoculated check. The reactions of nineteen new synthetic banana phase II hybrids to Meloidogyne incognita was studied under field conditions as well as in controlled inoculation tests in pots. Hybrid H 531 (Poovan x Pisang Lilin) was found to be resistant and six hybrids, H-02-34, H-03-05, H-03-13, H-04-12, H-04-24 and NPH-02-01 were found to be toterant to the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita while the remaining were rated as susceptible and highly susceptible ones. Total phenols and PO, PPO, PAL and enzymatic activity of the hybrids in defense mechanism in response to nematode invasion indicated higher activities in resistant genotypes compare to susceptible ones. Hybrid H 531 had the maximum biochemical content and enzyme
activity among the hybrids included in this study. The resistant and tolerant hybrids had enhanced contents of total phenol, PO, PPO and PAL.
Title: Evaluation Trial on Bottle Gourd [Lagenaria siceraria] Under Prayagraj Agro-Climatic Conditions
Abstract :
The present investigation entitled “Evaluation trail on bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) under Prayagraj Agro-climatic conditions was conducted at Horticulture Research farm at Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Naini, Prayagraj from July to Oct 2019. The experimental soil was sandy loam in texture with a pH of 7.0 to 8.0, 0.480 organic carbon, and 280, 12.3, and 150 kg/ha-1 of available N, P, and K, respectively. The main objective of the experiment is to find out the most suitable variety of bottle gourd for better growth under Prayagraj, Agro-climatic conditions. Twenty six bottle gourd varieties were evaluated for different quantitative characters using Randomized Block Design (RBD) with the aim to identify the most suitable variety. Among twenty six varieties, the variety 2016/BOGVAR-1exhibited days to first harvest (49.55DAT).
 
Highlights
 
  • Twenty six bottle gourd varieties were evaluated for different quantitative characters using Randomized Block Design (RBD) with the aim to identify the most suitable variety.
Title: Antagonistic Activity of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Isolated from Tomato Rhizosphere Against Soil Borne Fungal Plant Pathogens
Abstract :
The use of single strain inoculum with multiple plant growth promoting activities offers a new concept to address mode of action by combined use of multi-strain inoculum of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) each with specific capability and function. In the present work, bacterial isolates with plant growth promoting activities like P-solubilization, IAA production,
siderophore production and broad spectrum antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of tomato seedlings. In vitro antifungal antibiotic study revealed that among eleven isolates N11 showed maximum inhibition against F. oxysporum (82.85%), R. solani (76.45%) and S. sclerotiorum (74.71%) after seven days of incubation. The per cent growth inhibition increased with increase in bacterial cell density from O.D 0.25 to
1.50. The novelty of the isolates is that the antibiotic production is induced only in the presence of fungal host and lack of antifungal activity in culture filtrate. Bacterial isolate N11 showing maximum plant growth promoting activities and was identified to species level by biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA sequencing. Preliminary identification of bacterial isolate was made on the basis of morphological and biochemical characters and confirmed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which validated
N11 as Bacillus subtilis CKT1.Thus, the present study concludes that these bacterial isolate could serve as a proficient biocontrol PGPR inoculant in the integrated management of soil borne diseases of tomato.
Title: Haldina cordifolia (Roxb.) Ridsdale - A Promising Tree for Domestication
Abstract :

Haldina cordifolia is a multipurpose tree species spread over moist deciduous forests in India. It possesses high timber quality suitable for flooring, paneling, railway carriages and construction works. It is also being used for medicinal purposes like curing of ulcer, malaria and abdominal disorders since ancient era. Though many phyto-chemicals and pharmacological compounds have been identified from this tree species, the species has not been domesticated so far. A detailed review on the status of this species is presented in this paper.

Title: New Innovations in Bacillus Thuringiensis Research- A Review
Abstract :
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) “Wonder insecticide” is a well-known entomopathogenic bacterium used worldwide as an environmentally compatible biopesticide. This review lightens on new innovations of Bt research, categorizes into isolation of novel Bt strains from various environmental sources, novel approaches for molecular characterization of Bt and diverse application
of Bt. These new findings will expands the world of Bt application in safe, specific, effective, economic and ecofriendly manner. It has also been observed that new innovative activities in the emerging fields of Bt technology are increasingly growing. Opportunities are immense and sky is the limit for researchers who are interested to take R&D in Bt technology.
Title: Exploitation of Rhizobacteria for Functional Traits in Mungbean
Abstract :
The enrichment of plant rhizosphere with beneficial bacteria is a strategy that favours the production of more vigorous seedlings, which is essential for the success of legume cultivation. The aim of this study was to select rhizobacteria that are able to act as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). A total of 17 rhizobacteria belonging to genera Bacillus (8), Pseudomonas (5) and
Azotobacter (4) from mungbean rhizosphere were selected on the basis of their ability to solubilize phosphate. These selected rhizobacteria were further characterized for Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) traits for quantitative phosphate solubilisation, Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), organic acid production and Intrinsic antibiotic spectra (IAR), control of phytopathogen via siderophore and cellulase production and stress tolerant management by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Significantly
high phosphate was solubilized by strain of Bacillus sp. B2 (9.77 mg ml-100) followed by strain of Pseudomonas sp. P10 (9.14 mg ml-100) and strain of Azotobacter sp. A3 (8.98 mg ml-100). In the presence of L-trptophan P10, A3 and B2 were also able to produce significant high amount of IAA i.e. 55.6 µg ml-1, 52.6 µg ml-1 and 50.3 µg ml-1 respectively and they also produced organic acid, siderophore and cellulase. Of 17 rhizobacterial isolates, 11 were found compatible with Rhizobium sp. vigna (LSMR1) in-vitro.IAR pattern revealed 52.9 % of rhizobacteria resistant to ampicillin (10 µg disc-1) and chloramphenicol (25 µg disc-1). ACC deaminase activity was measured by their growth in DF medium supplemented with ACC (OD 600 ranged from 0.117 to 0.432) as nitrogen (N) source. In the present investigation, rhizobacterial isolates viz, B2, P10 and A3 were found most promising for
multiple activities (PGP traits, biocontrol and stress tolerant activities) and can be evaluated in-vivo for their possible role in mungbean growth and development.
Title: Impact of Water Saving Technology On Blue Wateruse and Productivity: Analysis fron North Gujarat Region, India
Abstract :
North Gujarat is an absolutely water scarce region in Gujarat, though it contributes around 40 per cent of total groundwater draft in the state. Excessive withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation is leading to alarming drops in groundwater levels in many parts of the region. Since scope of supply side intervention is limited, it is imperative to manage irrigation water from demand side interventions aimed at to reducing its use. Overall objective of the present study was to analyse the impact of water saving technologies on applied water productivity. A study on experimental plot revealed that highest physical water productivity was found for castor under drip irrigation with plastic mulching as compared to flood irrigation followed by crop with organic mulching and lowest under drip irrigation. In case of groundnut, highest physical water productivity was obtained from the crop irrigated
by easy drip method, whereas in case of sprinkler, highest physical water productivity was obtained from the micro-sprinkler. Potato crop was grown under drip and sprinkler methods of irrigation and highest physical water productivity was recorded from micro-sprinkler. From farmers’ field data, it was observed that farmers are using different types of water saving technologies for variety of crops. Before adoption of water saving technologies, on average blue water use for crop production was estimated to
be 8397 m3 per hectare which was reduced to 5175.45 m3 per hectare after adoption of water saving technology, showing a decline of 61.6 per cent. Per hectare net income received by farmers before adoption of water saving technology was Rs 54615.46 and it increased to Rs 95759.41 after adoption of water saving technology. The variation in physical water productivity for same crop under different types of water saving technologies, suggested that government/promotional agencies should promote suitable water saving technology for different crops, which would help in achieving water saving and improvement in crop production and productivity.
Title: Development of Profitable Integrated Farming Systems for Small and Marginal Farmers of Hyderabad Karnataka Region Under Irrigated Condition
Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted on performance of integrated farming system over conventional farming system for one ha. area at Main Agricultural Research Station, Raichur, Karnataka for three successive years of 2010-11 to 2012-13 under irrigated conditions in medium black soils to explore the productivity and profitability under irrigated condition. Among the system
evaluated integrated farming system has recorded higher average net returns (Rs. 1,50,710) and benefit cost ratio (3.61) over conventional method as it records average net returns of Rs.65,000 with benefit cost ratio (2.85). The productivity and profitability during third year (2012-13) was more than second and first year under integrated farming system. During third year of integrated farming system records higher net returns (Rs. 2,45,398) with 4.63 B:C ratio than second year (Rs.1,29,442 net returns with 3.34 B:C
ratio) and first year (Rs.76968 net returns with 2.53 B:C ratio) respectively.
Title: Evaluation of Plaster of Paris and Some Fungicides for Management of Foot rot of Amorphophallus campanulatus Blume Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.
Abstract : Incidence of Foot rot disease of Elephant foot yam [Amorphophallus campanulatus Blume, syn: A. paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson] caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. is common in West Bengal. Occasionally it causes severe damage of the crop. When Plaster of Paris used on the diseased tissue in standing crop, it showed strong adverse effect on mycelial growth and survival of sclerotia. White mycelia and sclerotia produced on disease tissue lost their viability. Plant with small lesion grew normally indicating that the disease was checked without causing any phytotoxic effect. Plaster of Paris of commercial grade (CaSO4.½ H2O), available in synthetic bag in hardware shop. In laboratory test on viability of sclerotia, Plaster of Paris showed similar adverse effect. Eight fungicides (Indofil M-45, Bavistin, Blitox, Vitavax Power, Kavach, Curzet, Krilaxyl MZ) used in this test reduced sclerotial germination. Vitavax Power (Carboxin 37.5% + Thiram 37.5% WP) totally inhibited sclerotial germination. Kavach (Chlorothalonil 75%) and Krilaxyl MZ (Metalaxyl 8% + Mancozeb 64%) reduced germination upto 95%. Application of Plaster of Paris at three different doses at the base of the plant (2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 grams/plant) did not cause any phytotoxic symptoms like necrosis, epinasty, hyponasty, wilting, leaf tip injury, leaf surface injury, vein clearing, rotting at collar region on six different crops i.e. elephant foot yam, groundnut, brinjal, chilli, basella and radish. Hence, it may be incorporated in Integrated Disease Management (IDM) programme.
Title: Comparison of Fenugreek Crop Evapotranspiration Measured by a Micro-lysimeter, Field Water Balance Method and Automatic Closed Canopy Chamber
Abstract :

The attempt was to design and develop an automatic closed canopy chamber (ACCC) having dimension of 1.2 m×1.2 m× 1.2 m for crop evapotranspiration measurement by using transparent acrylic sheet of 4 mm thickness. Between two small fans a temperature and relative humidity sensor was used to measure vapor density. The intermediate circuit was developed for making automation system in ACCC. The arduino based coding was developed as per desired logic operation. The top lead of chamber was automatically closed for 2 minutes when inside and outside temperature and relative humidity of ambient air were similar. During measurement mode of ACCC, the two fans were started automatically. After measurement mode, fans were automatically stopped and top lead was opened. The ACCC was calibrated by evaporating mass of water from water filled tray which was placed inside the automatic closed canopy chamber. The validation of the developed ACCC were made using micro-lysimeters (MLS ) having size of 0.2 m × 0.2 m × 0.2 m by growing shallow rooted crop like fenugreek. The depth of irrigation was computed based on soil moisture content before irrigation and field capacity. The field testing of ACCC was made by placing chamber in plots of fenugreek crop. The irrigation was applied by drip irrigation as per crop water consumption. The sensor sensed and recorded the instantaneous temperature and relative humidity at 1 second interval for 24 hours. Two sample t-tests were done to compare the data pair of crop evapotranspiration obtained by the MLS inside the ACCC with that of outside the ACCC to ascertain whether there is any effect of the change in micro-climate for a short period of 2 minute on the crop growth physiological processes. Also, the data pair of crop evapotranspiration measured by the MLs, ACCC using the sensor data of temperature-relative humidity were compared and statistically analyzed through t-test. Similarly, the data pair of ETC measured by the FWB (Field Water Balance Method) and ACCC using the sensor data of temperature-relative humidity were also compared and statistically analyzed through t-test. The calibration factor of the ACCC was found as 1.666. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the crop evapotranspiration measured by the MLs inside and outside ACCC. Also in case of validation and field testing of ACCC, there were no significant difference between the ETC measured by the ACCC, MLs and FWB at 95 percent confidence level. This implies that there are no effects of the change in micro-climate for a short period of 2 minutes in the chamber, on the plant physiological processes. The ETc rate of fenugreek increases as sun rises and reaches the peak after one to two hour from mid-day and then continuously decreases with time. During validation and field testing of ACCC, the fenugreek crop coefficients varied from 0.72 to 1.04 and 0.69 to 1.02 respectively. The developed ACCC is portable as well as more comfortable and cost effective compared to the lysimeter for the measurement of the actual crop evapotranspiration and the crop coefficient

Title: Effect of Putrescine and Calcium on Colour Changes of Stored Peach Fruits
Abstract :
Peach is a climacteric and highly perishable fruit and it losses its quality in a short time after harvesting. During storage browning of fruits deteriorates its quality. Pre-harvest sprays of putrescine (PUT) and calcium nitrate at three concentrations each viz. 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mmol L-1 and 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% respectively were done 10 and 20 days before harvesting to maintain the quality during 40 days of storage. Physiologically mature peach fruits were harvested from treated plants, packed in CFB boxes and stored at 0 to
1° C and 90-95 % RH. Results revealed that all the treatments significantly effected the fruit colour development during storage. The maximum colour development was observed in control fruits, followed by calcium nitrate @ 0.5% (sprayed 20 days before harvesting) treatment. Fruits treated with putrescine @ 3 mmol L-1 showed mean minimum values of “a” and “b”, followed by putrescine @ 2 mmol L-1 and calcium nitrate @ 2% (sprayed 10 days before harvesting). It can be concluded that putrescine and
calcium nitrate treatments slowed the colour development process during storage.
Title: Water Scarcity- Challenging the Future
Abstract :

The latest world water development reports (UN-Water, 2009) observe how the various global crisis reported recently- in climate change, energy, food security, economic recession and financial turbulence-are related to each other and have impacts on water. Water Scarcity is a growing threat to our global economy, society and even to the survival of human beings. The crisis that we face today is mainly due to water pollution especially in the field of agriculture. Pollution can be anything from oil, to carcasses, to chemicals and to fecal matter, whatever the cause it majorly affects the global population. The world is moving towards a direction where water is becoming costly hence not affordable by the majority of people. As far as India is concerned it is gifted with many water bodies but due to improper management and unscientific industrial development. We are staring at the increase in the death of rivers. Erratic development plans mean our future generation is in major threat, sustainable development plans mean our future generation is saved from such major threat, sustainable development is the hour of need. Apart from government policies, the change needs to come from the grass-root level. This paper deals with water use and savings for the future. It also highlights the importance and threats of water scarcity and the challenges that will be faced by future generations.

Title: Clonal variability studies in ‘langra’ mango (Mangifera indica L.) using morphological, biochemical and molecular markers
Abstract :
Mango is one of the most economically important tropical fruits grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Being a delicious and widely cultivated fruit, it is regarded as ‘the King of fruits’ on the Indian subcontinent and the ‘national fruit of India’ because of the flavour and nutritional qualities. Mango has rich intra-specific diversity, with about 1600 and 1000 cultivars of mango present globally and India, respectively. ‘Langra’ is one of the leading commercial mango varieties of Northern India including Bihar which is known for mildly fibrous flesh and with a distinct pleasant taste and turpentine flavour. Significant variation exists among the clones of ‘Langra’ mango with respect to fruit shape, size, colour, quality and taste. Several studies have been made on characterization of intra-varietal variability of many different cultivars of mango. However, clonal variability studies in ‘Langra’ mango are limited. In this present investigation, an a empt were undertaken to study the clonal variability exit in some ‘Langra’ mango using morphological, biochemical and Molecular Markers. These results provide evidence that a signifi cant level of genetic variation exits among 10 clones of ‘Langra’ mango which can be used for mass multiplication of superior clone(s) and can be further utilized in breeding programs.
Title: Evaluation of Different Medium for Producing on farm Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Inoculum
Abstract :
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is a broad-spectrum non-specific organism known to colonize 85% of land plants hold considerable potential for use as inoculants. In the present perspective much attention is focussed on mass production of AMFinoculum, since this is of paramount importance in improving better uptake of nutrients, offers tolerance against a range of
soil stresses, plant production and enhances the chances of plant survival. Given these benefits, utilization of the AMF symbiosis should be an important tool in sustainable agricultural systems. Producing AMF inoculum is a complex procedure involving selection of a host plant , finding the right mix or medium and the inoculums starter . Seven different substrates were tested for the
production of AMF inoculum. Red earth in isolation or combination with solirite emerged as a suitable potential medium when compared to solirite for bulk production of pure, mature and infective AMF inoculum.
Title: Studies on Genetic Characteristic of Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Abstract :
The considerable amount of genetic variability was exhibited among the accessions of local collection obtained from natural habitat of Eastern U. P. (India) under the UPCAR project. High genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean was recorded for total number of grains per panicle, filled grains per panicle, number of effective tillers, leaf width and grain yield per plant. Positive and significant association was recorded by days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, leaf length, leaf width, filled grains per panicle and total number of grains per panicle among themselves and also with grain yield per plant at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Days to maturity, plant height, number of filled grains per panicle and test weight exhibited positive direct effect both at genotypic and phenotypic levels.
Title: In vitro Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects of Plant Extracts and Synthetic Antibiotic ‘Aztreonam’ Against Extended Bacterial Spectrum
Abstract :
The present study was carried out to assess efficacies of the various plant extracts for their pharmacological potential and synergistic effect in limiting the bacterial growth for formulating new cost effective antimicrobial agent(s) for multi drug resistant organisms. The antimicrobial activities of plant extract of Pterocarpus santalinus, Tectona grandis, Gloriosa superba and its synergistic effects among them as well as with a synthetic antibiotic ‘Aztreonam’ were assessed against Gram positive bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441; Gram negative bacteria viz. Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Acetone extract of Tectona grandis and Gloriosa superba, isopropyl alcohol (IPA)
extract of Pterocarpus santalinus were found most effective in restricting the growth of bacteria. The efficacies of the various extract combinations in each plant sample varied and the mminimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of acetone extract in comparison with ‘aztreonam’ using different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were found to be around 0.312 – 0.50 mg/
ml for Pterocarpus santalinus, 0.62 – 1.10 mg/ml for Tectona grandis and 0.7 – 2.9 mg/ml for Gloriosa superba. The combination of plant extract of Gloriosa superba + Pterocarpus santalinus (2:1) showed the maximum inhibition on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the strongest synergistic effect. Similarly the maximum inhibition on Bacillus subtilis was observed by the combination of plant extract of Tectona grandis + Gloriosa superba (2:1) whereas, the plant extract of Tectona grandis + Gloriosa superba
inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to the maximum extent.
Title: Influence of Vermicompost application alongwith Nitrogen on Growth, Nutrients uptake, Yield Attributes and Economics of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of vermicompost application on growth, nutrients uptake, yield attributes
and economics of rice (variety ADT 43) at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai during kharif season. Five main
plot treatments viz., M1- control, M2 - farmyard manure @ 12.5 t ha-1, M3- vermicompost @ 1.5 t ha-1, M4 - vermicompost @ 2.0 t ha-
1 and vermicompost @2.5 t ha-1 and three sub plot treatments viz., S1 – leaf colour chart critical value less than 3, S2 - leaf colour chart critical value less than 4 and S3- Recommended dose of nitrogen were replicated thrice in a split plot design. The results revealed that growth and growth attributes, yield attributes, N, P and K uptake and benefit :cost ratio were recorded higher
under application of vermicompost at the rate of 2.5 t ha-1 along with nitrogen addition based on leaf colour chart critical value less than 4. Application of vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1 along with nitrogen addition based on leaf colour chart critical value less than 4 was registered highest benefit cost ratio of 2.14 when compared to control was 1.83.
Title: Co-inoculated Biopriming with Trichoderma,Pseudomonas and Rhizobium Improves Crop Growth in Cicer arietinum and Phaseolus vulgaris
Abstract :A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of three rhizosphere competent microbial strains, viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens OKC, Trichoderma asperellum T42 and Rhizobium sp. RH4, individually and in combination in bioprimed seeds of chickpea and rajma. Seeds were sown in pots and fields and the results demonstrated that bioprimed seeds showed higher germination percentage, and better plant growth in both the crops compared to non-bioprimed control plants. It was also observed that the combined application of the microbes enhanced seed germination and plant growth better than their individual application.Among the combinations all combinations comprising of Trichoderma showed better results compared to the others and the triple microbial combination demonstrated best results in terms of seed germination and seedling growth in both chickpea and rajma.
Title: Performance Evaluation of Solid State Digester for Biogas Production using Biologically Pretreated Straw
Abstract :
The present paper reports biogas production from biologically pretreated paddy straw in a solid state digester made of HDPE plastic (124litre capacity). The trial was conducted with a mixture of 10 kg pretreated paddy straw, 20 kg cattle dung slurry, 20 kg cattle dung and 20 litre water. The chemical and proximate analysis of the feed was done and biogas production profile was studied over a period of one month. Parallel trial was also conducted with untreated paddy straw. The result indicated that 253.89 litre biogas/kg pretreated paddy straw was produced, which is 39.3% higher than the untreated paddy straw.
Title: Efficiency of Halosulfuron Methyl (NC-319 75%WDG) on Weed Control in Sugrcane
Abstract :
Field experiments were conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to evaluate the efficiency of halosulfuron methyl for the control of weeds in sugarcane. The treatments consisted of new herbicide formulation halosulfuron methyl (NC-319 75% WDG) in different doses (52.5, 60.0, 67.5, 75.0 and 150 g a.i. ha-1) at 3-4 leaf stages of Cyperus rotundus compared with recommended dose of PE atrazine 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 on 3 DAP + hand weeding and earthing up on 60 DAP, hand weeding on 30 DAP
and earthing up on 60 DAP respectively and also with unweeded control. The results revealed that the sedge weed density was distinctly lower in application of halosulfuron methyl at all doses. But grass and broad leaved weed density was perceptibly lower in PE atrazine 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 + hand weeding and earthing up on 60 DAP followed by hand weeding on 30 DAP and earthing up on 60 DAP and halosulfuron methyl 60.0 g a.i. ha-1. The lowest total weed dry weight, higher weed control efficiency and cane yield were recorded in PE atrazine 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 + hand weeding and earthing up on 60 DAP followed by hand weeding on 30 DAP and earthing up on 60 DAP and halosulfuron methyl 60.0 g a.i. ha-1. The herbicide doses evaluated in this study did not exhibit residual effect on succeeding crops of pearlmillet, sunflower and cowpea.
Title: Fungal Diversity in the Rhizosphere of Tropical Homestead and Plantation Crops of Kerala
Abstract :A study was conducted on the fungal diversity in the home gardens of three important districts of Kerala. The rhizosphere and rhizoplane samples were collected from different homestead crops representing diverse and distinct areas of coastal region (Ernakulum district), High range (Wayanad) and Dry region (Palakkad district) districts of Kerala. Fungal population was highest (82 x103 cfu g-1 of soil) in black pepper (Wayanad) followed by coconut (70 x 103 cfu g-1 of soil) in Ernakulam and 22 x103 cfu g-1 of soil in banana (Palakkad). There was greater diversity of fungi in the homesteads of Ernakulam, Wayanad and Palakkad districts. In all the three districts surveyed, Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were predominant fungi in most of the crops and or locations, even though other fungi were also recorded. However, there functional diversity needs to be studied and harnessed in order to assess the beneficial effects and relative efficiency on the host plants.
Title: Role of Rhizobium on Growth and Development of Groundnut: A Review
Abstract :

To fulfill the demand of increased population it is very essential to enhance crop productivity with precise inputs. Non-judicious application of inorganic fertilizers and other agrochemicals is degrading soil health, creating environmental pollution and also contributing to climate change. Nowadays, people became more aware towards health risks and demand for quality foods with less chemical residues is increasing as there is a progression of demand for organic products. But it is very difficult to produce adequate quantity of organic foods for the raised population in the developing countries as per standard organic practices. That’s why judicious use of inorganic fertilizers, organic manures and biofertilizers is required to supply nutrients to crops. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), such as Rhizobium inoculation in groundnut (a major oilseed crop) can boost crop growth and enhance yield in a sustainable manner. Further, Rhizobium has multifaceted advantages in crop nutrient uptake and soil quality improvement. The article described the role of PGPR as well as Rhizobium in growth and productivity of groundnut towards production sustainability.

Title: Forecasting of Productivity and Pod Damage by Helicoverpa armigera using Artificial Neural Network Model in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)
Abstract :
Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is one of the most important food legume, making it an ideal supplement to traditional cereals, which are generally protein-deficient. So, due to its high nutritional value and enormous losses caused by insect pests, it is very important to forecast the damage caused by major insect-pests and the yield of this crop. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed to forecast productivity (Kg/ha) and percent pod damage by a key insect pest Helicoverpa armigera of long duration pigeonpea in North East Plain Zone (NEPZ) of India. The forecasted values of percent pod damage by
this pest and productivity of Pigeonpea during 2012-13 were obtained as 26.29% and 1137.40 kg/ha, respectively. The performance of the model was assessed by values of the mean squared error, and the model was found suitable for the problem under study.
Title: Contents
Abstract :Contents of December, 2013
Title: Seasonal Flactuations of Butterfly Population: A Study in Butterfly Garden at Peechi, Kerala, India
Abstract :
Seasonal abundance and diversity of butterfly population in the Butterfly Garden of KFRI at Peechi was examined. A total of 11,104 individuals belonging to 50 butterfly species from five families and 37 genera were recorded. Nymphalidae was the most dominant family with 21species followed by Papilionidae (11species), Lycaenidae (7 species), Hesperiidae (6 species) and Pieridae (5 species). By pooling the generated data, the overall butterfly population showing an increasing trend from January to December
with many butterfly population had an average sightings in January, minimum in April and maximum in November. Data generated in this study shows that butterflies requires appropriate climatic conditions and they respond quickly to even subtle changes in temperature and humidity. It has been observed that the pupal period of certain Papilionids may be extended from the normal days
in November and December months. The lifecycle of butterflies is directly depends on temperature and humidity. A steady increase in the butterfly population count among all families shows the importance of such gardens in attracting and sustaining the butterfly population. Butterfly gardens help in caring wild butterfly population and to maintain the biodiversity in natural
ecosystems, which in turn, may increase the existence of human beings.
Title: Development and Evaluation of Mechanical Weeder for Finger Millet Crop
Abstract :

Finger millet (Eleusine coracana)   is a main field crop in southern part of Karnataka commonly called ragi as it provides both stable food for the region and good fodder for cattles. Weeds management is a major problem in finger millet crop and are responsible for drastic reduction of yield. Weeding by traditional methods are laborious and time consuming which leads to high cost of production. Pertaining to this, blade type simple mechanical weeder was developed and evaluated under finger millet crop with 2 and 4 blade harrows for weeding 2 and 4 rows at a time respectively. The results obtained at 2 rows and 4 rows weeding condition, the weeding efficiency (88 & 85 %), plant damage (2.5 & 3.6 %), effective field capacity (0.108 & 0.144 ha/h), field efficiency (90 & 60 %), fuel consumption (4.181 & 3.424 L/ha) and cost of weeding (` 572 & ` 447.42 ha) respectively.

Title: Growth Pattern of Soybean Cultivation in Madhya Pradesh: District wise Analysis
Abstract :
An attempt was made to examine the district wise compound growth rate in APY of soybean in Madhya Pradesh. Study found that among out of 39 districts only twenty two districts having the positive growth and two districts namely tikamgarh and sheopur found negative growth in area, production and yield. Four districts namely jabalpur, narsinghpur, shahdol and hosangabad
observed that negative CGR area and production but positive growth in yield. The negative growth in area and production was observed in Jabalpur district which was -16.29 and -15.04 per cent respectively. The maximum positive growth in area and production was observed in Anuppur district but it was examined for six years only therefore maximum positive was noted in
district shivpuri which was 9.00 and 10.14 per cent respectively. The substantial improvement in production has been noticed due to concerted efforts on soybean development in the state of Madhya Pradesh as well as in the country, resulting in a positive growth rate in area and production of Soybean.
Title: Quantification and Diminution of Quercus semecarpifolia Forests Ecosystem Services in Himalayan Region- An Overview
Abstract :

The genus Quercus comprises very important tree species of the Himalayan forests. Oaks are crucial for a multitude of ecosystem services and livelihood support services reaped by the locals in the Himalayan region. Quercus semecarpifolia is the oldest and dominating species of the Himalayan region. It is considered a lifeline for people of this region due to the wider range of ecosystem and livelihood services provided by it. But this species forest is depleting very rapidly in his region due to over dependency. Major cause of overexploitation is lopping for fodder and fuelwood. The present study attempted to Quantify, recognize, and group the ecosystem services provided by Q. semecarpifolia. Further, certain factors responsible for regular shrinkage of Q. semecarpifolia forests were also addressed.

Title: Efficacy of Newer Insecticides Against Sucking Insect Pests of Greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted to find out the effective dose of some newer insecticides for the management of sucking insect pests of green gram. The treatments of experiment were Diafenthiuron 50 WP @ 187.5g a.i./ha, Diafenthiuron 50 WP @ 250g a.i./ha, Diafenthiuron 50 WP @ 312g a.i./ha, Spiromesifen 240 SC @ 90g a.i./ha, Spiromesifen 240 SC @ 120g a.i./ha, Spiromesifen 240 SC @ 150g a.i./ha, Sseed treatment with Thiamethoxam 35 FS+ Thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 3g/kg seed+25g a.i./ha, Thiamethoxam 25 WG (Std. Check) @ 25g a.i./ha and Triazophos 40 EC (Std. Check) @ 500g a.i./ha. The results of experiment revealed that Diafenthiuron 50 WP @ 312g a.i./ha was most promising treatment in reducing population of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), jassid (Empoasca kerri) and flower thrips (Caliothrips indicus) after both sprays followed by Spiromesifen 240 SC @ 150g a.i./ha as compared to standard checks Thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 25g a.i./ha and Triazophos 40 EC @ 500g a.i./ha.

Title: Association Studies for Yield and its components in Green Gram
Abstract :
Twenty three genotypes of green gram were studied for genetic variability, correlation and path analysis for eight economically important traits. The genotypes viz. SG1, MH 709, ML 1278, Pant M 4, SG 21-5, OGG 56, CGG 973, ML 1354 and RVSM 11 were found promising for seed yield per plant. In general, PCV were higher than the corresponding GCV values for all the characters, suggesting the infl uence of environment in the expression of these traits. The broad sense heritability were high for plant height followed by 100-seed weight, pod length, seed yield per plant, days to fl owering, seeds per pod, days to maturity, pod fi lling percentage and pods per plant . Seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, pods per plant, pod fi lling percentage and pod length showed signifi cant positive correlations with seed yield per plant both at phenotypic and genotypic levels. Path analysis revealed that seeds per pod had the maximum direct eff ect on seed yield followed by 100 seed weight, pod fi lling percentage and pods per plant. Therefore, main emphasis should be given on these traits during phenotypic selection for developing high yielding genotypes of green gram.
Title: Identification of Oats (Avena sativa L.) Cultivars by Seed and Seedling Protein Electrophoresis
Abstract :
Soluble proteins were extracted from seed and seedlings of eleven oats cultivars to analyze the protein profile through SDS PAGE
method. In seed protein electrophoresis totally 14 bands were observed, in these six bands were common to all cultivars. Based on the seed protein banding pattern two of these cultivars were differentiated easily. The unique band at Rf value 0.151 was common for all cultivars, but it was absent in cv. UPO 94. Similarly the band at Rf value 0.662 was present in all cultivars but it was absent in cv. Sabzar. In seedling protein electrophoresis totally nine bands were observed, four bands at Rf value 0.370, 0.524, 0.543 and 0.855 were common for all cultivars. The presence of band at Rf value 0.340 was common in all cultivars, it was absent in UPO 94 and the band at Rf value 0.641 was absent in all cultivars it was present in cv. Sabzar. In both seed and seedling protein cv. Sabzar and UPO 94 expressed the discernible banding pattern when compared to others. The other cultivars are differentiated
based on the total numbers of bands, banding pattern, intensity of bands, specific presence or absence of bands.
Title: Development of Bacterial Consortia for Solid Waste Degradation and its Use as Organic Manure
Abstract :
Solid waste disposal has become a big concern all over the world. Almost 50% of the municipal waste collected daily, especially in the metropolitan cities where the population is very high, consists of organic solid waste. This organic waste left in the open dumping grounds results in stench and contamination of groundwater. The present study aims to find out the utilization of effective microbial consortia for decomposing the organic waste. Different garbage samples was collected from Panvel area for isolating the effective organic waste degrading organisms. These strains were characterized by microscopic observations and biochemical tests. Their cellulolytic, proteolytic, amylolytic and lipoolytic activities were evaluated. Depending on these enzyme activities, different consortia were prepared and their efficacy in reduction, maturity and deodorization of organic waste was compared. The plant growth promoting effect of this degraded waste on Triticum aestivum (wheat) and Zea mays (maize) was evaluated. 5 Different Microbial Consortium was developed. Microbial consortia increased the efficacy of composting as compared to control. Consortia no. 1 and 5 showed better degrading ability. Consortia 4 and 5 facilitated the best growth for Wheat and Maize respectively. Consortia 2 showed the best result in terms of germination and growth for both wheat and maize.
 
Highlights
 
  • All the groups of consortia were effective in terms of degradation of MSW, improving the properties of soil and growth of the plants
  • Also, when comparing with the control, the phosphorus, nitrogen content and plant growth showed great improvements
Title: Sustainable Land Resource Management Practices for Jute Cultivation through the Identification of Production Factors and Soil Nutrient Mapping
Abstract :
Jute is the second most important fibre crop in India after cotton. There is a problem of non-uniform productivity over 87 jute
growing districts located in varying agro-climatic regions of the country including 17 jute growing districts of West Bengal. In
West Bengal relatively higher productivity is observed in South Bengal than in North Bengal., Factors of production were identified through field survey and interaction with the farmers in a participatory mode. The experiment was conducted during 2007 to 2009 at Dakshin Dinajpur district of North Bengal with the aim of determining critical production factors of jute and also
to overcome the productivity constraints through soil mapping followed by soil fertility management. The results revealed that fertilizer management is the most critical factor of production followed by weed management. The soil resource mapping indicated that the experimental soils were having acute acidity problem followed by deficiency in some macro and micro nutrients which are certainly responsible for yield decline of jute in these areas.
Title: Influence of Pretreatments and Varieties on Biochemical Quality during Aonla (Emblica officinalis G.) Murabba Preservation
Abstract :
Matured aonla fruits of three cultivars namely, Kanchan, Chakaiya and NA-7 were harvested and each variety was pretreated with water (control), salt 2%, alum 2% and salt+alum 2% so that a total of twelve different treatment combinations were made before processing in to murabba. Murabba was analyzed for quality during storage for six months. TSS and total sugars increased while ascorbic acid, titrable acidity and fiber content of the aonla murabba decreased during the storage period. For most of the biochemical parameters variety, NA-7 and pretreatment salt+alum 2% proved to be promising in retaining the quality.
Title: Forecasting of Rice Production using the Meteorological Factor in Major States in India and its Role in Food Security
Abstract :

The world as well as in India, rice is playing a major role in food security. Production factors (like rainfall, minimum temperature, fertilizer consumption, an area under irrigation for a particular crop) are very crucial for crop productivity. Forecasting is always important for policy implication and planning purposes of the country. In the present investigation, the projection has been made using simple ARIMA and ARIMAX (with the inclusion of crop inputs in ARIMA models). In terms of less error in model and projection, wise ARIMAX model was found better compared to simple ARIMA. In this present study, forecasting has been attempted with the inclusion of meteorological factors using ARIMA modeling up to the year 2022. This study reveals the future trend of rice production as well as a factor affecting productivity. Among the major states, West Bengal would lead the state in India in rice production, with a productivity of 4758 kg/ha, while Punjab will be the leader in productivity in the year 2022. This prediction would be helpful for policy implication and food security of the country

Title: Empowerment of Dairy Farmers Through ICT Enabled I-Kisan Project in Andhra Pradesh
Abstract :
The present study was conducted in three districts namely, Anantapur, Ranga Reddy and Nalgonda of Andhra Pradesh State with a sample size of 240 dairy farmers (120 each of ICT users and non users) to measure their empowerment through ICT enabled ikisan project in Andhra Pradesh. Four components of empowerment of dairy farmers namely, knowledge regarding dairy farming, decision making ability, attitude towards dairying, and self confidence were selected based on relevancy, literature and experts opinion. The scale developed by Chaudhari et al., (2007), was used to measure decision making and self confidence, and test developed by Vijay babu (2009) was used to measure knowledge and Scale developed by Sah (2005) was used to measure attitude. It was observed that the mean values of components of empowerment of dairy farmers i.e., knowledge, decision making ability, attitude, and self confidence of ICT users were 40.70, 11.6, 9.80 and 4.60, and that of non users of ICT were 28.25, 9.24, 9.33 and 3.35
respectively. The mean values of overall empowerment of ICT users and non users of dairy farmers were found to be 16.59 and 12.54. Through Z-test it was also found that the components of empowerment namely knowledge, decision making, self confidence and overall empowerment of dairy farmers between ICT users and non users of ICT were found to have significant at 0.01 level of Probability, where as no significant difference was found between them as per as attitude is concerned.
Title: Screening of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates Recovered from Diverse Habitats in India for the Presence of Insect and Nematode-active cry Genes
Abstract :
Novel cry genes with different structure and mode of action are potential candidates for resistant management strategies. Isolation of novel genes needs thorough screening of large number of native Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates collected from diverse habitats and ecotypes. In the present study, 63 Bt isolates recovered from different habitats in India have been investigated
for their insecticidal and nematicidal cry gene content. Bt isolates were screened through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using degenerate primers for the presence of cry1, cry1A and nematode-active cry genes. Among the collection of 63 Bt isolates 21 were found positive for the presence of cry1-type genes, 49 for cry1A-type genes and 20 for nematode-active cry genes. Nine Bt isolates were found positive for all three types of cry genes. The study also show that PCR based screening method is rapid and
highly useful for characterization of Bt isolates to reveal their insecticidal spectrum.
Title: Effects of Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides on Human Health and Environment: A Review
Abstract :

In developing country like India, a marketable surplus of agriculture is the most important factor which influences the economic development of a country. To meet the demands of agriculture goods adequately and to feed the increasing population, the phenomenon of Green Revolution came into existence. Green Revolution, allowed developing countries like India to overcome continual food scarcity by producing more food and other agricultural products by using high-yielding varieties of seeds, modifying farm equipment, and substantially increasing use of chemical fertilizers. For an optimum production of agriculture produce and to feed the growing population, application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has become necessary. Such type of agriculture practices allowed growth and sustainability of food grains but at the same time have the major impact on the environment and human health. This article provides a sketch of effects of chemical fertilizers and pesticides on human health and environment.

Title: Anti-Nutritional Factor of Vegetables and their Effect on Human Body- A Review
Abstract :

Vegetables are well known for their nutritional and medicinal property but some of them contain certain components that are not desirable for human consumption. They are designated as anti-nutritional factors. Plant essentially use these compound as defense mechanisms against Herbivorous, insect pest, pathogens, etc., however, many of them are likely to the human being on consumption. Many popular vegetables cope like tomato, potato, spinach contain toxic compounds capable of apoptosis. Some are again neurotoxin like Choline-esterase inhibitor in pumpkin. Few vegetables even contain HCN which is capable to block the ATP synthesis. In this review, the major anti-nutritional factor in the vegetables and their impact on the body is being discussed.

Title: Cloning and Molecular Characterization of LECASAI Lectin Gene from Garlic (Allium Sativum L.)
Abstract :
Lectins have always demonstrated their role in bearing insecticidal activity. They are although considered to be toxic for mammals but some studies have reported that the presence of mannose binding region is believed to impart non-toxic nature to lectins against mammals including humans. In the present investigation, the research was conducted to elucidate the relationship of
lectin gene LECASAI with other previously cloned lectins having insecticidal activity and to ensure the presence of the conserved mannose binding region/site in LECASAI. In this study, we report isolation of LECASAI via PCR, Cloning, Characterization & Bioinformatics analysis of LECASAI isolated from Garlic (Allium sativum L.). The full length gene sequence of LECASAI obtained from sequencing consisted of 1029bp which was subjected to In-silico analysis in order to determine its ancestral relationship
and the presence of the conserved mannose binding region within the sequence. Results from In-vitro analysis indicated a higher homology of LECASAI with those of insecticidal lectins and the presence of mannose binding region in LECASAI. This unique approach has not only helped us in understanding the relationship between these genes but may also enable us to obtain an insecticidal lectin carrying insecticidal activity to several insects pests (for which even Bt proteins have been reported to be ineffective), apart from being non-toxic for man, mammals and birds in the future.
Title: Identification of Donors and Molecular Characterization of Corynespora cassiicola Causing Fungal Leaf Spot of Mungbean and Urdbean
Abstract :

In the wake of changing climatic scenario, dimnishing natural resources and growing food demands, the availability of germplasm capable to withstand biotic and abiotic pressures is crucial to ensure sustainability in agriculture system. Among the biotic stresses, fungal leaf spot disease cause significant yield reduction in mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) and urdbean (Vigna mungo L.), which are predominently grown in India and many parts of South and Southeast Asia. The present investigation was designed to identify resistant donors against the fungal leaf spot in mungbean (200) and urdbean (100) accessions by phenotyping under natural field conditions during kharif 2019. Though none of the 200 mungbean lines were found resistant to fungal leaf spot, 8 lines displayed moderate resistance. Likewise, out of 100urd bean accessions three germplasm lines unveiled resistance and 6 moderate resistance against the disease leaving others suceptible to highly sucepetible. The DNA of pathogen causing fungal leaf spot were isolated (Jhansi isolate) from the fungal mycelium and infected plants, respectively for molecular characterization and it was amplified using published primers for ITS and β-tubulin region for sequencing. A phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence of the Jhansi isolates along with the reference sequences from NCBI, GenBank revealed maximum identity (98.53 per cent) of isolate with Corynespora cassiicola of cowpea reported from Ghana. Further β-tubulin sequence also showed 88.55 per cent similarity with C. cassiicola isolate from China. This was further confirmed by leaf sensitivity test against crude fungal toxin cassicoin secreted by C. cassiicola.

Title: Zeolites are Emerging Soil Amendments for Improving Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Agriculture: A Review
Abstract :

Soil water and soil nutrient contents are the most important factors for crop productivity and agricultural sustainability. Water has become very scarce in rainfed agriculture and the cost of chemical fertilizers is increasing day by day. Nutrients availability and their translocation also reduce under limited water availability. Therefore, it is very important to manage both water and nutrient resources and to improve their use efficiency through environment friendly strategies. In the recent time, the use of zeolites has been emphasized in improving the physical and chemical properties of soils due to their high CEC, moisture holding capacity and etc. Zeolites are naturally occurring aluminosilicates with voids and channels in their inner structure, where water and nutrients are stored and exchanged. This characteristic of zeolites can be capitalized to enhance the use efficiency of fertilizers and water and to reduce the risk of environmental pollution occurring due to nitrate leaching and emissions of nitrous oxides and NH3. It is with this concern; the present review is focused on harnessing the potential of zeolites, for improving the water and nutrient use efficiency with reduced carbon foot prints.

Title: Fish Biodiversity Assemblages and Fishing Gears Used at Chinadi Beel in Narsingdi District of Bangladesh
Abstract :
The present survey disclosed the available fish biodiversity and the gears used for fishing in the Chinadi beel, Narsingdi, Bangladesh, for a certain period. Data was collected through face to face conversations using a well-structured questionnaire and cross-checked. About 51 species of fish under 7 orders and 19 families were found. The dominant order was found jointly for Cypriniformes (29.41%) and Siluriformes (29.41%). About 39 least concern (75%), 5 vulnerable (9.62%), 6 near threatened (11.54%), and 1 not evaluated (1.92%) species were observed. Fifteen different types of fishing gears (8 major categories) are used for fishing by the fishermen, of which seine net was the most leading gear. Most of the gears are banned for a period due to its unauthorized mesh size. The price of fishing gears was ranged from 250-1,00,000 Tk, of which the highest price was for seine net. The uppermost catch per unit effort (CPUE) was found for ber jal that was 15-18 kg/day. Most of the fishing gear was operated throughout the year, but limited in the dry season. However, the variety of fish abundance and species diversity is declining day by day in this beel. To protect the fish diversity of the Chinadi beel, it is recommended to establish effective fishery management practices, monitoring overfishing, and awareness of fishermen is highly recommended.
 
Highlights
 
  • The beel has a rich fish biodiversity and important for fisheries resources in the middle-east part of Bangladesh. About 51 species of fish under 7 orders and 19 families were found. Fifteen fishing gears (8 major categories) are used for fishing by the fishermen.
  • Now-a-days, biodiversity of fish was decreased due to over fishing, water pollution, heavy siltation, rapid urbanization and intervention of human.
Title: Milking method’ - Novel Technology for Venom Collection from Aculeate Hymenoptera and used for Screening of In- Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Against Pathogens
Abstract :
Wasps were collected live from the field by using a hand net/sweep net and were maintained in the laboratory under caged condition by providing sugar solution (1:1) along with proteinex. Venom was collected from wasps by ‘milking’. Initially wasps were forced to sting on potato blocks with the help of forceps but the wasps failed to sting on potato blocks. In later trials the
wasps were made to sting on sterile paper disc, the wasps were not able to sting on paper disc and did not appear to release the venom either. The wasps were then offered freshly prepared pre-sterilized two per cent agar blocks of approximately 1 cm3. The wasps were able to sting the agar block during this ‘milking’ process and the venom containing agar block was stored in the
eppendorf tube containing 50 per cent acetonitrile (ACN) with 0.1 per cent trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Venom from the selected wasps was collected by ‘milking’ at regular intervals.Then, extract was further concentrated and lyophilized and checked for the biological activity.
Title: Genetic Divergence and GGE Bi-plot Analysis of Multienvironment Trial Data of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to Identify “Ideal” Genotype
Abstract :

The present research revealed the study of genetic divergence and genotype (G) main effect and genotype by the environment (GE) interaction (G × GE) bi-plot analysis for multi-environmental trial data using yield data of three years. Since, genotypes were planted in 2017 in two dates like early and lates own condition hence, there was very slight differences in their yield so both the environments come together as compared to third environment (2018) which for from the two locations of year 2017. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of genotype, environment and their interaction on grain yield and to identify stable barley genotypes. The field experiment comprising of 69 barley genotypes laid out in a Randomized Block Design with three replications during Rabi 2016-2017. The extent of genetic variability, association between yield and yield components, frequency distribution of 25 top best genotypes in response to yield in three different environments, yield stability analysis and genetic diversity was studied. For stability analysis yield data of current year for one location and yield data of two locations/environments of previous year have been used. Field observations were recorded on six important characters days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, effective tillers per plant, plant height with awn, plant height without awn and 1000 grain weight (g). The result of bi-plot analysis using yield data of three years revealed that AXIS1 explained 57.6 per cent variation while AXIS2 was explained 31.07 per cent variation. Since, genotypes were planted in 2017 in two dates like early and late sown condition hence, there was very slight differences in their yield so both the environments come together (Figure1) as compared to third environment (2018) which for from the two locations of year 2017. Our result indicate that line G69 recommended as most stable genotype for yield potential and stability whereas lines G9, G55, G67 and G68 were consider as superior genotypes.

Title: Effects of Temperature and Gibberellic Acid (GA3) on seed Germination of Vicia sativa, Chenopodium album and Physalis minima
Abstract :
The interactions between temperature and GA3 are well known for their capacity to induce germination in dormant seeds of several weed plant species. In the current study, we investigated the effect of various temperature (10, 15, 20 and 25°C) and gibberellic acid (GA3) concentrations (50, 150, 250 and 350 ppm) on germination of Vicia sativa, Chenopodium album and
Physalis minima seeds incubated under continuous dark or light were carried out in 8/16 hr light and dark. Germination counts were taken until Day 13. We found that incubation temperature and GA3 significantly enhanced seed germination, as maximum germination was observed for V. sativa (79% at 20°C), C. album (69.8% at 15°C), and P. minima (62% at 20°C) in such treatments. Exogenous GA3 significantly promoted germination of V. sativa, C. album and P. minima. It was found that GA3 was more effective in the presence of light as compared to dark condition and lowest germination was found in weed seeds at control.
Title: Protein Profiling of Oreochromis spp. Epidermal Mucus Subsequent to Challenge of Common Freshwater Bacteria
Abstract :
Freshwater bacteria are the emerging pathogens that cause severe systemic disease in fish worldwide. Fish epidermal mucus contains innate immune components that provide the primary defense against different pathogenic microbes. The current experiment was designed to profile molecular changes of red hybrid tilapia mucus after subsequent challenge to common freshwater bacteria. Thus, to profile the epidermal mucus, 30 red hybrid tilapia Oreochromis spp. each of 150g was infected with Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aeromonas hydrophila. 10 fish were infected for each bacterium, and 10 fish acted as control. Every 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours, fish body mucus was collected in order to profile and explore molecular changes after subsequent challenge towards the causative agent. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel-Electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) was used to allow the fish body mucus protein separation by mass. As a result, common protein, 14 kDa was found in all of the isolated mucus challenged. Meanwhile, a protein with a size 49 kDa, 81kDa, and 101 kDa was found as a prominent protein of Streptococcus agalactiae. The prominent protein after challenge with Staphylococcus aureus is 20 kDa, 30 kDa, 35 kDa, and 63 kDa. In contrast, the most prominent protein after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila is 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 60 kDa. Protein profiling of mucus after 4 hours being challenged shows the best variations from the region 14-101 kDa. All of this finding is important towards better treatment and prevention of disease occurrence in Tilapia aquaculture.
 
Highlights
  • Common protein, 14 kDa was found in all of the isolated mucus challenged.
  • Protein profiling of mucus after 4 hours being challenged shows the best variations from the region 14-101 kDa.
Title: Marker Assisted Foreground Selection of Back Cross Genotypes for Leaf Rust Resistance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Abstract :

The investigation was undertaken to identify desirable wheat genotypes at BC1 generation carrying leaf rust resistance alleles using molecular markers. The F1 was generated from cross NI5643 (lacking Lr34) × NIAW34 (carrying Lr34). The F1 was confirmed by using simple sequence repeats (SSR) marker gwm389. This F1 was used for crossing with recurrent parent NI5643 (lacking Lr34) and BC1 plants were produced. Twenty five BC1 plants were screened for the presence of Lr34, by using SSR primers. For this purpose markers from chromosome 7D i.e. cssfr1, cssfr2, KUDS, barc352 were used to screen parental genotypes. All these markers did not show polymorphism among parental genotypes. Therefore these were not used for foreground selection. Another marker from chromosome 7D, wms130 was used to screen BC1 plants for the presence of Lr34 (foreground selection). As per the SSR profile generated by primer wms130, the plants 1, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 22 and 25 were found positive for Lr34. Another 10 markers i.e. gwm389, wmc313, wmc468, gwm610, wmc707, gwm60, wmc525, barc137, wmc419 and barc62 were used for background selection. The plants with heterozygous amplification pattern were selected for developing BC2 plants. BC1 plants that are heterozygous or positive for Lr34 using all the markers are 1, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 22, 23 and 25. Based on foreground selection and background selection, a total of 15 plants were found carrying desirable alleles and were used for developing BC2.

Title: Potential Role of Weed Management on Growth and Productivity of Pearl Millet: A Review
Abstract :

Growth and productivity of pearl millet are majorly governed by climate and adopted field management practices viz. nutrient, water, weed, etc. Weeds are undesirable plants both spatially and temporally which grow in close association with the crop competing for light, moisture, spaces, and nutrients. Studies indicated that the losses due to weeds were higher compared to other crop pests, thus posing a serious threat to national food security. In this context, adopting the right and efficient method of weed control is essential to achieve the yield potential of the crop. The manual hand weeding method of weed management, although efficient, is extremely strenuous and time-consuming. Moreover, the unavailability of labor is another serious drawback of this method. Besides, cultural, mechanical, and biological methods to do not ensure complete weed removal at critical stages of the crop-weed competition, especially during bad weather conditions. Hence, chemical control is the only efficient alternative left. However, selection of crop dosage, crop stage, and variety through proper understanding of mode and mechanism of action of herbicide determine its efficiency. This review mainly focuses in providing a clear understanding of the right dose and crop stage for scheduling different herbicides solely or integrated with other methods targeting efficient weed management in pearl millet.

Title: Variability in Physico-chemical Properties of Indian Olive (Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume.) Grown under North Bengal Conditions
Abstract :

A study was conducted during the fruiting season of Jalpai or Indian olive a minor fruit of West Bengal, so as to determine the physio-chemical properties of the fruits and evaluate the best accession. The fruits were harvested from distinct locations on North Bengal and were analysed for their bio-chemical properties. The results showed that all the different accessions possessed specific and distinct characters. The plant ACC-11 exhibited a very high value of TSS (7.07OB) followed by ACC-25 with a high TSS value of 6.9OB. ACC-24 showed high fruit weight of 20.83g compared to other accessions.ACC-30 was characterized with a highest value of total sugar (7.50%) along with high reducing sugar content (2.35%). The accession, ACC-20 not only showed high TSS value but was also distinguished with higher amount of total sugar content (6.85%). Similar trend was observed in ACC-29 where a high TSS (18.7OB), high reducing sugar (2.17%) and total sugar content (5.77%) were recorded. It can be established that the ACC-11, ACC-20 and ACC-29 accessions yieldeda superior quality of Jalpai whereas ACC-30 produces fruit with high sugar and acid content.

Title: Chromium (VI) Affected Nutritive Value of Forage Clusterbean (Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba L.)
Abstract :
Hexavalent chromium is highly reactive and shown to be toxic for plants at higher concentrations. In present study, a pot experiment was conducted with important forage crop ‘clusterbean’ to determine the toxic effect of hexavalent chromium on its nutritive value on advancement of plant growth. The plants were grown in soil containing varying chromium concentration ranging from 0.0-4.0 mg Cr (VI) kg-1 soil. Nutritive parameters viz structural carbohydrates, protein content and in vitro dry matter digestibility were studied in different plant parts and growth stages. Toxic effects of hexavalent chromium were reflected by no survival of plants at 4.0 mg Cr (VI) kg-1 soil, upto 28% reduction in protein content and high variation in structural carbohydrates contents. Irrespective of these changes, the in vitro dry matter digestibility largely remains unaffected with very less change (0-6%). The study concludes that hexavalent chromium adversely affected nutritive value of clusterbean at higher concentrations.
Title: Enhancement of Antioxidants and Nutritional Quality of Tomato Inoculated with Agriculturally Importance Microorganisms (AIMs) Fortified Vermicompost
Abstract :

The effect of biofortified vermicompost was studied on growth parameter and nutritional quality of tomato. Microorganisms used for fortification were Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis. Vermicompost was prepared by using temple waste and cow dung and earthworm Eisenia fetida was used in vermicomposting. The experimental findings showed significant variation in growth parameter and amount of antioxidants in treatments. The growth parameter such as root length, shoot length and dry weight was recorded after treatments. Maximum growth of plants was found in Vermicompost + T. harzianum treatment. Biochemical constituents of leaves such as total soluble protein, phenol, ascorbic acid and carotenoids were also recorded enhanced in treatments. Lycopene content in fruit was also increased in biofortified vermicomposts. Nutritional and antioxidants were recorded highest in vermicompost + P. fluorescens treatment.

Title: Weed seeds stratification in contrasting soil texture on the bank of river godavari
Abstract :
The experiment was conducted at Central Tobacco Research Institute (CTRI), Rajahmundry, Andra Pradesh, 2013 to investigate the role of soil texture in weed seed germination and eff ect of depth of soil profi le on emergence of weed seeds. The soil samples were collected from 3 places viz. Rajahmundry, Katheru farm under CTRI both belong to East Godavari district and Chainnaigudem village in West Godavari district with sandy, clay and sandy loam in texture respectively. Soil samples were collected from 0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm depth of soil profile using core sampler. Each site represents were approximately 1300 m2 area and 32 samples from 4 depths for every site. So, total 144 samples were collected to conduct the experiment. Germinated weeds identifi ed and counted every week and 10 weeks study was carried out. Sandy, sandy loam and clay soil texture found signifi cant non-linear relationship between weed germination and soil depth. All three places recorded signifi cant interaction between depth and seed germination. Soil depth upto 20 cm recorded maximum weed emergence both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous; however, dicotyledonous weeds recorded more in number than monocotyledon in four consecutive depths. Sandy soil found highest number of germinated weeds than sandy loam and clay texture soils.
Title: Characterization of Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus Strain CKMV1 as a Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria
Abstract :
A bacterial collection of approximately thirty native strains were isolated from rhizosphere soil associated with the seedlings of Valeriana jatamansi grown in moist temperate forest located in and around Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh. The strain CKMV1 showed PGP traits like, phosphate solubilization (257.0 mg l-1), indole acetic acid (7.0 µ gml-1) and siderophore production
(53.43%) at 35±2ºC. Besides, the strain also exhibited growth on nitrogen free medium, hydrogen cyanide production and antifungal activity against different fungal pathogens. Significant growth inhibition of fungal pathogens occurred in the order as S. rolfsii > R. solani > D. necatrix > Alternaria spp.> F. oxysporum. The results suggested that the rhizosphere of native V.
jatamansi growing in their natural habitat of Chamba district of H.P. is a rich source of Bacillus sp., which have potential to be used in the future as PGP inoculants to improve crop productivity. Morphological, biochemical and molecular based characterization of a selected isolate CKMV1, based on sequence homology of a partial 1375-bp fragment of 16S rDNA amplicon with the ribosomal database sequence valiated the strain as Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus. Therefore, these results suggested that out of 30 isolates, Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus strain CKMV1 possessed multiple PGP traits thus can be further explored for its efficacy as effective PGPR.
Title: Heterotrimeric G Proteins: Key Players in Plant Growth and Stress Responses
Abstract :
Heterotrimeric G proteins are large membrane-associated G proteins with subunits (Gα), (Gβ), and (Gγ) present in the plasma membrane in eukaryotes. They are signal transducers that play an important role in signaling pathways in various living organisms. In the inactive stage, Gα contains guanosine diphosphate and forms the heterotrimeric complex with Gβγ dimer which is activated by nucleotide exchange on Gα for guanosine triphosphate (GTP), GTP bound Gα dissociates from Gβγ dimer and modulates the effector for downstream signaling. Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) protein is a regulatory point of G protein activation and stimulates rate-limiting GTPase activity of Gα subunit. G-protein research in plants is getting a lot of attention recently due to the emerging roles in modulating abiotic and biotic stress responses. An increase in the frequency of extreme weather and climate change has accelerated the adverse effect from plant stresses which are detrimental for plant growth. G-proteins plays important role in various functions that enhances plant growth and development, regulation of hormones, signals, stresses and plant defense responses. Furthermore, future research should be directed towards the discovery of novel components and their signaling mechanisms.
 
Highlights
  • Guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G- proteins) are cytosolic proteins that are present in trimeric complex with α, β & γ subunits in plants.
  • They act as signal transducers that regulate multiple signaling pathways in eukaryotes.
  • Heterotrimeric G- proteins play vital role in plant growth and development in many plant species.
  • Besides roles in plant growth, they are also important for mitigation of abiotic (salt, drought, ozone, temperature) stresses and plant defense responses by inducing different mechanisms.
Title: Isolation, Characterization and Medium Optimization of Rhizobium Symbiont(S) From Sesbania aculeata (Dhaincha)
Abstract :

Sesbania aculeata (Dhaincha) is a well known ‘green manure crop’ which is been widely used in organic farming as un-decomposed green manure to improve soil and crop productivity. The current study attempts to isolate and characterize (both morphologically and physiologically) Rhizobial symbionts collected from root nodules of five desi Dhaincha plants grown in five different regions of West Burdwan district, West Bengal, India. One isolate was chosen from each plant and they were designated as RW1-RW5. All of these five isolates were subjected to various biochemical tests and it was found that the strain RW3 was biochemically distinct from the other four isolates that put it in a different species category. All the five isolates were Gram negative; rod shaped bacterium and could ferment various carbohydrates as their carbon source. But it was to be noted that all the strains were weak fermenters for mannitol, the principal ingredient of the conventional YEM medium. Except RW3, all the other isolates were potent producers of amylase, an industrially important enzyme. The RW3 strain was the sole producer of cellulase, another enzyme of economic value. All the four isolates, excluding RW3 were obligate aerobic organisms giving positive results for both catalase and oxidase tests. The RW1 Rhizobial isolate was chosen at random for further physiological studies and it was found that its optimum temperature and pH for growth was 28 °C and & 7.0, respectively that reflected the typical features of Rhizobiaceae family. It was a non-halophile exhibiting maximum growth at only 1% concentration of NaCl. It was later subjected to large scale cultivation (5-10 liters of broth media) with a potential to be applied as a biofertilizer by designing a suitable broth medium instead of the normal YEM broth. 6% glucose yielded maximum biomass along with 1.5% MgSO4, 2% KH2PO4, 1% NaCl and 6% yeast extract as indicated by A540 of the inoculated medium after 48 hrs of growth. This modified medium such designed for biofertilizer production utilizing RW1 Rhizobial isolate could be considered for mass scale culture of the Dhaincha symbiont although field trials are recommended. Antibiotic Sensitivity Test on the RW1 strain revealed that the bacterium was most sensitive to streptomycin and kanamycin and was least affected by ampicillin as evident because of its Gram negative nature.

Title: Isolation and Assessment of Plant Growth Promoting Activity of Siderophore Producing Pseudomonas fluorescens in Crops
Abstract :
The Pseudomonas fluorescens a major Rhizobacteria encourage the plant growth through producing yellowish green fluroscent siderophore involve in high affinity transport of iron into the cell. The P. fluorescens isolates grow in iron deficient media because of production capacity of siderophore depends on iron content. Fifty nine Pseudomonas fluorescens were isolated in King’s B
media under 260 nm wavelengths from the rhizosphere and non-rhizospheric soil of cave, forest, fellow land and agriculture field in Chhattisgarh region. The amounts of siderophore produce by P. fluorescens isolates were screen in iron deficient succinate media and most of them were found positive for the production of much siderophores. One of the isolate from Pakhanjore area
“P3” produce highest siderophore, which further assessed for plant growth promotion activities of crops rice, urd, mung and arhar. The study showed significantly higher increase in root length over control plants was observed in Rice (68.45%) followed by Urd (40.1%), Mung (33.71%) and Arhar (29.53%). Similarly, significantly higher increase in shoot length over control plants was observed in Rice (68.925%) followed by Urd (43.42%), Mung (39.96%) and Arhar (19.45%). It has been shown that these bacteria competively colonize plant roots and cause the plant statistically significant root and shoot increases by stimulating plant growth and reduce the incidence of plant disease of above mention crops under green house of tray culture conditions.
Title: Study of Physical Properties of Zea mays in the Development of Seed Metering Unit
Abstract :

The physical properties of seeds are very important to optimize the design parameters of various agricultural equipment used in their production, handling, and storage processes. Determination and use of these properties are also essential for the development of optimum seed metering mechanism and also in the design of a hopper for a planter for precise sowing of seeds. Physical properties such as length, surface area, breadth, roundness, equivalent diameter, sphericity, angle of repose, and coefficient of friction were determined for the development of the seed metering unit. The physical properties of seeds were calculated initially. Three varieties of maize seed Rasi-3033, NMH-589, and KMH-2589. The mean values of seed length, width, thickness, sphericity, geometric mean diameter, surface area, bulk density, coefficient of static friction, angle of repose, and thousand kernel weight were 11.00 mm, 7.75 mm, 4.58 mm, 0.65, 7.09 mm, 158.14 mm2, 746.4 kg m-3, 0.60, 28.17o and 0.23 kg, respectively. These properties were used in the development of efficient planter components to work effectively.

Title: Microencapsulation of Probiotic Bacteria and its Potential Application in Food Technology
Abstract :
Today the use of probiotic bacteria in food is of increasing interest to provide beneficial health effects in the food industry. Microencapsulation technology can be used to maintain the viability of probiotic bacteria during food product processing and storage. However, it is unknown to consumers how these beneficial bacteria sustain viability in food products and in our bodies.
These microcapsules are artificially created to support the growth of the probiotic and provide protection from harsh external environments. Polysaccharides like alginate, gelan, carrageenan, chitosan and starch are the most commonly used materials in microencapsulation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Techniques commonly applied for probiotic microencapsulation are emulsion, extrusion, spray drying, and adhesion to starch. It is done on bakery products, ready to eat cereals, dairy products etc. Now a days aseptic microencapsulation is introduced to biodegradable material. New creation and future progress will be carried by double microencapsulation, improving strain & culture.
Title: Next Generation Sequencing Platforms and its Applications in Genomics
Abstract :
DNA sequencing technology is undergoing a revolution with the commercialization of next generation technologies. Over the past eight to ten years massively parallel DNA sequencing platforms have become widely available with reducing the cost of DNA sequencing. Next generation platform (NGS) includes Helicos HeliscopeTM, Pacific Biosciences SMRT, Ion Torrent, Oxford Nanopore, etc. These platforms have the potential to dramatically accelerate biological research, by enabling the comprehensive analysis of genomes, transcriptomes and interactomes to become inexpensive, routine and widespread. Variant discovery by re-sequencing targeted regions of interest or whole genomes, de novo assemblies of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. Cataloguing the transcriptomes of cells, genome-wide profiling of epigenetic marks and chromatin structure is using other seq-based methods and species classification and gene discovery by metagenomics studies.
Title: In vitro Callus Induction and Regeneration of Popular Indica Rice Genotypes
Abstract :
Five rice cultivars viz., ASD 16, White Ponni, Pusa Basmati 1, Pusa Sugandh 4 and Pusa Sugandh 5 belonging to subspecies indica were compared for its ability in callus formation and regeneration. In this experiment, the different parameters viz., the effect of hormones (2,4-D and kinetin), organic supplement (coconut milk O1-CM 100 mll-1, O2-CM 75 mll-1, O3-CM 50 mll-1), explants (seed and immature embryo), media (MS and N6), carbon source (sucrose and maltose) using five genotypes on callus response was studied. The effect of hardening methods was also assessed. Results showed that for enhanced callus induction was with MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mgl-1 2, 4-D + 0.5 mgl-1 kinetin + 30 gl-1 maltose irrespective of explants used. Addition of 100 ml l-1 coconut milk was found have improvement in callus response. The performance of immature embryo was better than seed for callus induction, emrbyogenic callus formation, rhizogenic callus formation and regeneration. MS media provided superiority over N6. Among the genotypes Pusa Basmati 1 rendered outstanding performance in callus behavior. The treatment combination MS + 2.5 mgl-1 BAP + 0.5 mgl-1 NAA + 1.0 mgl-1 KN gave the highest organogenesis response and regeneration of plantlets. Hardening in mist chamber was recognized as the best method to give the highest per cent of regenerated plant lets.
 
Highlights
  • Five indica rice varieties were used for callus induction and regeneration
  • MS +2.0 mgl-1 2,4-D + 0.5 mgl-1 kinetin + 30 gl-1 maltose gave enhanced callus induction.
  • MS + 2.5 mgl-1 BAP + 0.5 mgl-1 NAA + 1.0 mgl-1 KN gave the highest regeneration
Title: Integrated Resource Management Impact on Productivity of Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] in Hilly Tracts of Tripura, India
Abstract :
Pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is the rich sources of dietary protein, carbohydrate & certain minerals, but its poor yield needs to formulate proper nutrient and pest management practices for higher productivity in upland alfisols of NEH regions and to combat it, an experiment was conducted during three consecutive kharif seasons at College of Agriculture, Lembucherra, Tripura comprising of eight nutrient and pest management combinations (T1-RDF (20: 60: 40); T2-T1+2% urea spray at 50% flowering; T3-T1+ 0.5% Borax spray at 50% flowering; T4- T1+ 0.5% ZnSO4 spray at 50% flowering; T5-T1 + 1% urea + 0.25% ZnSO4 + 0.25% Borax spray at 50% flowering; T6-T1+ Multimicronutrient spray @2 ml/litre at 50% flowering; T7-T1 + Indoxacarb at flowering + One systemic insecticide 15 days after the first spray; T8-T6+ Indoxacarb at flowering + One systemic insecticide 15 days after the first spray) in RBD design. It was revealed that micro-nutrient application in a combination of insecticide spray at flowering leads to better growth, higher yield (1.84 t/ha), and return per rupee (2.93), respectively.
 
Highlights
  • Low fertility and pest damage leads to a poor yield of pigeonpea in NEHR.
  • Management through micro-nutrient and plant protection chemicals.
Title: Pathogenic Variability of Ralstonia solanacearum Causing Bacterial Wilt of Brinjal in Red and Lateritic Agro-climatic Zone of West Bengal
Abstract :

Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the most economically important solanaceous vegetables in India. The crop is suffering severely from bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi et al. that considerably limits its cultivation and production. Symptoms of the disease in brinjal appeared usually at flowering and fruiting stage of the crop growth. Drooping of the top most leaves followed by total or partial wilting was common. Infected plants showed vascular browning. Variability of the pathogen was recorded in respect to their aggressiveness and pathogenicity. Presence of more aggressive isolates in Bahadurpur (BAHRS5) and Halsidanga (HALRS6) and moderately aggressive isolates in Mukundapur (MUKRS2) and Gorabari (GORRS3) may be due to higher cropping intensity of solanaceous vegetables. Stem incision appeared superior to the stem injection method for pathogenicity test through cross inoculation studies. No host specificity was observed among the isolates of the pathogen from brinjal, tomato and Amaranthus spinosus revealed race 1 while host specificity was recorded in case of the pathogen isolated from Costus speciosus revealed race 4.

Title: Impact of Propolis on Milk Yield, Composition and Somatic Cell Count of Cow Breeds at Dairy Farm of Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
Abstract :

Propolis has several pharmacological properties and safe alternatives to antibiotics. This study aims to address the impact of methanol extract of Indian propolis (MEIP) on milk yields and composition of six breeds and cross-breeds of cows. Bioactive compounds extracted from the raw propolis. 24 lactating cows were selected from six different types of breeds viz. Sahiwal, Haryana, Holstein Frisian × Sahiwal, Holstein Frisian Χ Haryana, Jersey × Sahiwal and Jersey × Haryana. They were randomly divided into four treatments with 6 replicates each and fed according to NRC (2001) with 0, 10, 20, 30ml MEIP/cow/day. The result showed that MEIP influenced the milk yield and composition of cows. The milk composition (%) was better (P<0.05) and the somatic cell count was lower in MEIP20 and MEIP30 compared to control and MEIP10. The response was greater in Sahiwal cows. The lowest (P<0.05) somatic cell count was observed in the Holstein Friesian × Sahiwal crossbred cows. The study concluded that the supplementation with MEIP, improved milk yield, milk composition and somatic cells count in other breeds except Holstein Friesian.

Title: Bioinformatics Information of Leguminosae Family in Gujarat State
Abstract :
Bioinformatics is the computational analysis of biological data, consisting of the information stored in the form of DNA, Protein and Genome sequences in various biological databases. Leguminosae family is one of the largest families that contain thousands of species of Plants, Herbs, Shrubs and Trees worldwide. There are more than 250 species of this family which are found in Gujarat state. There are three subfamilies of Leguminosae family which are Fabaceae (Papilionoideae), Caesalpiniaceace and Mimosaceae. Gujarat is a state in north-western India. It has an area of 78,687 sq mi (203,800 km2) with a coastline of 1,600 km; its capital city is Gandhinagar, while its largest city is Ahmedabad. In this paper authors have collected Bioinformatics information available of 148 out of 266 Leguminosae family species like DNA, PROTEIN and Genome information of Leguminosae family from NCBI database.
Title: Floristic Structure, Composition and Functional Characteristics of Homegardens in Garhwal Region, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract :

In the present investigation was carried out to access the floristic structure, composition and functional characteristics of homegardens in Garhwal region, Uttarakhand during 2013-14. Here, we had selected two districts on the basis of maximum (Uttarkashi) and minimum (Rudraprayag) geographical area of the state. The result showed that floristic tree diversity was maximum contributed by agroforestry crops (64%, 53.84%, 62.5%, 66.7%) and followed by horticulture crops (36%, 46.16%, 37%, 33.3%) with respect to Malkhi, Khumera, Kurura and Panchan gaun village respectively. The contribution of forest and van panchayat for fuel-wood were 13.5 and 5 kg, 11.5 and 6.5 and 2.6 and 6.2 kg/day for group of farmers during rainy, winter and summer seasons, respectively. We observed that 35 species of trees (forest trees+ fruit trees), 18 species of agriculture crops, 13 species of vegetable crops, 9 species of grasses and 13 species of shrub were identified from the study area.

Title: A Study on Impact of ICT Enabled Web Portal (Krishinet) on Farmers
Abstract :

In recent years, there has been extensive investment in e-governance throughout the developing world. Still, little is known about the impact of those investments, partly due to a lack of assessment guidance. In this study modified sustainable livelihood framework approach was used for studying impact of the project on farmers. Before and after data was collected from the registered farmers using recall method to assess the impact of the project on all five types of capital (Natural capital, financial capital, human capital, physical capital and social capital). It was found that after implementation of the project, in the category of natural capital, average production and average sold quantity of rice, wheat, pigeon pea, mustard, and green gram has been significantly increased and in the category of financial capital, respondents’ average family income, earning from agriculture and allied sector and benefit from government schemes has been significantly increased and in the category of human capital, average number of training received by respondents and average number of extension contacts made by respondents has been significantly increased and in the category of physical capital, average storage facility has been increased by respondents and in the category of social capital, average number of meetings attended by respondents in Krishi Gyan Kendra has been significantly increased.

Title: Insect-Based Medicines: A Review of Present Status and Prospects of Entomo-Therapeutic Resources for Human Ailment
Abstract :

Insects and products derived from them have been consistently used as medicinal resources by human civilizations all over the world. The immunological, analgesic, antibacterial, diuretic, anesthetic and anti rheumatic property in the bodies of insects is now well recognized; however the immense scope for its exploration still remains untapped. The chemicals generated by insects for self defense can be used as medicinal drugs of enormous potentiality. Insects have long been utilized as significant dietary factor and remedy for illnesses in folk tradition. Such entomotherapeutic potential of insects can also make important contribution in conserving the biodiversity of insects. At present, insect based medicines are gradually on the rise and gaining popularity and relevance. Products based on insect-derived substances with conventional technologies will help in yielding further benefits. This review collates the most important works conducted on insects used for different medicine and includes a discussion of the potentialities of such medicines.

Title: Management of Biotic Stresses in Chickpea Exploiting Host Plant Resistance
Abstract :

Cultivating resistant varieties is the most feasible and economical way to manage biotic stresses including seasonal weeds. A large number of diseases, insect pests, nematodes and seasonal weeds are known to cause alarming losses in standing chickpea crop leading to varying level of economic losses depending on weather conditions and crop growth. Thus, development and use of multiple adversities resistant/tolerant cultivars as component of integrated biotic stresses management will certainly help in minimizing losses due to major biotic stresses. In past, several donors’ parents carrying gene(s) of interest possessing resistance/tolerance against major biotic stresses (mainly diseases) have been identified and utilized for the development of resistant varieties for different agro-ecological zones of the country. Exploiting host plant resistance in managing diseases of crops by way of developing resistant varieties remain top priority agenda in breeding programs and has paid dividends as well. Out of more than 250 high yielding varieties developed, more than 50 have high level of resistance against fusarium wilt and other diseases. It is worthwhile mentioning that for each agro-ecological zone varieties possessing fusarium wilt resistant are now available. The research on insect pests, nematodes and weeds remain at minimal or could not lead in release of varieties having sufficient level of tolerance. Thus, there is urgent need to take up research for development of multiple adversities resistant varieties of chickpea not only to sustain present level of productivity but also to improve it further. Field and laboratory based techniques for rapid phenotyping of germplasm and breeding materials against major diseases, insect pests (insect bioassay), nematodes and weeds are now available. At the same time, genomic resources are becoming available for enhancing efficiency of selection from large breeding populations. In present article status and strategies for development of multiple adversities resistant chickpea varieties have been highlighted along with future research priorities.

Title: Economic and Environmental Benefits of Replacing Diesel Pumps with Solar Irrigation Pumps in Jaipur, Rajasthan
Abstract :
With the increase in population, urbanization, and development in India, the energy demand has increased in recent years. One of the main consumers of energy is the agricultural sector. Agriculture in India saw significant development regarding production and technology. India heavily relies on the energy derived from fossil fuels for driving its engine of development. Currently, India is the third-largest Greenhouse gas emitter in the world after China and the USA. So, for continued development along with reducing GHG, India needs to switch its source of energy from fossil fuels to renewable sources. This paper uses primary data to analyze the economic and environmental benefits of solar irrigation pumps in terms of savings on fuel and reduction in carbon emission.
 
Highlights
  • Savings on diesel fuel by replacing diesel irrigation pump by solar irrigation pump.
  • Reduction in carbon dioxide and carbon emission by replacing diesel irrigation pump.
  • Carbon credits generated by replacing diesel irrigation pump.
Title: Optimization of Culture Condition and Influence of Mediators on Degradation of Reactive Magenta-HB Dye Using Ganoderma cupreum AG-1
Abstract :
Reactive dyes are important chemical pollutants from the textile industries. Utilization of microbes including white rot fungi for decolorization of synthetic dyes is one promising strategy of an environmental friendly and cost-competitive alternative to physico-chemical decomposition processes for the treatment of industrial effluents. The present study investigates the
biodegradation and decolorization of reactive dyes using white rot fungi Ganoderma cupreum AG-1. Physico-chemical parameters including carbon and nitrogen sources, initial glucose and yeast extract concentration, pH, temperature, initial dye concentration, along with the effect of various metal ions and mediators were studied for the decolorization of Reactive Magenta-HB dye. The fungal isolate efficiently decolorized Reactive Magenta HB within 48 h at 28°C, at pH 5.0 and under optimized conditions 94.20
±1% dye decolorization was obtained within 48 h. The effect of mediators on laccase, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and manganese independent peroxidase (MnIP) were also studied. The decolorization of Reactive Magenta-HB dye was monitored by UV–Visible spectroscopy while dye degradation was studied by HPTLC and FTIR spectroscopy.
Title: Zabo Farming System- A Sustainable Farming based on Traditional Knowledge for Natural Resource Management Practiced by Tribal in Nagaland, India
Abstract :

Various models of sustainable indigenous farming practices exist among the tribal population, especially among tribes of the North East Region of India. These practices are often considered as an alternative to old age practices of shifting cultivation which has a negative impact on the natural ecosystem in many ways. This paper focuses on the practices and importance of the Zabo farming system, an indigenous farming model practiced by the Naga tribe in Nagaland. The word “Zabo” means impounding of water in the local dialect. Zabo farming comprises integrated agricultural activities such as forest land for silviculture, water harvesting, animal husbandry, and paddy cultivation along the slope of the hills.

Title: GIS based Spatial Variability Assessment in Flower Crops Grown Soils of Horticultural College and Research Institute, Periyakulam, Tamil Nadu
Abstract :
Sixty five surface soil samples were collected in the flower crops grown soils of Horticultural College and Research Institute, Periyakulam, Tamil Nadu. The geo-coordinates were recorded for each sample using GPS. Field maps were digitized for its field number-wise boundary and other features. Soil samples were collected, processed and anlaysed for soil physico-chemical and soil fertility properties. Analytical results of flower-grown soil samples indicated that samples were acidic to alkaline in reaction, nonsaline and slightly calcareous to non-calcareous in nature. Soil fertility groupings under percent category indicated the dominance of medium organic carbon, low available nitrogen, medium to high available phosphorus, high available potassium and low available sulphur categories. In the case of available micronutrients, the dominance of low DTPA-Fe, medium DTPA-Zn, high DTPA-Mn, medium DTPACu and high HWS-B were observed. The nutrient index values of the samples indicated that low status for organic carbon and available N, medium for available P and K while very low for available sulphur. Regarding to micro nutrients, the order of nutrient index values were B>Mn>Cu>Fe>Zn. Nutrient index values found to indicate for very low DTPA-Fe, Zn and Cu while marginal for DTPA-Mn and HWS-B. Thematic maps generated on the individual soil parameters clearly indicated the spatial variability of individual parameters in the flower grown soils of Eastern farm of Horticultural College and Research Institute, Periyakulam. The low fertile areas have to be improved by the conjoint application of organic and /or inorganic sources for enhanced flower production and sustainable soil fertility. 
Title: Aspergillus flavus and Aflatoxin Contamination of Poultry Feeds in Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract :
A survey was conducted during 2013 in different regions of Tamil Nadu, India and a total of 51 poultry feed samples were collected from poultry farms and poultry feed dealers. The presence of Aspergillus flavus in the feeds was detected by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using specific primers based on the O-methyltransferase gene (omt-A) that is involved in the aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis. The contamination levels of Aflatoxin (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that 98% of the tested samples were contaminated with AFB1 and the levels ranged from 0 to 160.7 ppb and the levels of AFB1 in 29% of the samples exceeded 20 ppb. Aflatoxin B2 contamination was observed in more than 82 % of the samples tested and the levels of
AFB2 in 17 % of the samples exceeded 20 ppb. The levels of AFB2 ranged from 0 to 95.5 ppb. AFG1 and AFG2 were not detected in any of these samples. In the PCR analysis using omt-A primers, A. flavus specific 300-bp PCR product was amplified from DNA extracted from most of the AFB1 contaminated feeds. However, some of the feed samples even though contain AFB1 failed to amplify the 300-bp product in PCR.
Title: Impact of Air Pollutants on Agricultural Crops
Abstract :

History of mankind has witnessed transformation in form of industrialization, urbanization and motorized transport in the past. These all had made the life easier for human but these also led to increase in level of pollutants in the atmosphere. These pollutants have cascading impact on agriculture. The impact of some of the major pollutants such as SO2 , NOx and ozone is in the form of production of ROS, reduced photosynthesis and energy metabolism. The aerosol and particulate matter pollution also leads to reduced transpiration which raises the canopy temperature and also disturbs the water and nutrient uptake by the crop plants. To date most of the pollution related studies, especially in developing countries, are restricted to its impact on urban areas and human health. It is needed to extend these studies to impact of air pollution on agriculture. In this paper we have discussed the various mechanisms through which the pollutants act on the crop plants and their impact on yield.

Title: Influence Gamma Irradiation on Morphological Changes, Post Harvest Life and Mutagenesis in Gladiolus
Abstract :

Present investigation was carried out for 3 years (2011-12, 2012-13 and 2013-14) at Varanasi, India to find out influence of various gamma doses i.e. 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 kR along with untreated (control) in different varieties of gladiolus viz., Aldebaran, Jyotsana, Legend, Praha, Punjab Dawn, Pusa Kiran and Tiger Flame. Maximum number of opened florets in vase was recorded with control during 1st year, whereas during 2nd year it was higher with 2.5 kR. Among varieties maximum opened florets were exhibited with cvs. Jyotsana and Tiger Flame during 1st and 2nd, respectively. Gamma dose at 1.5 kR registered maximum number of opened florets at a time during both years. Longevity of first floret was more with 2.5 kR treatment. Maximum vase life was recorded with 5.5 and 2.5 kR during 1st and 2nd year respectively. Among the varieties, maximum vase life was recorded with cv. Punjab Dawn followed by cvs. Tiger Flame during 1st and 2nd years. Various morphological changes were observed with different doses (3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 kR) and an unstable mutant in variety Pusa Kiran was observed at 2.5 kR. However, a stable mutant during 3rd year of investigation was recorded in cv. Tiger Flame at 3.5 kR gamma irradiation. This mutant has orange-yellow colour flowers. Variation on flower shape, size and colour was exhibited than parent.

Title: WaBcal - A Calculator for Preparing Water Budget of Discrete Land Unit
Abstract :

WaBcal is a calculator to prepare water budget of any discrete land unit. It is developed in C language and follows water budget norms proposed by National Agriculture Commission (1972,2002). Major input to the model is normal rainfall of that area and this is proportionately equated into surface flow, ground water flow, evaporation at various stages and magnitude, soil moisture etc. The calculator considers different water needs of the area which include demand from agriculture, domestic, livestock and industries. Total 27 field crop, nine vegetables and six fruit crop and six other crops are prevailing in Madhya Pradesh that may be used for computing agriculture demand. 18 Animals are considered for live stalk demand. Population gives domestic water demand. As an output the calculator gives water surplus/deficit of the study area.

Title: Effect of Integration of Seed Bio-priming and Inorganic Fertilization on Soil Physico-chemical Properties of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
Abstract :

Conventional agricultural practices rely on the immense application of agrochemicals that show detrimental effects on soil biota. Negative impacts on soil microbiota and enzymes that involve in nutrient cycles hinder nutrient availability. Application of plant growth-promoting microbes such as Trichoderma spp. can evade these hurdles by improving soil biodiversity and performance of the crop. A pot culture experiment was conducted during two consecutive years (2018 and 2019) to figure out the effect of different doses of fertilizers and seed bio-priming with Trichoderma asperellum BHUT8 in sunflower (PAC334) on soil chemical properties. Results showed that the initial soil reaction was slightly alkaline that tend towards neutral with seed bio-priming. The electrical conductivity of soil in both seasons varied randomly among imposed treatments. Soil cation exchange capacity, which permits the soil to hold all essential nutrients, was enhanced 4% with the supply of 70% recommended dose of fertilizer and seed bio-priming. Soil available nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium were found maximum in the treatments supplied with Trichoderma through seed bio-priming. Inoculation of Trichoderma showed positive effects on soil chemical properties and reduced the requirement of inorganic fertilizers.

Title: Efficacy of edible coatings on the shelf life of ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruits at ambient condition
Abstract :
The present study explored the use of some post harvest treatments to extend the shelf life of ber. Matured ber fruits were treated with Chitosan (0.5%, 1%, 2%), Guar gum (1%, 1.5%, 2%), Gum tragacanth
(1%, 1.5%, 2%) for 16 days of storage. All treated fruits showed lower loss in fruit weight, less spoilage and long marketable life in comparison to untreated fruits. Guar gum (1.5%) proved very useful for
reducing loss in weight, shriveling even a er 12 days of storage. At the end of the storage maximum TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugar, reducing sugar were observed in Guar gum(1.5%) treated fruits followed by Gum tragacanth(2%).
Title: Irradiation as an Alternative Method for Post–harvest Disease Management: An Overview
Abstract :

Considering the high economic worldwide loss due to the post-harvest decay of fruit and vegetables, and the frequent development of pathogen isolates that are resistant to synthetic fungicides, there is a need to develop more eco-friendly alternatives for controlling post-harvest diseases. Irradiation (Gamma and UV-C) is one such physical method which is promising, but when used separately is not as effective as fungicides. Therefore, to improve its effectiveness and persistence, irradiation method can be combined with other complementary control measures such as sodium carbonate, heat treatment, chemicals, cold storage and bio-control agents as apart of integrated disease management strategies. Low doses of UV radiation, particularly UV-C have proven to be effective in delaying ripening and senescence, diminishing decay and even in increasing the content of beneficial compounds owing to its germicidal properties. It mainly inactivates microorganisms, especially pathogens by creating damage in the genetic material (DNA) of the cell. These methods can be efficiently used to delay the ripening of fruits, to inhibit germination, improve nutritional quality, minimize insect infestation and deactivate viruses. Short shelf life of mushroom can be extended by inhibiting cap opening and browning, stalk elongation, reducing the level of microbial contamination and finally by increasing the concentration of vitamin D2 significantly, without causing any adverse effect on its taste. This review deals with the information of maximum benefit which can be achieved from irradiation technology, and when combined with other chemical and physical methods with integrated strategy will provide synergistic effects for post-harvest disease control.

Title: Editorial
Abstract :

Editorial

Title: Evaluation of effectiveness of Mid Day Meal Scheme on Enrolment and Drop out Rate of Children in Rural Government Schools
Abstract :

National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE) commonly known as Mid Day Meal Scheme was launched by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (Department of Education) with effect from 15th August, 1995. The programme is designed to give a boost to the universalization of primary education. It is helping poor children belonging to disadvantaged section to attend school more regularly and help them to concentrate on classroom activities. The present research aimed at studying the impact of Mid Day Meal Scheme (commonly known as Aksharadasoha) on enrolment and dropout rate of children in five rural government schools in Hassan district of Karnataka state. The field study was based on the observations of 208 children, 104 girls and 104 boys studying primary/ upper primary and high schools in which Mid-Day Meals Scheme was functional. The data was collected from government school records. In all 208 parents of the beneficiary children were selected and interviewed to collect information about their socioeconomic status. The results showed that majority of the parents had their primary and upper primary level of education, they were engaged in agriculture and allied activities and their annual income was less than Rs. 50,000. The study also revealed that there was continuous decline in the enrolment of children (both male and female) per session from 2011-12 to 2014-15 in government schools of Hassan district. The drop-out rate has been minimized to a large extent and from the session 2011-12 to the session 2014-15.

Title: Microbiological Quality of Water Stored in Copper, Earthenware and Stainless Steel Vessels
Abstract :
A study was conducted to compare the effect of storage of water in copper, earthenware and stainless steel vessels on coliform count and aerobic plate count. Water samples contaminated with animal excreta was collected from farms and aerobic plate count and coliform count was estimated. The samples were then stored in copper, earthenware and stainless steel vessels for ten days at room temperature and the counts were taken on third, sixth and tenth days. Initial mean aerobic plate count of sample was 9.18±0.38 log10 cfu/ml, which came down to 4.99±0.12 log10 cfu/ml, 5.87±0.47 log10 cfu/ml and 5.21±0.42 log10 cfu/ml respectively, in copper, earthenware and stainless steel vessels on third day of storage. By tenth day of storage of water, copper vessel could eliminate 83 per cent of aerobic bacteria, earthenware vessel could eliminate 77 per cent of aerobic bacteria and stainless steel vessel could eliminate only 70 per cent of aerobic bacteria. Coliforms were completely eliminated from copper vessel by third day of storage. Whereas, earthenware vessel retained 66 percent of initial coliforms on third day of storage, and it took seven to ten days for complete removal of coliforms from earthenware vessel. Stainless steel vessel retained 23.5 per cent of initial coliforms on
tenth day of storage. It could be concluded that use of copper vessels for storing drinking water in households is an effective water purification method.
Title: Potential of Intercropping System in Sustaining Crop Productivity
Abstract :

Intercropping, an age old agricultural practice of cultivating two or more crops in the same space at the same time is generally adopted for more production by utilizing available growth resources. Choice of crops is very important to reap a better harvest from intercropping. The selection of a suitable intercropping system is sort of complicated issue as the success of intercropping depends much on the interactions between the component crop species, proper management practices and favorable environmental conditions. Intercropping has a huge potential and multiple advantages. The advantages are like efficient utilization of resources, enhancement of soil fertility by including legumes as component in mixture and soil conservation through covering the greater ground cover. Moreover, intercropping reduces attack of insect pest, checks the incidence of diseases and restricts weed population and thus minimizes the use of protection plant chemicals. This article addresses an overall view with a focus on prime advantages supported by evidences from the literature based on earlier research.

Title: Evaluation of Certain Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] Genotypes for Resistance Against Major Sucking Insect Pests
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Farm of Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi to investigate the resistance of mungbean genotypes against major sucking insect pests during kharif 2015. Results revealed that the mungbean genotype VGG 10-008 (4.98 whitefly/split cage) showed minimum infestation of whitefly and genotype MH 921 (8.77 whitefly/split cage) maximum infestation. In the case of jassid, maximum infestation was recorded on genotype LGG 460 (6.31 jassid/ split cage) and minimum jassid infestation was recorded on genotype DGG 6 (3.31 jassid/split cage). Genotype LGG 460 (2.93 thrips/10 flowers) showed maximum infestation of flower thrips and minimum in genotype DGG 6 (1.28 thrips/10 flowers). Genotype PM 10-18 (7.73 q/ha) produced maximum yield and genotype LGG 460 produced minimum yield (2.47 q/ha).

Title: Impact of Coriander Intercropping on the Incidence of Defoliator, Spoladea recurvalis Fabricius in Amaranthus
Abstract :

The investigation on the impact of coriander CO (CR) 4 intercropping with the clipping type of amaranthus (CO3) for managing the defoliator, Spoladea recurvalis Fabricius was conducted in two different locations. To assess the influence of coriander and its repellency effects in varied planting ratio of amaranthus and coriander viz., 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, and 5:1 were evaluated along with amaranthus sole crop. The results obtained on the aspects of amaranthus plant height, number of branches per plant, number of larvae per plant, percent foliage infestation, and total green yield clearly indicated that there is no more negative impact on the plant height aspect was registered due to intercropping with coriander crop. Among the different ratios evaluated, the highest plant height was observed and registered in the 5:1 ratio of planting, which is significantly higher than amaranthus sole crop. In the aspect of the number of branches per plant, the 1:1 and 2:1 ratio recorded the highest number of branches compared with the 4:1 and 5:1 ratio. It was considering the number of larvae per plant and percent foliage infestation 2:1 and 3:1 ratio of planting registered the lowest larval population (1.22 – 1.45/plant) and foliage infestation with the higher average yield of 31.79 and 30.02 tonnes/hectare (sum of 10 clippings) when compared with amaranthus sole crop cultivation. Among the varied ratio evaluated, the 2:1 and 3:1 ratio of amaranthus : coriander planting was found to be better in registering the lowest percent foliage infestation (10.52 -11.25%) with a higher yield (30.02 – 31.79 tonnes/ha.).

Title: Performance of Commercial Broilers as Affected by the Supplementation of Enzymes and Dried Poultry Excreta
Abstract :

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of DPE and enzymes on performance of commercial broiler chicks. Two enzyme levels (without and with enzyme supplementation) were considered for the study. The experiment consisted of two replicates for enzyme groups. The performance of broiler was evaluated in terms of growth and feed efficiency at 6th week of age. Data were analyzed on survivor and equal number of bird’s per subclass basis. Analysis of variance revealed that the difference between replicates were not significant for the different traits under study as such all subsequent analysis was performed on combined sex basis. Inclusion of enzyme in diet had highly significant effect. Group of chicks fed with diet E (with enzyme) were significantly heavier than those fed with diet E0 (without enzyme) at second week body weight. It indicates that the enzyme supplementation had weighty effect on early growth of chicks. Inclusion of enzyme in diet had significant effect at third week age of body weight, the group of chicks fed with enzyme supplemented diet (E) had significantly higher body weight than the group fed without enzyme supplemented diet (E0). It indicates that inclusion of enzyme in diet had positive effects on growth of chicks. Inclusion of DPE and enzymes revealed significant effects on body weight. Chicks showed higher body weight with diet having DPE and enzymes.

Title: Re-Description and Morphometric Analysis of Eucalyptus Gall Wasp, Leptocybe invasa
Abstract :

Gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa, (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is a devastating pest of Eucalyptus plantations and nurseries. The pest causes galls on the midribs, petioles, and stem of tender shoots. In the present study detailed morphometric analysis with re-description, using twenty-six characters of gall wasp (female & male) have been given, which are distinctly supporting characters for the taxonomy and identification of Eucalyptus gall wasp.

Title: Study of Micronutrient Status in Soil of Solapur District
Abstract :

The aim of this study was to evaluate available micronutrient (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and B) status and their relationship with soil properties. In this work the status of micronutrient in soil of Solapur district area, Maharashtra, India is described The present study is mainly focused on testing of soil samples in Solapur district to determine their level of micronutrients and to provide information to the farmers regarding micronutrients availability in soil. The increment in nutrient supply beyond a certain limit resulting in the decreased yield of plants is often be associated with the production of specific toxic effects .The incidence of micronutrient deficiencies in soil and plants is increasing due to high and multiple plant. Extensive micronutrient deficiencies lead to decline in factor productivity even with balanced NPK fertilization. Although the crop response to micronutrients application varies with soil type, crops and genotype, agro-climatic conditions and severity of deficiency, an enormous response to micronutrient fertilization has been reported in a wide variety of crops including horticultural crops across the country.

Title: Survey for purple blotch of onion (Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cif.) in northern parts of Karnataka
Abstract :

Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the important bulb crop and most important commercial vegetable crops cultivated extensively in India and it accounts for 90 per cent of the exported vegetables from India in terms of value. The production ofbulbs and seeds is limited by certain diseases. The most serious one is the purple blotch caused by Alternariaporri (Ellis) Cif. The disease causes extensive damage to bulbs as well as seed crop and also a major limiting factor in cultivation of onion. In view of the destructive nature of purple blotch of onion the present investigation was conducted through survey to know the disease incidence or severity and collection of infected samples. A survey was conducted during kharif 2013-2014 in onion growing areas of Northern Karnataka viz., Bijapur, Bagalkot, Gadag and Dharwad districts. The highest per cent disease index was noticed in Ilkal village of Bagalkot district. While, the lowest per cent disease index was noticed in kerur village of Bagalkot district. Among the districts, severity of disease was more in Bijapur and less in Gadag.Isolation was made from onion leaves showing typical purple blotch symptoms. Pure culture of A. porri was obtained and its pathogenicity to onion plants was proved. On the basis of isolation and morphological studies, the pathogen was identified as Alternariaporri (Ellis) Cif.

Title: Optimization of Protoplast Isolation Protocols from Callus Culture of Anacardium occidentale L.
Abstract :

Protoplast technology endeavors a unique single cell system that promotes several aspects of modern biotechnology. In the present study, an efficient protocol to isolate the protoplast from callus culture of a valuable plantation crop, Anacardium occidentale was developed. The phenolic compound released during digestion process caused protoplast injury resulted in low yielding. Further investigations revealed that pH 5.0 and osmotic concentration 0.5M mannitol were found suitable for maximum protoplasts yield. The results also indicated that the age of the callus tissues plays a key role in the yield of protoplasts in A.occidentale. During the study, youngcalli showed maximum protoplast yield when treated with cellulase (2.5 %), pectinase (2.5 %), hemicellulase (1.5%) and 20mM CaCl2 in 0.5M mannitol. Meanwhile, an incubationperiod of 4hours with enzyme solution resulted in the maximum yield of protoplasts (4.71 ± 0.15)×103 protoplasts/g FW. In short, the results generated in the study can be used as a platform to work out the protoplast technology in A.occidentale.

Title: Effect of Nano-Titanium Dioxide Polymorphs Priming on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Abstract :

A laboratory experiment was performed to examine the effect of nano-TiO2 polymorphs priming on seed germination and seedling growth of french bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Nano-TiO2 polymorphs i.e. anatase and rutile, were synthesized by the sol-gel method using titanium tetraisopropoxide as Ti-precursor and 2-propanol as solvent. Seeds of french bean were treated with nine different concentrations (in water) of each nano-TiO2 polymorphs (0, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00 and 2.50 %) by soaking in different concentrations suspension (prepared by ultrasonication method) for 24 hours. At the end of the experiment, the percentage of seed germination, seed germination index, seedling vigour index, root length, shoot length, number of lateral roots, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry weight were evaluated at 15 days following paper towel method. The results showed that increase in concentration of each nano-TiO2 polymorphs caused a significant increase in each study parameters. The best concentration of nano-TiO2 polymorphs was 2.50 %. The findings illustrated the beneficial effect of nano-TiO2 polymorphs priming on seed germination and plant growth of french bean.

Title: Relative Efficacy of Different Weed Management Practices on Growth, Yield and Weed Dynamics in Sunflower
Abstract :
The experiment was conducted during 2020 to evaluate the relative efficiency of the application of herbicides combined with inter cultivation practices for their influence on the growth and productivity of sunflower. Herbicides like pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen, sodium aciflurfen, clodinafop propargyl with intercultivation at different days after sowing and unweeding as control. Pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg/ha at 1 DAS followed by Sodium aciflurofen + Clodinafop propargyl @ 125 g/ha at 21 DAS proved to be better in terms of effective weed control, improved crop growth characters, and productivity of sunflower. The performance of Oxyfluorfen @100 g/ha at 1 DAS fb Sodium aciflurofen + Clodinafop propargyl @150 g/ha at 21 DAS was on par with Pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg/ha at 1 DAS followed by Sodium aciflurofen + Clodinafop propargyl @ 125 g/ha at 21 DAS with regard to growth, yield attributes and seed yield.
Title: Management of Damping off (Pythium aphanidermatum ) in chilli (Capsicum annum cv VNS-4 ) by Pseudomonas fluorescens
Abstract :
Pseudomonas fluorescens 0.5% W.P. formulation applied as seed and furrow (soil application) in Chilli significantly reduced the damping off disease of chilli caused by P. aphanidermatum. The yield of chilli was also significantly enhanced. The formulation did not have any phyto-toxic effect on chilli plants at all the dosage levels tested for bioefficacy. The Pseudomonas fluorescens
0.5% W.P. application had no adverse effect on the beneficial rhizospheric microbes, like Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (Glomus spp.) in chilli rhizosphere at all dosages which were confirmed by microscopic observations. Based on the above findings, the Pseudomonas fluorescens 0.5% W.P. formulation is found safe and effective and may be used as an efficient & eco-safe alternative
of synthetic fungicides for the management of damping off disease of chilli and for obtaining higher yields.
Title: Estimation of Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Gain for Wood Density and Fibre Length in 36 Clones of White Willow (Salix Alba L.)
Abstract :
Variability of wood density and fibre length was determined in 36 genotypes of Salix alba L. procured from seven different European countries namely Italy, Hungary, U.K, Netherlands, Turkey, Yugoslavia and Croatia. Genetic parameters were worked
out with regards to estimate of heritability (broad sense), genetic advance, genetic gain as per cent of mean and correlation coefficient among them. Wood density was recorded in the range of 0.30-0.53 with mean value 0.40gcm-3 whereas fibre length ranged from 0.45-0.65 with mean 0.55mm. High heritability values show that the genetic control is stronger for wood density (h2=90.30) than for fibre length (h2=78.20). Both the characters were having high heritability with good genetic gain. Clone 84/22 from Turkey had given best performance in view of both the character. Further control crossing is underway to produce ideotype with regard to different end users.
Title: Photodynamic Potential Of Curcumin Nanoparticle With Chitosan On Adherent Canine Tumour Cell Line A72
Abstract :
Cancer is a highly incomprehensible and complex disease. Current treatment strategies are associated with adverse toxicities like multidrug resistance by cancer cells, destruction of normal cells, hair loss etc. The present work was aimed to use the natural photo sensitizer curcumin from C. longa and C.aromatica in nanoscale along with chitosan for the Photo Dynamic Therapy of cancer using adherent canine tumour cell line A72.Curcumin was extracted from C. longa and C.aromatica with water, acetone and ethanol. Light Source used for PDT was 12V Philips Endura LED 7W MR16 dimmable lamp. Photo sensitizers and nano materials were characterized by AFM and UV-Vis spectrum. Photosensitizers from 50µg/50µl to 0.393µg/50µl was used for toxicity assay . Toxicity of all photosensitizers were evaluated in darkness and light by MTT assay. Acetone extraction of C.longa yielded comparatively more curcumin than ethanol and water. Yield of curcumin was 0.25%, 0.16and 0.05% in acetone, ethanol and water respectively . UV-Vis absorption spectrum of curcumin showed peak at 425 nm. In darkness the toxicity of curcumin to A72 was 9% and curcumin nano particle was 11% at a concentration of 50 µg/50µl .Cellular toxicity by light alone was found to be 2%.
Title: Gene effects and genetic analysis of indigenous land races and improved cultivars for yield and yield components in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Abstract :
Rice is one of the crucial staple food crops and its unique grains assist to hold two third of world population. Generation mean analysis is commonly used in studies of inheritance of quantitative traits. Experimental material consisted of ten parents which included six high yielding varieties used as female parents and four traditional landraces used as male parents, F1, F2 and F3 generation of six crosses viz., IR 72 x Veeradangan, ADT 39 x Kavuni, ADT 45 x Kavuni, ADT 43 x Navara, ASD 16 x Navara and
TPS 4 x Kathanellu. Seven biometrical characters indicated that additive and dominance x dominance gene actions were predominant with duplicate type of gene action for fi ve biometrical characters viz., plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, panicle length, number of fi lled grains per panicle and single plant yield. The epiststic eff ects, additive x additive [i] and dominance x dominance [h] were highly signifi cant in most cases. The signs of (h) and (l) were opposite in all studied traits for most crosses. Non-allelic gene interaction was operating in the control of genetic variation in most studied traits. Also, the inheritance of all studied traits was controlled by additive and non-additive genetic eff ects, but dominance gene eff ects play the major role in controlling the genetic variation of the most studied traits. Present study indicated that early generation selection is eff ective and should be
practiced for future breeding program. 
Title: Growth and Feasibility of Solar Irrigation Pump in Rajasthan, India: An Economic Perspective
Abstract :

Agriculture plays an important role in the Indian economy. The agriculture sector has seen consistent and significant growth in terms of technology and innovation, which has helped India to become a food exporter. However, past initiatives focussed on improving production and environmental aspect were neglected. Now, government is formulating policies and initiatives that would help in increasing agriculture production along with sustainable development. Promotion of solar irrigation pump is among one of those policies. Provision of heavy subsidies and schemes (JNNSM, KUSUM, etc.) on the adoption of solar pumps have increased their affordability. Because of the increased affordability of solar pumps after subsidies, the popularity of solar pumps has increased in Rajasthan, which has resulted in an increased rate of adoption. Considering the role of solar pumps in current scenario and that of future, this study was conducted to analyze the economic viability and costs incurred in solar pump installation. Payback period, NPV, BCR, and IRR were used in the analysis.

Highlights
  • Following study tries to estimate the time it will take to recover the investment made on a 7.5 HP solar pump.
  • Rate of growth of solar irrigation pump in the last eight years.
  • Economic feasibility of installing solar irrigation pump.
Title: Weed Dynamics of Hybrid Rice under the Influence of Fertilizer Levels and Weed Management Practices
Abstract :

A field experiment entitled “Weed Dynamics of Hybrid Rice under the Influence of fertilizer Levels and Weed Management Practices” was conducted during the Kharif season of 2017 at the Research Farm, TCA, Dholi, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur (BIHAR). The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with twelve treatments. Among different levels of fertilizer, application of 100 % RDF recorded a minimum number of weeds/m2 (58.36/m2), weed dry weight production (73.12 g/m2), and weed growth rate (0.024 g/m2/day). In the case of weed management practices, Hand weeding (twice) was found to be the most efficient weed control (71.32%), a minimum number of weeds/m2 (25.11/m2), weed dry weight production (21.12 g/m2) and weed growth rate (0.011 g/m2/day) but the minimum weed index (45.87%) was observed in weedy check.

Title: In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Antibacterial Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Medicinal Tree Species, Anacardium occidentale L. and Mangifera indica L.
Abstract :

This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant property and antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extract of mature leaves and flower of the medicinal tree species, Anacardium occidentale and Mangifera indica. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) free radical scavenging method and agar well diffusion method was used to detect antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity respectively. Various plant extracts of both the tree species studied were found to have potent antioxidant activity against DPPH and antibacterial activity against five human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Salmonella typhi; Bacillus subtilis; Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore ethyl acetate extracts of mature leaf and flower extract of both A.occidentale and M.indica can be considered as a new potential source of natural antioxidants and antibacterial agent for pharmaceutical industries.

Title: Effect of Zinc and Iron Ferti-Fortification on Growth, Pod Yield and Zinc Uptake of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Genotypes
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2014-15 at Agronomy field unit, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Raichur to study the effect of zinc and iron ferti-fortification on growth, pod yield and zinc uptake of groundnut genotypes. The soil of the experimental site was deep black, clay in texture with pH 8.4, deficient in DTPA extractable zinc and iron. Three groundnut genotypes in main plots and seven micronutrient treatments comprising of one control and three each of zinc and iron as soil, foliar and both were assigned in the sub-plot in a split-plot design replicated thrice. Results revealed that the groundnut genotype ICGV-00351 recorded significantly higher plant height and leaf area at harvest (40.05 cm and 5.40 dm2 plant-1, respectively), pod yield (2656 kg ha-1) and Zn uptake by kernels, haulm and total (59.29, 130.46 and 189.75 g ha-1, respectively) when compared to other genotypes. Among the micronutrients soil (25 kg ha-1) and foliar (0.5 %) application of ZnSO4 recorded significantly higher plant height and leaf area at harvest (42.09 cm and 6.30 dm2 plant-1, respectively), pod yield (2656 kg ha-1) and Zn uptake by kernels, haulm and total (67.42, 153.61 and 221.03 g ha-1, respectively) when compared to other treatments.

Title: Response of Boron on Yield and Economics of Maize under Eastern Ghat High Land Zone of Odisha
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted in participatory mode on farmers’ field in Sankumari village of Nabarangpur district under Eastern Ghat High Land (EGHL) zone of Odisha during kharif 2016 to assess the response of boron application on yield and economics of maize. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with four treatments replicated five times. The experimental soils were slightly acidic, non-saline, loamy sand, medium in organic carbon and available K; low in available N, P, B and Zn contents. The maximum grain yield per cob (210.21 g),100 seeds weight (38.16 g), stover yield (8.10 t ha-1), grain yield (6.52 t ha-1), total dry biomass (14.62 t ha-1), harvest index (44.59%) and B:C ratio (1.90) were recorded in Soil Test Based NPKZn @ 150:75:60:6.25 kg ha-1 + 0.5 kg B ha-1 soil application + 0.2 % borax as foliar spray at 30 & 45 DAS (T4) followed by Soil Test Based NPKZn @ 150:75:60:6.25 kg ha-1 + 1.0 kg B ha-1(T3) over control (i.e. Soil Test Based NPKZn @ 150:75:60:6.25 kg ha-1+ 0 kg B ha-1). Hence, Soil Test Based fertilizer application with boron is to be followed in soil deficient in boron under continuous maize growing areas of EGHL zone of Odisha for remunerative maize production by the farmers.

Title: Studies on Physico-Chemical Constituents in Different Cultivars of Sweet Potato under West Bengal Condition
Abstract :

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) is a low-input crop that can produce stable yields under suboptimal conditions. It is a nutritious and ample food source for humans and animals as well as a raw material for manufacturing. The experiment was carried out at the Horticulture Research Stationand AICRP Tuber Crops laboratory of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal, India from 2012-2014 to study the variability existing among the tubers after harvest. It has been found that the different cultivars had plant length (79.26-130.36 cm.), number of shoots/plant (7-13.67), number of leaves/plant (56.33-120), and number of tubers/plant (2.67-7), tuber weight (80.23-175.87 gm.), length (17.07-24.05 cm.), girth (3.42-5.28 cm.), yield/plant (2.97-10.78 kg/plant)and these varied significantly among the cultivars. The cultivars were observed to have good biochemical properties with moisture content (74.74-150.74 %), dry matter (18.42-31.62 %), TSS (6.43-11.25 °Brix), ascorbic acid (12.84-25.91 mg/100gm), total sugars (2.17-3.68 %), carbohydrate (15.67-28.42 mg/100g), protein (1.09-3.08 %)and starch (8.23-15.56%).They have also high sensory scores (7.20-8.55) based on the results obtained from overall acceptability. Cultivar IGSP-15, S-61 and ST-14 were identified to be superior considering all qualitative aspects like morphological characteristics, overall acceptability, biochemical compositions like good nutritional value, antioxidant property and suitable for processing purposes which can be selected for further improvement and can be promoted for cultivation. Results show that these sweet potato varieties have potentials of biological properties and could have wide utility in food, alcohol and sugar industries. In addition, it could serve as a promising source of protein and its consumption could be utilized in the management of diseases that implicate free radicals.

Title: Genetics of fertility restoration and agronomic performance of CMS based hybrids in pigeonpea
Abstract :

In the study, CMS based hybrid combination involving two male sterile lines (Cajanus cajanifolius) and four restorer lines in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) were studied to determine the genetics of fertility restoration in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.). Based on the pollen fertility and pod setting, F2 segregating populations were categorised. Out of two major genes governing the fertility restoration, one gene segregated in the ratio of 9:3:4 whereas the second gene in 12:3:1 due to the allelic differences. The ICPA 2043/ LRG 41 and ICPA 2043/NDA 1 hybrids fits best for agronomical aspects as they showed earliness with respect to flowering and maturity having more number of pods plant-1, increase in pod length along with more seed yield plant-1. CMS system is a useful tool serving to increase seed yield production of various crops and consummate the demands of increasing populations.

Title: Isolation and Selection of Fungal Strains for Multienzyme Production from Western Ghats
Abstract :

Western Ghats is one of the eccentric biodiversity niches, with varied flora and fauna, in which fungi are one of the dominant group of microbes present in soil which strongly impact ecosystem structure. Hence there is a growing interest in assessing soil fungal biodiversity in Western Ghats and its biological functioning in production of various significant biomolecules. With the advent of new frontiers in the field of biotechnology the spectrum of cellulase and amylase has expanded in various industries, including food, fermentation, textiles, laundry, pulp, paper, agriculture as well as in research and development. The present study deals with the screening of fungal strains that amylase and cellulase which are industrially indispensable. The fungal strains were collected from the Western Ghats and were screened for initial multienzymes production. Thirty-two fungal strains were isolated among which eight were found to have both cellulolytic and amylolytic activity. Three fungal strains (TBG – 14, 5 and 4) were selected for further studies due to their capability in multienzyme production.

Title: Combining Ability Analysis for Seed Yield and its Contributing Traits in Indian Mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]
Abstract :

A set of 10 × 10 diallel crosses (excluding reciprocals) of Indian mustard along with their parents were evaluated to estimate general and specific combining ability of parents and crosses, respectively. The analysis of variance for combining ability revealed that variance due to gca was significant for all the characters except lenoleic acid and erucic acid. Whereas, variance due to sca was significant for all the traits except plant height, lenoleic acid and erucic acid. Magnitude of variance components of sca were higher than gca (gca/sca) for all the traits except plant height, oleic acid and erucic acid indicated preponderance of non-additive gene action for these traits. The estimates of general combining ability effects indicated that parents GM 1 and GM 2 were good general combiners for seed yield per plant and most of the yield attributing traits. Parents, SKM 9033, RSK 28 and GDM 4 for oil content, P. Mustard 21 and LES 45 for oleic acid, P. Mustard 21 and Dhara for lenoleic acid and P. Mustard 21 and LES 45 for erucic acid were found good general combiners. Cross combinations viz., GDM 4 × Dhara, SKM 9033 × RSK 28, GM 3 × LES 45, GDM 4 × EC 287711 and GM 1 × P. Mustard 21 were found good specific combinations for seed yield per plant and other desirable traits. Thus these cross combinations could be utilized in breeding programme for further amelioration of seed yield in Indian mustard.

Title: Study on Profile Characteristics of Self-help Group members in Himachal Pradesh
Abstract :

Self-help groups have emerged as a vital tool for economic development in India. In hill states like Himachal Pradesh importance of self-help group increases manifold due to higher number of fragmented small and marginal landholdings. Self-help groups must sustain as an economic venture for the overall development of rural areas. It is very important to study individual member traits to understand the sustainability of self-help groups. The present study was conducted in the state of Himachal Pradesh to assess socio-personal, socio-economic, and communication variables of self-help group members and to make a comparison with non-member farmers. Findings of the study reveal that most of the SHG members were of the middle age category, with dominating membership by women farmers. Most of the SHG members adopted vegetable farming along with other agriculture activities with medium vegetable growing experience. SHG members attended significantly higher training programmes than non-member farmers. Most of the farmers have marginal landholding but SHG members put a significantly higher portion of landholding in vegetable cultivation when compared to non-member farmers. Significantly higher vegetable production was reported for SHG member vegetable farms, and the reason for this was higher media exposure and significantly higher extension contacts of SHG members than non-members.

Title: In Vitro Propagation and Development of Salt Tolerant Lines of Edible and Medicinal Varieties of Coleus sp.
Abstract :

Coleus sp. is one of the most important tuber crops of South East Asia. Pollen grains being sterile in the plant, vegetative propagation are the only method to carry out reproduction. However morphological and genetic variability are relatively absent by normal vegetative reproduction. Thereby tissue culture techniques of micropropagation through axillary shoot proliferation, organogenesis and shoot embryogenesis can improve the genetic constitution of the crops. For axillary shoot proliferation, nodal explants and for organogenesis and callusing leaf explants of Coleus parviflorus and Coleus forskohlii were used. Furthermore salt tolerant lines were tried to raise using different concentration of NaCl with normal MS media. Morphological and biochemical changes associated with the in vitro regenerated types were investigated to maintain the “true to type” propagation. RAPD analysis to find out variation between DNA of both in vivo and in vitro plants were carried out using OPA 11 and OPB 07 primers. The rate of multiplication was found to be higher in media supplemented with NAA, BA and GA3. Callusing from leaf explants was found to be very low in media supplemented with only GA3. Bud break and shoot multiplication was affected by higher concentration of NaCl at 10gm/l and 20gm/l. Evaluation of biochemical constituents revealed no variation in dry matter, starch and sugar content of regenerants and conventionally grown plants. RAPD analysis exhibited no variation in DNA between the in vivo and in vitro plants

Title: Soil moisture distribution under different lateral and dripper spacing of surface drip irrigation system in clay loam soil
Abstract :
The status, availability and distribution of moisture distribution within a crop’s root zone aff ect the yield and growth of crops. To increase the effi ciency of the water use while reducing water losses due to evaporation, the precise distribution of water around the emi
Title: Effect of Agro-chemicals on Severity of Bacterial Blight and Fruit Quality in Pomegranate
Abstract :

Bacterial blight of pomegranate caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae is a wide spread disease affecting pomegranate production and quality of fruit in Punjab. In-vitro evaluation of agrochemicals indicated that blitox at 3000 ppm followed by kocide 2500 ppm successfully managed the disease. A field experiment was also conducted for its management at New orchard, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana during, 2013. Three sprays of the agro-chemicals were done at 15 days interval starting from end June to end July on Mridula variety of pomegranate. Among the various treatments, blitox (0.3%) + streptocycline (250 ppm) proved most effective in reducing per cent disease index, per cent fruit cracking and providing maximum disease control. Quality parameters viz., TSS, acidity, weight, pulp colour, juice weight etc. were also studied. Maximum TSS, fruit weight, juice weight, pulp weight, 100 grain weight and total grain weight were observed in blitox (0.3%) + streptocycline (250 ppm) followed by kocide (0.25%) + streptocycline (250 ppm) sprayed fruits.

Title: Characterization of Biochars from Various Agricultural By-Products Using FTIR Spectroscopy, SEM focused with image Processing
Abstract :
Biochar is a charred final product by the pyrolysis of biomass. In this work, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of various agricultural by-products (Pine needles, Rice husk, and grinded wheat straw, Bamboo leaves) derived carbonaceous biochars were investigated. The efficacy of FTIR spectra as a simple and rapid method for bio-physical characterization had been explored. The FTIR information was also discussed for explaining the biochar formation process. Results indicated the feasibility of FTIR in rapid and non-destructive biochar measurements for quality and production. Digital image processing has been used to identify the cell walls of the SEM images by using several filters and image histograms of all the SEM images are also generated. All the algorithms are used after careful consideration of noise removal using wiener filter to each of the images.
 
Highlights
 
  • Agricultural by-products can be used as feedstock materials to produce biochar.
  • With pyrolysis, significant changes in chemical, physical, and structural can easily be revealed by FTIR spectra and SEM of biomass and biochar samples.
  • The proposed image processing method can detect the cell walls of SEM images after efficiently removing the noise from the original gray-scale images
Title: Market Integration of Major Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils in India- Evidence from Karnataka
Abstract :

This study has analyzed market integration across six major wholesale markets for groundnut, sunflower, and soybean. This paper investigates the market integration of selected oilseeds and respective oil markets in India by employing monthly wholesale prices from 2009 January to 2020 February. The stationarity property of the time series of prices was checked through the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test. To get the evidence in which direction the price transmission is occurring among the selected markets, Granger causality test has been used, which confirmed that some markets are influencing each other in a unidirectional way. Others have a bidirectional relationship at a five per cent level of importance, meaning that the chosen oilseed market prices have long-run association. In view of vertical integration Bellary pod market, Chennai oil and Ahmadabad oil markets are the key markets for groundnut, sunflower, and soybean, respectively. Thus, the study concluded that regional markets for selected oilseeds are strongly co-integrated. Furthermore, the study suggested that the Government can smoothen the price in most influencing markets and expect a similar result in other markets. Therefore, there is a need for faster market information movement by strengthening market intelligence by establishing an online marketing system through networking.

Highlights

  • Market integration explains how distinct markets are related to one another.
  • In India, selected regional markets for selected oilseeds are strongly co-integrated.
  • Strengthening of market infrastructure including transportation, storage, and communication is the need of the hour to reap the benefits of market integration.
Title: Estimates of genetic variability parameters for yield and yield attributes in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
Abstract :
Groundnut is an important oilseed crop grown under diverse climatic conditions. The productivity of the crop is considerably aff ected by foliar fungal diseases, especially late leaf spot and rust which occur together and cause severe yield loss. With an objective of upgrading yield integrated with disease resistance, two cross derivatives in BC2F1 generation were developed by crossing foliar disease susceptible variety CO 7 and two foliar disease resistant parents viz., GPBD 4 and COG 0437 in groundnut. These backcrosses viz., CO 7 × GPBD 4 and CO 7 × COG 0437 were used to study their mean performance, genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean for yield and yield a ributes. High percentage of PCV, GCV, heritability coupled with high GAM were recorded by both the backcrosses for kernel yield per plant, pod yield per plant, number of pods per plant and 100-pod weight. In addition, the characters viz., 100-kernel weight, shell weight, sound mature kernel per cent, late leaf spot and rust score exhibited high/medium coeffi cient of variation accompanied with high/moderate heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean which indicated the presence of additive gene eff ect. Thus, upshot of the study clearly indicating that there is a presence of wide spectrum of genetic variation for almost all the characters in both the crosses, suggesting that they respond to selection with greater effi cacy for amelioration of kernel and pod yield conjunction with foliar disease resistance in groundnut.
Title: Impact of Agro Technology on Socio-economic Condition of the Farming Groups at Jagannathpur
Abstract :

Agriculture is being highly technologized today; to sustain production and gain higher yields, farmers have to be updated regarding available technologies. As the land area is decreasing, there’s always a challenge to increase production and earn profit. Therefore, technological innovations also change farmers’ socio-economic conditions. Considering this, an interview on three categories (landless, marginal, small) of 15 farmers was conducted at the Jagannathpur union of Kumarkhali upazilla under the Kushtia district to investigate the socio-economic status, problems in crop production, potentials, limitations of rural development and adoption extent of modern agricultural technologies. Outcomes expressed that, a major source of annual income (1,20,800 Tk) of landless farmers were from non-agricultural works; contrary, marginal (2,89,000 Tk) and small (3,89,200 Tk) farmers’ prime source of income was from agricultural origins. It was a positive sign that all categories of farm families spent a good sum of money for educating children immediately after food expenditure. All the farmers had drinking water, electricity and hygienic toilet facilities at their dwelling house. The problem confrontation index (PCI) of rural development was highest in lack of capital (36). Physical and social PCI was identified as limited natural resources (32) and reduction of croplands (28), respectively. Concerning technology adoption, 14% used biofertilizer, 12% followed a modern model of vegetable production, 12% collected quality seeds, 10% exercised mulching, 10% used perching and 10% imitated seed preservation techniques. Top PCI for crop production was high input cost (36) followed by lack of technical knowledge (34). Most of the respondents agreed that agricultural production directly contributes to food security (34), increased nutrition (32) and financial safety (30).

Title: MGNREGA Impacted Rural Women Empowerment: A Case Study of Mandya District
Abstract :

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is different from earlier employment programmes launched by the government of India as, on the one hand, it is a demand-driven scheme while, on the other hand, it treats employment as the right of the rural household. This act was adopted by the Indian government to reduce rural unemployment and poverty so that it leads to the reduction of rural-urban migration in search of employment. This scheme also provides income directly to unskilled workers in rural areas. Women Empowerment is the important objective of this act; emphasis was laid on promoting gender equality through providing wage employment to women. This paper will mainly focus on the impact of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) on the empowerment of women in the five-gram panchayats of Mandya district of Karnataka. It also focuses on the significant improvement of the status of rural women through MGNREGA socially, economically, and psychologically.

Title: Field Efficacy of Bio-fertilizers and Bio-inputs to Improve Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Production under Alkaline Soil in Kachchh District of Gujarat
Abstract :
With the aim of reducing chemical fertilizer application and improving the sustainability of wheat cultivation under alkaline soil, the present study investigated the effects of different biofertilizers and organic products on wheat productivity. The application of these products was applied in the soil through irrigation water as solitary or in consortia by three different ways of treatment, i.e. (1) single treatment; (2) double treatment (first and 21 days), and (3) triple treatment (first, 21 days and 45 days). We demonstrate that all the biofertilizers significantly enhanced wheat productivity as compared to the control treatment, but this was mostly observed with more than one treatment condition. The biofertilizers were applied in solitary and consortia treatments. Solitary treatment of Azospirillium spp, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas fluorescence was found effective. However, the Nitrogen consortium treatment of biofertilizers (Azotobacter chroococcum + Azospirillium spp) was more prominent as compared to solitary application. Our results suggest that more than one application of biofertilizers may be effectively exploited for sustainable wheat production in an eco-friendly way, but attention should be paid to the consortium approach or organic amendments during cultivation.
 
Highlights
 
  • Bioinoculant showed a positive effect due to their PGP characteristics on wheat shoot growth
  • Promising bacterial strains of Nitrogen fixers have potential as inoculation agents in eco-friendly wheat crop production under abiotic stress contributing to environmental sustainability.
Title: Yield Gap Analysis for Groundnut through Cluster Front Line Demonstration in South Eastern Ghat Zone of Odisha
Abstract :

A study was carried out by the Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Malkangiri during 2018-19 to find out the yield gap between farmer’s practices and demonstration practices through cluster front line demonstration in South Eastern Ghat Zone of Odisha. The results showed a 32.9% increase in the average yield of groundnut with demonstration practices as compared to farmer’s practices. Higher economic return was also obtained with demonstration practices. The average technology gap, extension gap, and technology index were 3.2 q/ha, 5.4 q/ha, and 12.8%, respectively. The yield potential of groundnut could be enhanced to a great extent through cluster front line demonstration with improved production technologies. Hence, it is necessary to educate the farming community for more adoption of improved cultivation techniques of groundnut to increase productivity and economic return.

Title: Water Supply and Demand for Different Sectors in Bhavani Basin
Abstract :

The irrigated crops Demand based on water requirement is 2.12 m.ha.m (44.72 percent). This Demand-supply gap is 0.48 m.ha.m. (Palanisami 2013). India food grain need is 450 MT by the year 2050. The irrigation sector consumes the majority of water, and more attention is required in this sector. Almost all the utilizable potential will have to be harnessed to meet the demand for agriculture, industry, energy generation, and domestic consumption. The National Water Policy (2002) gives overriding priority to drinking water over other uses. Taking an average of 200 liters per capita per day (liter per consumer demand), the urban demand for water for the population of 1000 million (2012 estimate) would be 73.17 BCM, of which consumptive use should only be 14.63 BCM (20%). A quantity of 14.63 BCM is too tiny compared to the total potential to pose any supply problem. Due to improper wastewater management, the water Demand projected as 60 BCM compared to the actual demand 14.63 BCM. The drinking water Demand is 10 BCM at the present level of 40 liter per consumer and it would be 29 BCM by 2050 d (Ministry of Water Resources, 2018 estimate).

Title: Effect of Crop Establishment Methods and Nitrogen Management on Growth and Yield of Rice
Abstract :

A field experiment entitled “Effect of Crop Establishment Methods and Nitrogen Management on Growth and Yield of Rice” was conducted during the kharif season of 2019 and 2020 at the College Farm, Bapatla. The experiment was laid out in strip-plot design with three replications. The results revealed that among crop establishment methods, conventional tillage registered highest plant growth parameters at harvest like plant height (125.6 and 125.9 cm), number of tillers m-2 (423.6 and 426.9), plant dry matter (13304 and 13443 kg ha-1) and yield attributes i.e. the number of panicles m-2 (302.6 and 305.3), number of grains panicle-1 (219.3 and 225.3), grain (5870 and 5916 kg ha-1) and straw yield (8049 and 8000 kg ha-1) and was found statistically at par with dry seeding on puddled soil and significantly superior over rest of the treatments. Among nitrogen management, growth parameters at harvest i.e. plant height (125.9 and 128.0 cm), number of tillers m-2 (427.2 and 429.3), plant dry matter (12390 and 12503 kg ha-1) and yield parameters i.e. the number of panicles m-2 (284.9 and 289.6), number of grains panicle-1 (210.4 and 215.8), grain (5650 and 5699 kg ha-1) and straw yield (7783 and 7526 kg ha-1) the highest were recorded with the application of 50% STBN through fertilizer + 50% N through cured poultry manure (N5), which was found statistically at par with 75% STBN through fertilizer + 25% N through cured poultry manure (N4) and significantly superior over other treatments.

Title: Performance of Thermo Hydraulic Designed Single Pass Earth Air Heat Exchanger
Abstract :

In present study thermo-hydraulic design method by Paepe and Janssens (2003) was illustrated and used for evaluation of single pass Earth- Air Heat Exchanger (EAHE) system. Such designed EAHE was installed at the research field of Soil and Water Engineering Department, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India (75o88´E & 30o95´N). It consists of 42 m single PVC pipe of 0.25 m diameter buried at 3.5 m depth. The thermister 2k temperature sensors and Dl2 data logger were used for data recording. The maximum and minimum tube efficiencies were obtained at 2.3 and 24 m/s, respectively. The thermo-hydraulic designed earth air heat exchanger performed well as observed tube efficiency was near to designed efficiency. It was also observed that as velocity increases the tube efficiency decreases. The method proposed by Paepe and Janssens (2003) was simple, fast and reliable for installation of EAHE system in field too.

Title: Assessment of SSR Specific Genetic Diversity for Fertility Restorer Gene (rf1) Among Various Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) Genotypes
Abstract :

The present study was carried out to evaluate the genetic variations for fertility restorer gene among various sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) genotypes by SSR analysis. The experiment was conducted in UG Plant Biotechnology Lab of the Deptt. of Genetics and Plant Breeding, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (U.S. Nagar). A total of five SSR primers were used for the estimation of allelic diversity in thirty sorghum genotypes consisting, ten male sterile lines (female), ten maintainer lines and ten pollinator (male) lines. All primers were found to be polymorphic for all sorghum genotypes with polymorphism ranged from 80% (Xtxp250 and TS304T) to 100% (Drenshsbm 95 and TS050). Among all 34 alleles, the number of alleles per locus varied from 5 (Xtxp250 and TS050) to 10 (TS304T), with average of 6.8 alleles per locus. The PIC for all 5 primers varied from 0.45 (Drenshsbm 95) to 0.88 (TS304T), with a mean of 0.70. The genetic similarity (GS) was varied from 0.70 to 1.0 for all genotypes. Dendrogram revealed that male sterile lines ICSA264, SP55609A, ICSA702, 32A2 and ICSA293 showed more genetic diversity (30%) with restorers UPC2, HC260 and M35-1 and these combinations can be used as heterotic parents in improvement breeding program of sorghum.

Title: Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change: Key Strategies for Nigeria
Abstract :

Nigeria’s major ecological zone have been reportedly altered by changes in climate over the last century. Biodiversity such as terrestrials, marines, freshwaters and other ecosystems including forests and agricultures have been tremendously impacted. These impacts have caused increase in desert encroachment, diseases occurrence, floods, erosion and a rising heat waves in the county. Several literatures have also reported the displacement of millions of Nigerians as a result of rise in sea levels and droughts in some parts of the country due to changes in climate. More also, the growing fluctuations in temperature, rainfall, among others are likely to have adverse impacts on the country’s economy since agriculture employs over 70% of its population. Hence, if these climate challenges are not effectively address, it could deplete or shorten the already limited natural resources in the country. It is against this background that this article reviews the current impacts of climate change in Nigeria. It also indicates the group of Nigerians who are highly vulnerable to the climate change impacts. It also explains the major areas and sectors which will experience the most impact of changes in climate in Nigeria. It further highlighs the challenges to climate adaptation in Nigeria. It ends by highlighting necessary adaptation strategies and calls the Nigerian government, international organization, civil societies and private sectors in the country to work together in scaling up these adaptation strategies in the country.

Title: Evaluation of Siderophore Production and Antimicrobial Activity by Fluorescent Pseudomonas Diversity Associated with Rhizosphere of Apple and Pear
Abstract :

Replant problem is very serious problem which suppresses growth and yield of apple and pear in all major fruit growing areas of the world. Fluorescent Pseudomonas has potential to synthesize different secondary metabolites with diverse PGPR activities which enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth. Under this study, twenty- six Pseudomonas strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of apple and pear plants from their normal and replant sites. All the isolates were positive for catalase, oxidase, denitrification test, lecithinase test and tween 80 hydrolysis. They were further screened for antifungal and siderophore production. Maximum siderophore production was recorded in isolates AN-1-UHF, AN-3-UHF, PN- 7-UHF and PN-13-UHF whereas, maximum antifungal activity against Dematophora sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria sp. and Pythium sp. was recorded in isolates AN-1-UHF, AN-3-UHF and PN-13-UHF. It was found that Pseudomonas sp. isolated from the replant sites showed comparatively less siderophore and antifungal activities. These potential isolates could be further used as biocontrol agents against various fungal pathogens in apple and pear orchards.

Title: G × E interaction and Stability Analysis of Maize Hybrids Using Eberhart and Russell Model
Abstract :

The present study was carried out to identify stable Maize hybrids across various environments as the performance of each hybrid tends to vary when grown in different seasons or locations. Twenty one Maize hybrids and two commercial checks were tested over three locations in India viz., Viluppuram, Trivandrum and Nagercoil. Eberhart and Russell model of stability analysis was carried out which revealed a significant effect of each environment on the hybrids taken, for all the ten morphological traits except the number of leaves. The hybrid AU-101 was identified as a stable hybrid with high mean under less favourable conditions and the hybrid AU-114 was recognized as a stable hybrid under favourable conditions. None of the check hybrids viz., CP-818 and Bioseed-TX369 showed stability in any of the environment. Thus, it emphasized t

Title: Contents VOL. 14, NO. 1, MARCH 2021
Abstract :
Title: Maturity, Biomass Partitioning and Growth Response Indices in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) under Water Stress
Abstract :

Water stress is the major abiotic constraint of cowpea production. The development of cowpea genotypes resilient to water stress is a practical approach to ameliorate the negative effects of water stress on the productivity. In the present study, a set of 20 genotypes of cowpea including 19 landraces collected from different areas of the Kashmir valley and one released variety viz, Shalimar Cowpea-1 released by SKUAST-Kashmir as check were evaluated under well watered and water stressed conditions.

Title: Puddling Effects on Energy Parameters under Animal Farming for Mechanized Cultivation of Rice
Abstract :

Among various agricultural operations, irrigation is one of the highest energy consuming operations followed by tillage operation for seedbed preparation (sowing or transplanting). Studies suggested that for optimal crop yield realization tillage energy use would have to increase. As draught animal (bullocks/he-buffaloes) uses had been highest (114.8 to 207.3 h/ha) in animal farming and subsequently animal energy use for tillage operations may be decreased by adoption of improved energy efficient implements suiting to local size of draught animals. In the same way manual transplanting of rice consumes higher energy and remains same unless mechanized transplanting of rice is introduced using self-propelled rice transplanters. With this background a study on energy requirement for cultivation of mechanized rice was carried out during 2008 and 2009 with different level of tillage (puddling) under animal farming system. Five different animal drawn puddling equipments (lugged wheel puddler, zigzag puddler, rotary blade puddler, disc harrow cum puddler and indigenous plough) with two level of puddling intensity (two and three passes) were used for development of puddle bed and subsequently rice transplanting was done by using three methods of transplanting viz. transplanting by self-propelled rice transplanter, manually operated rice transplanter and random hand transplanting. Results revealed that input energy for puddling operation depends on the actual field capacity and weight of the puddling equipments. The energy required for puddling operation for each of the equipment increased with varying level of puddling from two passes to three passes. The energy input for puddling operation was highest (19302 MJ/ha) in indigenous plough with three passes and lowest (18270 MJ/ha) in zigzag puddler with two passes. Higher values of energy output-input ratio (7.88) and lower value of specific energy (3.80 MJ/kg) was obtained in rotary blade puddler (three passes). In case of transplanting methods, self-propelled rice transplanter gave significantly highest (7.48) energy output-input ratio and lowest specific energy (4.15 MJ/kg). The puddle bed developed by rotary blade puddler three passes and rice transplanting by self-propelled rice transplanter resulted in higher yield (53.18 q/ha) associated with higher energy output-input ratio (8.63) and lower specific energy (3.45 MJ/kg) compared to rest of the treatments.

Highlights

  • Energy input and economics of different puddling and transplanting methods was worked out to find out the energy efficient and cost effective puddling equipment for development of puddle bed suited to the requirements of mechanical transplanters.
  • Five different types of animal drawn puddling equipments and two types of mechanical transplanters are used in this study.
  • Study indicated that rotary tools are energy efficient for puddling operations compared to linear tools.
Title: Cereal Bioactive Compounds: A Review
Abstract :
Cereal grains and wholegrain cereal products (rich in fibrous polymers) are the excellent sources of numerous unique substances rating among biologically active compounds such as dietary fiber (arabinoxylans, beta-glucans, cellulose, lignin and lignans), sterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, alkylresorcinols, phenolic acids, vitamins and microelements. Cereals have been staple foods both directly for human consumption and ready available to the human diet. The major cereals consumed worldwide are wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum. Bioactive compounds of whole-grains are present in the bran/germ fraction of cereal-grains and least in endosperm. The bioactive components in cereals help in reducing the risk of chronic diseases act as a functional ingredient. Bioactive compounds in whole-grain cereals have not received as much attention as in fruits and vegetables due to difficult in extractions and some have antinutritional role. These health benefits are achieved through multifactorial physiological mechanisms including antioxidant activity, mediation of hormones, enhancement of immune system and facilitation of substance transit through the digestive tract, butyric acid production in the colon, and absorption.
 
Title: Profile Analysis of Mixed Farming Adopter Farmers
Abstract :
Mixed farming systems focuses on the use of integrative and holistic mechanisms and rational building on and use of the natural and local resource base without exhausting it, while enhance biodiversity, optimize complementarities between crops and animal systems as well as increase opportunities in rural livelihoods. In an era of instability in agriculture with declining prices, increasing land hunger by increasing population and futile search for an insulating mechanism of farmers against fall in income and employment, interest in integration of farms with any other economic activity has revived. The present study analysing the profile of farmers adopting mixed farming was conducted in Anand taluka of Anand district of
Central Gujarat. A random sample of 50 mixed farming adopter farmers were selected from ten villages. The study revealed that majority (96.00%) of the farmers had middle to old age, secondary to higher secondary level of education (76.00%), slightly less than two-third (66.00%) of the farmers had eleven to thirty years of experience, up to four hectares of land holding, majority (82.00%) of the farmers possessed up to 20 animals, very low to low level of social participation (88.00%), medium to very high level of mass media exposure (86.00%), poor to average level of extension contacts (94.00%), high level of scientific orientation (80.00%), high to very high level of economic motivation (96.00%), medium to high degree of achievement motivation (94.00%).
Title: Variation and Character Association in Seed Yield and Related Traits in Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata)
Abstract :

One hundred and twenty rice bean genotypes were assessed for 11 agronomic traits against three different elite varieties RBL-6, RBL-35, RBL-50 in Augmented Design during the Kharif 2005. There was no significant difference among the blocks and as well as checks. The variety RBL-50 among the checks registered highest seed yield (q/ha). The nineteen test entries viz. BRB10, LRB115, BRB06, BRB15, LRB109, BRB19, BRB14, LRB081, BRB08, BRB01, BRB03, LRB110, LRB118, BRB09, BRB07, BRB05, LRB043, LRB020, LRB075-1 showed higher seed yield (q/ha) than the best check variety RBL-50 (9.21 q/ha).

Title: Effect of plant growth regulators and micronutrients on growth and yield of acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia swingle) in hasta bahar
Abstract :
Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, famous for quality citrus production and acid lime is one of the important member of citrus group. Regulation of fl owering in Hasta bahar is important for obtaining off
season acid lime fruits. Keeping in view all these considerations, an experiment was carried out to study the eff ect of plant growth regulators (GA3, cycocel and paclobutrazol), KNO3 and micronutrients like zinc and boron on growth and yield of acid lime in Hasta bahar. The study revealed that application of GA3 50 ppm in June + Cycocel 1000 - 2000 ppm, Paclobutrazol 2.5 and 3.5 g a.i. / tree and 1000 - 2000 ppm in September + KNO3 (0.2%), Zinc (0.3%) and Boron (0.1%) in October showed be er performance in
plant height, mean plant spread and canopy volume. Maximum yield was obtained with the application of GAз 50 ppm + Cycocel 2000 ppm + KNOз 0.2% + Zn 0.3% + Boron 0.1%.
Title: A Review on Molecular Mechanisms of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Rice (Oryza sativa L.) against Abiotic Stresses with Special Reference to Drought and Heat
Abstract :

Plants face to different changes in environmental conditions that keep on challenging its normal growth and acclimatization. Cereal crops play a key role in supplying food and energy to growing population and these crops are bare to substantial environmental changes causing inferior growth and performance. To overcome the abiotic stresses experienced by plants, several differential molecular and physiological responses were evolved that make the plants to mitigate climatic aberrations. Latest technological developments in genetic engineering as well as molecular breeding register a significant role in developing crop varieties and hybrids those are tolerant to environmental aberrations. Several Transgenes and their Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) were invented and incorporated into crops for superior performances against abiotic factors in cereals like wheat and rice.

Title: Trichoderma viride 2% W.P. (Strain No. BHU-2953) Formulation Suppresses Tomato wilt Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Chilli Damping-off Caused by Pythium aphanidermatum Effectively under Different Agroclimatic Conditions
Abstract :
Field experiments of a 2% W.P. Trichoderma viride (Strain No. BHU-2953, Accession No. NAIMCC-F-02976) formulation were conducted at experimental farms of Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi and SASRD, Nagaland University, Medziphema. The experiments were conducted in two seasons during 2007-08 & 2008-09 to test the bioefficacy of the formulation against the tomato wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum and chilli damping-off pathogen, Pythium aphanidermatum. The formulation was applied as seed treatment and furrow application. The results revealed that the seed and furrow application of the formulation significantly reduced the wilt disease of tomato and damping-off of chilli. The yields of tomato and chilli were also significantly enhanced. Further, the formulation did not have any phyto-toxic effect either on tomato or chilli plants at all the doses levels tested for field bio-efficacy. The T. viride formulation also did not have any adverse effect on the beneficial rhizospheric microbes, like Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (Glomus spp.) in tomato and chilli rhizosphere at all dosages as confirmed with microscopic observations. Based on the above findings, the T. viride 2% W.P. formulation is found safe and effective for using as an efficient and ecologically-safe alternative to chemical fungicides for the management of wilt of tomato and damping-off of chilli as well as for obtaining higher yields.
Title: Studies on Heterosis for yield and its Attributing Traits in Tomato (Solanumlycopersicum L.)
Abstract :
Twenty eight hybrids of tomato developed using eight parents (PusaRohini, PusaGaurav, Roma, Cherry Orange, Selection-1, Taiwan, N-5 and C-10-15-27-3) in half diallelfashion were studied for estimation of heterosis for yield and its attributing traits. Hybrids PusaGaurav x Taiwan, PusaRohini x PusaGaurav and PusaRohini x Roma were found most promising for yield and its
contributing traits. These hybrid exhibited heterosis to the tune of 48.14%, 44.47% and 73.41% over better parents and 83.43%, 76.78% and 74.24%, respectively over the check cultivar for fruit yield per plant. The cross combination PusaGaurav x Taiwan expressed highest significant standard parent heterosis and SCA estimates
Title: Land Use / Land Cover Mapping of Nahra Nala Watershed Using SENTINEL-2B Imagery
Abstract :
Land is a limited natural resource which restricts no further increase in a cultivated area. Moreover, due to the increasing population, the pressure on this resource is increasing day by day. Hence, land use/land cover (LU/LC) information is very much necessary for the best possible use by maximizing outputs sustainably from this diminishing resource such that good planning and management can be done to meet the demand of the ever-increasing population. Therefore, a study has been conducted for land use/land cover mapping using SENTINEL-2B satellite data having a fine spatial resolution of Nahra nala watershed, which is a tributary of Wainganga river situated in Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh, India. Five land use/land cover classes were identified, namely water bodies, agricultural land, forest, habitation (built-up), and wasteland in the study area. The study area possesses forest as the predominant LU/LC class with 83.79 percent of the total geographical area of the watershed. Accuracy assessment was also applied to the final classified results based on the ground truth points or known reference pixels along with Google Earth imageries. The overall classification accuracy of 95.52% with the kappa value of 0.92 was achieved.
 
Highlights
 
  • This study conducted in Nahra Nala Watershed of Balaghat district, Madhya Pradesh, India, to make the land use / land cover classification map through Remote Sensing and GIS approach.
  • SENTINEL-2B high-resolution imagery is used for achieving the higher accuracy in LU/LC classification.
Title: Genetics and Genomic basis of Stay-green Trait
Abstract :

Staygreen is one such trait in which genotypes possessing this trait maintain more photo synthetically active leaves (& less senescent) than genotypes not possessing this trait. Delay of leaf senescence also known as stay-green character, has been identified as an important component in the genetic improvement of several crops to promote stress tolerance and yield gain. Although the stay-green phenotype is superficially similar in all species and genotypes, the genetic and physiological routes the traits are diverse. Photosynthetically active leaves for longer period depends on the concentration of chlorophyll pigment absorbing sunlight for photosynthesis. An multi dimensional approach for studying the senescence pathway rather than studying only the physiological role made a significant role in improvement. Hence new approaches like genomics, proteomics and metabolomics studies are necessary to understand the various transcription factors involved in regulating the leaf senescence process. Therefore, this review has aimed to bring light to major aspects of the stay-green character, showing its potential use in plant breeding.

Title: Contents: International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology
Abstract :

Contents: International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology March 2019

Title: Application of Conventional and Mutation Approaches in Genetic Improvement of Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.): A Review on Recent Development and Future Perspectives
Abstract :
In recent days, improved conventional techniques, including division of the bulbs, removal of leaf and flower spikes, standard size of the bulb, and mechanical removal of sprouts, have been used to obtain improved quality planting materials in tuberose. Mutation breeding is also another technique that is used for improvement in tuberose. In mutation breeding, novelty can be created in an already well-established cultivar. Any change in the genes and their expression can be easily measured in the first generation of mutants by selecting desirable characters like flower color, shape, size, fragrance, etc. In the present review, the works carried out on tuberose by various workers worldwide from the last 40 years have witnessed conventional and mutation approaches made in the genetic improvement of tuberose. This review also highlights the role of selection for the identification of desirable traits, self-compatibility, and hybridization approaches made in tuberose species worldwide by several research institutions. Factors that affected mutation efficiency have also been presented and discussed from available data. Overall, the present reviews provide a consolidated account for the application of traditional and mutations approaches and suggest how their implications can be useful for genetic improvement of tuberose.
Title: Current Trends in Extraction Methodologies for Pesticide Residues in Food Matrices
Abstract :
Inevitable presence of pesticides in foods demands development of efficient multiresidue methods for risk evaluation. Extraction of pesticide trace contaminants from foodstuffs is a laborious task. Development of reliable sample preparation procedures, characterized by the simplicity of both the operations and the devices involved in analytical process is need of the hour. Effective minimization of sample sizes; and the amount of solvents used in extraction is also a priority. Traditional solvent dedicated approach such as liquid- liquid extraction have been taken over by integrated techniques (SFE, SPE, MSPD) and automated microextraction based methods. Moreover, introduction of solventless techniques
have become a benchmark to so-called “green chemistry”, in analytical perspective. The review accounts upcoming trends and aspects of extraction methodologies, involved in pesticide analysis of food and future prospects in the view of same.
Title: Heavy Metal Contamination in Vegetables, Fruits, Soil and Water – A Critical Review
Abstract :

India has diverse agro-climate and produces a wide range of fruits and vegetables. It is the 2nd largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world. It produces 74 million tones of fruits and 146 million tonnes of vegetables. Fruits and vegetables not only provide us nutritional and healthy foods, but also generate a considerable cash income for growers. Quality assurance is a prerequisite for high value fresh fruits and vegetables. The quality of fresh fruits and vegetables has a decisive effect on their value. This is a particularly true when consumers have a high income and the market provides a wide choice of produce. Fruit and vegetables are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, and fibers and also have beneficial antioxidative effects. However, the intake of heavy metal-contaminated fruit and vegetables may pose a risk to human health; hence the heavy metal contamination of food is one of the most important aspects of food quality assurance.

Title: Efficacy of imazethapyr and other herbicides on weed growth and yield of kharif blackgram
Abstract :

A two year field experiment was conducted during the the kharif season of 2014 and 2015 at Agricultural Farm, Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, West Bengal, with blackgram variety ‘WBU-108’ to study the effect of imazethapyr and other herbicides on weed growth, productivity and economics of kharif blackgram. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications and eight treatments. From the investigation it revealed that Digitaria sanguinalis among the grasses; Cyperus iria among the sedges and Ludwigia parviflora and Croton bonplandianum among the broadleaved weeds were predominant throughout the cropping period. Higher doses of imazethapyr (75, 100 and 125 g ha-1) applied at 20 DAS effectively controlled the grasses, broadleaved and sedges in blackgram at 45 DAS. Yield reduction due to weed competition was to the extent of 26-29% in kharif blackgram. Lower values of weed density, total weed dry weight, weed index and higher values of weed control efficiency, seed yield, net return and return per rupee invested were registered with application of imazethapyr at 75 g ha-1 at 20 DAS which was at par with by imazethapyr at 100 g ha-1 at 20 DAS. These treatments may be recommended for managing complex weed flora and obtaining higher yield and net return of kharif blackgram in the lateritic belt of West Bengal, India.

Title: Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interactions Analysis of Plant Height in Basmati Rice
Abstract :

Thirty six basmati rice genotypes were evaluated under four production systems viz. Transplanted rice (TPR), System of rice intensification (SRI), Chemical free cultivation (CFC) and Wet direct seeded rice (Wet DSR) at RRS, Kaul, and RRS, Uchani (Karnal), CCS HAU, Hisar, Haryana during Kharif season of 2016 and 2017. The experiment was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Yield stability and adaptability of plant height were analyzed by Eberhart and Russell’s and additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. The environment, genotype main effects, and the GEI were all highly significant. The study indicated that the tested genotypes, such as Pusa 1734-8-3-85, SJR-70-3-2, PAU 6297-1, Pusa 1656-10-705, Pusa 1884-3-9-175, and Pusa-1884-9-12-14 had dwarf plant height, which indicated these genotypes adapted to favorable environments. Based on AMMI biplot analysis, the genotypes, Improved Pusa Basmati 1 and HUBR-16 with low mean and IPCA1 score close to zero, were identified as stable genotype and had general adaptation to all the environments.

Title: An Efficient Micropropagation Protocol for Rauvolfia hookeri Srinivas and Chithra and Assessment of Clonal Fidelity by RAPD Analysis
Abstract :
An efficient in vitro propagation protocol via shoot multiplication was developed for Rauvolfia hookeri, a rare medicinal species endemic to the southern Western Ghats of India. Shoot tip explants cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with various cytokinins (6-benzylaminopurine, 6-furfurylaminopurine and Thidiazuron) either alone or in combinations produced multiple shoots. When either cytokinin was used alone, 6- enzylaminopurine
was found nearly twice more successful than 6-urfurylaminopurine. The highest shoot proliferation was obtained when 6-benzylaminopurine and 6-furfurylaminopurine was used at 22.2 µM and 4.64 µM respectively. Thidiazuron gave the lowest response for shoot proliferation. The effect of indole-3-butyric acid and naphthalene acetic acid was evaluated for in vitro root induction. Rhizogenesis of excised shoots was of the shoots was readily achieved on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium containing various concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid and naphthale ne acetic acid. Indole-3- butyric acid was found to be more effective than naphthalene acetic acid and resulted in the highest frequency of shoots that rooted (86.5%) and mean number of roots per shoot (3.66) when used at 7.38 µM concentration. The micropropagated plants were hardened and transferred to green house condition wherein 70% plants established and were morphologically similar to mother plant. Genetic stability of regenerated plants has been checked by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA using ten selected decamer primers.
Title: Role of Pulse Sprouts Extract Foliar Spray in Seed Yield of Paddy Cultivars
Abstract :
To evaluate the performance pulse sprout extract foliar spray, SRI method of cultivation and their interaction effect on seed yield attributes in different rice cultivars, the field experiment was conducted with split split plot design. The experiment consisted of planting method as main plot treatment [SRI (P1) with 25x25 cm spacing and Conventional (P2) with 25 x 15 cm spacing]; short duration cultivars as sub plot treatment [ADT 43 (V1), ADT 47 (V2) and IR 50 (V3)] and foliar spray as sub sub plot treatment [Pulse sprout extract (2% cowpea) spray (T1) and Micronutrients mixture spray (Zinc, Iron, Boron) (T2)]. The results revealed that all the cultivars performed better under SRI method (P1) of planting and registered maximum growth, physiological and yield attributes such as number of tillers per hill, number of leaves per hill, leaf length and breadth, dry matter production per hill, leaf
area index, number of productive tillers per hill, panicle length, single ear head weight, number of seeds per panicle and 21.66 per cent increase in seed yield over the conventional method of planting. Among the foliar spray treatments, the pulse sprout extract (T1) registered 21.88 per cent increase in seed yield over foliar spray of micronutrients mixture (T2). Hence, the SRI method of
planting and foliar spray of pulse sprout (2% cowpea) extract (T1) can be recommended for seed production of paddy short duration cultivars.
Title: Differential Response of Trifloxystrobin in Combination with Tebuconazole on Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Yield of Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)
Abstract :
The present investigation was carried out at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University to evaluate the influence of trifloxystrobin in combination with tebuconazole (Nativo) on the nutrient uptake, yield attributes and yield of rice. Foliar spray of Nativo was taken up at 50-55 days after sowing (DAS) and 70-75 DAS and observations were recorded at panicle initiation (60-65 DAS), flowering
(80-85 DAS) and maturity (100-105 DAS) stages. The result indicated that Nativo significantly improved the root length, total dry matter production (TDMP) and nutrient uptake, but inhibited the shoot length. Among the different concentrations, Nativo @ 400 g ha-1 performed better by increasing the fertility co-efficient, 1000 grain weight, panicle length and the grain yield in rice.
Title: Character Association and Path Coefficient Analysis in Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.)
Abstract :
Twenty-two genotypes of amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) were evaluated for 12 quantitative traits for two years and the pooled data was analyzed. The mean, range, genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation, heritability in broad sense and genetic advance were calculated. Path coefficient analysis was carried out using correlation coefficients to know the yield-contributing
traits having true associations with seed yield. The low differences between the phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variations indicated low environmental influences on the expression of the traits studied. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance for yield/day to maturity, yield/day to seed fill, harvest index, panicle girth and seed yield/plant was observed. All the traits except days to seed fill possessed positive association with grain yield. Harvest index was positively correlated with days to maturity. Harvest index, aerial biomass/plant and days to maturity also ad high phenotypic and genotypic direct effects on seed yield/plant, revealing that indirect selection for these traits would be effective in improving seed yield.
Title: Design, development and field evaluation of manually operated rice transplanter for system of rice intensification
Abstract :
A 2-row plug type rice transplanter with revolving magazine metering mechanism was developed and fi eld evaluated for rice (Oryza sativa) crop. The seedlings of rice crop were grown in paper pot (80GSM). Plug technology was developed for the effi cient production of high-quality seedlings for transplanting. Seedling parameters like root length, plant height, stem thickness and stem width and machine parameters like plant to plant spacing, planting depth, field capacity, field effi ciency, total time of operation, speed of operation were recorded during fi eld evaluation. The cost and time saved over manual transplanting without considering paddy seed cost was about 59.9 and 79.85 per cent. The cost of transplanting with considering seed cost was ` 3101 h-1. The fi eld effi ciency and fi eld capacity of the transplanter was observed to be 83.22 % and 0.014 ha h-1 respectively.
Title: A Study of Air Pollution Status by Estimation of APTI of Certain Plant Species Around Pratapnagar Circle in Udaipur City
Abstract :

The sensitivity level of plants to air pollutants is evaluated by air pollution tolerance index (APTI). Parameters of leaf like pH, relative water content, chlorophyll, ascorbic acid were analyzed for the computation of air pollution tolerance index (APTI). In the present research, leaf sample of different plant species like Ficus religiosa (Peepal), Nerium indicum (Kaner), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Mangifera indica (Aam), Cassia fistula (Amal tas), Eucalyptus (Nilgiri), Ficus religiosa (Peepal) and Calotropis procera (Aak) were taken from Pratapnagar Circle of Udaipur city, which is connected from national highways and has a heavy load of vehicles. The results obtained showed highest APTI values of Eucalyptus (Nilgiri), followed by Mangifera indica (Aam), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Ficus religiosa (Peepal) and Nerium indicum (Kaner).

Title: Assessment of Phytotoxic Proclivities of Jatropha curcas L. on Germination and Seedling Establishment of Some Field Crops
Abstract :
To elucidate the phytotoxic response of Jatropha curcas L. on performance of some economical crops under nursery, present investigation was undertaken. Three test crops viz. Zea mays, Vigna radiata and Brassica campestries were evaluated for various germination and growth parameters. Different soil media has treatment combinations of field soil and soil beneath Jatropha monoculture fields significantly influenced the germination, seedling growth and vigour of all test crops. Highest germination capacity was noted in control and a gradual suppression trend was seen thereafter. Growth measurements (shoot and
root length, collar diameter, vigour index) and phytomass (fresh shoot and root weight, dry shoot and root weight) exerts maximum increment when supplied to 50 % field soil and 50 % Jatropha rhizosphere soil (JRS). Maximum inhibition in all parameters was pronounced at 100 % Jatropha rhizosphere soil for each of considered parameters. Highest germination % (82) was traced in mustard followed by maize (77) seeds. Best germination and dry biomass (7.57 gm) extent was eminent in Brassica campestries
but seedling growth (66.24 cm) and fresh biomass (14.62 gm) concern were higher in Zea mays. Vigna radiata adversely affected in germination (64 %), seedling growth (17.24 cm), vigour (965.44), fresh biomass (1.2 gm) and dry biomass (0.24 gm) respectively. Higher concentration of Jatropha rhizosphere soil (JRS) gives suppretory behavior in survival and development of examined
crops. The allelopathic perspective within test crops can be arranged as a Vigna radiata > Brassica campestries > Zea mays.
Title: Future Strategies for Sustainable Livelihood of small and marginal farmers in Rajouri district of Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract :

The aim of the contribution was to determine the Future strategies for sustainable livelihood of small and marginal farmers in Rajouri district of Jammu and Kashmir. There are 160 Gram panchayats, 385 villages and 4 towns viz. Rajouri, Thanamandi, Nowshera and Sunderbani. The district constitutes 8.81 percent of the geographical area of the state. There are 7 revenue tehsils viz; Rajouri, Thanamandi, Nowshera, Sunderbani, Budhal and Darhal with a total of 9 revenue blocks. The study based on the primary data in Rajouri district covering equal samples under major farming systems was elicited through survey method for the period 2014-15. It was observed that there is a need to focus on sustaining the productivity gains in the irrigated agriculture, the major emphasis should, however, be on the development of rainfed agriculture, promotion of integrated farming, high value agriculture, transfer of technology, secondary and specialty agriculture need to be accorded high priority. Since the Rajouri district has focused on the organic production in the proposed plan so the high priority is to be given for the action research and extension relating to the organic cultivation. Organic cost/produce certification and marketing of farmers produce at reasonable prices is another crucial issues affecting farm profitability which need immediate attention

Title: Contents VOL. 12, NO. 2, JUNE 2019
Abstract :
Title: Impact of KVK Interventions on Socio-economic Status of Beneficiary Households in Dharwad District
Abstract :
The government and non-government agencies have started many projects and programmes with an aim to eradicate poverty, unemployment and enhance income among the rural poor. The turning point and giant leap in this direction came with the establishment of Farm Science Centre or Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVK) by ICAR in 1974. Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), the light house for rural people, is an innovative science based institution, which undertakes vocational training of farmers, farm women, and rural youths, conducts on-farm research for technology refinement and organizes frontline demonstration to promptly demonstrate the latest agriculture technologies to the farmers as well as the extension workers. The study was conducted in Dharwad district of Karnataka and KVK, Dharwad was purposively selected. Further, a sample of 40 respondents who were influenced by the three most important income and employment enhancing interventions namely household enterprise, vermicomposting and seed production were selected randomly. Thus, the total sample consisted of 120 respondents. It was clear that before the KVK intervention, majority of the respondents were under the low category of socio-economic status. These selected KVK interventions made farmers to generate adequate income, by acting as a subsidiary source of income. This led to the transformation of respondents from low socio-economic status to the medium category
Title: Low Cost Tissue Culture Technology for the Regeneration of Some Economically Important Plants for Developing Countries
Abstract :
Plant tissue culture, an ecofriendly technology includes micropropagation which leads to mass propagation of true to type, high quality planting material of ornamentals, medicinal crops plantation crops, fruit and forest trees etc within a limited period . It has provided challenging opportunities in global trading of tissue culture saplings as well as cut flowers for export as well as for domestic use in developing countries like India. This area has created new avenues for entreprenureurs. But the main bottleneck is the high cost of tissue culture planting materials compared to the conventionally propagated saplings. It is a capital-intensive industry, and in some cases the unit cost per plant becomes unaffordable. Hence, it is necessary to adopt strategies to reduce
production cost and lower the cost per plant. This paper deals with various low cost tissue culture techniques which can be adopted by small scale entreprenures in Indian conditions Bioreactors provide more precise control of the plant growth gaseous exchange, illumination, medium agitation, temperature and pH than the conventional culture vessels. However, to be costeffective, use of bioreactors requires indexed plant cultures, and attention to aseptic procedures during handling of plant material otherwise culture contamination leads to massive economic loss. Plants hardened under natural light are sturdy, and withstand transplantation better in the field. Careful planning of a facility can make large savings both in the construction costs and day-to day operations in the facility. The primary application of micropropagation has been to produce elite planting material irrespective
of season or crop, which in turn leads to increased productivity in agriculture as well as better economy to developing nations like India.
Title: Molecular characterization of ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula L.) and sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica l.) genotypes through PCR based molecular markers
Abstract :
The present study was carried out for the comparison of RAPD and ISSR markers for polymorphism pa ern and molecular diversity analysis among 17 ridge gourd (Luff a acutangula L.) and sponge gourd (Luff a cylindrica L.) genotypes using 20 RAPD and 12 ISSR markers. Twenty RAPD primers generated total of 94 bands of which 81 bands were polymorphic showing 86.17% polymorphism. The average bands per primer were found 4.05. The polymorphic information content (PIC) was recorded from 0.4828 to 0.8842 for RAPD. Jaccard’s similarity coeffi cient ranged from 30.8% to 78.6% for RAPD. However, out of 30 ISSR primers screened, twelve ISSR primers produced 79 bands of which 66 bands were polymorphic and 83.54% polymorphism with an average of 7.16 bands per primer. The PIC ranged between 0.6548 and 0.8939 for ISSR. Jaccard’s similarity coeffi cient ranged from 22.7 % to 81.2% for ISSR. This study showed that RAPD and ISSR markers produced specifi c DNA fragments for identifi cation of ridge gourd and sponge gourd genotypes.
Title: Evaluation of Genetic Divergence Analysis in Wheat for Yield and its Component Characters
Abstract :

Genetic diversity plays an important role because hybrids between lines of diverse origin generally, display a greater heterosis than those between closely related parents. Genetic diversity arises due to geographical separation or due to genetic barriers to crossability. In this study, genetic diversity of twenty two genotypes of wheat was evaluated for fourteen characters using Mahalanobis D2 statistics. The wheat genotypes were grouped into three clusters. The cluster III was the largest group which consist of 9 genotypes followed by cluster II (7 genotypes) and cluster I (6 genotypes). From the clustering pattern, it was found that the wheat genotypes were genetically diverse to each other. Hence, the genotypes studied are reliable enough for selection of parents making crosses. The maximum intra cluster distances were observed in cluster III (2.945) followed by cluster I (2.463) and cluster II (2.324). The selection of divergent genotype from above clusters would produce a broad spectrum of variability for quantitative traits studied, which enable further for selection and improvement. The maximum inter cluster distance was observed in between cluster I and cluster III (4.987) followed by between clusters II and cluster III (4.355) and cluster I and cluster II (3.717). This suggested that the hybridization programme involving parents from these clusters is expected to give higher frequency of better segregantes or desirable combination for development of useful genetic stocks or varieties.

Title: Genetic Variability and Correlation Studies of Yield and Yield Component in Maize Hybrids (Zea mays L.) Under Kymore Plateau and Satpura Hill Region of Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :

The study to estimate genetic parameters and to identify agronomic traits correlated with the grain yield of maize hybrids using an experiment was conducted at the Research Farm, JNKVV Jabalpur (MP) during the year 2012-13 consisting of seven newly developed maize hybrids and one composite variety. The experimental design was a randomized block design with three replications. Analysis of variance revealed high significant difference for all the twelve characters studied. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was higher than genotype coefficient of variation (GCV) for all the characters indicating the little influence of environment on the characters. All the qualitative characters illustrated high estimates of heritability, which indicates preponderance of additive gene action in the inheritance of these characters. High to moderate degree of genetic advance was observed for grain yield and stover yield, which was followed by cob weight and grains /cob. The genotypic correlations were higher in magnitude than phenotypic correlation and in the same direction. Grain yield had a significant positive correlation at both genotypic and phenotypic level with stover yield, grains/ cob, grains/ row, shelling percentage, grain rows /cob, cob /plant, harvest index, cob weight, cob girth and seed index. Thus, these characters may serve as effective selection parameters during the breeding programme for crop improvement.

Title: Effect of mulch on soil thermal regimes - A review
Abstract :
Any material spread over the soil to assist soil and water conservation, and increase the productivity of soil is called mulch. The application of diff erent types of mulch to soil is one of the corner stones of agriculture. Mulch may be organic or inorganic/synthetic in nature. Mulches are well-known for modifying the heat/energy and water balance at the surface of soils and creating more favorable conditions for plant growth. Soil thermal regimes can be modifi ed by using diff erent kinds of mulches. Soil temperature is agriculturally more signifi cant than aerial temperature. Extensive research in the past indicates that mulches modify soil hydrothermal regimes in crop root zone, conserve soil moisture, keep down weeds and promote soil productivity. Mulch infl uences the hydrothermal regimes by changing radiation balance, rate of heat and water vapor transfer and heat capacity of soil. However, the magnitude of the desired eff ects depends on the quality, quantity, durability of mulch material, soil type and climatic conditions. In the era of climate change, mulching materials should be extensively used especially under rainfed conditions for soil and moisture/water conservation, temperature moderation, soil health maintenance and finally towards the increased agricultural productivity. The economics and environmental concerns should also be taken into account while selecting the mulch material.
Title: Comparative Studies on Simultaneous Adsorption and Biodegradation, Adsorption and Biodegradation for Treatment of Wastewater containing Cyanide and Phenol
Abstract :

This paper presents a comparative study of the efficiency of biodegradation, adsorption and simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation (SAB) process for the remediation of industrial wastewaters containing both cyanide and phenol. Adsorption was carried out using granular activated carbon (GAC), while biodegradation was achieved by co-fermentation with Pseudomonas putida and Azotobacter chroococcum. During co-metabolism P. putida utilized phenol as carbon source while A. chroococcum utilized cyanide as nitrogen source for growth. The biodegradation efficiency decreased with increasing concentrations of phenol and cyanide and was observed as 99.99, 92.45, 86.12, 75.21 and 60.34% for cyanide and 99.61, 85.62, 79.15, 64.21 and 56.63% for phenol respectively after 60 h of agitation when initial concentration was increased from 50-350 mg L-1. With adsorption on GAC, the removal efficiencies were found to be 85.8, 77.67, 75.51, 58.25 and 50.73% for cyanide and 73.92, 72.99, 71.23, 60.13 and 51.55% for phenol respectively after 72 h of agitation. However SAB process was found to be better than biodegradation or adsorption alone in terms of both removal efficiency and time required for remediation with removal efficiencies > 94% for initial cyanide and phenol concentrations of 50 and 100 mg L-1.

Title: Study on leaf area index and leaf area duration of growth analytical parameters in Wheat, Barley, and Oat
Abstract :

An experiment were conducted in rabi season during 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 to find out the effect of cereal crops (Wheat, Oat, Barley) and cutting schedule on forage and grain yield. The study revealed the maximum chlorophyll accumulation in Barley and wheat during the initial stage at 95 DAS and wheat and barley during the reproductive stage at 30 DAS. Cutting at 50 DAS is proved beneficial on chlorophyll accumulation. Photosynthetic rate was maximum in wheat at 90 DAS. However cutting did not affect photosynthesis rate stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Barley gave maximum fodder yield (fresh/day). Cutting at 50 DAS was beneficial in producing maximum forage yield without sacrificing grain yield of cereal crops.

Title: Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Storage of Baramasi lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm)
Abstract :

The harvesting period of winter crop of Baramasi lemon coincides with the cooler part of the year and there is often a glut like situation in the market at its peak harvest time. This results in low returns to the growers. A study was planned to enhance the storage life of baramasi lemon fruits and fruits were harvested at green mature stage along with small pedicel in the month of January. Only healthy fruits were dipped in 0.1% bavistin solution for 2 minutes and after shade drying fruits were packed (four fruits in each pack) in high density polyethylene (HDPE) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) bags. Fruits were also waxed with Citrashine wax in one treatment. Packed/treated fruits were packed in corrugated fibre board (CFB) boxes and kept at ambient conditions. Fruit samples were analysed after 20, 35 and 50 days of storage for various physico-chemical characteristics. Results revealed that fruits treated with bavistin @ 0.1% and packed in LDPE bags maintained the best fruit quality in terms of high sensory quality, juice content, acidity and low spoilage and physiological loss in weight during 50 days of ambient storage

Title: Bio-efficacy of chemical Insecticides against Spotted Pod Borer, Maruca testulalis (Geyer) on Cowpea
Abstract :
Studies were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi during Kharif 2010 and 2011 to know the efficacy of some new molecule insecticides (azadirachtin, Bt, endosulfan 35% EC, thiodicarb 75% WP, spinosad 45% SC, lambda cyhalothrin 5% EC, indoxacarb 14.5% SC, profenophos 50% EC and acetamiprid 20% SP) against spotted pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) on mungbean. The spinosad 45% SC and indoxacarb 14.5 % SC were the most effective treatments and significantly superior to other treatments with 80.7 and 79.2 per cent larval reduction over control. The least effective treatment
was acetamiprid 20%SP, followed by azadirachtin with 38.8 and 44.9 per cent reduction in larval population over control. The maximum yield was recorded in treatment indoxacarb 14.5%SC (11.8q/ha) followed by spinosad 45%SC (11.1q/ha) which were at par with each other. While lowest yield was recorded in azadirachtin (9.7q/ha).
Title: Contents VOL. 14, NO. 2, JUNE 2021
Abstract :
Title: Bioactive Metabolite from Aphyllophorales sp. an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Breguiera Cylindrica
Abstract :
The significance of natural products in the drug discovery and development has been reported extensively. The natural products from mangrove fungi, which are known to be a rich source of bioactive metabolites, are of biotechnological interest. As most of these fungi grow in a unique and extreme habitat, they certainly will play a crucial role in meeting the demand for screening novel bioactive compounds. This is the first report on isolation of basidiomycete endophytic fungus, Aphyllophorales sp. (JQ34006)
from mangrove plants, Breguiera cylindrica. Among the 44 strains isolated, the ethyl acetate extract of Aphyllophorales sp. exhibited pronounced activity in preliminary antimicrobial screening. The isolated bioactive compound showed an Rf value of 1.5 in Thin layer chromatograpy (TLC) analysis. In high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) a prominent peak was detected at retention time 2.314 minutes. The FT-IR analysis showed the presence of a benzene ring in the compound represented by characteristic functional group vibrations. The isolate exhibited protease activity. The results indicated that further investigations are still needed to discover other potential of this isolate.
Title: Impact of Elevated CO2 on Growth and Yield of Wheat Crop: A Review
Abstract :

In this manuscript, 19 research studies with 79 experiments from 9 countries of the world based on growth, yield and their components of Wheat (Tritium aestivum L.), under various CO2 levels was analyzed. Only the recently published research studies (excluding models and mathematical tools based research) were considered in the study. Most of the selected experiment confirmed that elevated CO2 have positive impact on growth, yield and its components. Majority of the observations confirm that the elevated CO2 improved the growth & development processes as well as the yield & yield attributes of Wheat crop. No doubt elevated CO2 have positive impact on various growth and yield parameters but when we consider the impact of climate change (elevated temperature, drought, and increasing concentration of anthropogenic gases like SO2, CO, CH4 etc.) the response of CO2 will become negative. Even though elevated levels of CO2 has potential to compensate the impact of other changes in climate and may create a path in future to meet the demand of burgeoning world population.

Title: A Review on Ohmic Heating Technology: Principle, Applications and Scope
Abstract :

Ohmic heating is a novel and alternating thermal processing technology wherein food materials are heated by passing electric current through materials. Ohmic heating has extreme potential for achieving rapid and uniform heating in foods, providing microbiologically safe and high quality foods. Ohmic heating presents a wide range of potential applications including pasteurization, sterilization, aseptic processing, cooking, thawing, blanching, evaporation, extraction, fermentation, and in the military field or long-duration space missions. This review discusses the brief history, basic principle, some process parameters, applicable food products, potential commercial applications and current industrial status of ohmic heating in food industry throughout the world. The review also highlights the scope and work done on ohmic heating in India. The corrosion problems in electrodes and heterogeneous heat generation rate and distribution are interesting area for further research. Ohmic heating is a good comparable with the other ideal technologies like microwave heating, radio-frequency heating and induction heating. More and intensive investigations are required to assess performance and to reduce the overall cost of ohmic heating for viability of commercial application of this technology also in developing countries like India.

Title: Post-training Knowledge and Attitude Assessment of the Women Entrepreneurs towards Mushroom Cultivation
Abstract :

Mushroom cultivation is one of the technically feasible and profitable agriculture practices which are widely recognized by researchers and farmers as the source of high income, employment, and rural development. Such employment generation and poverty alleviation ventures have a significant role in strengthening the socio-economic profile of marginalized population, especially to the rural women. Extensive training programs and workshops have been conducted by various agricultural universities, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, and research centers from time to time to skill the women for mushroom cultivation. Therefore, pieces of training have been a widely accepted strategy with high returns on investment. In this research work, the study was done to evaluate the knowledge and skill development among the women and to identify the problem and challenges towards mushroom cultivation. The majority of women respondents (75%) have a medium level of knowledge, followed by a high level (13.3%) and a low level of knowledge (11.67%) of post-training mushroom cultivation. This might be due to the high interest of trainees, convenient farming, and method followed for transfer of technology. 73.33% of women have shown a favorable attitude towards mushroom cultivation. It has been observed that the mushroom cultivation training has shown a favorable attitude which helped in income generation, thus aiding financial assistance to the family.

Title: Response Surface Optimization of Extraction Parameters of Green Tea
Abstract :

Green tea is one of the most popular beverage in the world. Green tea (Camellia sinensis ) is a rich source of bioactive components so it has been used in traditional medicine. In the present study, green tea is extracted with water to obtain maximum nutritional quality and antioxidant activity. The optimal conditions for extraction of green tea was determined by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Box-Behnken design was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent factors, leaf to water ratio (1:10, 1:30 1:50), temperature (40 to 50°C) and extraction time (15 to 45 min). Optimal conditions were, extraction temperature of 51.44°C, time 29.48 min and water to solid ratio of 1:47.80 with highest total polyphenols, total flavonoid, caffeine, antioxidant activity and lowest tannin.

Title: Leaf proteome alterations in tolerant pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) genotype under water stress
Abstract :
Drought tolerant pearl millet genotype was used for diff erential physiological and proteomic analysis. The water stress was imposed on 20 days seedling up to fi ve days. The physiological parameters viz. soil moisture content, relative water content (RWC), shoot length (cm) were studied from drought and control seedling a er 25 days. The results showed signifi cant changes on RWC and soil moisture content was decreased under water stress. Proteome analysis of 2D gel electrophoresis indicates around 1262 well resolved spots within the 4-7 pH and 10-110 kDa ranges. Image analysis revealed the presence of both, qualitative and quantitative changes between two treatments. The proteomic changes were observed in tolerance genotype J-2340 resulted total 84 spots protein (22.5-97.4 kDa, pH- 4.00 to 6.73) matches with control and water stress treatments. However, 32 proteins up regulated (29.0-97.4 kDa, pH 4.20-7.00) and eight down regulated (57.9-97.4kDa, pH 4.00 to 6.68) were observed a er imposing water stress.
Title: Extremophiles: An Overview of Microorganism from Extreme Environment
Abstract :
Extremophilic organisms are primarily prokaryotic (archaea and bacteria), with few eukaryotic examples. Extremophiles are defined by the environmental conditions in which they grow optimally. The organisms may be described as acidophilic (optimal growth between pH 1 and pH 5); alkaliphilic (optimal growth above pH 9); halophilic (optimal growth in environments with high concentrations of salt); thermophilic (optimal growth between 60 and 80 °C); hyperthermophilic (optimal growth above 80 °C); psychrophilic (optimal growth at 15 °C or lower, with a maximum tolerant temperature of 20 °C and minimal growth at or below 0 °C); piezophilic, or barophilic (optimal growth at high hydrostatic pressure); oligotrophic (growth in nutritionally limitedenvironments); endolithic (growth within rock or within pores of mineral grains); and xerophilic (growth in dry conditions, with low water availability). Some extremophiles are adapted  imultaneously to multiple stresses (polyextremophile); common examples include hermoacidophiles and haloalkaliphiles. Extremophiles are of biotechnological interest, as they produce extremozymes, defined as enzymes that are functional under extreme conditions. Extremozymes are useful in industrial production procedures and research applications because of their ability to remain active under the severe conditions typically employed in these processes. The study of extremophiles provides an understanding of the physicochemical parameters defining life on Earth and may provide insight into how life on Earth originated. The postulations that extreme environmental conditions existed on primitive Earth and that life arose in hot environments have led to the theory that extremophiles are vestiges of primordial organisms and thus are models of ancient life.
Title: Effect of Pesticide Use on the Health of Farming Community
Abstract :

Pesticides are the chemical or biological substances used to kill or repel targeted organisms. Pesticides are applied to the environment with the aim of suppressing the impact of plant and animal pest and to protect agricultural and industrial products (Dey et al. 2013). Exposure to pesticide results in both acute and chronic health problems which range from short term to long term effects. Keeping this in view a study was conducted to know the effect of pesticide use on the health of farming community in Dharawad taluka, Karnataka state. A survey was conducted by interview method from 130 farmers in three village of Dharawad taluka and information regarding health effects and use of personal protective clothing while spraying pesticides was collected. Majority of the farmers are suffering from various health problems like headache, dizziness, vomiting, nausea, burning vision, itching of skin burning of hands, excessive salivation and watery of eyes. All these problems are related to the indiscriminate handling of pesticides by the farmers. Use of protective clothing while spraying pesticides would help the farmers to come out from these problems.

Title: Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: A Potential Tool for Enhancing Crop Productivity in Salt Affected Soil
Abstract :

AMF have been mentioned in several literatures for long time for their beneficial role in crop growth and productivity. However, recently they are talked about for efficient abiotic stress management which received equal attention among researchers. Salinity is such an abiotic stress faced by crop plants that can be minimized by assistance of AMF. In this article, we have discussed the possible mechanism and the identified species of AMF for abatement of salinity stress of plants by citing some suitable examples, apart from the harmful effects in crop plants’ functioning due to salinity usually take place. Though there is lots of scope of further research, this illustrative piece of information may generate interest among farmers and other common people.

Title: Sclerotinia Rot of Ocimum sanctum and the Host Range of its Pathogen
Abstract :

Sclerotinia rot of Ocimum sanctum caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been recorded for last three years during winter season (2011-2014) at Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal. The disease appeared in first week of December and progress of the disease continued up to the end of February. Drooping of leaves in one or more young twigs was the first symptom of the disease. Light brown discolouration on the twig and presence of white sclerotia might be associated with the initial symptom. Gradually more and more twigs were affected followed by death and drying of the infected twigs. In humid condition, prominent cotton white mycelia developed on the affected tissue. Towards end of February many plants became dead. Black matured sclerotia were found on the dead branches. On artificial inoculation the causal organism, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infected fifty plants indicating that the pathogen did not have host specificity. But susceptibility of seventeen plants (Capsicum annum var. grosser, Trichosanthes dioica, Cucurbita pepo, Abelmoschus esculentus, Raphanus sativus, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Amaranthus tricolor, Portulaca oleracea, Pachyrrhizus erosus, Ipomoea batatas, Lathyrus satires, Ricinus Communis, Allium sativum, Foeniculum vulgare, Carica papaya, Chrysanthemum indium, Chenopodium album) is recorded first time in India.

Title: Traditional Knowledge on Medicinal Plants used by the Tribal People of Birbhum District of West Bengal in India
Abstract :

The present paper deals with observation on ethno medicinal uses of plants by the tribal people of Birbhum district, West Bengal. Tribal medicine is an age-old therapeutic system which is traditionally practiced among different tribal communities for their primary health care needs. The tribal people of this district mainly depend upon the forest flora for their livelihood and use herbal medicines in curing the ailments and diseases. Altogether 30 plant species belonging to different families have been recorded from the district. These plant species are effective for various common human ailments. Considering individual plant parts it is found that leaf is used in 20 cases, bark in 12 cases, fruits in 6 cases, stem in 3 cases, latex and flowers in 2 cases, sap and rhizome in 1 cases. Finally, the recorded plant taxa have been enumerated according to their botanical names along with families, local or tribal names, parts used, disease cured, mode of administration, etc. This folk knowledge on medicine should be documented immediately and therapeutic validation of these herbal medicines is emphasized. To avoid biodiversity extinction some measures would be taken, like, cultivation of rare medicinal plants, provision of training and extension services to farmers engaged in cultivation of medicinal plants, establishment of herbal gardens in forest areas and creation of seed bank.

Title: A Novel Approach for Enhancement of Lovastatin Production using Aspergillus Species
Abstract :
Submerged cultures (SmF) of filamentous fungi (Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavus) are widely used to produce commercially important metabolite lovastatin. Limited investigations have been made on optimization of the different nutrients and process parameters using standard optimization methods. No previous work has used statistical analysis in documenting the interactions between nutritional and process parameters in lovastatin production. With this lacunae, Plackett-Burman experimental design
was used for the first time to screen and investigate the effects of the nine factors —i.e. Source (lactose, glycerol and honey) and concentrations of carbon (40–80 g/L), source (mycological peptone and yeast extract) and concentrations of Nitrogen (5–25 g/L); pH of the fermentation process (6.0-7.6); Temperature of the fermentation process (24 oC –32 oC) ; Agitation (120 – 200 rpm) and Fermentation time (5–13 days) —on the concentrations of lovastatin produced in batch cultures (SmF) of Aspergillus terreus
(newly discovered strains (nhceup) MTCC-11045, Aspergillus terreus (NHCEUPBT) MTCC-11395, Aspergillus flavus (NHCEUPBTE) MTCC-11396 and Aspergillus terreus MTCC-1782. Lovastatin in the sample was confirmed and estimated by UV Spectrophotometry, HPLC and FTIR analysis; Plackett-Burman design identified the “source and concentrations of C, N, pH and incubation period” were the principal factor influencing the production of lovastatin.
Title: In silico Target Deconvolution of Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane) Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Abstract :
In relation to its antiviral properties, curcumin at higher concentrations is found to lower the growth of Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) infected with RSV. However the mechanism of action curcumin in RSV remains unknown. This analysis unlocks the ways to increase the killing of RSV even at lower concentrations of
curcumin, also preventing apoptosis of the host cells when concentration of curcumin is increased (if a higher concentration is needed). The study has identified the viral proteins RNA polymerase L and Ribonucleoprotein N to be susceptible targets in RSV for binding of curcumin or curcumin bioconjugates to combat the virus
Title: Upgrading Biogas  to Biomethane  by Physical Absorption Process
Abstract :

Biogas is generated from anaerobic digestion of organic wastes by microorganisms. It is a relatively simple and economical method to produce a fuel from waste. It has a composition of methane as the main component with 50-70 percent, carbon dioxide around 30-40 percent and, hydrogen sulphide and moisture in trace quantities. The composition of biogas varies depending upon the substrates used. The raw biogas from the biogas digesters is properly scrubbed and purified to remove the unwanted gases like CO2, H2S and moisture up to a certain required level. In this work, a biogas upgrading system of 2 m3/h capacity has been developed for the removal of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide from biogas, is indispensable to get Biomethane. Developed biogas upgrading system, upgrades the biogas up to 96- 97% Biomethane at 10 bar column-operating pressure with 1.5- 2.5 m3 /h of biogas in-flow rate and 1.75 m3/h of water inflow rate.

Title: Characterization of Pectinase from Cashew Shell Cake Using Aspergillus niger with Unique Kinetic Properties
Abstract :
The main purpose of the study was to provide a value addition; to a cashew industry by-product:- Cashew Shell. Production of newly Pectinase enzyme by Solid State Fermentation and the enzyme has been optimized by using Cashew Shell as substrate has been standardized. Strain has been selected by assessing the fungal strains having the better survival capacity in CNSL and
based on the Pectinase production studies (MTCC 1344). Optimum Pectinase production by SSF was obtained when incubated for 96 hours at 45ºC and pH 5.The enzyme activity of Pectinase (Polygalactouronase) was determined by measuring the release of reducing groups from polygalactouronic acid. Partially Purified Pectinase powder was obtained by acetone precipitation; followed by filtering the enzyme through Whatman No: 1 filter paper using a vacuum pump.
Title: Chemical profile and amino acids composition of edible mushroom
Abstract :
Study was conducted to evaluate the functional properties of popularly cultivated mushrooms viz., white bu on mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus pulmonarius. Both types of mushroom exhibited high moisture, crude protein and amino acid content. The Pleurotus and Agaricus mushrooms contained 3.26% and 1.78% soluble protein, respectively. Further, the qualitative amino acid analysis revealed these proteins to be rich source of essential amino acids. A total of 17 amino acids were qualitatively identifi ed in the fresh samples of both types of mushrooms. The Thin Layer Chromatography separation of amino acids showed that all the nine essential amino acid were present
in Agaricus bisporus whereas, only five are present in Pleurotus pulmonarius. Hence, the supplementation of these mushrooms with cereal diet can help to overcome essential amino acids defi ciency and reduce the post-harvest losses of this high value perishable crop
Title: Efficiency of Storage Device for Long term Storage of Cowpea Seeds
Abstract :
A study was conducted for the assessment of an appropriate storage device for long term storage of cowpea seeds. Cowpea seeds were stored in four different containers viz. tin container, polythene bag, earthen pot and gunny bag for six months at room temperature. Samples were taken out at monthly interval beginning from the first month of storage to determine the moisture content, germination percentage, vigor index and different fungi associated during storage. The seed moisture content and prevalence of fungi associated during storage were found highest in gunny bag resulting in lowest germination percentage and vigor. Fungal contamination and moisture content increased and seed germination and vigor decreased with the increase in storage period. But seeds stored in tin container maintained excellent germination percentage and vigor index as the moisture content and fungal contamination were less compared to other storage
devices throughout the storage period. Comparing all the storage devices, it was found that tin container is the best and secure device for long term storage of cowpea seeds.
Title: Optimization of Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Bioactive components from different Parts of Pineapple Waste
Abstract :

Waste accumulation is a serious problem in recent times as they cause serious effects to the environment. Pineapple waste is one among them and it includes the peel, core, stem and crown, which is obtained after processing and various bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, antioxidants and the protein digesting enzyme bromelain, are also present in pineapple waste. In the present study, the extraction of bioactive compounds from the pineapple peel and core was done using Ultrasound assisted extraction(UAE). The extraction conditions was optimised using the Response surface methodology by using the variables time(min), amplitude (%) and ethanol concentration. Protein samples obtained were purified using acetone precipitation and dialysis to determine the bromelain activity and protein pattern along with activity staining to confirm presence of bromelain enzyme.

Title: Effect of Ethanol on Membrane Stability in Oreochromis Mossambicus (Peters)
Abstract :
Excess production and usage of ethanol as an alternative fuel has resulted in frequent ethanol spillage, which brings about massive fish kills arising due to depletion in oxygen content by ethanol, and data available so far on the impact of ethanol on aquatic ecosystems are scarce. The present investigates the alterations in the membrane stability after in vitro and in vivo exposure of fish erythrocytes and lysosomes to ethanol at different sub lethal concentrations. Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) was selected as an animal model and the LC50 value of ethanol was found to be 13.01 g/l. Ethanol brings about considerable damage to the RBCs when subjected to in vitro and in vivo conditions of different ethanol concentrations and it was
found to be highly significant at 0.1% level. Similarly a significant decrease (P<0.001) in lysosomal fraction of â-glucuronidase and acid phosphatase activities were observed both in in vitro and in vivo studies. Ethanol induced mutilations to the membrane of RBCs and lysosomes when subjected to different concentrations of ethanol both in in-vivo and in vitro conditions are found to be very momentous.
Title: Adaptation Potential of Low Chill Peach Varieties to Inter-annual Climatic Variability in the Lower Shiwalik Himalayas
Abstract :
Fruit tree production is a mid to long term investment in which only few adjustments can be done once the crop has become established. Targeting of existing varieties for expected climatic variability is therefore critical for any fruit grower. In the current studies inter-annual variability in climatic variables has been desired to be confirmed with its potential impact on variation in the
phenological, production and quality traits of peach germplasm grown under the subtropical Himalayan eco-system. Different meteorological variables were monitored and behaviour of ten peach varieties were studied for their date of first bloom, full bloom fruit maturity, yield and fruit quality parameters during the years 2006-07 to 2012-13. Higher inter-annual variability in climatic variables has been confirmed together with the variation in the phenological traits. Yield and fruit quality performance of these varieties has also been evaluated. The resilience potential of varieites to climate change was ranked (in decresing order) as: Early Grande> Shan-i-Punjab> Pratap> Florida Prince> May Fire.
Title: An economic analysis of farm risk under water stress production environment in Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu
Abstract :
Agriculture is the single largest private sector occupation and is also considered to be the riskiest business since it mostly depends on the vagaries of nature. It is important for all decision makers to
know the degree of risk involved in each activity. Once the risk corresponding to an a ainable level of expected return is known, depending on the risk taking ability, diff erent farm plans having diff erent level of risk can be taken up by diff erent farmer. In this context, the present study a empts to analyze the agricultural production risk in Namakkal district because of the availability of dry farms. In this
study, survey was conducted in four blocks of the same district. The overall objective of the study is to analyze the farm risk to derive optimal input use and optimal cropping pa ern under the conditions
of risk by an appropriate risk programming models. In the case of cost of cultivation of selected crops, total cost was high i.e. ` 62208 for banana and followed by tomato i.e. ` 38976. Banana and tomato
generated higher returns viz. ` 97976 and ` 49516 when compared to maize and groundnut. The results of quadratic production function concluded that when risk level increases, optimum quantity of inputs
used for the production was decreased. The results showed that even though decline trend in income, the resources which were used in the cultivation as an effi ciency factor
Title: Effect of Debittering on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Palmyrah Young Shoots Flour
Abstract :

Palmyrah young shoot is rich in starch and fibre, which is helpful in controlling various diseases especially diabetic. Regular consumption of this flour increase the body strength, reduce hunger and incorporation of it in other foods would positively reduce the malnutrition. However, presence of bitter compounds (flabelliferin or steroidal saponin) limited its consumption rate. Very few studies are carried out in this area and hence the present study was aimed to remove the bitter compounds by aqueous extraction and to evaluate the effect of debittering on changes of palmyrah young shoot flour. The starch and fiber content were dramatically increased and phenolic and saponin contents significantly decreased in debittered flour (DBF) than raw flour (RF). In addition, the color value ‘L’ value increased whereas ‘a’ and ‘b’ value decreased in DBF. The debittered flour had good thickening and gelling properties, which can sustain the use of debittered palmyarh flour in food industries.

Title: Biological Efficiency of Legume Intercrops in Baby Corn (Zea Mays L.)
Abstract :

Field experiments were conducted at the Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to study the effect of crop geometry, intercropping and topping on the productivity and biological efficiency of baby corn. Crop geometry (60 x 20 cm and 75 x 16 cm) and intercropping (baby corn alone, baby corn + fenugreek (greens), baby corn + fodder cowpea) were assigned to main plots. Four topping practices (detasseling alone, topping beyond 9th, 10th and 11th internodes) was allotted to sub plots. The results revealed that baby corn raised at 75 x 16 cm produced higher green cob yield over 60 x 20 cm. Intercropping systems did not have positive influence on yield of baby corn. The highest green cob yield was obtained with topping beyond 10th internode. Higher baby corn equivalent yield (BEY) was obtained with baby corn + fenugreek grown under 75 cm row spacing combined with topping beyond 10th internode. Biological use efficiency as measured by the indices like LER, AHER, LEC, MER and RNRI were higher with baby corn + fenugreek grown under 75 cm row spacing combined with topping beyond 10th internode. However, baby corn intercropped with fodder cowpea at 75 cm row spacing combined with topping beyond 10th internode registered the higher ATER than the other treatment combinations.

Title: Integrated Rizi-Pisciculture: An approach towards livelihood and nutritional security for the tribal community of East Siang district, Arunachal Pradesh
Abstract :

An approach was made to evaluate the feasibility and economic viability of rice fish culture (RFC) by conducting trials in 8 different villages viz. Ngorlung, Niglok, Balek, Mirem, Sikatode, Ayeng, Rayang and Seren of East Siang district, Arunachal Pradesh during Kharif seasons of 2011 to 2014. In the multilocational trials on rizi-pisciculture survival rate of advanced fry was recorded between 44.5 % and 48.7 % with an average weight of 83 g to 91 g at the harvest. During the study period average total cost of cultivation of RFC and sole cropping of rice was calculated to be ` 42,700 and ` 26,612 respectively. Average gross income and net income increased by ` 61,937 and ` 44,849 respectively by practicing RFC over the sole cropping of rice and it also raised the benefit-cost ratio of the system (2.61).

Title: Recent advances in naga king chilli (capsicum chinense JACQ.) research
Abstract :

The Naga King Chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq) is one of the hottest chillies in the world. This chilli is native to the north eastern region of India and subsequently the geographical indication (GI) of goods tag for this chilli has been obtained by the Nagaland State Government. The chilli was recorded to be the hottest chilli in the world in 2006 with a Scoville heat unit (SHU) rating of 1,001,304. Currently it occupies the fifth position among the hottest chillies in the world. Due to its high potential commercial value, many studies has been carried out in this crop including scientific cultivation, in vitro regeneration, diversity and evolution studies and its diseases and their management etc. This review is an attempt to bring into account the various research work carried out so far in the crop including the traditional and ethno-medicinal uses.

Title: Disparities in socio-economic development: A district level analysis in Karnataka
Abstract :

The level of development was estimated with the help of composite index based on optimum combination of socio-economic indicators. The level of development has been separately estimated for agriculture, Animal husbandry, industry and transport and communication. In case of transport and communication sector, Bengaluru district ranked first and Chamarajnagar was least in development. Wide disparities were obtained in the level of development among different districts. Positive and significant association is found between the agriculture and industrial sector. Karnataka require improvement in various dimensions for enhancing the level of overall socio-economic development for unified balanced integration of curative, preventive and promotional services.

Title: Gene Action for Yield and Yield Attributes by Generation Mean Analysis in Groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea L.)
Abstract :

Genetic studies assist the breeder in understanding the inheritance mechanism and enhance the efficiency of a breeding programme. Knowledge of the way genes act and interact will determine the breeding system that optimizes gene action more efficiently and will elucidate the role of breeding systems in the evolution of crop plants. The generation mean analysis was employed in four crosses viz., CO 7 × GPBD 4, ICGV 03128 × GPBD 4, ICGV 03128 × COG 0437 and ICGV 03128 × VRI Gn 6 of groundnut to partition the genetic variance into additive, dominance and epistasis. Hence F1, F2 and F3 generations of each cross were evaluated along with their parents to assess the nature of gene action involved for various characters which in turn helps in formulating an effective and sound breeding programme in groundnut. In all the vegetative and reproductive characters, additivity, dominance and one or more of the epistatic effects determined the expression. Pedigree method of breeding followed by simple selection in later generation would be a meaningful breeding strategy to be followed in such crosses for the improvement of the characters under evaluation. Considering the kernel yield per plant, pod yield per plant and foliar disease incidence, the cross ICGV 03128 × GPBD 4 was adjudged as the best cross for further selection programme.

Title: Impact of Fly Ash on Soil Properties and Productivity
Abstract :

Fly ash is considered as a good soil & source of secondary plant nutrients as well as micronutrients and can significantly improve the physio-chemical properties of the soil due to increase in porosity and water holding capacity. It can efficiently be used as a source of pesticide carrier, plant growth promoter etc. It has also been reported to be safe for agricultural application in context of toxicology & radioactivity. The poor infiltration and fine texture of clay soil causes water logging problem and reduces biological activities in soil. In contrast to this, loose particle and higher in filterability in sandy soil results in low water holding capacity and poor nutrient retention. Fly ash, a waste product of thermal power plants, causes environmental pollution and is hazardous to human health. Fly ash may be used as amendment to improve soil properties and plant growth in soils. The addition of 20% fly ash in decade soil and up to 30% in sandy soils improved the germination, plant height, biological and grain yield of wheat. The addition of fly-ash has also shown improvement in the soil properties viz. texture, structure and bulk density. Permeability of clay loam soil increased from 0.54cm/hr to 2.14cm/hr by the addition of 50% fly ash whereas it decreased from 23.80 cm/hr to 9.67 cm/hr in sandy soil by addition of 50% fly-ash. Water holding capacity of sandy soil also increased from 0.38 cm/cm to 0.53 cm/cm at 50% level. The agricultural productivity increased by addition up to 30% fly ash and 10% compost in different type of soil as experimented in the present study.

Title: Rapid in vitro Multiplication of Eulophia Cullenii (Wight) Blume - a Rare, Endemic and Exquisite Orchid of Southern Western Ghats
Abstract :
As part of a conservation programme to multiply Western Ghats orchids, green pod culture of Eulophia cullenii, a rare, endemic exquisite and therapeutically important orchid of Western Ghats was attempted. Green pod culture of E. cullenii, was tested in three different culture media viz. Mitra et al., Knudson C, and Wimber media. Mature seeds released from a three month old the green pod of E. cullenii were cultured in the above mentioned liquid nutrient media supplemented with different organic additives
like casein acid hydrolysate (CH), peptone (P), yeast extract (YE) and coconut water (CW). Mitra nutrient medium supplemented with 0.05% CH (w/v) supported highest percentage (70%) seed germination. CW was found be inhibitory for seed germination in all the media tried. Protocorm after 60 days in liquid medium were transferred to solid Mitra medium containing same additives. Protocorm proliferation was noticed in Mitra basal and organic supplemented medium and maximum of an average of 15 daughter protocorms within 8 weeks of culture in solid basal Mitra medium. Proliferated protocorm when transferred to Mitra basal medium within 8 weeks leafy shoots with root initials and initiation of in vitro rhizome were obtained. These seedling again transferred to fresh basal medium healthy seedling with in vitro derived rhizome were formed within 8 weeks of culture. After the third subculture in solid medium, the healthy rooted seedlings with in vitro developed rhizome obtained were transferred to community pots
containing sand and farmyard manure (1:1) and 79% survival rate was obtained after one year of establishment.
Title: Bio-Effectiveness of a Pro-Insecticide, Diafenthiuron 50% WP Against Diamond Back Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lin.) in Cabbage in Gangetic Alluvial Plains of West Bengal
Abstract :

Diamond back moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Lin.) has crippled the production of cabbage all over the world having the capacity to dwindle down yield and cause even up to 100% crop loss. Since chemical control has been the most effective means of management over decades, an attempt was made to evaluate diafenthiuron 50% WP on the basis of its bio-effectiveness, non-target toxicity and phytotoxicity in the present experiment. The results exhibited that diafenthiuron 50 % WP at the rate of 600 ml/ha provided most effective reduction of DBM population (88.68%-90.82% reduction of pest over control) with substantial increase in yield (184.75 q/ha) subsequently the highest cost benefit ratio of 1:5.89. All the doses of test molecule were found to be soft against prevailing coccinellids and hymenopteran parasitoids. Further it was observed that the test chemical did not produce any phytotoxic symptoms.

Title: Shelf life extension of fresh-cut spinach
Abstract :
Fresh-cut vegetables are an important and rapidly developing class of convenience foods. Their storage life may be greatly reduced due to their high rates of respiration and transpiration and the possibility of enzymatic and microbiological deterioration. Consequently, the objective of this work was to determine the shelf life and the failure a ribute that conditioned the shelf life of fresh-cut spinach packaged in
diff erent packaging materials.Packaging of fresh vegetables is one of the most important steps in the long and complicated journey from grower to consumer. Spinach has a relatively short shelf life. “Shelf
life is defi ned as the time period that a product can be expected to maintain a predetermined level of quality under specifi ed storage conditions”. Shelf life is a function of time, environmental factors, and susceptibility of product to quality change.The maximum shelf life for spinach was observed as 3 days and 14 days when stored in LDPE bags with 5% perforation at ambient and cold storage conditions, respectively.
Title: Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Tomato Production in Adamawa State, Nigeria
Abstract :

The study examined the technical efficiency of tomato production in Guyuk Local Government area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 100 farmers using purposive and simple random sampling with aid of structured schedule.The result of the stochastic frontier production function analysis shows that the variance parameters, that is the sigma squared (δ2) and the gamma (γ) were statistically significant at 1% level for tomato production. The coefficient of farm size and seed were positive and significant at 1% level while family and hired labor was negative and insignificant. Profit level can be increased by increasing the farm size and quantity of seed, and decreasing the use of manual labor. Mean efficiency were 0.69, Farmers operated at 31.03% below frontier level due to variation in technical efficiency. The inefficiency model shows that the coefficient of Age, Gender and family size have negative prior sign and in consonance with the prior expectation. Better use of technology dissemination was suggested to enhance the production level at farmers field and optimum utilization of resources.

Title: Transcriptome Mining for EST-InDels and Development of EST-SSR Markers in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)
Abstract :

Curcuma longa L. commonly known as turmeric is used as a culinary spice in India and many Asian countries. Turmeric has anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-malarial and anti-cancer properties to mention a few. We have analyzed the transcriptome of C. longa retrieved from NCBI SRA database (SRR495223) for the development and validation of EST-SSR markers and identification of EST-InDels to be used for C. longa and related genera. A total of 337 primers were developed and 20 primers having the rating of 100% with the help of NetPrimer were selected and used for PCR validation in C. longa, Amomum subulatum Roxb. (large cardamom) and Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (small cardamom). It was found that around 50% primers generated PCR products in both types of cardamom and 85% in C. longa. The developed primers worked with curcuma, large cardamom and small cardamom plants at varying levels. Besides, the transcriptome analysis detected high amount of deletion and 18 addition of bases which could be screened through the development of CAPS markers using the tool SNP2CAPS and it was found that 93 restriction enzyme can be used for screening these InDels.

Title: Impact of Climate Change on Vegetable Cultivation - A Review
Abstract :
Vegetables are an important component of human diet as they are the only source of nutrients, vitamins and minerals. They are also good remunerative to the farmer as they fetch higher price in the market. Likewise other crops, they are also being hit by the consequences of climate change such as global warming, changes in seasonal and monsoon pattern and biotic and abiotic
factors. Under changing climatic situations crop failures, shortage of yields, reduction in quality and increasing pest and disease problems are common and they render the vegetable cultivation unprofitable. As many physiological processes and enzymatic activities are temperature dependent, they are going to be largely effected. Drought and salinity are the two important consequences of increase in temperature worsening vegetable cultivation. Increase in CO2 may increase crop yields due to increased CO2
fertilization, but decreases after some extent. Anthropogenic air pollutants such as CO2, CH4 and CFC’s are contributing to the global warming and dioxides of nitrogen and sulphur are causing depletion of ozone layer and permitting the entry of harmful UV rays. These affects of climate change also influence the pest and disease occurrences, host-pathogen interactions, distribution and ecology of insects, time of appearance, migration to new places and their overwintering capacity, there by becoming major
setback to vegetable cultivation. Potato, among the all vegetables, is most vulnerable to climate change due to its exact climatic requirement for various physiological processes.
Title: Molecular Diversity Analysis of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) Genotypes Determined by ISSR and RAPD Markers
Abstract :
The present study was carried out for the comparison of ISSR and RAPD markers for polymorphism pattern andmolecular diversity analysis among ten cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes. Out of 50 ISSR primers, 18 primers produced total 103 bands across ten cowpea genotypes, of which 49 bands were polymorphic. A maximum polymorphism (85.70%) was obtained by UBC 815. Average numbers of polymorphic bands per UBC primer was 2.72. The UBC 834 was the best primer resulting good amplification with maximum PIC value (0.890). However, out of 50 RAPD primers,
14 RAPD primers produced 120 bands across ten genotypes, of which 81 bands were polymorphic. A maximum polymorphism (90.0%) was obtained with OPV-16 primer. Average number of polymorphic bands per RAPD primer was 5.78. The primer OPD-08 was the best primer resulting good amplification with maximum PIC value (0.923). Jaccard’s similarity coefficient ranged from 68.40% to 92.90% for ISSR, for RAPD are 57.10% to 81.00% and for ISSR-RAPD coefficient data ranged from 85.70% to 63.50%.
Title: Phosphorus Availability and Proton Efflux of Nodulated-root Varies among Common-bean Genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Rhizobox
Abstract :
In this study we compared between six RILs of (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in growth, nodulation, phosphorus use efficiency for N2 fixation and proton release in response to two levels of P in nutrient solution. For plants grown at 250 and 75 ìmol P pl-1 week-1 for 42 days. For this propose Glass house experiment in rhizobox was conducted to evaluate six common bean genotypes for their growth behavior at two levels of soil phosphorus, deficient (75 µmol week-1 plant-1) and sufficient (250 µmol week-1 plant-1) using 24g soil per rhizobox. Genotypes showed differential behavior at both P levels for all parameters. Shoot biomass and nodule biomass were observed higher in sufficient P than in deficient P. Difference
for phosphorus utilization efficiency and phosphorus uptake were also observed where RILs 34,75 and 147 were the higher efficient in use and uptake of P under sufficient P than deficient P. and also greater in H+ efflux for these RILs under sufficient than deficient P. It concluded that these RILs have the possibility to enrich the poor phosphorus soils by available P and improve the soil fertility.
Title: Plant Growth Regulators and their Implication in Ornamental Horticulture: An Overview
Abstract :
Now a day, plant growth regulators have been used by the nurserymen and commercial growers of ornamental plants as a part of cultural practices. PGRs have quicker effect on ornamental plants including foliage and ornamental grassess to modify growth, foliage colour as well as flower yield. Application of growth regulators have various advantages on ornamental plants like less time consuming to treat the plant and its use are environment friendly. Various factors contributing to the efficacy of plant growth regulators among them the method of application plays a key role in determining the efficacy of plant growth regulators. PGRs and new class plant growth regulators can be very effective on flowering and foliage plants, if properly applied at appropriate concentrations and time. Implication of PGRs in flowering and foliage plants must be specific their action and ensure that it should be nontoxic and environmentally safe. It has been observed from various research reports that the physiological activities of flowering and foliage plants are regulated by the growth regulators and finally affects the growth of plants as well as flower production of various flowering plants. Plant growth regulators also play a significant role in propagation by means vegetative, seed treatment, in vitro propagation and in vitro rooting of ornamental and foliage plants. Besides these, PGRs are also involved in prolonging the life of flowers, vase life of cut flowers, plant growth promotion and regulation of flowering, breaking of dormancy in seeds, bulbs, corms and tubers of flowering plants, enhancing apical dominance, lateral branching, plant height control and delayed flowering. In the present overview, we discuss the types of plant growth regulators their applications and effect on flowering, foliage including ornamental grasses.
Title: Field Efficacy, Net Profit and Cost Benefit Ratio of Certain Insecticides against Fruit Borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) in Tomato
Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted to study the field efficacy, net profit and cost benefit ratio of certain insecticides against fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) in tomato during Rabi season 2008. The pooled and statistical data indicated that spraying of endosulfan 35 EC was found to be most effective as it recorded lowest larval population (2.33 larvae per plant) as compared to control (7.02 larvae per plant). Endosulfan 35 EC recorded significantly lowest fruit damage (22.85 per cent). Further, the present findings revealed that the per cent of fruit damage caused by fruit borer was highest at the beginning of the picking seasons and as the number of pickings increased there was a decrease in the fruit damage. All the insecticidal treatments significantly recorded lower fruit yield losses as compared to control (50.85
per cent). Maximum fruit yield was registered by treatment endosulfan (69.50 q/ha) which was followed by cypermethrin
(64 q /ha) and fenvalerate (61.33 q/ha) and lowest in control (20.33 q/ha). The net profit ranged from ` 7,424/- per ha (ë-cyhalothrin) to ` 38,528/- per ha (endosulfan). Spraying of cypermethrin twice on tomato crop, gave maximum cost benefit ratio (1:0.98) which was obviously due to its low price as compared to other insecticides.
Title: Rootstock breeding for abiotic stress tolerance in fruit crops
Abstract :

In the present era of climate change, drastically increasing or decreasing temperature, irregular or heavy rainfall, increasing level of CO2, soil degradation etc. limiting the crop production in different parts of the world. Due to their rapid and unpredictable effects, it became very difficult for agricultural scientists and farmers to respond to challenges posed by biotic and abiotic stresses. The use of rootstocks tolerant to different abiotic stresses like drought, salinity, temperature abnormality etc. may be an alternative approach to face these challenges. Fruit crops are perennial in nature and mostly propagated through vegetative means to meet the early and quality production requirements. The use of desirable scion and rootstock not only meet the requirement of early and quality production but also provides an alternative approach to face the challenges posed by biotic and abiotic stresses. Keeping in mind challenges of environmental stresses and quality fruit production in stress prone areas, the present need before researchers and growers is to fight with the era of changing climate. So, implication of rootstock breeding in fruit production technology is really instrumental for farmers.

Title: Comparative Study of Organic Matter Vis-a-Vis Humic Acid on Change in Nutrients Availability in Rice-Mustard Cropping Sequence
Abstract :
The influence of organic matter vis-a-vis humic acids on the availability of nutrient status and its impact on the cultivation of rice (Variety MTU 1010) followed by mustard (Variety B-9), was studied in Typic Fluvaquent soil under Old Alluvial zone of West Bengal, India. Important physical and chemical properties of the soil texture were identified as sandy clay loam, bulk density 1.34 Mg m-3, oxidizable organic carbon 1.16 g 100gm-1, pH 6.34, total nitrogen 0.14 g 100gm-1, available phosphorus 25.90 kg ha-1, available
potash 127.40 kg ha-1, available sulphate 39.56 kg ha-1, respectively. The C: N ratio of the added FYM, Commercial and FYM extracted humic acid were 32:11, 32:61, and 13:53 respectively. The soil received recommended doses of fertilizer for the cultivation of paddy (N:P2O5:K2O::60:30:30) followed by mustard (N:P2O5:K2O::80:40:40) along with FYM at 5.0 and 2.5 t ha-1, Commercial humic acid at 0.5, 0.25 kg ha-1 and FYM extracted humic acid at 0.5, 0.25 kg ha-1, respectively as per the treatments combination. The
study selected the Randomized Block Design (RBD). Periodical analysis for the collected rhizosphere soil (0-15 cm) and the plant samples in the C: N ratio was done, along with the available amount of phosphate, potash and sulphur with their integral effect on the crops growth. At the panicle initiation
and branching stages of paddy and mustard, the highest content of the available phosphate, potash and sulphur were recorded. This content gradually decreases toward the harvesting stage. FYM extracted humic acid showed the highest availability of phosphate, potash and sulphur whereas Commercial humic acid enhanced the content of potash in soil, which signified the uptake of phosphorus, potash and sulphur within plants, which resulted in the qualitative enrichment through biometric parameters and yield of paddy and mustard.
Title: Growth, Yield and Quality of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) cv. Dolly Orange as influenced by Biofertilizers in combination with Phosphorous
Abstract :

A pot experiment was conducted in the screen-house of the Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during 2011-12 and 2012-13 to investigate the potential effect of biofertilizers (PSB and mycorrhiza) and different levels of phosphorus (0, 10, 15 and 20 g/m2) on growth, yield and quality of chrysanthemum. The conjunctive effect of biofertilizers and different levels of phosphorus was found to be significant for both the years. The maximum plant height (31.77 and 33.33 cm), fresh weight of plant (100.90 and 96.77 g) and dry weight of plant (10.85 and 10.15 g) were recorded with PSB + phosphorus 15 g/m2 in the year 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively. The minimum number of days taken for bud initiation (61.67 and 63.33 days) and number of days to first flowering (75.00 and 75.67 days) were also obtained with PSB + phosphorus 15 g/m2 in both the years, respectively. The maximum number of buds per plant (32.33 and 32.00), number of flowers per plant (29.00 and 29.33), the longest flower stalk (6.33 and 6.33 cm) were noticed with PSB + phosphorus 15 g/m2 in the year 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively. The maximum number of days taken for bud initiation (79.00 and 80.33 days) was recorded with mycorrhiza application (alone) during both the years, respectively. The interaction effect between the biofertilizers and levels of phosphorous on number of suckers per plant was found to be non-significant during both the years of experimentation.

Title: Cultivation and Marketing of Tuberose (Lily) Flowers by the Rural Poor: An Approach of Swot Analysis
Abstract :

In India, cultivation of flowers is practiced from many centuries. In concern of steady increase in demand for flowers, floriculture has become one of the important activities in horticulture. Tuberose occupies a very special position among the ornamental plants for its beauty, elegance and sweet fragrance. Agro-economic data with regard to tuberose cultivation is important for further expansion of cultivation. Hence, the purpose of the present study is to locate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis) in the cultivation and marketing of tuberoses in Madanur village in Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh. The result shows that cultivation and marketing of tuberoses generates employment and income for the rural poor.

Title: Knowledge Level of Fish Farmers on Scientific Farming of Pengba (Osteobrama belangeri) in the Valleys of Manipur
Abstract :

A study was conducted to understand the knowledge level of fish farmers on scientific Pengba farming practices in the valleys of Manipur. Imphal West, Bishnupur, and Thoubal districts were purposively selected based on the higher concentration of Pengba farmers. After consultation with Department of Fisheries, Government of Manipur and with the village key informants, a total of 80 respondents were selected for the study. Primary data were collected through pre tested and structured interview schedule. Analysis of the collected data showed that majority (50%) of the respondents had medium level of knowledge towards scientific farming of Pengba. It was found that majority of the respondents had good knowledge of stocking appropriate size of Pengba in grow out ponds with a mean score value of 0.97. The study also revealed that the socio personal and socio economic characteristic such as age, experience in fisheries activities, annual income from Pengba farming and scientific orientation had significant relationship with the extent of knowledge level of the fish farmers towards scientific farming of Pengba at 5 % level of significance.

Title: Role of Antioxidative Enzymes Activity in Salt Stress and Salinity Screening in Rice Grown Under in vitro Condition
Abstract :
Role of antioxidative enzyme activity in salt stress and salinity screening was studied in the callus of two rice cultivars (White ponni and BPT-5204). The antioxidant activities of the rice callus were determined by analyzing three enzymes activity namely, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) grown under saline condition. Enzymes were analysed in 15 days old rice callus culture grown under slat stress and non-saline conditions. All the three enzyme activities were varied according to salt concentrations in the medium. SOD and CAT activities were higher in BPT-5204 but APX activities were higher in White ponni. Among the NaCl treatment, medium contained 40 mM NaCl observed higher enzyme activity than 20, 30 mM NaCl. Under non saline condition there is no significant difference were noticed in the enzymatic activities and callus growth parameter in both the cultivars. Observation was carried out on
the change in callus growth parameter like weight and color of the callus. There was a significant reduction in weight and also change in colour of the callus was noticed with respect to higher salt concentration (30 and 40 mM NaCl) in the medium for both the cultivars. The observed data indicated that rice plant responds well to salt-induced oxidative stress by increasing their enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. The antioxidant enzyme activity play vital role in defense against salt stress and this may help to screen the salt tolerant line grown under in vitro condition in early callus stage itself.
Title: Production and Purification of Cellulase Enzyme by Endophytic Bacillus sp. Isolated from Rhizophora Mucronata
Abstract :
Mangroves occupy a relatively unexplored site in endophytic microorganism isolation so they can represent a new source in obtaining more enzymes with different potentialities. The present study was carried out to evaluate the ability of Bacillus sp isolated from mangrove species Rhizophora mucronata for the production of Cellulase enzyme. After production, Proteins from the culture filtrate were precipitated by Ammonium Sulfate (60%). The precipitate was reconstituted with assay buffer and dialyzed against same buffer. Then the dialyzed sample applied on DEAE Cellulose column and eluted with 1M NaCl in buffer. Purified enzyme was found to be 65KDa by SDS PAGE. The optimum conditions for the enzyme activity were found to be at a temperature 37°C and PH 7.0. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme were 1.25mg/ml and 14.6 IU/ml, respectively.
Title: Forms of Sulphur and Evaluation to the Sulphur Test Methods for Moongbean in Some terai Soils of Eastern India
Abstract :
Surface soil samples of some terai soils of Eastern India were collected and analysed to evaluate different forms of sulphur status and soil test methods for predicting response of moong bean crop to sulphur application. The range of water soluble, sulphate, adsorbed, organic form and total sulphur were 6.91 to 26.23 (mean 16.69), 13.73 to 30.38 (mean 20.67), 3.19 to 42.91 (mean 18.37), 150.27 to 372.73 (mean 229.57) and 178.57 to 433.09 (mean 264.63) ppm, respectively. Soil pH, organic carbon, cation exchange
capacity and total N content in soil were positively correlated to the all forms of sulphur. Although clay content was negatively correlated to water soluble and sulphate sulphur, but silt+clay content in soil was positively correlated to water soluble sulphur and negatively correlated to adsorbed sulphur content in these soils. Amongst the five chemical extractants employed, relative
suitability of the extractants for predicting available sulphur status for these soils with reference to moong bean crop were in the order: Morgan > monocalcium phosphate 500ppm P > 0.15% CaCl2 > 1 N NH4OAc > 1% NaCl. Therefore, Morgan’s extractant may be used as an index of available sulphur for moong bean (B1, Sonali) grown on acid soils of terai tract of Eastern India, the critical level being 18.0 mg kg-1.
Title: Influence of Water Regimes and Weed Management Practices on Weed Densities and Weed growth under System of Rice Intensification (SRI) under Temperate Conditions
Abstract :

Field experiment was conducted at Mountain Research Centre for Field Crops, SKUAST-Kashmir, Khudwani during Kharif 2012 and 2013 on slity clay loam soils. The soil of the experimental field was neutral in reaction, testing medium in available P, K and organic carbon content and low in available N. The treatments comprising of three irrigation schedules: alternate wetting and drying (AWD), saturation conditions and continuous flooding and seven weed management practices including four herbicidal treatments (pyrazosulfuron ethyl @ 20 ga.i. / ha(3 DAT); cyhalofop butyl @ 80 ga.i., / ha(15 DAT); pyrazosulfuron ethyl 20 ga.i. fb cyhalofop butyl 80 g a.i., / ha(3 and 15 DAT); butachlor @ 1.5 kga.i. / ha(3 DAT); three Cono weedings (15, 25 and 35 DAT); along with control and weed free treatment replicated thrice were tested in split plot design to ascertain the most effective herbicide for the control of weeds in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under SRI. The data revealed that significant increase in dry matter accumulation by the crop and grain yield was recorded due to the saturation water regime, which was superior to AWD and continuous flooding during both the years of experimentation. However, continuous flooding recorded lower weed densities, dry matter and weed control efficiency. Higher weed index was recorded with saturation water regime. The data on weed management practices revealed that among the herbicides tested,sequential application of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl @ 20 g a.i./ ha(3 DAT) fb cyhalofop-butyl @ 80 g a.i./ ha(15 DAT) produced significantly higher grain yield and dry matter accumulation by the crop comparable to other weed management measures and weedy check treatment. The same treatment also recorded lower weed densities, weed dry matter and weed index but recorded higher weed control efficiency over other weed management practices and control during both the years.

Title: Optimization of Operating Conditions for Sterilization of Aseptic Food Packaging Material
Abstract :

Sterilization of the packing material is essential in order to prevent spoilage caused by microorganisms found on the packing material. Hydrogen peroxide was used for sterilization of packaging material. Bacteriological effectiveness of sterilization of packaging material was tested with Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 as target organism as it is the most resistance to hydrogen peroxide. The initial count of spore taken for experimental purpose was 108 cfu/ml. In this study, the operating factors were hydrogen peroxide concentration (1.6-18.4 % v/v), temperature (26.4-93.6 °C) and treatment time (9.6-110.4 s) while the investigated response was log cycle reduction. The experimental data was fitted with second order regression equation. The operating conditions were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimum values of hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature and treatment time were found to be 8.05 % v/v, 77.20 oC and 80.54 s respectively at desirability value of 0.39. The log cycle reduction was found to be 6.10 under optimized condition. The optimized condition may be employed for sterilization of food packaging material in aseptic packaging.

Title: Response of Drip Irrigation and Plastic Mulch on Quality of Sapota (Achras Zapota) Fruits
Abstract :

The field experiment was conducted to study the response of sapota (Achras zapota) crop under drip irrigation and plastic mulch. Different amounts of irrigation water application through drip and ring basin irrigation methods along with plastic mulch treatments were experimented with five replications. The Sapota crop water requirement was estimated using reference evapotranspiration data and crop co-efficient for different crop growth stages. Reference evapotranspiration was estimated using FAO-56 Penman Monteith approach. The irrigation water was applied at 60%, 80%, and 100% of the crop water requirement using drip and ring basin irrigation system. The quality analysis of sapota fruit was performed to investigate the effect of different treatments. Economic analysis was carried out to study the economic feasibility of using drip irrigation and plastic mulch for sapota cultivation. The water requirement of sapota crop varies between 10.71 L per day per plant in winter and 34.43 L in summer for the treatment of 100% water requirement of the sapota plant. The physical properties like fruit weight, volume, dimension, peel-pulp ratio was found to be increased due to increase in amount of irrigation water application from 60% to 100% using drip irrigation. A small decrease in true density of fruit was observed with the increase of size of fruit. The pH of fruit increased with decrease in irrigation water application through drip system. The TSS, total sugar and reducing sugar were estimated to increase with reduced irrigation water application. Sweetness of the fruit increased with reduced irrigation water application. Increase in Sapota fruit yield varied from 7.62% to 41% in mulched treatments. Increase in fruit yield by 21.05% for the drip treated plants was over ring basin. Based on the water use efficiency, benefit-cost analysis and fruit quality analysis 80% irrigation requirement supplied through drip system along with plastic mulch treatment can be recommended for Sapota irrigation.

Title: Effect of Herbal Extract on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Drug Resistant Burn Wound Isolates
Abstract :
Major problems of wound management and therapy are bacterial infection and wound sepsis, which in worst case may lead to mortality. The status of infection determines the class of wound. Invasive infection is injurious to host cells. Wound healing is becoming challenging due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant microbes. The present study evaluates the use of neem,
turmeric, kuppaimeni, aleovera along with penicillin, ciprofloxacin, metrogel, cefadroxil, , gentamycin, and neomycin against pathogens isolated from burn wound. Among the isolates the predominant pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E.coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Sensitivity of the isolates to antibiotics and herbal formulations were performed by agar well
diffusion and disk diffusion method. All P. aeruginosa isolates were resistant to penicillin, metrogel, cefadroxil,, gentamycin,and neomycin but sensitive to ciprofloxacin and bacitracin. E.coli isolates were resistant to vancomycin, penicillin, metrogel and cefadroxil.
Title: Assessment of Genetic Divergence in Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Genotypes for Yield and Yield Attributing Traits
Abstract :
Genetic diversity using Mahalanobis D-square (D2) techniques was studied for yield and yield contributing traits for 19 potato genotypes at West Bengal. These genotypes were grouped into seven clusters. Cluster VII had maximum divergence with four genotypes followed by cluster IV having maximum five genotypes. Rest five clusters are digenotypic having two genotypes each. The inter cluster distance were greater than the intra cluster distance revealing that considerable amount of genetic diversity existed among the accession. The maximum and minimum divergence was revealed between cluster VI with IV and cluster I with III respectively. Cluster VI exhibited high mean values for characters like total tuber yield, marketable tuber yield, dry matter%, harvest index, polar and equatorial diameter of tuber. These characters
combining with plant height are the major traits causing genetic divergence among the accessions. The genotypes belonging to different clusters are having maximum divergence and can be successfully utilized in hybridization programmes to get desirable transgressive segregants. It is assumed that maximum amount of heterosis will be manifested in cross combinations involving the parents belonging to most divergent clusters.
Title: Monitoring of Heavy Metals in Surface and Ground Water Sources Under Different Land Uses in Solan, Himachal Pradesh
Abstract :

Investigations were carried out on analysis of water samples for heavy metals viz. Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Iron and Zinc from surface and ground water from 39 sampling sites under different land uses (agriculture, forest and urban) during different seasons (rainy, winter and summer) in adjoining to Kandaghat town of Solan District of Himachal Pradesh, India. This study had been carried out from 2011-2012 in order to elucidate the fate of heavy metals in surface and ground water. The maximum As (0.39 ppb), Cd (0.07 ppb), Pb (0.66 ppb), Fe (0.03 ppb) and Zn (0.09 ppb) of surface water was recorded under urban land use. Maximum As (0.25 ppb), Cd (0.06 ppb), Pb (0.59 ppb) and Fe (0.03 ppb) of surface water was recorded during summer season whereas Zn (0.06 ppb) was recorded during rainy season. In ground water, maximum Cd (0.06 ppb), Pb (0.02 ppb) and Fe (0.03 ppb) was recorded under urban land use, whereas As (0.15 ppb), Pb (0.02 ppb) and Zn (0.15 ppb) were recorded under agriculture land use. Maximum Cd (0.06 ppb) and Fe (0.03 ppb) of ground water were recorded during summer season, whereas As (0.06 ppb), Pb (0.02 ppb) and Zn (0.15 ppb) were maximum during rainy season.

Title: Effect of growing media, Pgrs and seasonal variability on rooting ability and survival of lemon (Citrus Limon L.) cuttings
Abstract :
The eff ect of diff erent growing media (soil, soil+FYM, soil+vermicompost, soil+cocopeat, soil+sand+FYM, soil+sand+vermicompost and soil+sand+cocopeat), hormonal treatments (Control, IBA 500 ppm, NAA 500ppm and IBA+NAA 500ppm each) and growing seasons (rainy and spring) on the number of sprout per cu ing, number of primary roots per cu ing, number of secondary roots per cu ing and survival percentage of cu ings of lemon cv. Pant Lemon-1, was evaluated. Among the diff erent growing medium, number of sprouts per cu ing (2.58) with soil+sand+vermicompost, number of primary roots per cu ing (9.03) and number of secondary roots per cu ing (16.67) with soil+sand+cocopeat and survival percentage (82.23) with soil+sand+FYM, recorded maximum. Growth hormones IBA 500 ppm resulted maximum (2.42) number of sprouts per cu ing as well as highest survival percentage (81.68). Hormonal combination of IBA 500 ppm+NAA 500 ppm were resulted maximum number of primary roots (7.74) and secondary roots (16.19) per cu ing. Over all compare between spring and rainy seasons, spring season was found superior regarding number of sprout per cu ing (2.29) and number of primary roots per cu ing (7.30). Whereas, number of secondary roots per cu ing (15.30) and survival percentage
(77.37), were more in spring season. 
Title: Bio efficacy and Persistence of Oxyfluorfen in Aerobic Rice
Abstract :

A field study was conducted at ZARS, V.C. Farm Mandya to determine bio efficacy and persistence of oxyfluorfen residue in soil and aerobic rice crop. Oxyfluorfen (23.5% EC) was applied (100 g a.i ha-1 and 200 g a.i ha-1) to crop (Var MAS 946-1). Soil samples were collected at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90 days after sowing and at harvest. Plant samples were collected at 60, 90 days after sowing and at harvest. Both the samples were analyzed for oxyfluorfen residues by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with an accepted recovery of 82.6% for soil and 92.6% for plant samples at the minimum detectable concentration of 0.05 µg g-1. Higher persistence of oxyfluorfen was noticed in treatment which received oxyfluorfen at 200 g a.i ha-1 + FYM @ 10 t ha-1 ranging between 0.61 µg g-1 and 0.08 µg g-1 at 0 and 60 days after treatment whereas oxyfluorfen did not persist in rice at any growth stages. A higher half life of 7.0 days and lower rate constant of 9.8 × 10-3 day-1 were also recorded in the same treatment.

Title: Photocatalytic Activity of Zinc Sulphate Nano Material on Phytopathogens
Abstract :
Phytopathogens cause both qualitative and quantitative loss in all areas of agricultural practices. Phytopathogens are controlled by pesticides but it is associated with side effects. Most organisms develop resistance to pesticides and high concentration of pesticide is phyto toxic. Hence the present study is aimed to assess the potential application of nano dimensional zinc sulphate
as a photo catalyst to control Xanthomonas campestris, X.malvacearum, Pseudomonas solanacearum and P.syringae. Nano material of zinc sulphate was produced by ball milling method. It was characterized by SEM and XRD. Antimicrobial activity of Zinc sulphate was evaluated by well diffusion method. 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1% and 1.0% of zinc sulphate nano material was used to study its influence on growth and death kinetics of all phytopathogens. Size of zinc sulphatenano material was 100 nm and it showed sharp peaks in XRDcorresponding to zinc sulphate. Zinc sulphate at a concentration of 100 µg/100 µl exhibited microbicidal activity with an inhibition zone of 18mm, 14mm, 12mm, 10 mm against P.solanacearum, P.syringae, X.malvacearum and X.campestris respectively.In growth kinetics study, P.solanacearum without any photocatalyst had a lag phase up to 30 minutes and the
presence of photocatalyst extended it upto 90 minutes. At 90min the cfu/ml was 38.5 x 108, 11.7 x 108, 10.73 x 108,10.22 x 108 ,1.93 x
108 in control,0.01%,0.05%,0.1% and 1.0 % respectively.1% of Zinc sulphatenano material was very effective in controlling and destroying all phytopathogens from one hour onwards. Hence the present study explores the possibility of applying zinc nano material as a photo catalyst to control phytopathogens.
Title: Studies on Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance and Correlation in Maize (Zea mays L.)
Abstract :

The present investigation was undertaken to study association between different characters, the direct and indirect contribution of the component characters on the yield, genetic advance, heritability for various characters and to assess the extent of variability through genetic divergence in 40 genotypes (38 inbreds and 2 hybrids) of maize. The treatment differences were statistically significant for all the characters and also the magnitude of genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation indicated the presence of good amount of variability. Grain yield per plant showed the highest heritability (98.00%) followed by plant height, number of kernels per row and 100 grain weight. Grain yield per plant exhibited highest genetic advance which was followed by plant height and ear head height. The grain yield per plant showed highly significant positive correlation with ear circumference, number of kernels per row, ear length and plant height. Path analysis studies revealed that days to maturity, plant height, ear length, numbers of kernel row per cob and 100 grain weight exhibited high direct effects on grain yield indicating true and perfect relationship between them. This also suggests that direct selection for these traits will help in improvement of grain yield in maize.

Title: Chemopreventive Potential of Methanolic Extract of Leucas aspera Against N-Nitrosodiethyl Amine (NDEA) Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
Abstract :
N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), a chemical carcinogen present in many environmental factors. It induces oxidative stress and celluar injury due to enhanced generaion of reactive oxygen species. Free radical scavangers protect the membranes from NDEAinduced damage. Objectives:The present study was designed to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of methanolc extract of Leucas aspera (MELA) against NDEA induced liver toxicity in male wistar rats. Methods:NDEA was administered for 20 weeks.
Daily doses of (MELA) at doses 100 and 200mg and standard drug Silymarin at a dose of 50 mg/kg bodyweight were administered
one week before the onset of NDEA intoxication and continued for 20 weeks. Results:Rats intoxicated with NDEA had elevated levels of serum alpha-fetoprotin((AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA), aspartate amino tranferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GGT), bilirubin, tissue lipid peroxides (TBARS & CD) and decreased levels of serum total protein, albumin & uric acid levels whereas MELA and Silymarin treatment showed decreased
levels of AFP, CEA, uric acid, hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxide levels, protein and albumin to near normal. Histopathological observation also substantiated NEDA-induced hepatoxicity and the effect was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by Leucas aspera extract and Silymarin treatment. Conclusions:The study reveals that (MELA) at a dose of 200mg/kg effectively reversed the hepatotoxicity induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine in rats. Histopathological studies also confirmed that MELA reduced tumor
incidence and reversed the damaged hepatocytes to near normal.
Title: Effect of Paclobutrazol on Growth and Yield of Kharif Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
Abstract :

A field experiment was done during 2013 and 2014 to reduce the unnecessary vegetative growth of kharif groundnut through application of paclobutrazol (PBZ), a growth retardant and to study its impact on yield. The experiment was laid out in split–plot design with six treatments in main plot (PBZ @ 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 ppm and control) and three treatments in sub–plot (Single spraying at 30 Days after emergence (DAE), single spraying at 50 DAE and double spraying at 30 and 50 DAE) and replicated thrice. PBZ in different concentration had the positive response to reduce the plant height during later stages of growth. In case of time of application, significant variation in crop growth rate (CGR) was found before harvesting. Among different yield attributes, pod dry weight (g) plant-1 was increased upto 32% with increase in concentration of PBZ and upto 28% with time of application as compared to control and single application, respectively. PBZ @ 250ppm with double spraying remarkably augmented total kernel yield (Kg ha-1), harvest index as well as oil percentage of this crop and ultimately improved the net return: cost ratio.

Title: Expression of ECMYB Transcription Factor Gene Under Different Abiotic Stress Conditions in Eleusine coracana
Abstract :

Plants are exposed to various abiotic stress conditions during their lifespan. Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, extreme temperature, ROS etc. affect crop yield to great extent. Global warming may worsen the situation in the years to come in most agricultural regions. Therefore, it is critical to understand the mechanisms that enable plants to cope with water deficit. Strategies involving genetic engineering show great promise. Coordinated expression of stress responsive genes is very important for the survival of plant under stress conditions and the regulation is brought about by transcription factors (TF). Myb is a family of transcription factor comprising of a few drought responsive TF. The expression of the TF may be regulated with the onset of drought or other abiotic stress conditions. Eleusine coracana being a rainfed crop could be a good source to fish out drought responsive myb gene. The study was carried out to demonstrate the expression of Ecmyb gene in sensitive (PES-400) and tolerant (PRM6107) genotype of E. coracana under drought, cold, ROS and salt stress. Drought stress was provided by withholding water for 11 days whereas cold stress was provided by incubating the plants in BOD incubator at 40C for different time periods. Similarly salt stress was given by watering the plants with sodium chloride and ROS was created by spraying paraquat on the plants. RT-PCR was carried out to study the expression of Ecmyb gene in different stress conditions. The gene was expressed in the tolerant genotype in all the stress conditions except cold. However, no expression was observed in sensitive genotype under stress condition. Both the sensitive as well as tolerant genotypes did not show Ecmyb gene expression under unstressed condition. The study concludes that the expression of Ecmyb gene was induced with the onset of drought, ROS and salt stress. Cold stress had no effect on the expression of the gene. The transcript was sequenced and submitted to NCBI database (Accession No. JN107890). In-silico analysis showed maximum similarity with drought responsive genes of rice and maize. Future prospects include full length cloning and functional validation of the gene.

Title: Nutrients Uptake and Available Nutrients Status in Soil as Influenced by Sowing Methods and Herbicides in Kharif Maize (Zea mays L.)
Abstract :
An investigation was carried out at Varanasi during kharif season of 2015 and 2016 to assess the influence of three sowing methods (ridge and furrow, conventional flat bed and raised bed planting) and seven weed-control methods (tembotrione 100 g ai. ha-1 (PoE), tembotrione 125 g ai g ai. ha-1 (PoE), atrazine 1 kg ai. ha-1 followed by one hand weeding at 30 DAS, atrazine 1 kg ai. ha-1 (PE) followed by 2, 4-D at 30 DAS (0.5 kg ai. ha-1, PoE), pendimethalin 1 kg ai. ha-1 (PE) followed by one hand weeding at 30 DAS, weedy check and weed free) on nutrient uptake and available nutrients in maize. Raised bed planting has sown results of the lowest weed dry matter accumulation, depletion of NPK by weeds and the highest grain and straw yield, NPK uptake by crop and the available NPKS and Zn in soil than conventional flat bed sowing and it was at par with ridge and furrow sowing. Among the herbicidal treatments, sequential application of atrazine followed by 2, 4-D at 30 was recorded with the lowest dry matter of weeds, NPK depletion by weeds and the highest yield and nutrients uptake and available nutrients in soil when compared to tembotrione 125 g ai g ai ha-1 (PoE), tembotrione 100 g ai. ha-1 (PoE) and weedy check, respectively and it were statistically at par with weed free, atrazine 1 kg ai. ha-1 followed by one hand weeding at 30 DAS and pendimethalin 1 kg ai. ha-1 (PE) followed by one hand weeding at 30 DAS, respectively.
Title: Temporal Abundance of Different Floral Visitors on Egyptian Clover (Trifolium Alexandrinum L.) and Correlation with Weather Parameters
Abstract :

The temporal abundance of different floral visitors on Egyptian clover, Trifolium alexandrinum l. and correlation with weather parameters was studied at Forage Section, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during 2012 and 2013. The mean temporal abundance of A. dorsata was the maximum (4.90/m2/5 min.) followed by A. mellifera (2.69), H. armigera (2.24), Eristalinus spp. (1.59) and A. florea (1.20/m2/5 min.) during 2012. During 2013, A. dorsata abundance decreased to and it 3.08/m2/5 min. followed by A. mellifera (2.61), P. brassicae (2.03), Eristalinus spp. (1.91), Coccinella septempunctata (1.63) and A. florea (1.62/m2/5 min.). A. cerana abundance during 2012 was 0.30/m2/5 min. but became almost negligible (0.06) in 2013. Floral visitor’s abundance was maximum at 1400 h (2.97/m2/5 min.) followed by at 1200 noon (2.66) and 1600 h (2.50) and least during the morning hours of 0600 (0.09) and 0800 h (0.42/m2/5 minutes). Abundance of A. mellifera and A. dorsata during 2012 had a highly significant positive correlation with wind speed (r=0.77 and 0.86) at 0800 h while the later was also correlated with maximum (negative) and minimum relative humidity at 1800 h (r=-0.89 and 0.85, respectively).

Title: Identification of SSR markers for hybrid purity testing in newly released rice hybrid KRH-4
Abstract :

Microsatellite markers were used for fingerprinting of hybrid, assessing variation within parental lines and testing the hybrid purity of hybrid seed rice. In this study 25 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were employed for fingerprinting for newly release rice hybrid (KRH- 4) and their parental lines. Polymorphic primers viz., RM202, RM204, RM219, RM216, RM1385, RM21, RM336, RM209, RM7279 and RM206 could clearly distinguish KRH-4 from its parental lines. The polymorphic primer RM216 amplified an allele size of 160bp in CRMS32A (A) and 150bp in MSN36 (R). Similarly RM204 amplified an allele size of 110bp in CRMS-32A (A) and 120bp in MSN36 (R). RM7279 amplified an allele size of 190bp in CRMS32A (A) and 1800bp in MSN36 (R). Since the bands of RM204, RM216, and RM7279 of KRH-4 hybrid rice were complement type of their parents, clear and distinct that can be utilized for purity assessment of hybrid rice KRH-4.

Title: Assessment of diversity in aloe barbadensis miller using morphological and molecular markers
Abstract :
In this study, genetic diversity of 38 accessions of Aloe barbadensis, collected from diff erent parts of India were evaluated using morphological and random amplifi ed polymorphic DNA (RAPD) data. Statistical analysis showed signifi cant diff erences for all morphological characteristics among the accessions, suggesting that selection for relevant characteristics could be possible. The analysis of molecular diversity was used the RAPD technique, with 14 random primers of 10-mer oligonucleotides. RAPD analysis was performed with 14 primers chosen a er a previous screening. Signifi cant genetic variability among those 38 cultivars was obtained both at the morphological and molecular level. This study demonstrated that for determining the genetic variability among some cultivars, the molecular
markers technique is more precise than the morphological traits.
Title: Economic Analysis of Basmati under Organic and Non-Organic Conditions
Abstract :
Jammu and Kashmir Union Territory is divided into varied agro climatic zones temperate Kashmir valley and humid sub-tropical and tropical region of Jammu. Each has its own specific geo-climatic conditions which determine the cropping pattern and productivity profits. Organic farming has been considered as one of the best options for protecting/sustaining soil health, and is gaining lot of importance in present day agriculture. The present study was confined to the Research Farm, SKUAST, Jammu, Chatha, Jammu and Kashmir Union Territory as this farm has the area under both organic and non-organic basmati. The per hectare cost of cultivation of organic and non-organic basmati rice for human labour, machine labour and irrigation charges were found to be same i.e., ` 6863.12, ` 3587.05 and ` 3640.00 respectively. Whereas expenditure incurred on other items such as seed and manure and fertilizer were found to be maximum in organic cultivation i.e., ` 1800.00/ha and ` 12000.00/ha respectively. The per hectare cost C2 was ` 30201.13 for organic farm, and ` 19790.49 for non-organic farm. After working out management cost, i.e., 10 percent of cost C2, per hectare cost C3 found to be ` 33221.24 and ` 21769.53 for organic and non-organic farms respectively. Cost benefit ratio for non-organic basmati is higher as compare to organic basmati whereas the net return per hectare in organic basmati is higher as compare to non-organic basmati.
Title: Importance of Plants in the Restoration and Environment Development – A Case Study
Abstract :
St. Francis Assisi called sun “My brother sun” and moon “My sister moon”. This Fransican thought has come to the present day world more amplified. Now we know that we, human beings are not isolated beings. We are related to grass, trees, birds, spiders, animals, earth, air and water. Everyone is a part of universal web.
Title: Weed Dynamics and Dry Seeded Rice Productivity in Relation to Sowing Time, Variety and Weed Control in Sub-Tropical and Semi-arid Region of Punjab
Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted at Ludhiana, during kharif 2008 to study effects of sowing time, variety and weed control on weed dynamics and productivity of dry/direct seeded rice. Six sowing dates (dry seeding on 0 (June 5), 7, 14, 21, 28 days after nursery sowing (DANS) and transplanting 28 DANS) in main plots and combinations of two varieties (PR 115 and PAU 201) and two weed control treatments (3 hand hoeings at 20, 40, 60 days and pendimethalin 0.75 kg pre-emergence followed by bispyribac-sodium 0.030 kg/ha as post emergence) in sub plots were evaluated in a split plot design with three replications. Transplanted crop recorded the lower population of all weeds sp and similar in dry seeding on 0 DANS. Population of all weed sp was lower under early sowing of crop on 0, 7 and 14 DANS as compared to delayed sowings. Population of Echinochloa sp, Leptochloa chinensis, Digitaria sanguinalis, Cyperus rotundus and Cyperus iria did not vary among seeding dates; Ammania baccifera and Caesulia axillaris intensity was significantly higher in 21 and 28 DANS as compared to early seeding dates. Weed density did not vary among rice varieties. Sequential application of herbicides effectively controlled Echinochloa sp and D sanguinalis while control of Eragrostis sp and L chinensis was very poor. Herbicides control broad leaf weeds and sedges except Cyperus rotundus. Transplanted crop recorded the highest rice grain yield and was at par to dry seeding 0 DANS but significantly higher than dry seeding on later dates. The grain yield of transplanted crop was 11.9, 22.1, 20.8, 41.7 and 71.4% higher as compared to dry seeding
on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 DANS, respectively. Rice varieties recorded similar grain yield. Three hand hoeings gave significantly higher grain yield than herbicides. Rice seeding directly on 0, 7 and 14 DANS produced similar grain yield under herbicides and three hand hoeings; further delay in seeding significantly reduced grain yield under herbicides as compared to hand hoeings.
Title: Soil Loss Estimation of a Watershed of Central India with Integration of Geospatial Techniques and Universal Soil Loss Equation
Abstract :

Soil erosion is a crucial problem and a critical environmental hazard in agricultural land, river catchments and reservoirs. Its assessment by various methods such as universal soil loss equation (USLE) is widely carried out by estimating the factors of the equation in a GIS environment. The Non-River catchment in Madhya Pradesh, India comprising of 836 sq. km area was studied for soil erosion and sediment losses in entirety as well as for its 33 sub catchments. The study revealed that a vertical fall of 230 meter with a sudden drop within 10 km generates a high erosion potential by runoff water in micro catchments numbered 1,2, 3, 7, 21 and 29. The erosivity (R) parameter of catchment suggested of medium precipitation but high kinetic energy in western and southern part of the catchment. The topographic factor (LS) in western part of the catchments is higher which covers the sub catchments referred above. The forest land, fallow land and ravine lands comprising of 43.79% of the total catchment area are having sparse-vegetation and steep slopes, and are more prone to the soil erosion. In the Non River catchment no conservation practices are followed. The total annual rate of soil erosion in the catchment, as obtained by multiplying USLE factors, ranged variably under different land uses. The erosion from the steep and sparsely vegetated sub catchments under forest and fallows is highest in the range of 5.90-10.25 t/ha/yr. However, the agricultural land comprising of 50% of the catchment area is under the ‘slight’ class of the erosion ranging from 0.05 to 2.57t/ha/yr.

Title: Fibrous Root Distribution in Blood Red Sweet Orange Trees under Semi- arid Irrigated Ecosystem
Abstract :
Fibrous root distribution pattern of mature trees of sweet orange cultivar Blood Red budded on rough lemon with her cleoptera and troyer citrange rootstocks were studied by root excavation method. The roots excavated from four radial distances i.e.0-75,75-150,150-225 and 225-300 cm from the tree trunk and three depths i.e.0-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm from the ground level indicated that fibrous root dry weight density and proportion of dry weight differed significantly at various depths and radial distances. Cleoptera has more feeder roots as compared to rough lemon and troyer. Feeder root dry weight density and dry weight proportion was almost the same between 0-15 & 15-30 cm depth and at deeper horizon there was significant decrease in all the root stocks. Approximately 70% of the total feeder roots in all rootstocks were within 0-30 cm depth i.e. intensive vertical development. The highest feeder root dry weight density was recorded at 0-75cm radial distance after that there was a sharp decrease. Troyer citrange, cleoptera and rough lemon contain about 65, 61 and 50% feeder roots up to 150 cm radial distance from the trunk. Hence, feeder roots, in troyer citrange and cleoptera may be exemplified as intensive lateral development. Rough lemon bears extensive lateral development as it has substantial amount of feeder roots at 150-225cm radial distance. 
Title: Molecular Characterization and virulence pattern studies of rice (Oryza Sativa) blast (Magnaporthe Oryzae) disease
Abstract :

Rice blast, major fungal pathogen attacking rice limits the yield in all major rice growing regions of the world, especially in warm, high humid and dry upland environments. The population genetics of M.oryza were analyzed in three locations i.e. Mandya (Southern dry zone), Ponnampet (Hilly zone) and Bangalore for (pathogenicity test). Disease was evaluated for their pathogenic virulence and genetic characterization using Avr gene specific markers. Isolates were classified into three groups based on pathogenicity viz., seven- severely pathogenic (isolates), 11 moderately pathogenic and three mildly pathogenic isolates. Study revealed, among 21 isolates collected, Avr genes were found in 18 isolates for gene Avr Pita, 15 for Avr-Pitz, four for Avr- Co-39, 12 in Avr-Pia and 8 in Avr- Pik gene. The isolates of Mandya were highly variable than Ponnampet (through cluster analysis). This study helps in understanding the response of different rice accessions to blast in different locations, the distribution and contribution of Avr genes for host plant resistance.

Title: Botanical Management of Rust Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) on Stored Wheat
Abstract :
The current study on Botanical Management of Rust Red flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) on stored wheat during 2020-2021 in the Entomology Department revealed that neem leaf powder was the most effective treatment, observed the mean adult mortality of 67.22 per cent and also records the minimum weight loss after 60 days of storage. The eucalyptus and tulsi can be used as next best treatment in controlling the adult emergence. Whereas, turmeric rhizome powder was the least effective in comparison to control against adult mortality (30.56 %), grain weight loss and adult emergence owing to T. castaneum. Other than this the chemical insecticide, fenvalerate used as a check showed a greater result than botanical powders with mean adult mortality of T. castaneum was 72.78 percent.
Title: Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Pinus kesiya through Trans-specific Amplification of Nuclear SSR Markers
Abstract :

De novo primer development is cost intensive and time-consuming, therefore using primers developed for other species on the target species is a more preferred alternative. In the present study, a total of 47 primer pairs from P. taeda, P. merkusii, P. resinosa and P. densiflora were used for trans-specific amplification of P. kesiya. It was observed that only 5 (10.6%) primer pairs out of 47 transferred in P. kesiya which may be due to the phylogenetic distance of the target species from the source species. The expected heterozygosity (HE) ranged from 0.490 to 0.603 with a mean of 0.540 and the observed heterozygosity (HO) ranged from 0.044 to 0.819 with a mean of 0.342. The study has shown that the nuclear SSR markers can be utilized for estimating the genetic structure of P. kesiya populations. Results of the present work will go a long way in implementing proper strategies for the better management and conservation of P. kesiya forests and initiating tree improvement programmes in this species.

Title: Respiration behaviour and heat of respiration of mango (cv. Langdo) under different storage conditions
Abstract :

Individual agricultural commodity has substantial rate of respiration which varies from commodity to commodity and cultivar to cultivar. Quantification of rate of respiration and thereby heat generated due to respiration is require to develop controlled, modified or cold storage system and to predict the shelf life. A scientific study was carried out to determine the effect of different storage conditions on rate of respiration and heat of respiration of mango fruits (cv. Langdo). Air tight multi-chamber temperature and RH control system was developed to conduct the experiment at various temperatures. Mango fruits were stored at 10, 15, 20, 25°C and ambient temperature in the developed air tight multi-chamber system. Rate of respiration and heat of respiration was determined for different storage conditions. At the beginning maximum rate of respiration,61.44, 71.76, 80.03, 83.93, 100.42 mlCO2/kg/h and heat of respiration, 7164.84, 8221.14, 9009.34, 9287.19, 10745.55 kcal/metric ton/day was observed at 10, 15, 20, 25°C and ambient temperature respectively. It was found that under steady state storage condition the rate of respiration and heat of respiration was increased with increase in temperature whereas decreased with time for all storage conditions.

Title: Screening of Trichoderma spp and Pseudomonas spp. for their Biocontrol Potential against Phytopathogens of Vanilla
Abstract :
Fungal pathogens of vanilla such as Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii were isolated from naturally infected vanilla plants and an attempt were made to minimize the damage caused by the pathogen using biocontrol agents Trichoderma harzianum, and Pseudomonas fluorescens isolated from soil. The combined inoculation of of Trichoderma harzianum
with Pseudomonas fluorescens treatment showed maximum disease suppression followed by the single inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas putida, Trichoderma virens, respectively in decreasing order. The results clearly indicated that these bio-control agents suppressing the disease incidence. Concerning the interaction effect between used antagonistic microorganisms and method of treatments, there was a highly significant effect. These results suggested that
using of Trichoderma harzianum with Pseudomonas fluorescens through soil mixing plus root dipping treatment could be provided not only additional protection against crop loss due to Fusarium diseases but also significantly increased vegetative growth of vanilla. The mechanism of biocontrol involved the production of volatile and non volatile organic acids, siderophore,
chitinase, peroxidise and salicylic acid. Application of biocontrol agents for crop protection is very significant as it has several advantages such as possibility of multiple pathogen suppression, low cost and promotion of soil fertility.
Title: Callus Induction and Regeneration from In Vitro anther Culture of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Abstract :
The standardization of anther culture media for callus induction, and regeneration from anther derived callus of Azucena and Budda rice varieties. Anthers from panicles in which the distance between flag leaf and subtending leaf was 11cm in Azucena and 8 cm in Budda were used for anther culture.At this stage of development, anthers contained uni-nucleate pollen grains. Panicles were subjected to cold pretreatment of 5°C for 8 days. Callus induction frequency in different media combination ranged from 0.66% to 6.66% was observed in N6 medium supplemented with 1.0 mg-l,2,
4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, 2.0 mg-l α-Naphthalene acetic acid and 0.5 mg-l Kinetin. In Azucena variety, highest callus induction (6.66%) while no callusing was found in Budda variety. Highest shoot regeneration (0.33%) from callus was observed in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg-l 6- Benzyl amino purine, 0.5 mg-l Kinetin and 80 mg-ladenine sulphate.
Title: Traditional medicinal plants used by the Adi, Idu and Khamba tribes of Dehang-Debang Biosphere Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh
Abstract :
Arunachal Pradesh is the largest state in North Eastern India and is a centre of rich biological diversity. It is the home of tribal people belonging to 26 major tribes and over 110 sub-tribes of the Indo-Mongoloid racial stock. The Adis the Idus and Khambas are some of the dominant tribes among them. Most of these communities are ethnically similar but their geographical isolation
from each other has brought amongst them certain distinctive characteristics in language, dress, and customs. They use the diverse flora in their daily life. These tribes are well versed with knowledge of edible greens, vegetables, fruits, seeds and other materials. They have good knowledge of treatment of many ailments by the local plants. 55 plant species belonging to 49 genera
and 36 families were found used for medicinal purpose by the Adis and the Idus of Dehang-Debang Biosphere Reserve (DDBR). About 93 formulations were prepared from 55 plant species. Some formulations were made from single plant; while others were of more plants and were categorized into different types as per curative properties with which they were associated. These medicinal plants have been used traditionally either by eating them as raw drugs, as vegetable or apply it directly to the affected area. The
manner in which the plants are used for the treatment of animal bite, cut, wounds, swellings, skin diseases, dental diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, pain, fever and headache, jaundice, leprosy, cholera, cancer, cough and cold, malaria, ostiological problems and others are presented in this paper.
Title: Development and Optimization of Rotary Blade for Tillage Equipment
Abstract :

In comparison with tractor drawn implements, rotary tillers are of particular interest in final seedbed preparation. In India vertical axis rotary tiller has been introduced in recent years by some farm equipment manufacturers. Farmers claim difference between horizontal and vertical axis rotary action but there are no scientific work compare them. Some research has been done on comparison between rotavator and conventional tillage implements. In this research, a quantitative basis for the description of torque created by different rake angle is given. The design optimization in terms of torque requirement has been carried out for the different rake angle viz., 5, 10 and 15 degree; forward speed viz., 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5; rotor rpm viz., 220, 270 and 310. At all groups the investigations indicated that the optimum torque was produced at 2.5 kmph with 270 rpm when the rake angle is 100.

Title: Influence of Priming Treatments on Stress Tolerance During Seed Germination of Rice
Abstract :
In many crop species, seed germination and early seedling growth are the most sensitive stages to any stress. In order to evaluate the effect of different seed priming techniques on germination of paddy under different temperatures a factorial experiment was conducted with six varieties. Seeds were primed for 12h in seven priming media (salicylic acid 50 ppm, ascorbic acid 200ppm, citric acid 200ppm, proline 0.2%, calcium chloride 2%, Na2HPO4 100ppm and distilled water) at three different temperatures (300C, 380C and 430C) to observe the germination and related parameters. Results indicated that an increase in heat stress decreased germination components such as germination percentage, speed of germination, root length, shoot length and vigour index. Ascorbic acid and salicylic acid pre-treatment @ 200ppm and 50ppm respectively results in improvement of germination properties of paddy under heat stress condition because of its antioxidant capacity.The other treatments also enhanced the germination properties. Priming treatments including hydropriming resulted in the increased activity of α-amylase which in turn has resulted in better mobilization of stored carbohydrate reserves resulted in improvement of germination and other related parameters.
Title: The Comparative Cost and Profit Analysis of Organic and Non-organic Farming Practices in the Mid Himalayan Region
Abstract :

The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three farming practices as main plots and four cropping systems as subplots with three replications. Among the farming practices organic farming practice (7571.40 kg ha-1) resulted in significantly highest MGEY where as production efficiency was found to be significantly higher under organic farming practice (20.74 kg ha-1 day-1) which remained at par with integrated farming practice (19.97 kg ha-1 day-1) and were found superior over inorganic farming practice. With non premium pricing inorganic farming practice resulted in lowest cost of cultivation and higher B:C ratio and Integrated farming practice resulted in higher net returns over organic farming practice. While, with the premium pricing of organic produce organic farming practice resulted in higher gross and net returns over inorganic farming practices. It is the premium price that makes organic systems more profitable. However, even without premiums, organic systems may be more profitable than conventional systems in the long run as organic management will enhance overall farm value.

Title: Influence of Calcium Phosphate Nano Gel Fertilizer Composite on Enzymes, Biomolecules and Yield of Abelmoschus Esculentus
Abstract :
Increase in population accompanied by decrease in the availability of cultivable lands and limited supply of water resources necessitates the urge to improve agricultural productivity in the available land. In the present study, the influence of Calcium Phosphate Nano Gel (CAPNG), urea, diammonium phosphate and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (FC) and Calcium Phosphate Nano Gel Fertilizer Composite (CAPNGFC) on germination, specific activity of amylase, protease, nitrate reductase, carbohydrates,
proteins, free aminoacids and yield performance of Abelmoschus esculentus was evaluated. CAPNG was prepared by coprecipatation method. CAPNG was characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD. Enzyme activities were assessed by the micromoles of product formed/min/mg protein and expressed in Units/mg protein. Aggregated network of CAPNG was observed with the size of 100 nm. The most intense peaks in XRD were in the range of 30 to 35°, which coincides with the peak of the amorphous nature. FTIR
spectra showed peaks at 603.68 cm-1 corresponding to phosphate.
Title: Effect of Feeding Leucaena leucocephala Leaves and Pods on Feed Intake, Digestibility, Body Weight Change and Carcass Characteristic of Central-Highland Sheep Fed Basal Diet Wheat Bran and Natural Pasture Hay in Tigray, Ethiopia
Abstract :
Feed intake, digestibility, body weight change, carcass characteristics and profitability of supplementing 20 yearling central-highland sheep (17±1.5 kg) fed basal diet of natural pasture hay (NPH) and wheat bran with dried Leucana leucocephala leaves (LLL) and pods (LLP) and their mixture were evaluated after 84 d of feeding trial followed by 7 d of fecal collection and carcass analyses. Treatment diets(partial DM basis) were: T1 (control) = 90g wheat bran +3 g salt; T2=90g wheat bran +3 g salt +207 g LLL; T3= 90g
wheat bran +3 g salt +207 g LLP; T4= 90g wheat bran +3 g salt+103.5 g LLL +103.5 g LLP with NPH offered ad libitum for all treatments. Lambs were assigned to each treatment in RCBD. The crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of LLL were 21.8, 20.2 and 9.9 %/ DM, respectively and that of LLP 18.9, 42.1 and 25.7 %/DM, respectively. The total DM intake was highest for T2, T3 and T4 as compared to the control group. However, the total CP and digestible CP intakes were highest (P<0.05) for T2 but lowest in T1, T3 and T4. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in total NDF and ADF intakes among the treatments. Coefficient of DM digestibility (P<0.05) of T2, T3 and T4 was higher than that of T1. Dressing percentage (DP) calculated onthe basis of slaughter body weight (SBW) was higher (P<0.05) for T2 and T4 than T1. Rib eye muscle area (REMA) and hot carcass weight were higher (P<0.05) for T2 followed by T4 and T3 but T1 was least. Thus, T2 (LLL supplementation) gave better nutrient digestibility, feed conversion efficiency and carcass characteristics and is recommended. However, all leucaena meal supplemented animals performed better than the control, thus can be used
as supplements.
Title: Contents VOL. 11, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2018
Abstract :
Title: Cellulase from Cashew Shell Cake using Aspergillus niger Production, Purification and Potential Applications
Abstract :
The Cellulose content in the Cashew Shell Cake was utilized for the production of enzyme Cellulase CEPC-C11; induced by Aspergillus niger (MTCC- 1344) using the Solid-State Fermentation (SSF). Optimised conditions by SSF for Cellulase production were at 30ºC, pH 7.0 and 216 hours of incubation. The enzyme activity of Cellulase was found through C1 and Cx Cellulase Combined Assay. Partially Purified Cellulase was concentrated and powdered by acetone precipitation method. Purified Cellulase showed a maximum specific enzyme activity of 15.322 U/mg of protein at 50ºC, pH 5.0 and on 30 minutes of incubation. Thus cellulase enzyme yield of 20% /Kg of substrate showing Km and Vmax of 1.786 and 19.45 U/mg respectively was obtained. This enzyme which is capable of hydrolyzing native cellulose; that has functional temperature ranging from 25ºC to 70ºC and pH ranging from 3.5 to 8.0 respectively; could find various industrial applications
Title: Plastid Genome Engineering and its Potential Applications: A Review
Abstract :

Plastid genome engineering is a credible tool for the basic biotechnological research and various innovative techniques have led to the better understanding of the complex processes involved in the plastid transformation. Plastids in higher plants are the major biosynthetic centers for photosynthesis which is the main source of energy requirement. Plastids have their own genome i.e. plastome which is maternally inherited in most angiospermic plant species. Although production of transgenic plants has traditionally been through expression of transgene in the nucleus, but plastid transformation is considered more attractive and efficient target for genetic engineering due to several advantages over nuclear transformation including high level of foreign protein, eliminating the risk of cross pollination with weeds, absence of silencing mechanism and ability to engineer multiple genes rather than a single gene. The potential utility of plastid genome engineering has been explored in development of crops with various agronomic traits, development of vaccine, biopharmaceuticals, therapeutic proteins, biomaterials and industrial enzymes, which will definitely prove beneficial in near future. Plastid transformation is still to be fully utilized for product commercialization, because of the problems associated with protein purification and expression level control. This review article highlights the various possibilities and potential applications of plastid genome engineering for generation of marker free transplastomic plants, improvement in agronomic traits and role of plastids in the production of cost effective biopharmaceuticals and biomaterials.

Title: Assessment of Meteorological Drought for Semi-Arid Region of Maharashtra
Abstract :

With the inception of climate change phenomenon occurrence of drought in a region has impacted the agricultural production. Occurrence of rainfall, its frequency and intensity are important characteristics which are being studied to trace the climate variability of any region. Standardized precipitation index was used to assess the drought for Solapur region of Maharashtra. Monthly rainfall data of 42 years of four monsoon months i.e. June, July, August and September was used to generate SPI values, based on these values drought was categorized into mild, moderate, severe and extreme drought. This study showed that there was deviation in rainfall received than the normal rainfall, also drought categories indicated that rainfall and its variation are critical and important for dry climatic conditions for crop planning .Based on drought assessment one can adopted drought mitigation strategies for drought proof agriculture in such rainfall deficit zone.

Title: Leaf Anatomical Studies of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Relation to Tolerance and Susceptibility to Turcicum Leaf Blight Disease
Abstract :
Screening of a set of 12 different composite and commercial hybrid varieties/land races against Turcicum leaf blight disease showed differences in disease reaction. These varieties differed  ignificantly and Percent Disease index (PDI) ranged from 10 to 62 %. Among the different varieties, Allrounder, Prabal, DKC- 9081 showed significantly less (P=0.05) disease as compared to other varieties. Keeping this in mind, they were classified as Tolerant Type and Susceptible Type. The studies on leaf structural anatomy of the both the types reveled that difference in number of stomata per unit area, size of vascular bundle, lower and upper epidermis and number of trichomes per unit area. It may be concluded that the
structural anatomy of maize leaf may play an important role in resistance and susceptibility to the Turcicum leaf blight disease.
Title: Exploring Entagonistic Effect of Endophytic Microorganisms Against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae (McCulloch & Pirone) Vauterin Causing Bacterial Blight of Anthurium
Abstract :
One of the major constraint in anthurium cut flower production is bacterial blight incited by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Dieffenbachiae (Xad). It causes considerable economic loss. Considering the serious nature of the disease the present investigation was undertaken to harness the potential of  ntagonistic endophytes against bacterial blight pathogen. Endophytic microorganisms were isolated from healthy anthurium plants collected from different locations. A quantitative estimation
of endophytic micro organisms revealed the abundance of bacteria than fungi. Moreover, more number of endophytes were isolated from roots than from petiole and leaves. Based on cultural characters of endophytic microorganisms, 14 fungal and 37 bacterial endophytes were selected. Antagonistic action of these endophytes against pathogen was studied in comparison with that of reference culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens (KAU), P.fluorescens (TNAU), Trichoderma viride (KAU) and T. harzianum (IISR). The study revealed that, only eight bacterial and two fungal cultures showed antagonistic action against the pathogen. Since fungal endophytes showed less inhibition, they were not selected for further studies. The selected endophytes were subjected to various tests for understanding parameters that may act to produce antagonism as well as enhanced growth of the plants. All the antagonists inhibited growth of the pathogen, promoted plant growth, produced IAA and ammonia. Only two isolates viz., EB-14 and EB-31 are found cyanogenic.Only four isolates viz., EB-15, EB-31, EB-26 and EB-12 were found capable of solubilizing hosphate. All isolates except EB-12 were found capable of producing siderophores.
Title: Nature of Variations in Managing Information by Fish Farmers: A Case Study from West Tripura District, India
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to analyze the information management behaviour of fish farmers in West Tripura, Tripura. An ex-post-facto research design was followed for the study and West Tripura district was purposively selected based on the prevalence of fish farmers in the district. A sample of 80 fish farmers were selected randomly from the eight selected villages from four blocks of the district. A structured interview schedule was used to collect the information through personal interview. The results showed that majority of the respondents belonged to medium category (62.50%) of information management behaviour, followed by low (21.25%) and high (16.25%) categories. A positive and significant relationship was observed between information management behaviour of fish farmers with independent variables i.e., education, annual income, experience in fisheries, extension contact, achievement motivation, economic motivation, information source exposure, credibility of information source and training exposure.

Title: Survey on Flora and Fauna of Bishnupur Bill (Horse Shoe Lake) and It’s surrounded Area at Berhampore in Murshidabad District of West Bengal
Abstract :

In India, there are many number of Lakes, some are natural and some are man-made. These lakes are the source of Flora and Fauna. “Bishnupur Bill” a horse shoe lake is one of them. This natural lake is derived from our Holy River the Ganges. This paper provides a taxonomic inventory of plant species and animal species collected by the authors during the last two years from this ‘Bill’ and its surrounded area. This natural lake and its surrounded area have lots of Flora and Fauna from algae to mammalians. The inventory records a total of 168 species and 64 genera. The present study also investigates some exotic birds which come every year to this ‘Bill’. The present study revealed a handsome diversity of Flora and Fauna in this ecosystem. The inventory is expected to provide baseline scientific data for further studies on plant and animal diversity in this ‘Bill’, and can be used to facilitate the long-term conservation and sustainable use of plant and animal resources in this ecosystem.

Title: Assessment of drought characteristics for Dhasan basin in Bundelkhand region
Abstract :

Drought monitoring is an important aspect for assessing and forecasting the drought risk for an area. The various types of drought including the meteorological drought and groundwater drought have been analysed using the appropriate drought indicators for Dhasan basin. This has helped in understanding the spatio-temporal variation of droughts including duration, severity and also helped to capture the progression and withdrawal of droughts during various months of the identified drought years. Based on the Effective Drought Index (EDI), four major drought events have been identified during 1981-82, 1988-89, 2002-03 and 2007-08. The drought severity assessment based on the EDI, indicates that the maximum drought severity of -33.49 had occurred during September 2006 and May 2008 and it was of longest duration (21 months) in the area under Banda rain gauging station. An increasing trend of meteorological drought severity has been observed for all the rain gauging stations in Dhasan basin. Hydrological drought characteristics have been evaluated using Groundwater Drought Index (GDI), which indicates that the groundwater drought severity is increasing gradually in the study area. During August 2002, about 0.78 sq. km. area was under severe drought whereas, during November 2002 about 46.01 sq. km. of the area was under severe drought and only 0.62 sq. km. area was under extreme drought conditions.

Title: Role of HD-Zip transcription factors in plant development and stress responses
Abstract :

The HD-Zip transcription factors are unique to the plant kingdom. These proteins exhibit both a homeodomain with an adjacent leucine zipper motif in a single combination which is unique in all eukaryotes. They can be divided into four subfamilies, depending on some characteristic features which include their respective DNA-binding specificities, gene structures, presence of additional common motifs and physiological functions. HD-Zip proteins exist in almost all tissues and organs of higher plants. They mainly participated in plants growth, development, morphological formation, regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses and modulate the action of hormones. Here, we make an effort to review recent experimental evidences explored for this family of transcription factors from a wide variety of plant species to unravel their pivotal function in various important aspects related to plant growth, development and adaptation to environment.

Title: Impact of Zinc and Iron Ferti-Fortification on Leaf Area Index, Kernel Yield, Shelling Percentage and Iron Uptake of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Genotypes
Abstract :

Results of the field experiment entitled “Studies on zinc and iron enrichment through ferti-fortification in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes” was conducted during rabi season of 2014-15 at Agronomy field unit, College of Agriculture, UAS, Raichur are discussed in this paper. The soil of the experimental site was deep black, clay in texture with pH 8.4, deficient in DTPA extractable zinc and iron. Three groundnut genotypes in main plots and seven micronutrient treatments comprising of one control and three each of zinc and iron as soil, foliar and both were assigned in the sub-plot in a split-plot design replicated thrice. Results revealed that the groundnut genotype ICGV-00351 recorded significantly higher leaf area index (1.79 at harvest), kernel yield and shelling percentage (1934 kg ha-1 and 72.77%) and Fe uptake by kernels, haulm and their total uptake (357.12, 517.71 and 874.83 g ha-1, respectively) as compared to other genotypes. Among the micronutrients, soil (25 kg ha-1) and foliar (0.5%) application of ZnSO4 recorded significantly higher leaf area index (2.10 at harvest), kernel yield (2051 kg ha-1) and shelling percentage (73.21 %) as compared to the other treatments. Whereas, uptake of Fe in kernels, haulm and their total uptake. Significantly higher uptake of Fe in kernels, haulm and total uptake of Fe in groundnut was recorded with soil (25 kg ha-1) and foliar (0.5 %) application of FeSO4 (427.56, 701.62 and 1129.18 g ha-1, respectively) over other treatments.

Title: Characterization of Sugar Binding Lectins Isolated from Different Parts of Eudrilus Eugeniae
Abstract :
Lectins occur widely in animal and plant kingdom. In animals there is wide range of reports of presence of lectin in vertebrates and invertebrates, but their function is not fully understood in invertebrates. It may either have a role in the developmental stages or in the defense mechanism by providing immunity. In earthworm species like Eudrilus eugeniae presence of lectin like proteins, were reported. The aim of this study is to isolate the sugar binding lectin like proteins from Coelomocytes (CC), muscles (MC), gut/whole body (WE) & vermicompost (VC) of earthworms and characterize them. Partially purified lectins were estimated for their protein content by Biuret method and it was observed that lectins isolated from CC have more protein content of 0.178 mg/ml as compared to any other source. Their sugar binding specificity was checked by DNS method and it was observed that CC lectins
and VC lectins have more affinity for glucose (CC glu & VC glu) while MC lectin and WE lectins have more affinity for galactose (MC gal & WE gal).
Title: Instability and Decomposition Analysis of Sesamum Crop Production in Karnataka and India
Abstract :
Sesamum is one of the oldest oilseed crops generally grown in Africa and Asia for its high-quality nutritional value. The instability in sesamum production was examined by employing instability index. At all India level, the instability in sesamum area and production has increased from Period I to Period II and it declined in Period III. Interestingly the instability in productivity of sesamum has marginally declined from Period I to Period II and from Period II to Period III. In the case of Karnataka state, in area and production instability of sesamum has increased from Period I to Period II and to Period III. Further, the study conducted a decomposition analysis to determine the contribution of different components to the sesamum production. The results of the decomposition of change in average sesamum production in India as well as in Karnataka shows, change in mean area and interaction between mean area and mean yield influencing change in average production of sesamum in overall period. Among the ten constituents of change in variance of production of sesamum, change in area variance is the dominant reason for instability in sesamum production. In Karnataka, change in area variance contributed maximum to change in variance of production in all the four periods, followed by interaction between changes in mean yield and area variance. The study findings suggest the need for research efforts to concentrate on production techniques, improve productivity, and developing varieties with higher productivity potential, wider adaptability, application of improved crop protection techniques, and capacity building for expertise in agronomic practices will have a vital role in providing modern system of sesame production in India.
Title: Effects of Salicylic acid (SA) and Azospirillum on growth and bulb yield of Onion (Allium cepa L.) cv. Agrifound L
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out during Rabi season of 2014-2015 and laid out in a Randomized Block Design with three replications at Vegetable Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, J.N. Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh).The experimental material for the study was comprised of 18 novel treatments combination of Salicylic acid (SA) and Azospirillum to estimate the best treatment combination in Rabi onion under particular region. The growth parameters under present investigation noted under T17 recorded maximum plant height (cm) at 30, 60, 90,120 DAT (33.28 cm), (37.58 cm), (45.22 cm) and (48.46 cm) respectively, length of leaves (cm) at 30 DAT (32.57 cm), 60 DAT (36.29 cm) under (T17) and T11 (41.75 cm) at 60 DAT and T12 (44.15 cm) at 120 DAT respectively, maximum number of leaf at 30 DAT (8.09) in T14, 60,90 DAT (12.99,17.92) in T17 and at 120 DAT (19.37) in T11respectively, neck thickness (mm) at 120 DAT (13.71 mm) under T11, dry weight of leaf (g) at 120 DAT (3.92 g). The yield parameters also reported best under T17 as average weight of bulb (88.07g), equatorial diameter (67.38mm), polar diameter (60.37mm), double bulb(2.38%)T11, bolting per cent lowest (1.18%), A, B and C grade bulb (on weight basis) (37.22%)T5, (65.09%) and (34.19%) respectively, bulb yield polt 1(14.77kg), marketable bulb yield (26.28t/ha.) T13, total bulb yield estimated in T16 (30.47 t/ha). T11 recorded highest gross monitory return (` 450705/ha), net return (` 385020/ha) and benefit cost ratio 5.86.

Title: Screening of Urdbean Germplasm for Resistance Against Rhizoctonia solani Kühn Causing Web Blight Disease
Abstract :
Present study on screening of urdbean germplasm for resistance against Rhizoctonia solani kühn causing web blight disease revealed that in detached leaf technique, 42 genotypes of Urdbean were evaluated for web blight resistance. Out of these fourteen genotypes i.e. IPU-2-43, KPU-1-10, KU-1106, CoBG-10-5, LBG 752, VBG-10-024, NUL-7, ACM 05- 007, Uttara-3, UH-08-05, UH-07-06, CoBG-761, NDU-11-202 and KUG-580 were found moderately resistant to web blight. During field screening in 2011 and 2012, lines LBG-752, VBG-10-024, NUL-7, ACM-05-007, Uttara-3, UH-08-05, UH-07-06, CoBG-761, NDU-11-202, KUG-586, IPU-2-43, KPU-1-10, KU-1106 and CoBG-10-5 showed moderately resistant reaction to web blight disease and rest of the lines shows susceptible reaction.
Title: Morphological, Cytological and Biochemical Characterization of wheat Aegilops Longissima Derivatives BC1F6 and BC2F4 with High Grain Micronutrient
Abstract :
Micronutrient deficiency (Iron and Zinc) is the major problem worldwide mostly in the developing countries with high dependence on staple foods. Biofortification of staple cereal and tuber crops has been considered and taken up as the most effective, feasible and economic approach for alleviating micronutrient deficiency. The present study was the initiative towards biofortification of wheat where the previous work of wide hybridization between HD2687 and Aegilops longissima accession 3506 and subsequent backcrossing with Triticum aestivum cultivar WL711 has been continued. In this study the alien chromosome introgression, chromosomal stability of BC1F6 and BC2F4 wheat-Ae. longissima derivatives has been investigated for their potential as germplasm for future breeding and biofortification program through morphological, cytological and biochemical analysis. We found that the selected derivatives showed stable 42, 44 and 46 chromosomes for most of the plants where single plant reported for each 41, 43 and 45 chromosomes with 19-22 bivalents and few
trivalent. The GISH analysis of derivative 79-1-4-8-1-2-2 revealed introgression of two univalent Sl chromosomes. Finally four derivatives were selected from BC1F6 (79-1-4-8-10-2-2, 79-1-4-8-10-2-5, 79-2-4-4-1-1-3 and 79-2-4-4-1-1- 5) and three from BC2F4 (HD2687/L3506//WL711-3///WL711-1-2-7-1, D2687/L3506//WL711-3///WL711-1-2-7-3, HD2687/L3506//WL711-3///WL711-1-2-7-5) as stable biofortified lines for future breeding to alleviate hidden hunger.
Title: Comparative Study on Cost of Cultivation and Economic Returns from Major Crops in Eastern Region of Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :
An investigation was done to work out the cost of production, cost of cultivation, returns and profitability from Sugarcane, Wheat and Paddy crops in order to identify which crop is more profitable and economic for the farmers of Uttar Pradesh. On an average, the cost of production was ` 78.29 per quintal and the net return per hectare after subtracting the total cost (Cost C3) from the gross return was ` 54956.01 per hectare. Whereas, production and returns from wheat and paddy crop were ` 714.13 per quintal, ` 8614.32 per hectare and ` 614.93 per quintal, ` 10870.71 per hectare respectively. The observations indicated that per quintal cost of production for sugarcane crop was less than wheat and paddy crop, on the other hand
per hectare net return was the highest for sugarcane when compared to wheat and paddy crop. All the major crops viz., paddy, wheat and sugarcane were profitable for the farmers, but sugarcane was the most profitable crop when compared to the rest, because the per quintal cost of production as well as the per hectare return were more economic than wheat and paddy crops.
Title: Endometrial Cytology to Diagnose Subclinical Endometritis in Cows
Abstract :

Endometrial cytology is a method commonly used in gynaecological practice for the diagnosis of reproductive disorders in cattle. This is due to the unusual structure of the cervix, which make reaching the uterus difficult. Proper preparation and evaluation of cytological smears depend not only on the experience of the personal performing the examination but also on the selection of an appropriate method for obtaining material from the uterus. Cytological examination is performed in cows mainly in order to exclude or confirm subclinical endometritis when ultrasonography reveals only slight changes or no irregularities. Subclinical endometritis (SE) is defi ned as inflammation of the endometrium in the absence of any signs of clinical endometritis such as purulent vaginal discharge and is associated with delayed uterine involution. SCE is also known as cytological endometritis on the basis of “an elevated ratio of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) in endometrial cytology samples. Endometritis is indicated 21-33 d after parturition if leukocytes exceed 18% and 34-47 d after parturition if the percentage exceeds 10%.

Title: A Method for Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Jute Stick Alpha Cellulose
Abstract :

In India, a huge quantity of jute (Corchorus spp.) stick is being produced as a primary by-product of jute fibre (economic part) cultivation every year, and the common practice in vogue is to burn such resides as firewood for domestic energy purposes. Present study aimed to utilize this jute stick alpha cellulose as raw material for synthesis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) under microwave radiation. The samples were characterized by FTIR and degree of polymerization. Effect of various mineral acids under microwave radiation were also tested. This study reported a new method for preparing MCC from jute stick alpha cellulose by microwave radiation (650W for 45 min at 80 oC). The order of finer MCC was HCl>HNO3> H2SO4 whereas, the yield order was HCl>H2SO4> HNO3. The developed MCC could be explored for pharmaceutical and other applications.

Title: Isolation and characterization of nitrogen fixing burkholderia Sp.
Abstract :
The bacterium Burkholderia has been isolated from the rhizosphere soils of Mimosa, Lemon, Maize, Sugarcane, Sunfl ower, Rice, Bhendhi, Sunhemp, Co on and Chilly from the diff erent farms of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Biochemical and physiological characterization was done for the obtained isolates to screen for further studies by using starch hydrolysis, lipid hydrolysis, casein hydrolysis and catalase test, etc. The isolates were checked for their ability to fi x nitrogen by using diff erent medium like BMGM and N free BMGM medium. The isolates were also checked for nitrogenase activity by using gas chromatography. B1 and R1 isolates showed high nitrogenase activity (7.99 and 7.15 n moles of ethylene /hr./mg of cell protein respectively). Total genomic DNA was isolated and PCR with 16S rRNA gene specifi c primers carried out to yields amplicons of 1300 bp size in Burkholderia. The PCR was carried out with specifi c primers of nifH gene primer for selected isolates. It showed that selected four isolates were found to have nifH gene with 400 bp. The present study revealed that some
of the Burkholderia sp. helps in plant growth promoting activities by fi xing nitrogen to enhance the yield of crop plants that can be exploited as bioinoculant in agriculture
Title: Effect of Sludge, Woolen Carpet Waste and Press Mud on Rice Grain Quality and Soil Fertility: A Review
Abstract :

Now-a-day’s biodegradable organic sources are gaining global importance for the cultivation of crops specially in the rice culture. The organic wastes like digested sludge, wooden carpet waste and press mud proved equally effective in rice crop compared to other organic sources with respect to milling and cooking qualities and volume expansion ratio. The building up the total amylase and protein content in rice grain was more effective when organic sources were used in comparison to inorganic or other sources of N. The soil bulk density and electrical conductivity was reduced by the application of organic sources thereby increasing the water holding capacity and the availability of organic carbon or P, K, S and micronutrients such as Fe, Zn, Cu content of the soil.

Title: Effect of Salinity and pH Ranges on the Growth and Biochemical Composition of Marine Microalga- Nannochloropsis salina
Abstract :

Nannochloropsis salina is a free living unicellular marine microalga. The present study analyse the influence of salinity and pH on the growth and biochemical composition of this microalga. The alga could tolerate a wide range of salinities. Maximum growth rate and production of chlorophyll, carotenoids and protein was noted in cultures with 40ppt salinity. Cultures with a salinity of 50ppt recorded maximum carbohydrate and lipid production. However, the organism could not tolerate low salinity levels as no growth was observed at zero and 10ppt salinity. The optimum pH required for the maximum production of biochemicals varied considerably. While maximum growth rate and Chl a production were noted at pH 9, carotenoid production was more in cultures with pH 6. Production of protein and carbohydrate was high at pH 10, and lipid at pH 7.

Title: An Economic Analysis of Garlic Cultivation in Ratlam District of Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :
The study focuses on economic analysis of garlic production in the Ratlam District of Madhya Pradesh. The study is carried out to determine resource use efficiency and constraints of garlic production in the study area. Production data were collected from 60 farmers randomly from three village areas of Ratlam block of Ratlam district of Madhya Pradesh State. The data were analyzed using OLS regression method to estimate the production function and the ratio of marginal value product to marginal factor cost as the measure of resource use efficiency. In this study, the overall average productivity and gross return of garlic was recorded 136.04 q/ha and ` 306550 respectively. The farm size group wise productivity of garlic was 140.81q/ha obtained in small size group followed by 142.47q/ha and 124.85q/ha in medium and large size farm, respectively. Gross income obtained in small size group was ` 315414 followed by ` 321950 in medium and ` 282285 minimum in large size group. The lead functional form was the double log function which produced overall R2 of 0.98 followed by 0.96, 0.66 and 0.92 in small, medium and large farm group with an overall average of 0.98. On average, overall sum of elasticity was found to be 0.72 which is less than one whereas it was followed by followed by 0.91 in small, 0.93 and 1.00 in medium and large size group, respectively. Regression coefficients of human labour, fertilizer and irrigation were positive and highly significant in all farm size groups as well as in overall.
Title: Putative endophytic fungi from taro (Colocasia Esculenta), greater yam (Dioscorea Alata) and elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus Paeoniifolius)
Abstract :

Endophytic microorganisms which remain asymptomatically inside plants have the potential to be used widely in agricultural field and valuable for agriculture as a tool to improve crop performance. Tuber crops are the second most important group of crop plants and among them tropical root and tuber crops which include cassava, sweet potato, yams and aroids, are essential as staple food and are utmost important for world food security. Research on these crops has been neglected and regarding endophytic colonisation, some of these tuber crops have been examined. Healthy asymptomatic leaves of three tropical tuber crops viz. taro (Colocasia esculenta), greater yam (Dioscorea alata) and elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius) were inoculated on potato dextrose agar media to detect endophytic colonisation. Total six different putative endophytic fungi were isolated from these crops which were found to be non-sporulating when observed under microscope. Further works are being carried out for the identification and utilisation of these organisms in tuber crops improvement. This communication is to report the presence of putative endophytic fungi in taro, yam and elephant foot yam for the first time.

Title: Principal Component and Cluster Analysis of Fibre Yield in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)
Abstract :
Genetic diversity plays an important role in crop improvement, because the segregants between lines of diverse origin generally display an improved performance than those between closely related parental genotypes. Sixty genotypes of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) were evaluated to study genetic divergence of fibre yield contributing quantitative characters by using principal component and cluster analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified four principal components with eigen valu